NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Apr 16 13:48:10 2015 +0200 (2015-04-16)
changeset 60093 c48d536231fe
parent 60089 8bd5999133d4
child 60094 96a4765ba7d1
permissions -rw-r--r--
clarified thy_deps;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
     8 ------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    13 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    14 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    15 
    16   context
    17   begin
    18 
    19   private definition ...
    20   private lemma ...
    21 
    22   qualified definition ...
    23   qualified lemma ...
    24 
    25   lemma ...
    26   theorem ...
    27 
    28   end
    29 
    30 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    31 naming policy.
    32 
    33 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    34 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    35 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    36 
    37 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    38 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    39 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    40 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    41 
    42 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    43 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    44 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    48 theory context.
    49 
    50 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    51 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    52 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    53 
    54 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    55 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    61 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    62 
    63 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    64 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    65 in the buffer.
    66 
    67 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    68 marker, SideKick parser.
    69 
    70 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    71 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    72 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    73 
    74 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    75 Options / Text Area).
    76 
    77 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
    78 display of 'thy_deps', 'locale_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
    79 
    80 * Command 'thy_deps' allows optional bounds, analogously to
    81 'class_deps'.
    82 
    83 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
    84 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
    85 
    86 
    87 *** Document preparation ***
    88 
    89 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
    90 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
    91 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
    92 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
    93 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
    94 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
    95 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
    96 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    97 
    98 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
    99 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   100 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   101 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   102 
   103 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   104 style.
   105 
   106 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   107 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   108 
   109 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   110 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   111 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   112 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   113 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   114 
   115 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   116 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   117 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   118 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   119 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   120 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   121 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 
   124 *** Pure ***
   125 
   126 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   127 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   128 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   129 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   130 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   131 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   132 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   133 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   134 
   135 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   136 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   137 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   138 
   139 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   140 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   142 different index.
   143 
   144 * Command "class_deps" takes optional sort arguments to constrain then
   145 resulting class hierarchy.
   146 
   147 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   148 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   149 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   150 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   151 
   152 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   153 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   154 token category instead.
   155 
   156 
   157 *** HOL ***
   158 
   159 * New (co)datatype package:
   160   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   161     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   162     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   163     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   164     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165   - Renamed theorems:
   166       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   167       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   168       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   169       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   170       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   171       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   172       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   173       sel_map ~> map_sel
   174       sel_set ~> set_sel
   175       sel_split ~> split_sel
   176       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   177       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   178       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   179     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   181     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   182     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   184     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   187     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   188     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   189     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   190     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   191     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   192     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193   - Renamed theories:
   194       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   195       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   196       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   197       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   198       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   199       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   200     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * Old datatype package:
   203   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   204     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   205     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   206     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   207     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208   - Renamed theorems:
   209       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   210     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211   - Renamed theory:
   212       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   213     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Nitpick:
   216   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   217     operations.
   218 
   219 * Sledgehammer:
   220   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   221     default.
   222   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   223     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   224   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   225     Removed sub-command:
   226       min
   227   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   228     dramatically improved.
   229   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   230 
   231 * Old and new SMT modules:
   232   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   233     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   234     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   235     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   236     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   237     point to it.
   238     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   240     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   242     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   243   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   244     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   245 
   246 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   247 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   248 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   251 
   252 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   253 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   254 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   255 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   258 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   264 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   265 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   268 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   269 
   270 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   271 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   272 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   273 
   274 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   275 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   276 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   277 needed.
   278 
   279 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   280 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   281 
   282 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   283 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   284 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   285 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   286 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   287 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   288 
   289 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   290 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   291 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   292 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   293 
   294 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   295 type class hierarchy:
   296   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   297   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   298   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   299   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   300 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   303   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   304   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   305 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   308 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   309 
   310 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   311   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   312   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   313   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   314 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   317 and part of theory Main.
   318   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320 
   321 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   325 Fact rename:
   326     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   330 
   331 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   332 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   333 
   334 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   335 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   336 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   337 
   338 * Library/Multiset:
   339   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   340   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   341     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   342   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   343       <# ~> #<#
   344       <=# ~> #<=#
   345       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   346       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   347     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   349       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   350       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   351     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352   - Renamed
   353       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   354       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   355       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   356     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   358   - Added attributes:
   359       image_mset.id [simp]
   360       image_mset_id [simp]
   361       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   362       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   363       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   364       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   365       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   366       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   367     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   370 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   371 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   372 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373 
   374 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   375 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   376 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   377 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   378 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   379 examples.
