NEWS
author bulwahn
Thu Nov 08 19:55:19 2012 +0100 (2012-11-08)
changeset 50034 c48b9b9f796d
parent 50020 6b9611abcd4c
child 50110 c933c635843a
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    10 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    11 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    12 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    13 
    14 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    15 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    16 
    17 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    18 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    19 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    20 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    21 dependencies properly.
    22 
    23 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    24 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    25 
    26 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    27 in old "ref" manual.
    28 
    29 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    30 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    31 and "class ... context ...".
    32 
    33 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    34 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    35 
    36 
    37 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    38 
    39 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    40 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    41 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    42 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    43 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    44 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    45 
    46 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    47 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    48 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    49 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    50 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    51 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    52 
    53 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    54 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    55 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    56 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    57 
    58 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    59 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    60 
    61 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    62 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    63 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. tracing_limit option).
    64 This avoids swamping the front-end with potentially infinite message
    65 streams.
    66 
    67 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    68 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    69 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    70 schemes.
    71 
    72 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    73 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    74 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    75 
    76 
    77 *** Pure ***
    78 
    79 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    80 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    81 
    82 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    83 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    84 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    85 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    86 
    87 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    88 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    89 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    90 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    91 with some care where this is really required.
    92 
    93 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    94 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    95 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    96 
    97   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    98 
    99 
   100 *** HOL ***
   101 
   102 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   103 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   106 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   109 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   110 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   111 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   112 accordingly.
   113 
   114 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   115 
   116   - Renamed constants
   117       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   118 
   119   - Renamed facts
   120       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   121 
   122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   127 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   128 
   129 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   130 to lattice type classes.
   131 
   132 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   133 
   134 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   135 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   136 
   137   - Renamed constants:
   138 
   139       prefix ~> prefixeq
   140       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   141 
   142     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   145     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   146     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   147     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   150     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   151 
   152   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   153     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   154     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   155     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   158     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   159 
   160       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   161       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   162       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   163       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   164       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   165       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   166       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   167       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   168       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   169       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   170       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   171       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   172       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   173       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   174       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   175       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   176 
   177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   180 
   181 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   182 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   183 
   184 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   187 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   188 non-free datatypes.
   189 
   190 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   191 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   192 
   193 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   194 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   195 
   196 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   197 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   198 
   199 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   200 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   201 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   202 
   203 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   204 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   205 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   208 expressions.
   209 
   210 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   211 pointfree expressions.
   212 
   213 * Quickcheck:
   214 
   215   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   216     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   217     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   218 
   219 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   220 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   221 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   222 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   223 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Sledgehammer:
   226 
   227   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   228     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   229   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   230   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   231   - Renamed options:
   232       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   233       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   234       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   235       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   236 
   237 
   238 *** Document preparation ***
   239 
   240 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   241 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   242 
   243 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   244 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   245 document/root.tex.
   246 
   247 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   248 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 
   251 *** ML ***
   252 
   253 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   254 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   255 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   256 
   257 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   258 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   259 necessarily printing visible text.
   260 
   261 
   262 *** System ***
   263 
   264 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   265 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   266 for home-made configurations.
   267 
   268 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   269 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   270 
   271 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   272 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   273 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   274 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   275 
   276 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   277 
   278 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   279 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   280 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   281 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   282 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   283 
   284 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   285 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   286 
   287   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   288 
   289 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   290 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   291 
   292 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   293 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   294 "isabelle usedir".
   295 
   296 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   297 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   298 version of Isabelle.
   299 
   300 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   301 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   302 configuration.
   303 
   304 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   305 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   306 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   307 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   308 bundled as Isabelle component.
   309 
   310 
   311 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   312 ------------------------------
   313 
   314 *** General ***
   315 
   316 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   317 
   318   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   319     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   320   - markup for bound variables
   321   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   322   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   323   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   324     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   325 
   326 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   327 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   328 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   329 
   330 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   331 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   332 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   333 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   334 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   335 
   336   context
   337     fixes x y z :: 'a
   338     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   339   begin
   340 
   341   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   342 
   343   end
   344 
   345   thm my_trans
   346 
   347 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   348 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   349 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   350 
   351 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   352 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   353 
   354 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   355 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   356 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   357 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   358 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   359 
   360 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   361 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   362 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   363 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   364 indices of schematic variables.
   365 
   366 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   367 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   368 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   369 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   370 etc. was exploited.
   371 
   372 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   373 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   374 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   375 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   376 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   377 of the material of that old tutorial.
   378 
   379 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   380 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   381 manual.
   382 
   383 
   384 *** Pure ***
   385 
   386 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   387 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   388 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   389 
   390 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   391 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   392 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   393 undocumented feature.)
   394 
   395 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   396 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   397 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   398 
   399   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   400 
   401   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   402     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   403 
   404 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   405 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   406 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   407 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   408 
   409 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   410 
   411     num ~> num_token
   412     xnum ~> xnum_token
   413     xstr ~> str_token
   414 
   415 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   416 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   417 position information via constraints).
   418 
   419 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   420 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   421 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422 
   423 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   424 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   425 
   426 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   427 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   428 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   431 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   434 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   435 
   436   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   437 
   438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   441 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   444 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   445 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   446 
   447 
   448 *** HOL ***
   449 
   450 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   451 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   452 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   453 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   454 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   455 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   456 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   457 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   458 possible.
   459 
   460 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   461 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   462 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   463 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   464 
   465 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   466 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   469 
   470 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   471 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   472 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   473 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   474 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   475 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   476 
   477   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   478     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   479 
   480   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   481     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   482     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   483 
   484   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   485     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   486 
   487   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   488     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   489     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   490 
   491   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   492     Redefine using other integer operations.
   493 
   494 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   495 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   496 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   497 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   498 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   499 
   500   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   501     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   502     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   503     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   504     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   505 
   506     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   507     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   508 
   509   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   510     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   511     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   512     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   513     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   514     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   515     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   516     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   517 
   518   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   519     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   520     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   521     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   522 
   523   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   524     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   525     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   526     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   527 
   528   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   529     from type nat to type int.
   530 
   531 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   532 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   533 
   534   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   535     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   536     type.  Example syntax:
   537 
   538     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   539       is List.insert
   540 
   541     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   542     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   543     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   544     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   545     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   546     by the package.
   547 
   548   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   549     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   550     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   551     code generation for each constant.
   552 
   553   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   554     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   555     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   556     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   557     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   558 
   559   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   560     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   561     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   562 
   563 * Quotient package:
   564 
   565   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   566     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   567 
   568   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   569     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   570 
   571   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   572     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   573     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   576     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   579 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   580 
   581 * Quickcheck:
   582 
   583   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   584     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   585     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   586     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   587     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   588 
   589     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   590     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   591     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   592 
   593     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   594     continues searching for genuine ones.
   595 
   596     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   597     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   598     show genuine counterexamples.
   599 
   600   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   601     value generators for a given type and operations.
   602 
   603     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   604     constructors of that type.
   605 
   606   - Support for multisets.
   607 
   608   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   609 
   610   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   611     conjectures in a locale context.
   612 
   613 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   614 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   615 
   616 * Sledgehammer:
   617   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   618     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   619   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   620   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   621     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   622   - Sped up the minimizer.
   623   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   624   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   625   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   626 
   627 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   628 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   629 
   630 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   631 
   632 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   635 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   636 
   637   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   638 
   639 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   640 a list and a nat.
   641 
   642 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   643 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   644 
   645 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   646 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   647 default.
   648 
   649 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   650 
   651   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   652 
   653 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   654 
   655 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   656 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   657 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   658 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   659 one_case.
   660 
   661 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   662 the result of the fact expression.
   663 
   664 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   665 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   666 of some relation theorems:
   667 
   668   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   669   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   670   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   671   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   672   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   673   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   674 
   675 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   676 
   677 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   678 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   679 
   680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   683 to match the constant's name:
   684 
   685   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   686   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   687   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   688   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   689   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   690   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   691   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   692   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   693   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   694   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   695   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   696   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   697   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   698   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   699   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   700   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   701   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   702   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   703   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   704   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   705   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   706   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   707   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   708   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   709 
   710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   713 and corresponding theorem names:
   714 
   715   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   716 
   717   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   718 
   719   - Renamed theorems:
   720 
   721     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   722     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   723     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   724     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   725     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   726     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   727     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   728     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   729     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   730     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   731     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   732     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   733     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   734     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   735     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   736     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   737     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   738     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   739     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   740     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   741     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   742     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   743     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   744 
   745     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   746 
   747     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   748 
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   753 
   754   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   755   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   756   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   757   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   758   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   759   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   760   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   761   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   762   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   763   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   764   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   765   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   766   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   767   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   768   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   769   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   770   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   771   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   772   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   773   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   774   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   775 
   776 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   777 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 
   779 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   782 
   783   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   784   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   785   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   786   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   787   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   788   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   789   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   790   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   791   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   792   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   793   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   794   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   795   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   796   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   797   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   798   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   799   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   800   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   801 
   802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   805 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   806 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   807 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   808 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   809 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   810 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   811 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   812 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   813 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   814 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   815 
   816 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   817 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   818 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   819 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   820 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   821 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   822 
   823 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   824 through option types.