   380 
   381 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   382   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   383   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   384   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   385     projection
   386 
   387 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   388 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   389 
   390 
   391 *** ML ***
   392 
   393 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   394 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   395 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   396 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   397 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   398 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   399 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   400 
   401 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   402 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   403 
   404 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   408 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   409 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   410 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   411 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   412 nested.
   413 
   414 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   415 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   418 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   419 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   423 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   424 Thm.term_of etc.
   425 
   426 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   427 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   428 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   431 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   432 
   433 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   434 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   435 
   436 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   437 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   438 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   441 Input.source (with formal position information).
   442 
   443 
   444 *** System ***
   445 
   446 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   447 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   448 
   449 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -k and -x.
   450 
   451 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   452 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   453 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   454 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   458 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   459 
   460 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   461 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   462 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   463 
   464 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted.  Minor
   465 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_semicolons" to remove obsolete
   466 semicolons from theory sources.
   467 
   468 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   469 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   470 
   471 
   472 
   473 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   474 ---------------------------------
   475 
   476 *** General ***
   477 
   478 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   479 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   480 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   481 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   482 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   483 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   484 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   485 some examples.
   486 
   487 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   488 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   489 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   490 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   491 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   492 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   493 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   494 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   495 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   496 
   497 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   498 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   499 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   500 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   501 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   502 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   503 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   504 proof tools.
   505 
   506 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   507 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   508 supports input via ` (backquote).
   509 
   510 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   511 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   512 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   513 
   514 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   515 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   516 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   517 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   518 
   519 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   520 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   521 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   525 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   526 
   527 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   528 not check existence within the file-system.
   529 
   530 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   531 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   532 
   533 
   534 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   535 
   536 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   537 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   538 buffer.
   539 
   540 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   541 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   542 
   543 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   544 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   545 
   546 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   547 auxiliary ML files.
   548 
   549 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   550 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   551 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   552 
   553 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   554 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   555 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   556 
   557 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   558 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   559 
   560 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   561 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   562 caret".
   563 
   564 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   565 completion popup and context-menu.
   566 
   567 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   568 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   569 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   570 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   571 
   572 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   573 to highlight text via regular expression.
   574 
   575 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   576 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   577 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   578 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   579 
   580 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   581 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   582 
   583 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   584 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   585 
   586 * Improved monitor panel.
   587 
   588 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   589 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   590 
   591 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   592 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   593 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   594 
   595 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   596 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   597 within the context.
   598 
   599 
   600 *** Pure ***
   601 
   602 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   603 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   604 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   605 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   606 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   607 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   608 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   609 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   610 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   611 
   612 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   613 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   614 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   615 renaming needs to be applied:
   616 
   617   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   618   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   619   all            ~>  Pure.all
   620   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   621   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   622 
   623 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   624 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   625 old constants:
   626 
   627 setup {*
   628   fn thy => thy
   629     |> Sign.root_path
   630     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   631     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   632     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   633     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   634 *}
   635 
   636 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   637 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   638 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   639 
   640 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   641 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   642 instantiated theorem.
   643 
   644 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   645 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   646 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   647 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   648 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   649 
   650   attribute_setup standard =
   651     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   652 
   653 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   654 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   655 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   656 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   657 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   658 
   659 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   660 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   661 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   662 
   663 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   664 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   665 
   666 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   667 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   668 
   669 
   670 *** HOL ***
   671 
   672 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   673 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   680 
   681 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   682 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   686 
   687 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   688 with the given constants.
   689 
   690 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   691 operations on records.
   692 
   693 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   694 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   695 
   696 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   699 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   700 
   701 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   704 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   705 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   706 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   707 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   708 
   709 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   710 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   713   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   714   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   715   part of theory "Main".