   825 
   826 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   827 relations.
   828 
   829 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830 
   831 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   832 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   833 
   834   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   835   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   836   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   837   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   838   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   839   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   840   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   841   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   842   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   843   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   844   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   845   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   846   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   847   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   848   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   849   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   850   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   851   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   852   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   853   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   854   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   855   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   856   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   857   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   858   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   859   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   860   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   861   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   862   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   863   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   864   zless_le ~> less_le
   865   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   866   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   867   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   868 
   869 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   870 
   871   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   872 
   873 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   874 
   875 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   876 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   877 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   878 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   882 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   883 
   884 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   885 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   886 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   887 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   888 follows:
   889 
   890   Operations:
   891   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   892   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   893   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   894   del -> rbt_del
   895   delete -> rbt_delete
   896   ins -> rbt_ins
   897   insert -> rbt_insert
   898   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   899   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   900   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   901   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   902   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   903   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   904   tree_less -> rbt_less
   905   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   906   union -> rbt_union
   907   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   908   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   909 
   910   Lemmas:
   911   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   912   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   913   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   914   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   915   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   916   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   917   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   918   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   919   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   920   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   921   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   922   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   923   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   924   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   925   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   926   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   927   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   928   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   929   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   930   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   931   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   932   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   933   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   934   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   935   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   936   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   937   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   938   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   939   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   940   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   941   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   942   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   943   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   944   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   945   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   946   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   947   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   948   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   949   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   950   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   951   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   952   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   953   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   954   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   955   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   956   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   957   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   958   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   959   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   960   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   961   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   962   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   963   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   964   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   965   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   966   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   967   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   968   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   969   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   970   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   971   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   972   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   973   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   974   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   975   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   976   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   977   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   978   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   979   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   980   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   981   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   982   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   983   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   984   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   985   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   986   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   987   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   988   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   989   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   990   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   991   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   992   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   993   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   994 
   995 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   996 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   997 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999   Changed Operations:
  1000   float_abs -> abs
  1001   float_nprt -> nprt
  1002   float_pprt -> pprt
  1003   pow2 -> use powr
  1004   round_down -> float_round_down
  1005   round_up -> float_round_up
  1006   scale -> exponent
  1007 
  1008   Removed Operations:
  1009   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1010 
  1011   Renamed Lemmas:
  1012   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1013   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1014   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1015   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1016   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1017   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1018   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1019   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1020   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1021   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1022   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1023   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1024   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1025   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1026   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1027   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1028   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1029   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1030   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1031   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1032   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1033   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1034   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1035   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1036   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1037   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1038   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1039   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1040   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1041   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1042   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1043   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1044   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1045   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1046   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1047   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1048 
  1049   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1050   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1051   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1052   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1053   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1054   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1055   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1056   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1057   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1058   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1059 
  1060 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1061 association lists with distinct keys.
  1062 
  1063 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1064 annotated commands.
  1065 
  1066 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1067 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1068 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1069 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1072 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1073 instead.
  1074 
  1075   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1076   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1077   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1078   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1079   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1080   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1081   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1082   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1083   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1084   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1085   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1086   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1087   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1088   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1089   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1090   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1091   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1092   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1093   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1094   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1095   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1096   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1097   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1098   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1099   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1100   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1101   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1102   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1103   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1104   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1105   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1106   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1107   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1108   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1109   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1110   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1111   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1112   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1113   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1114   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1115   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1116 
  1117 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1118 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1119 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1120 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1121 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1122 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1123 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1124 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1125 
  1126 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1127 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1128 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1129 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1130 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1131 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1132 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1133 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1134 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1135 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1136 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1137 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139   Renamed constants:
  1140   measure -> emeasure
  1141   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1142   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1143   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1144   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1145 
  1146   Removed locales:
  1147   completeable_measure_space
  1148   finite_measure_space
  1149   finite_prob_space
  1150   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1151   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1152   finite_sigma_algebra
  1153   measure_space
  1154   pair_finite_prob_space
  1155   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1156   pair_finite_space
  1157   pair_sigma_algebra
  1158   product_sigma_algebra
  1159 
  1160   Removed constants:
  1161   conditional_space
  1162   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1163   image_space
  1164   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1165   pair_measure_generator
  1166   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1167   subvimage
  1168 
  1169   Replacement theorems:
  1170   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1171   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1172   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1173   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1174   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1175   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1176   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1177   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1178   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1179   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1180   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1181   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1182   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1183   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1184   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1185   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1186   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1187   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1188   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1189   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1190   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1191   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1192   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1193   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1194   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1195   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1196   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1197   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1198   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1199   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1200   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1201   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1202   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1203   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1204   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1205   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1206   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1207   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1208   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1209   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1210   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1211   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1212   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1213   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1214   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1215   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1216   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1217   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1218   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1219   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1220   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1221   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1222   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1223   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1224   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1225   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1226   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1227   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1228   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1229   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1230   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1231   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1232   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1233   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1234   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1235   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1236   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1237   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1238   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1239   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1240   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1241   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1242   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1243   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1244   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1245   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1246   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1247   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1248   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1249   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1250   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1251   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1252   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1253   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1254   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1255   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1256   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1257   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1258   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1259   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1260   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1261   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1262   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1263   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1264   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1265   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1266   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1267   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1268   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1269   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1270   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1271   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1272   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1273   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1274   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1275   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1276   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1277   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1278   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1279   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1280   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1281   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1282   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1283   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1284   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1285   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1286   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1287   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1288   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1289   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1290   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1291   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1292   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1293   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1294   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1295   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1296   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1297   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1298 
  1299 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1300 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1301 
  1302 
  1303 *** FOL ***
  1304 
  1305 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1306 
  1307 
  1308 *** ZF ***
  1309 
  1310 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1311 analysis.
  1312 
  1313 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1314 
  1315 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 
  1318 *** ML ***
  1319 
  1320 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1321 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1322 
  1323 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1324 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1325 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1326 
  1327 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1328 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1329 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1330 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1331 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1332 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1333 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1334 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1335 
  1336 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1337 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1338 
  1339 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1340 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1341 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1342 
  1343 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1344 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1345 
  1346 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1347 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1348 context as well.
  1349 
  1350 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1351 
  1352   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1353   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1354   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1355   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1356   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1357   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1358   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1359   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1360   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1361   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1362   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1363   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1364 
  1365 
  1366 *** System ***
  1367 
  1368 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1369 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1370 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1371 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1372 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1373 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1374 the generic user home was intended.
  1375 
  1376 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1377 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1378 
  1379 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1380 (not just JRE).
  1381 
  1382 
  1383 
  1384 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1385 ------------------------------------
  1386 
  1387 *** General ***
  1388 
  1389 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1390 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1391 
  1392   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1393     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1394     files for checking).
  1395 
  1396   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1397     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1398     positions.
  1399 
  1400   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1401     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1402     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1403 
  1404   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1405     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1406     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1407 
  1408   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1409     cores.
  1410 
  1411   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1412     versions (garbage collection).
  1413 
  1414 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1415 including some remaining limitations.
  1416 
  1417 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1418 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1419 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1420 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1421 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1425 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1426 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1427 
  1428 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1429 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1430 usedir option -Q.
  1431 
  1432 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1433 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1434 
  1435   long_names   ~> names_long
  1436   short_names  ~> names_short
  1437   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1438 
  1439 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1440 
  1441   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1442 
  1443 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1444 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1445 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1446 
  1447 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1448 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1449 
  1450 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1451   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1452   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1453   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1454     "Classical Reasoner".
  1455 
  1456 
  1457 *** HOL ***
  1458 
  1459 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1460 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1463 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1464 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1465 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1466 class complete_linorder.
  1467 
  1468 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1469 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1470 
  1471 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1472 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1473 
  1474   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1475   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1476   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1477   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1478   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1479   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1480   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1481   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1482   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1483   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1484   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1485 
  1486 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1487 
  1488   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1489   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1490   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1491   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1492   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1493   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1494   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1495   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1496   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1497   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1498   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1499   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1500   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1501   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1502   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1503   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1504 
  1505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1511 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1512 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1513 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514 
  1515 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1516 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1517 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1521 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1522 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1523 
  1524 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1525 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1526 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1527 
  1528 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1529 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1532 
  1533     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1534     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1535 
  1536 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1537 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1540 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1543 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1544 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1545 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1548   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1549   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1550   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1551   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1552   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1553   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1554 
  1555 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1556 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1559   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1560   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1561   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1562   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1563   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1564   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1565   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1566   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1567   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1568   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1569   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1570   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1571   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1572   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1573   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1574   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1575   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1576   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1577   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1578   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1579   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1580   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1581   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1582   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1583   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1584   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1585   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1586   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1587   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1588   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1589   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1590   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1591   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1592   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1593   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1594   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1595   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1596   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1597   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1598   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1599   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1600   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1601   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1602   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1603   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1604   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1605   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1606   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1607   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1608   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1609   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1610   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1611   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1612   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1613   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1614   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1615   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1616   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1617   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1618   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1619   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1620   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1621   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1622   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1623   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1624   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1625   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1626   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1627   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1628   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1629   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1630   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1631   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1632   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1633   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1634   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1635   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1636   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1637   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1638   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1639   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1640 
  1641 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1642 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1643 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1646 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1647 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1648 
  1649 * Code generation:
  1650 
  1651   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1652     characters in the target language.
  1653 
  1654   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1655     instead.
  1656 
  1657   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1658 
  1659   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1660     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1661 
  1662       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1663 
  1664 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1667 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1668 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1669 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1670 syntax.
  1671 
  1672 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1673 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1674 
  1675 * Nitpick:
  1676   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1677   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1678   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1679     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Sledgehammer:
  1682   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1683   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1684     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1685   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1686     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1687   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1688     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1690     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1691   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1692     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Metis:
  1695   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1696   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1697     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 * Command 'try':
  1700   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1701     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1703     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1704 
  1705 * Quickcheck:
  1706   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1707     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1708   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1709     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1710   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1711     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1712     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1713     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1714   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1715     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1716 
  1717 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1718 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1719 
  1720 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1721 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1722 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1723 
  1724 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1725 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1729 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1732 arithmetic.
  1733 
  1734 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1735 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1736 and lattice type classes.
  1737 
  1738 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1739 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1740 
  1741 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1742 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1743 
  1744 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1745 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1746 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1749   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1750   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1751   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1752 
  1753 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1754 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1755 constants:
  1756 
  1757   type inat   ~> type enat
  1758   Fin         ~> enat
  1759   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1760   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1761   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1762 
  1763 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1764 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1767 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1768 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1769 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1770 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1771 
  1772 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1773 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1774 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1775 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1776 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1777 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1778 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1779 
  1780   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1781   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1782   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1783   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1784 
  1785 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1786 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1787 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1790   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1791   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1792   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1793   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1794   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1795   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1796   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1797   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1798   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1799   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1800   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1801   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1802   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1803   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1804   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1805   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1806   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1807   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1808   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1809   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1810   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1811   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1812   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1813   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1814   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1815   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1816   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1817   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1818   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1819   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1820   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1821   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1822   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1823   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1824   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1825   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1826   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1827   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1828   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1829   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1830   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1831   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1832   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1833   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1834   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1835   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1836   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1837   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1838   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1839   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1840 
  1841 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1842   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1843   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1844   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1845   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1846     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1847 
  1848 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1851   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1852   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1853   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1854   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1855   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1856   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1857   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1858   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1859   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1860   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1861   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1862   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1863   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1864   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1865   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1866   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1867   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1868   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1869   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1870   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1871   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1872   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1873   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1874   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1875 
  1876 
  1877 *** Document preparation ***
  1878 
  1879 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1880 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1881 same.
  1882 
  1883 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1884 result.
  1885 
  1886 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1887 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1888 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1889 
  1890 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1891 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1892 
  1893 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1894 like this:
  1895 
  1896   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1897   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1898 
  1899 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1900 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1901 layouts.
  1902 
  1903 
  1904 *** ML ***
  1905 
  1906 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1907 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1908 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1909 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1910 under external program control.
  1911 
  1912 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1913 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1914 
  1915 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1916 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1917 (better known as Proof General).
  1918 
  1919 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1920 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1921 
  1922 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1923 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1924 
  1925 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1926 (including quotes etc.).
  1927 
  1928 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1929 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1930 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1931 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1932 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1933 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1934 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1935 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1936 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1937 
  1938 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1939 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1940 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1941 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1942 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1943 
  1944 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1945 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1946 
  1947 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1948 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1949 
  1950 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1951 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1952 
  1953 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1954 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1955 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1956 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1957 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1958 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1959 proper Proof.context.
  1960 
  1961 
  1962 *** System ***
  1963 
  1964 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1965 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1966 
  1967 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1968 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1969 
  1970 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1971 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1972 
  1973   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1974   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1975   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1976   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1977   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1978 
  1979 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1980 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1983 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1984 example:
  1985 
  1986   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1987 
  1988 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1989 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1990 
  1991 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1992 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1993 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1994 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1995 
  1996 
  1997 
  1998 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1999 ----------------------------------
  2000 
  2001 *** General ***
  2002 
  2003 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2004 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2005 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2006 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2007 like this:
  2008 
  2009   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2010 
  2011 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2012 
  2013 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2014 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2015 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2016 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2017 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2018 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2019 
  2020 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2021 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2022 the following package declarations:
  2023 
  2024   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2025   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2026 
  2027 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2028 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2029 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2030 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2031 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2032 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2033 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2034 
  2035 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2036 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2037 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2038 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2039 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2040 
  2041 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2042 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2043 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2044 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2045 
  2046 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2047 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2048 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2049 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2050 
  2051   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2052 
  2053   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2054   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2055   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2056   show_types                    show_types
  2057   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2058   show_consts                   show_consts
  2059   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2060 
  2061   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2062   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2063   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2064 
  2065   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2066   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2067 
  2068   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2069 
  2070   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2071   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2072   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2073   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2074   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2075 
  2076 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2077 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2078 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2079 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2080 
  2081 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2085   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2086 
  2087 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2088 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2089 float_token.
  2090 
  2091 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2092 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2096 DejaVu Sans.
  2097 
  2098 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2099 
  2100 
  2101 *** Pure ***
  2102 
  2103 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2104 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2105 time.
  2106 
  2107 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2108 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2111 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112 
  2113 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2114 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2115 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2116 command already provided this functionality.
  2117 
  2118 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2119 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2120 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2121 without interpretations.
  2122 
  2123 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2124 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2125 
  2126 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2127 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2128 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2129 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2130 
  2131 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2132 'definition' instead.
  2133 
  2134 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2135 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2136 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2137 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2138 
  2139 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2140 constructors.
  2141 
  2142 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2143 the local file system.
  2144 
  2145 
  2146 *** HOL ***
  2147 
  2148 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2149 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2150 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2151 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2152 
  2153   declare [[coercion f]]
  2154 
  2155 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2156 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2157 
  2158   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2159 
  2160 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2161 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2162 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2163 other theories like this:
  2164 
  2165   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2166 
  2167 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2168 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2169 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2170 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2171 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2172 for examples.
  2173 
  2174 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2175 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2178 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2179 
  2180 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2181 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2182 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2183 
  2184 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2185 functorial structure of types.
  2186 
  2187 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2188 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2189 
  2190 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2191 languages.
  2192 
  2193 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2194 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2198 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2201 combinators any longer.
  2202 
  2203 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2204 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2205 
  2206 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2207 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2208 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2209 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2210 
  2211   record 'a foo = ...
  2212   ...
  2213   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2214 
  2215 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2216 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2220 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2221 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2222 
  2223 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2224 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2225 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2226 
  2227 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2228 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2231 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2232 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2233 independently.
  2234 
  2235 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2236 counter example search.
  2237 
  2238 * Sledgehammer:
  2239   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2240     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2241     sledgehammer").
  2242   - Renamed commands:
  2243     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2244     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2245     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247   - Renamed options:
  2248     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2249     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2250     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2251     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2252     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * Nitpick:
  2255   - Renamed options:
  2256     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2257     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2260   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2261   - Added "whack" option.
  2262   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2263   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2264   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2265   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2266     higher cardinalities.
  2267   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2268 
  2269 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2270 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2271 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2272 
  2273     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2274 
  2275 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2276 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2277 
  2278 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2279 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2280 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2281 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2282 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2283 "smt_solver".
  2284 
  2285 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2286 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2287 
  2288 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2289 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2290 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2291 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2294   - Renamed:
  2295     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2296     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2298   - Added:
  2299     smt_verbose
  2300     smt_random_seed
  2301     smt_datatypes
  2302     smt_infer_triggers
  2303     smt_monomorph_limit
  2304     cvc3_options
  2305     remote_cvc3_options
  2306     remote_z3_options
  2307     yices_options
  2308 
  2309 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2310 header.
  2311 
  2312 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2313 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2314 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2315 
  2316   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2317 
  2318 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319 
  2320 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2321 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324 
  2325 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2326 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2329 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2330 
  2331 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2332 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2335 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2336 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2344 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2347 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2348 for congruent(2)).
  2349 
  2350 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2351 
  2352   types
  2353     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2354     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2355 
  2356   constants
  2357     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2358     True ~> HOL.True
  2359     False ~> HOL.False
  2360     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2361     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2362     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2363     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2364     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2365     The ~> HOL.The
  2366     All ~> HOL.All
  2367     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2368     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2369     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2370     If ~> HOL.If
  2371     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2372     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2373     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2374     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2375     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2376     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2377     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2378     op : ~> Set.member
  2379     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2380 
  2381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2384 
  2385     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2386     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2387     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2388     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2389     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2390     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2391     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2392     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2393 
  2394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 * More stylized fact names:
  2397 
  2398   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2399   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2400   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2401   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2402 
  2403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2406 
  2407   constants
  2408     null ~> List.null
  2409 
  2410   facts
  2411     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2412     null_empty ~> null_def
  2413 
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2415 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2416 generation.
  2417 
  2418 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2419 Haskell code.
  2420 
  2421 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2422 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2423 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2426 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2429 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2430 
  2431 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2432 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2433 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2436 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2442 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2443 referred to by its qualified name.
  2444 
  2445   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2446   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2447   product ~>  Enum.product
  2448 
  2449 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2450 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2454 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2455 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2459 sort_key.
  2460 
  2461 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2465 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2466 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2467 
  2468   types
  2469     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2470               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2471               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2472         (depends on your needs)
  2473 
  2474   constants
  2475      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2476      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2477      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2478 
  2479 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2480 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2481 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2482 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2483 
  2484 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2485 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2486 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2487 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2488 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2489 
  2490 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2494 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2495 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2496 
  2497 
  2498 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2499 
  2500 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2501 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2502 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2503 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2504 compatibility.
  2505 
  2506 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2507 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2508 
  2509 
  2510 *** HOLCF ***
  2511 
  2512 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2513 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2514 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2518 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2519 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2522   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2523   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2524 
  2525 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2526 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2527 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2530 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2531 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2532 domain definition now works:
  2533 
  2534   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2535 
  2536 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2537 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2538 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2539 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2540 
  2541   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2542     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2543 
  2544   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2545 
  2546 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2547 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2548 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2551 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2554 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2555 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2556 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2557 
  2558 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2559 
  2560 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2568 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2569 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2570 
  2571 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2572 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2573 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2576 still supported as an input translation.
  2577 
  2578 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2579 
  2580   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2581   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2582   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2583   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2584   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2585   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2586   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2587 
  2588 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2589 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2592   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2593   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2594   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2595   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2596   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2597 
  2598 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2599 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2602 
  2603   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2604   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2605   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2606   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2607 
  2608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2611 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2614 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2617   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2618   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2619   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2620   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2621   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2622   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2623   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2624   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2625   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2626   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2627   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2628   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2629   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2630   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2631   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2632   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2633   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2634   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2635   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2636 
  2637 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2640   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2641   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2642   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2643   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2644   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2645   box_less             ~> box_below
  2646   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2647   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2648   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2649   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2650   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2651   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2652   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2653   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2654   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2655   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2656   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2657   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2658   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2659   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2660   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2661   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2662   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2663   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2664   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2665   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2666   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2667   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2668   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2669   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2670   up_less              ~> up_below
  2671   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2672   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2673   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2674   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2675   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2676   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2677   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2678   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2679   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2680   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2681   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2682   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2683   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2684 
  2685 
  2686 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2687 
  2688 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2689 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 
  2692 *** ML ***
  2693 
  2694 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2695 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2696 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2697 
  2698 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2699 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2700 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2701 
  2702 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2703 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2704 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2705 
  2706 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2707 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2708 
  2709 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2710 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2711 
  2712 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2713 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2714 
  2715 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2716 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2717 
  2718 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2719 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2720 almost all situations.
  2721 
  2722 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2723 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2724 Isabelle/ML.
  2725 
  2726 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2727 meaning.
  2728 
  2729 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2730 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2731 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2732 
  2733 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2734 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2735 
  2736 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2737 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2738 
  2739 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2740 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2741 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2742 
  2743 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2744 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2745 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2746 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2747 configuration options.
  2748 
  2749 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2750 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2751 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2752 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2753 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2754 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2755 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2756 
  2757 
  2758 
  2759 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2760 ---------------------------------
  2761 
  2762 *** General ***
  2763 
  2764 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2765 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2766 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2767 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2768 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2769 their full internal name.
  2770 
  2771 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2772 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2773 Some hints on upgrading:
  2774 
  2775   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2776     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2777     which are independent of this issue.
  2778 
  2779   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2780     provides the following special forms:
  2781 
  2782       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2783       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2784       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2785 
  2786     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2787     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2788     extra variables".
  2789 
  2790     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2791     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2792     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2793     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2794     "logic".
  2795 
  2796   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2797     antiquotations:
  2798 
  2799       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2800       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2801       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2802       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2803 
  2804   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2805     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2806     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2807     antiquotations.
  2808 
  2809 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2810 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2811 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2812 diagnose syntax problems.
  2813 
  2814 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2815 
  2816 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2817 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2818 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2819 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2820 
  2821 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2822 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2823 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2824 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2827 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2828 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2829 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2830 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2833 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2834 
  2835 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2836 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2837 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2838 
  2839   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2840 
  2841 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2842 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2843 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2844 
  2845 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2846 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2850 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2851 
  2852 
  2853 *** Pure ***
  2854 
  2855 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2856 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2857 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2858 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2859 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2860 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2861 inspect proof terms.
  2862 
  2863 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2864 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2865 are added internally.  For example:
  2866 
  2867   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2868 
  2869 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2870 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2871 
  2872 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2875 'class' instead.
  2876 
  2877 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2878 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2882 invariants.
  2883 
  2884 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2885 user space functionality any longer.
  2886 
  2887 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2888 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2892 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2893 
  2894 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2895 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2896 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2897 
  2898 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2899 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2900 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2901 
  2902 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2903 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 
  2906 *** HOL ***
  2907 
  2908 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2909 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2910 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2911 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2912 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2913 
  2914 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2915 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2916 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2917 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2918 
  2919   fun
  2920     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2921   where
  2922     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2923 
  2924   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2925     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2926 
  2927   quotient_definition
  2928     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2929 
  2930 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2931 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2932 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2933 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2934 
  2935 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2936 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2937 
  2938 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2939 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2940 
  2941 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2945 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2946 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2947 
  2948 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2949 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2958 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2961 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2962 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2965   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2966   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2967   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2968   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2969   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2970   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2971   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2972   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2973   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2974   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2975   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2976   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2977   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2978   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2979   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2980   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2981   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2982   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2983   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2984   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2985   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2986   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2987   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2988   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2989   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2990   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2991   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2992   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2993   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2994 
  2995 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2996 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2997 
  2998 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2999 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3000 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3001 
  3002 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3003 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3004 
  3005 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3006 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3009 
  3010 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3011 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3014 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3019 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3020 
  3021 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3022 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3023 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3024 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3027   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3028   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3029   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3033 lattices):
  3034 
  3035     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3036     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3037 
  3038     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3039 
  3040     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3041     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3042     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3043     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3044     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3045     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3046     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3047     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3048     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3049     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3050     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3051     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3052     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3053 
  3054     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3055     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3056     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3057     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3058     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3059     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3060     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3061     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3062     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3063     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3064     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3065     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3066     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3067     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3068     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3069     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3070     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3071     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3072 
  3073   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3074   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3075 
  3076     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3077     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3078     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3079     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3080     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3081 
  3082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Refined field classes:
  3085   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3086     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3087     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3088   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3092   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3093   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3094   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3095     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3096   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3097     equal_neg_zero.
  3098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3101 sets to lattices:
  3102 
  3103   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3104   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3105   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3106   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3107   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3108   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3109   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3110   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3111   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3112   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3113 
  3114 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3115 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3116 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3117 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3118 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3119 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3122 multiset order:
  3123 
  3124   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3125     <= and <;
  3126   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3127     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3128     multiset_order;
  3129   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3130     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3131     generation;
  3132   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3133     if needed.
  3134 
  3135 Renamed:
  3136 
  3137   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3138   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3139   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3140 
  3141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3144 
  3145 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3148 
  3149 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3150 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3151 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153   Constants:
  3154   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3155   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3156   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3157   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3158   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3159   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3160   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3161   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3162   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3163   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3164   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3165   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3166   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3167 
  3168   Lemmas:
  3169   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3170   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3171   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3172   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3173   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3174   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3175   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3176   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3177   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3178   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3179   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3180   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3181   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3182 
  3183 * Sledgehammer:
  3184   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3185     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3186     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3187     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3188     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3189     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3190     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3192   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3193     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3194   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3195     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3196     is still experimental.)
  3197   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3198     full-typed mode.
  3199   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3200 
  3201 * Nitpick:
  3202   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3203   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3204   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3205     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3206   - Added support for quotient types.
  3207   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3208     constructs.
  3209   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3210     "termination" proofs).
  3211   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3212   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3213   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3214   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3215     record getters.
  3216   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3217   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3218   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3219   - Added "atoms" option.
  3220   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3221     problems.
  3222   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3223     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3224     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3226     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3230   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3231   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3232   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3233   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3234   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3235   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3236   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3237   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3238   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 
  3241 *** HOLCF ***
  3242 
  3243 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3244 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3245 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3248 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3249 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3250 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3253 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3254 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3255 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3256 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3259 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3260 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3263 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3266   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3267 
  3268 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3269 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3272   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3273   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3274   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3275   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3276 
  3277 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3278 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3281   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3282   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3283 
  3284 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3285 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3289 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3294 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 
  3297 *** ML ***
  3298 
  3299 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3300 
  3301     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3302     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3303 
  3304     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3305     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3306     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3307     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3308 
  3309     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3310     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3311     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3312 
  3313 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3314 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3315 
  3316 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3317 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3318 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3319 
  3320 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3321 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3322 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3323 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3324 
  3325 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3326 the context or even global references.
  3327 
  3328 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3329 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3330 
  3331 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3332 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3333 
  3334   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3335   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3336   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3337   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3338   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3339   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3340   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3341   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3342   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3343   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3344 
  3345 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3346 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3347 
  3348 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3349 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3350 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3351 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3352 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3353 
  3354 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3355 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3356 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3357 Theory_Data version.
  3358 
  3359 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3360 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3361 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3362 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3363 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3364 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3365 explicitly in rare situations.
  3366 
  3367 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3368 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3372 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3375 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3376 quite rare).
  3377 
  3378 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3379 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3382 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3383 terms.
  3384 
  3385 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3386 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3387 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 *** System ***
  3391 
  3392 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3393 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3394 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3395 
  3396 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3397 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3398 respectively.
  3399 
  3400 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3401 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3402 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3403 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3404 
  3405   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3406 
  3407 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3408 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3409 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3410 component.
  3411 
  3412 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3413 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3414 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3415 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3416 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3417 the user for manual installation.
  3418 
  3419 
  3420 
  3421 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3422 -------------------------------------
  3423 
  3424 *** General ***
  3425 
  3426 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3427 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3428 
  3429 
  3430 *** Pure ***
  3431 
  3432 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3433 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3434 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3435 
  3436 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3437 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3438 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3439 
  3440 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3441 interpretation.
  3442 
  3443 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3444 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 
  3447 *** Document preparation ***
  3448 
  3449 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3450 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3451 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3452 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3453 
  3454 
  3455 *** HOL ***
  3456 
  3457 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3458 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3459 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3460 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3461 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3462 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3463 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3464 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3465 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3466 
  3467 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3468 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3469 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3470 
  3471 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3472 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3473 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3474 
  3475 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3476 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3477 
  3478 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3479 
  3480 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3481 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3482 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3483 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3484 
  3485 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3486 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3487 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3488 "mirabelle" utility.
  3489 
  3490 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3491 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3492 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3493 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3494 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3495 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3496 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3497 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3498 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3499 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3500 
  3501 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3502 procedure only.
  3503 
  3504 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3505 
  3506 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3507 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3508 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3509 that fail later.
  3510 
  3511 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3512 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3513 
  3514 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3515 the same method as the approximation method.
  3516 
  3517 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3518 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3519 series expansion.
  3520 
  3521 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3522 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3523 
  3524 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3525 reals.
  3526 
  3527 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3528 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3529 
  3530 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3531 fixpoint theorem.
  3532 
  3533 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3534   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3535     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3536   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3537     accordingly
  3538   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3539     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3540   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3541     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3542 
  3543 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3544 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3545 lattice.
  3546 
  3547 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3548 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3549 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3550 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3551 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3552 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3556   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3557     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3558   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3559     le_inf_iff
  3560   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3561     sup_aci)
  3562   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3563   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3564   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3565     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3566     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3567     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3568     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3569     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3570     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3571     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3572     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3573     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3574     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3575   - authentic syntax for
  3576     Set.Pow
  3577     Set.image
  3578   - mere abbreviations:
  3579     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3580     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3581     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3582     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3583     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3584     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3585     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3586     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3587   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3588 
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3590 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3591 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3592 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3593 
  3594 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3595 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3596 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3599 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3602 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3603 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3604 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3607 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3608 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3609 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3610 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3611 
  3612 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3613 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3617 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3620 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3621 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3622 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3623 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3624 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3625 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3629     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3630     code_post       replaces    code post
  3631     etc.
  3632   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Renamed methods:
  3635     sizechange -> size_change
  3636     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3637   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3640 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3641 
  3642 * Renamed theorems:
  3643     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3644     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3645     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3646     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3647     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3648   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 
  3657 *** HOLCF ***
  3658 
  3659 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3660 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3661 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3662 
  3663 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3664 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3665 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3666 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3667 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3668 
  3669 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3670 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3671 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3672 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3673 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3674 
  3675 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3676 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3677 constructor are pre-configured.
  3678 
  3679 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3680 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3681 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3682 
  3683 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3684 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3685 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3686 as well.)
  3687 
  3688 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3689 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3690 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3691 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3692 examples.
  3693 
  3694 
  3695 *** ML ***
  3696 
  3697 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3698 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3699 
  3700 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3701 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3702 position, logical grouping etc.
  3703 
  3704 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3705 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3706 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3707 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3708 
  3709 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3710 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3711 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3712 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3713 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3714 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3715 
  3716 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3717 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3718 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3719 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3720 experiments with references.
  3721 
  3722 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3723 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3724 
  3725 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3726 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3727 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3728 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3729 
  3730 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3731 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3732 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3733 
  3734 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3735 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3736 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737 
  3738 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3744 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3745 
  3746 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3747 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3748 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3749 
  3750 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3751 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3752 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3755 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3756 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3760 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3761 instead of global theory.
  3762 
  3763 
  3764 *** System ***
  3765 
  3766 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3767 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3768 usedir option -q.
  3769 
  3770 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3771 also the system manual.
  3772 
  3773 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3774 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3775 
  3776 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3777 this is always enabled.
  3778 
  3779 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3780 
  3781 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3782 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3783 currently supported on Linux only.
  3784 
  3785 
  3786 
  3787 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3788 --------------------------------
  3789 
  3790 *** General ***
  3791 
  3792 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3793 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3794 
  3795   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3796     "isatool."
  3797 
  3798   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3799     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3800 
  3801   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3802     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3803 
  3804 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3805 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3806 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3807 
  3808 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3809 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3810 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3811 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3812 via "isabelle emacs".
  3813 
  3814 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3815 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3816 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3817 
  3818 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3819 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3820 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3821 
  3822 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3823 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3824 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3825 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3826 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3827 
  3828 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3829 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3830 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3831 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3832 
  3833 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3834 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3835 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3836 
  3837 
  3838 *** Pure ***
  3839 
  3840 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3841 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3842 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3843 
  3844 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3845 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3846 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3847 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3848 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3849 
  3850 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3851 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3852 useful in locale declarations.
  3853 
  3854 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3855 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3856 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3857 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3858 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3859 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3860 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3861 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3862 no longer generated.
  3863 
  3864 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3865 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3866 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3867 
  3868 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3869 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3870 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3871 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3872 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3873 
  3874 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3876 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3877 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3878 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3879 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3880 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3881 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3882 
  3883 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3884 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3885 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3886 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3887 
  3888 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3891 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3892 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3893 
  3894 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3895 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3898 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3899 in HOL, write
  3900 
  3901     class foo = ...
  3902 
  3903 instead of
  3904 
  3905     class foo = type + ...
  3906 
  3907 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3908 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3911 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3912 
  3913 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3914 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3915 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3916 
  3917 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3918 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3919 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3920 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3921 directly in regular applications.
  3922 
  3923 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3924 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3925 
  3926 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3927 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3928 
  3929 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3930 theory context.
  3931 
  3932 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3933 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3936 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3937 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3938 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3939 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3940 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3941 
  3942   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3943 
  3944 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3945 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3946 normalization.
  3947 
  3948 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3949 addressing etc.
  3950 
  3951 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3952 
  3953   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3954   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3955 
  3956 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3957 
  3958   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3959      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3960      parts of the code generator framework).
  3961 
  3962   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3963      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3964      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3965 
  3966 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3969 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3972 patterns, e.g.
  3973 
  3974     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3975 
  3976 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3977 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3978 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3979 hyphen:
  3980 
  3981     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3982 
  3983 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3984 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3985 
  3986 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3987 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3988 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3989 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3990 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3991 higher-order unification.
  3992 
  3993 
  3994 *** Document preparation ***
  3995 
  3996 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3997 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3998 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3999 
  4000 
  4001 *** HOL ***
  4002 
  4003 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4004 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4005 
  4006 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4007 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4008 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4009 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4010 Main, as before.
  4011 
  4012 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4013 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4014 
  4015 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4016 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4017 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4018 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4019 
  4020 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4021 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4022 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4023 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4024 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4025 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4026 
  4027 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4028 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4029 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4030 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4031 
  4032 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4033 menu.
  4034 
  4035 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4036 (contains the empty clause).
  4037 
  4038 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4039 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4040 
  4041 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4042 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4043 
  4044 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4045 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4046 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4049 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4050 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4051 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4052 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4053 
  4054 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4055 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4056 
  4057 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4058 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4059 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4060 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4061 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4062 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4063 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4064 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4065 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4066 
  4067 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4068 
  4069 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4070 
  4071 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4072 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4075 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4076 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4077 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4078 
  4079 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4080 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4081 
  4082     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4083     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4084     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4085     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4086     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4087     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4088     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4089     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4090 
  4091 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4092 theory Set.
  4093 
  4094 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4095 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4096 
  4097 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4098 
  4099 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4100 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4101 
  4102 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4103 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4104 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4105 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4106 allowed. For examples see
  4107 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4108 
  4109 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4110 
  4111 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4115 structure:
  4116 
  4117     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4118     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4119     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4120     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4121     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4122     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4123     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4124     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4125     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4126     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4127     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4128     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4129     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4130     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4131     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4132     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4133     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4134     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4135     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4136     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4137     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4138     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4139     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4140     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4141     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4142     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4143     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4144     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4145     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4146     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4147     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4148     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4149     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4150 
  4151     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4152     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4153     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4154     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4155     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4156     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4157     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4158     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4159     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4160     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4161 
  4162     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4163     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4164     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4165     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4166     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4167     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4168 
  4169 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4170 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4171 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4172 
  4173 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4174 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4175 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4176 
  4177 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4178 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4181 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4182 
  4183 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4184 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4185 proofs, e.g.
  4186 
  4187   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4188 
  4189 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4190 
  4191 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4192 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4193 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4196 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4200 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4201 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4205 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4206 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4207 preorder_class.*.
  4208 
  4209 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4210 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4211 
  4212 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4213 
  4214   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4215 
  4216 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4217 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4218 fold_image.
  4219 
  4220 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4221 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4222 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4223 the former will disappear at some point.
  4224 
  4225 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4226 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4227 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4228 
  4229 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4230 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4231 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4232 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4233 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4234 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4235 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4236 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4237 
  4238 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4239 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4240 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4241 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4242 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4243 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4244 
  4245     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4246     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4247     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4248     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4249     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4250     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4251     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4252 
  4253 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4254 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4255 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4256 
  4257 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4258 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4259 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4260 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4261 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4262 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4263 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4264 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4265 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4266 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4267 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4268 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4269 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4270 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4271 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4272 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4273 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4274 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4275 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4276 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4277 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4278 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4279 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4280 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4281 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4282 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4283 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4284 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4285 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4286 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4287 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4288 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4289 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4290 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4291 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4292 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4293 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4294 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4295 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4296 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4297 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4298 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4299 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4300 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4301 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4302 
  4303 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4306 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4307 
  4308 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4309 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4310 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4311 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4312 
  4313 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4314 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4315 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4316 theory RealVector.
  4317 
  4318 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4319 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4320 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4321 and inner products are included.
  4322 
  4323 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4324 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4325 supported.
  4326 
  4327 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4328 first diagonalization argument.
  4329 
  4330 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4331 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4332 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4333 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4334 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4335 
  4336     hide (open) const gcd
  4337     abbreviation gcd where
  4338       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4339     notation (output)
  4340       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4341 
  4342 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4343 
  4344 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4345 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4346 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4349 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4350 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4351 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4352 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4353 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4354 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4355 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4356 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4357 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4358 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4359 cases.
  4360 
  4361 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4362 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4363 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4364 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4365 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4366 
  4367     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4368     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4369     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4370     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4371     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4372 
  4373 
  4374 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4375 
  4376 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4377 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4378 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4379 
  4380 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4381 
  4382 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4383 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4384 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4385 
  4386 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4387 
  4388 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4389 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4390 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4391 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4392 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4393 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4394 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4395 
  4396 
  4397 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4398 
  4399 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4400 
  4401 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4402 theory targets.
  4403 
  4404 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4405 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4406 'inductive' etc.
  4407 
  4408 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4409 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4410 
  4411 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4412 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4413 
  4414 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4415 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4416 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4417 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4418 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4419 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4420 the algorithm W:
  4421 
  4422  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4423  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4424          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4425 
  4426 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4427 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4428 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4429 
  4430 
  4431 *** HOLCF ***
  4432 
  4433 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4434 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4435 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4436 
  4437 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4438 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4439 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4440 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4441 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442 
  4443 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4444 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4445 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4446 
  4447 
  4448 *** ZF ***
  4449 
  4450 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4451 
  4452 
  4453 *** ML ***
  4454 
  4455 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4456 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4457 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4458 5.2.1!
  4459 
  4460 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4461 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4462 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4463 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4464 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4465 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4466 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4467 
  4468 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4469 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4470 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4471 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4472 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4473 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4474 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4475 
  4476 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4477 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4478 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4479 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4480 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4481 
  4482 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4483 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4484 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4485 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4486 Method.add_method.
  4487 
  4488 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4489 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4490 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4491 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4492 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4493 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4494 
  4495 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4496 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4497 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4498 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4499 examples.
  4500 
  4501 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4502 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4503 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4504 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4505 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4506 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4507 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4508 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4509 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4510 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4511 
  4512 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4513 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4514 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4515 
  4516 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4517 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4518 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4519 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4520 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4521 resort for legacy applications.
  4522 
  4523 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4524 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4525 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4526 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4527 explicit runtime argument.
  4528 
  4529 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4530 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4531 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4532 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4533 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4534 
  4535 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4536 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4537 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4538 theory state.
  4539 
  4540 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4541 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4542 
  4543   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4544   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4545   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4546   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4547   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4548   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4549   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4550   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4551   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4552   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4553 
  4554 
  4555 *** System ***
  4556 
  4557 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4558 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4559 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4560 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4561 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4562 
  4563 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4564 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4565 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4566 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4567 
  4568 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4569 
  4570 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4571 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4572 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4573 prover operations.
  4574 
  4575 
  4576 
  4577 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4578 -------------------------------
  4579 
  4580 *** General ***
  4581 
  4582 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4583 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4584 
  4585 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4586 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4587 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4588 provides a proper context already.
  4589 
  4590 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4591 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4592 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4593 
  4594 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4595 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4596 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4597 swap theory imports.
  4598 
  4599 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4600 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4601 
  4602 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4603 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4604 white space without escapes.
  4605 
  4606 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4607 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4608 "foo_bar".
  4609 
  4610 
  4611 *** Pure ***
  4612 
  4613 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4614 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4615 
  4616 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4617 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4618 
  4619 (1) unused_thms
  4620      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4621 
  4622 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4623      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4624      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4625 
  4626 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4627      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4628      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4629      their ancestors.
  4630 
  4631 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4632 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4633 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4634 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4635 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4636 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4637 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4638 
  4639 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4640 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4641 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4642 
  4643 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4644 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4645 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4646 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4647 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4648 
  4649 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4650 
  4651 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4652 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4653 update of theories within ML code.
  4654 
  4655 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4656 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4657 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4658 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4659 
  4660 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4661 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4662 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4666 
  4667 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4668 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4669 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4670 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4671 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4672 
  4673 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4674 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4675 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4676 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4677 situations.
  4678 
  4679 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4680 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4681 proof text.
  4682 
  4683 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4684 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4685 
  4686 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4687 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4688 predicates.
  4689 
  4690 
  4691 *** Document preparation ***
  4692 
  4693 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4694 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4695 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4696 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4697 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4698 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4699 
  4700 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4701 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4702 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4703 
  4704 
  4705 *** HOL ***
  4706 
  4707 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4708 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4709 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4710 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4711 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4712 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4713 
  4714 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4715 with multithreading.
  4716 
  4717 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4718 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4719 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4720 
  4721 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4722 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4723 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4724 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4727 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4728 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4729 and makes them available separately.  See
  4730 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4731 
  4732 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4733 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4734 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4735 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4736 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4737 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4738 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4739 the declared rules.
  4740 
  4741 This setup also deals with rules like
  4742 
  4743   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4744 
  4745 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4746 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4747 
  4748 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4749 
  4750   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4751 
  4752   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4753     definitions on => and bool.
  4754 
  4755   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4756     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4757     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4758 
  4759       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4760       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4761       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4762       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4763       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4764       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4765       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4766       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4767 
  4768   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4769     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4770     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4771 
  4772   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4773     The proof pattern
  4774 
  4775       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4776       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4777 
  4778     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4779     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4780 
  4781       have "EX S. P S"
  4782       proof
  4783         show "P S" <...>
  4784       qed
  4785 
  4786   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4787     The proof pattern
  4788 
  4789       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4790       also have "S = T" <...>
  4791       finally have "P T" .
  4792 
  4793     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4794     must be replaced by something like
  4795 
  4796       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4797       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4798       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4799 
  4800   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4801     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4802 
  4803       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4804 
  4805     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4806     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4807     type of the form
  4808 
  4809       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4810 
  4811     rather than
  4812 
  4813       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4814 
  4815 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4816 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4817 
  4818 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4821 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4825 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4828 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4831 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4832 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4835 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4836 
  4837   less_trans
  4838   less_linear
  4839   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4840   le_less_trans
  4841   less_le_trans
  4842   less_not_sym
  4843   less_asym
  4844 
  4845 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4846 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4847 and different variable names.
  4848 
  4849 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4850 
  4851 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4852 finite maps.
  4853 
  4854 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4855 
  4856 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4857 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4858 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4859 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4860 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4861 accordingly.
  4862 
  4863 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4864 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4865 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4866 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4867 
  4868 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4869 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4870 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4871 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4872 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4876 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4879 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4880 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4881 
  4882 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4886 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4887 
  4888 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4889 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4892 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4895 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4897 
  4898 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4899 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4902 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4903 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4904 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4905 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4906 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4907 
  4908 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4909 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4910 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4911 
  4912 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4913 
  4914 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4915 
  4916 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4917 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4918 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4919 
  4920 
  4921 *** ZF ***
  4922 
  4923 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4924 same session:
  4925 
  4926   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4927   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4928   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4929   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4930   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4931   List      -> List_ZF
  4932   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4933 
  4934 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4935 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4936 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4937 
  4938 
  4939 *** ML ***
  4940 
  4941 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4942 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4943 
  4944 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4945 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4946 
  4947 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4948 
  4949 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4950 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4951 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4952 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4953 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4956 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4957 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4958 
  4959 
  4960 *** System ***
  4961 
  4962 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4963 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4964 
  4965 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4966 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4967 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4968 
  4969 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4970 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4971 
  4972 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4973 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4974 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4975 
  4976 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4977 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4978 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4979 
  4980 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4981 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4982 
  4983 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4984 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4985 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4986 script.
  4987 
  4988 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4989 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4990 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4991 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4992 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4993 
  4994 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4995 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4996 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4997 
  4998 
  4999 
  5000 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5001 -----------------------------------
  5002 
  5003 *** General ***
  5004 
  5005 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5006 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5007 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5008 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5009 
  5010 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5011 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5012 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5013 
  5014 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5015 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5016 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5017 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5018 
  5019 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5020 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5021 quotes.
  5022 
  5023 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5024 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5025 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5026 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5027 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5028 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5029 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5030 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5031 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5032 
  5033 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5034 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5035 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5036 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5037 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5038 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5039 
  5040 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5041 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5042 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5043 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5044 
  5045 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5046 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5047 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5048 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5049 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5050 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5051 
  5052 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5053 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5054 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5055 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5056 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5057 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5058 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5059 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5060 
  5061 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5062 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5063 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5064 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5065 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5066 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5067 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5068 
  5069 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5070 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5071 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5072 
  5073 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5074 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5075 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5076 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5077 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5078 limit is imposed.
  5079 
  5080 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5081 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5082 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5083 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5084 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5085 and scalability.
  5086 
  5087 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5088 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5089 
  5090 
  5091 *** Document preparation ***
  5092 
  5093 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5094 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5095 current context.
  5096 
  5097 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5098 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5099 
  5100 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5101 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5102 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5103 
  5104 
  5105 *** Pure ***
  5106 
  5107 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5108 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5109 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5110 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5111 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5112 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5113 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5114 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5115 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5116 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5117 
  5118 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5119 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5120 sketch:
  5121 
  5122     internal compilation:
  5123         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5124     writing SML code to a file:
  5125         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5126     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5127         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5128     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5129         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5130 
  5131     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5132         method ``eval''
  5133 
  5134 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5135 
  5136 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5137 
  5138     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5139     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5140     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5141     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5142 
  5143 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5144 
  5145     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5146       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5147 
  5148     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5149       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5150 
  5151     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5152       {(target)}+
  5153         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5154 
  5155     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5156       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5157         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5158 
  5159 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5160 
  5161 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5162 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5163 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5164 codegen".
  5165 
  5166 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5167 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5168 annotations).
  5169 
  5170 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5171 syntax.
  5172 
  5173 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5174 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5175 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5176 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5177 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5178 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5179 
  5180 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5181 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5182 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5183 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5184 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5185 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5186 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5187 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5188 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5189 equations, see section "definitions".
  5190 
  5191 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5192 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5193 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5194 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5195 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5196 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5197 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5198 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5199 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5200 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5201 
  5202 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5203 configuration options:
  5204 
  5205   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5206   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5207   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5208   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5209   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5210   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5211   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5212   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5213   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5214 
  5215 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5216 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5217 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5218 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5219 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5220 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5221 order.
  5222 
  5223 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5224 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5225 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5226 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5227 context encountered later on.
  5228 
  5229 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5230 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5231 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5232 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5233 
  5234 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5235 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5236 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5237 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5238 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5239 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5240 
  5241 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5242 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5243 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5244 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5245 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5246 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5247 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5248 more permissive.
  5249 
  5250 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5251 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5252 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5253 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5254 maintainability of proof texts.
  5255 
  5256 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5257 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5258 
  5259   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5260   then guess x and y by clarify
  5261 
  5262 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5263 proof tools being involved here.
  5264 
  5265 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5266 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5267 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5268 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5269 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5270 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5271 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5272 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5273 
  5274 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5275 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5276 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5277 
  5278   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5279   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5280   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5281   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5282 
  5283 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5284 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5285 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5286 
  5287 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5288 both named and unnamed ones.
  5289 
  5290 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5291 
  5292   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5293 
  5294 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5295 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5296 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5297 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5298 
  5299 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5300 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5301 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5302 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5303 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5304 
  5305 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5306 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5307 
  5308 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5309 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5310 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5311 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5312 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5313 originally first one.
  5314 
  5315 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5316 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5317 expected.
  5318 
  5319 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5320 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5321 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5322 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5323 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5324 
  5325   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5326     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5327     obtains x where "P x"
  5328 
  5329   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5330     assumes "A & B"
  5331     obtains A and B
  5332 
  5333   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5334     assumes "A | B"
  5335     obtains
  5336       A
  5337     | B
  5338 
  5339 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5340 explicitly:
  5341 
  5342   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5343     obtains "~ thesis"
  5344 
  5345   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5346     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5347 
  5348 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5349 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5350 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5351 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5352 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5353 case_names).
  5354 
  5355 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5356 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5357 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5358 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5359 
  5360 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5361 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5362 top-level lemma.
  5363 
  5364 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5365 introduction rule (default "that").
  5366 
  5367 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5368 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5369 to occur.
  5370 
  5371 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5372 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5373 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5374 representations independently of name spaces.
  5375 
  5376 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5377 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5378 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5381 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5382 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5383 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5384 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5385 current context.
  5386 
  5387 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5388 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5389 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5390 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5391 
  5392   axiomatization
  5393     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5394     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5395 
  5396   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5397   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5398 
  5399   abbreviation
  5400     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5401     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5402 
  5403 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5404 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5405 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5406 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5407 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5408 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5409 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5410 
  5411 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5412 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5413 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5414 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5415 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5416 
  5417 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5418 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5419 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5420 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5421 
  5422 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5423 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5424 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5425 
  5426   definition "K x _ = x"
  5427 
  5428   inductive conj for A B
  5429   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5430 
  5431 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5432 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5433 abbreviations on output.
  5434 
  5435 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5436 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5437 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5438 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5439 
  5440 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5441 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5442 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5443 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5444 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5445 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5446 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5447 
  5448 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5449 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5450 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5451 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5452 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5453 
  5454 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5455 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5456 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5457 
  5458 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5459 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5460 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5461 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5462 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5463 
  5464   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5465     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5466 
  5467 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5468 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5469 partial_order.
  5470 
  5471 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5472 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5473 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5474 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5475 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5476 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5477 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5478 examples.
  5479 
  5480 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5481 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5482 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5483 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5484 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5485 
  5486 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5487 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5488 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5489 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5490 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5491 
  5492   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5493   (induct set: foo bar)
  5494   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5495   (induct type: foo bar)
  5496 
  5497 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5498 new format.
  5499 
  5500 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5501 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5502 
  5503 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5504 considered a legacy feature.
  5505 
  5506 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5507 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5510 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5511 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5512 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5513 
  5514 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5515 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5516 manipulating the claset.
  5517 
  5518 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5519 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5520 least one premise.
  5521 
  5522 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5523 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5524 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5525 rule steps.
  5526 
  5527 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5528 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5529 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5530 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5531 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5532 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5533 
  5534 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5535 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5536 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5537 
  5538 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5539 the graph browser tool.
  5540 
  5541 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5542 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5543 
  5544 
  5545 *** HOL ***
  5546 
  5547 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5548 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5549 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5550 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5551 multi-threading.
  5552 
  5553 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5554 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5555 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5556 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5557 work with multi-threading.
  5558 
  5559 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5560 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5561 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5562 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5563 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5564 
  5565 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5566 
  5567 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5568 equality.
  5569 
  5570 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5571 the new 'class' package:
  5572 
  5573     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5574     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5575     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5576     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5577     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5578     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5579     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5580     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5581     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5582     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5583     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5584     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5585     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5586     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5587     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5588     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5589     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5590     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5591     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5592     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5593 
  5594 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5595 
  5596 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5597 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5598 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5599 names.
  5600 
  5601 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5603 
  5604 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5605 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5606 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5607 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5608 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5609 
  5610 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5611 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5612 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5613 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5614 
  5615 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5616 
  5617 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5618 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5619 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5620 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5622 
  5623 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5624 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5625 
  5626 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5627 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5628 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5629 
  5630 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5631 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5632 
  5633 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5634 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5635 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5636 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5637 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5638 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5639 in the current context.
  5640 
  5641 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5642 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5646 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5647 
  5648 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5649 
  5650     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5651     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5652 
  5653     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5654       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5655     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5656     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5657 
  5658     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5659     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5660 
  5661   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5662 
  5663     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5664     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5665     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5666     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5667     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5668     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5669     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5670     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5671     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5672     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5673     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5674     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5675     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5676     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5677     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5678     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5679     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5680     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5681     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5682     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5683     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5684     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5685     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5686     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5687     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5688     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5689     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5690     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5691     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5692     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5693     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5694     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5695     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5696     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5697     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5698 
  5699     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5700     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5701     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5702     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5703     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5704     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5705     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5706     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5707     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5708     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5709     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5710     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5711     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5712     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5713     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5714     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5715     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5716 
  5717     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5718     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5719     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5720     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5721     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5722     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5723     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5724     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5725     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5726     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5727     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5728     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5729     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5730     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5731     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5732     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5733     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5734     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5735     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5736     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5737     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5738     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5739     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5740     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5741     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5742     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5743     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5744     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5745 
  5746     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5747     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5748     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5749     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5750     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5751     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5752 
  5753     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5754     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5755     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5756     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5757 
  5758     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5759     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5760 
  5761     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5762     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5763 
  5764 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5765 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5766 
  5767 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5768 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5769 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5770 "*.size".
  5771 
  5772 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5774 
  5775 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5776 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5777 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5778 
  5779 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5780 
  5781 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5782 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5783 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5784 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5785 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5786 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5787 numerals on all operations.
  5788 
  5789 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5790 
  5791 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5792 
  5793 * Code generator library theories:
  5794   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5795     languages.
  5796   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5797     languages.
  5798   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5799     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5800   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5801   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5802     denominator).
  5803   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5804     representable by rational numbers.
  5805   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5806     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5807     includes Code_Integer.
  5808   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5809     target-language built-in integers.
  5810   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5811     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5812 
  5813 * New package for inductive predicates
  5814 
  5815   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5816 
  5817     inductive
  5818       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5819       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5820     where
  5821       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5822     | ...
  5823 
  5824   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5825 
  5826     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5827 
  5828     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5829     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5830 
  5831     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5832     intros
  5833       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5834       ...
  5835 
  5836   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5837   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5838 
  5839     inductive_set
  5840       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5841       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5842     where
  5843       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5844     | ...
  5845 
  5846   or
  5847 
  5848     inductive_set
  5849       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5850       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5851       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5852     where
  5853       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5854     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5855     | ...
  5856 
  5857   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5858 
  5859   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5860   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5861 
  5862   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5863 
  5864   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5865     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5866     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5867     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5868     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5869 
  5870   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5871     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5872     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5873     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5874     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5875     statements of the form
  5876 
  5877       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5878 
  5879     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5880     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5881 
  5882       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5883 
  5884   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5885 
  5886       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5887         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5888         ==> ... ==> P
  5889 
  5890     for predicates and
  5891 
  5892       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5893         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5894         ==> ... ==> P
  5895 
  5896     for sets rather than
  5897 
  5898       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5899         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5900         ==> ... ==> P
  5901 
  5902     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5903     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5904     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5905 
  5906   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5907     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5908     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5909 
  5910 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5911 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5912 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5913 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5914 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5915 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5916 
  5917 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5918 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5919 
  5920 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5921 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5922 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5923 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5924 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5925 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5926 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5927 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5928 variable.
  5929 
  5930 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5931 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5932 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5933 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5934   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5935   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5936 
  5937 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5938 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5939 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5940 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5941 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5942 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5943 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5944 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5945 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5946 
  5947 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5948 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5949 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5950 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5951 rat, etc.
  5952 
  5953 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5954 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5955 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5956 
  5957 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5958 
  5959 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5960 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5961 
  5962 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5963 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5964 
  5965 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5966 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5967 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5970 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5974 
  5975 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5976 
  5977 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5978 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5979 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5980 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5981 
  5982 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5983 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5984 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5985 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5986 
  5987 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5988 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5989 algebraic operations.
  5990 
  5991 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5996 
  5997 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5998 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5999 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6000 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6001 adapted.
  6002 
  6003 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6004 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6005 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6006 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6007 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6008 
  6009 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6010 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6011 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6012 
  6013 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6014 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6015 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6016 
  6017 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6018 
  6019 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6020 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6021 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6022   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6023       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6024   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6025   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6026   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6027 
  6028 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6029 
  6030 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6031 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6032 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6033 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6034 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6035 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6036 
  6037 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6038 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6039 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6040 
  6041 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6042 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6043 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6045 
  6046 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6047 
  6048 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6049 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6050 
  6051 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6052 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6053 
  6054 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6055 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6056 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6057 
  6058 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6059 True/False.
  6060 
  6061 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6062 
  6063 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6064 
  6065 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6066 ``rule'' method.
  6067 
  6068 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6069 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6070 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6071 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6072 
  6073 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6074 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6075 
  6076 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6077 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6078 
  6079 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6080 Library.
  6081 
  6082 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6083 
  6084 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6085 as greatest fixed-point.
  6086 
  6087 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6088 association lists.
  6089 
  6090 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6091 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6092 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6093 
  6094 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6095 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6096 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6098 behavior.
  6099 
  6100 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6101 
  6102 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6103 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6104 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6105 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6106 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6107 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6108 
  6109 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6110 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6111 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6112 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6113 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6114 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6115 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6116 
  6117 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6118 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6119 
  6120 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6121 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6122 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6123 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6124 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6125 
  6126 
  6127 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6128 
  6129 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6130 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6131 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6132 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6136 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6137 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6138 
  6139 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6140 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6141 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6142 
  6143 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6144 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6145 
  6146 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6147 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6148 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6150 
  6151   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6152   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6153   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6154   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6155   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6156   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6157   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6158   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6159   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6160   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6161   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6162   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6163   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6164   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6165   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6166 
  6167 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6168 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6169 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6170 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6171 
  6172   approx        <-- capprox
  6173   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6174   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6175   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6176   monad         <-- cmonad
  6177   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6178   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6179   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6180   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6181 
  6182 
  6183 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6184 
  6185 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6186 
  6187 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6191 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6194 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6195 of algebraic structures.
  6196 
  6197 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6198 
  6199 
  6200 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6201 
  6202 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6203 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6204 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6205 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6206 
  6207 
  6208 *** ML ***
  6209 
  6210 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6211 (even on SML/NJ).
  6212 
  6213 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6214 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6215 compile-time.  For example:
  6216 
  6217 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6218 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6219 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6220 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6221 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6222 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6223 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6224 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6225 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6226 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6227 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6228 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6229 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6230 ML {* @{context} *}
  6231 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6232 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6233 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6234 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6235 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6236 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6237 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6238 
  6239 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6240 
  6241 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6242 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6243