   716 
   717   Theory renamings:
   718     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   719     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   720     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   721     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   722     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   723     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   724     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   725     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   726     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   727     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   728     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   729     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   730     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   731     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   732     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   733     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   734     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   735     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   736     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   737     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   738     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   739     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   740 
   741   New theories:
   742     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   743     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   744     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   745     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   746     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   747 
   748   Discontinued theories:
   749     BNF/BNF.thy
   750     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   751 
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * New (co)datatype package:
   755   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   756   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   757     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   758   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   759     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   760   - Renamed commands:
   761       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   762       primrec_new ~> primrec
   763       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   764     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   766     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   767     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   769     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   770     using "prim(co)rec".
   771     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   773     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   774     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   776     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   777     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   778     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Old datatype package:
   781   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   782     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   783     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   785     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   786     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787 
   788 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   789   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   790   BNF-based datatype package.
   791 
   792   Renamed constants:
   793     Option.set ~> set_option
   794     Option.map ~> map_option
   795     option_rel ~> rel_option
   796 
   797   Renamed theorems:
   798     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   799     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   800     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   801     option.recs ~> option.rec
   802     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   803     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   804     map.simps ~> list.map
   805     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   806     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   807     the.simps ~> option.sel
   808 
   809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810 
   811 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   812     sum_map ~> map_sum
   813     map_pair ~> map_prod
   814     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   815     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   816     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   817     set_rel ~> rel_set
   818     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   819     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   820     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   821     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   822 
   823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Lifting and Transfer:
   826   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   827   - stronger reflexivity prover
   828   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   829   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   830     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   831     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   832       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   833       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   834       automatically
   835     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   836     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   837       automatically for datatypes
   838   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   839     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   840       more
   841       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   842     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   843       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   844       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   846       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   847       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848   - registration of code equations is more robust
   849     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   851     form
   852     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   854     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   856     Code_Numeral.natural
   857     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   859     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   862 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   863 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   864 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   865 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   866 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   867 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   870 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   871 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   872 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   873 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   874 
   875 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   876 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   877 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   878 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   879 
   880 * Sledgehammer:
   881   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   882   - MaSh overhaul:
   883     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   884       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   885     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   886       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   887       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   888       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   889   - New option:
   890       smt_proofs
   891   - Renamed options:
   892       isar_compress ~> compress
   893       isar_try0 ~> try0
   894 
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   898 
   899 * Nitpick:
   900   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   901     take infinite values.
   902   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   903     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   904   - Removed "std" option.
   905   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   906     "hide_types".
   907 
   908 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   909 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   912 
   913 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   914   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   915   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   916     SUP instead uniformly.
   917   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   918     or SUP and Sup.
   919   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   920   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   921   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   922     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   923     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   924 
   925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   928 
   929 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   930 
   931   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   932   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   933   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   934   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   935 
   936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937 
   938 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   939 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   940 
   941 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   942 
   943     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   944     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   945     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   946     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   947     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   948     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   949     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   950     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   951     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   952     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   953     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   954     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   955     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   956     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   957     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   958     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   959     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   960     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   961     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   962     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   963     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   964     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   965     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   966     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   967     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   968     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   969     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   970     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   971     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   972     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   973     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   974     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   975     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   976     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   977     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   978     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   979     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   980     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   981     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   982     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   983     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   984     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   985     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   986     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   987     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   988     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   989     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   990     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   991     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   992     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   993     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   994     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   995     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   996     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   997     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   998     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   999     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1000     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1001     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1002 
  1003   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1004   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1005   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1006     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1007 
  1008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1011 
  1012   Fact consolidations:
  1013     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1014     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1015     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1016     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1017     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1018     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1019     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1020     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1021     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1022     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1023     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1024     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1025     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1026     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1027     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1028     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1029     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1030     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1031     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1032     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1033     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1034     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1035     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1036     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1037     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1038     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1039     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1040     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1041     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1042     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1043     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1044     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1045     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1046     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1047     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1048     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1049     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1050     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1051     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1052     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1053 
  1054 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1055 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1056 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1057 
  1058 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1059 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1060 
  1061 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1062 
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1066 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1072     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1073 
  1074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1075 
  1076 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1077   consolidation:
  1078     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1079     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1080 
  1081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1084   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1085   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1086   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1087     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1088   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1089     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1090   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1091 
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1095 
  1096     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1097     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1098     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1099     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1100     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1101     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1102     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1103     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1104     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1105     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1106     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1107     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1108     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1109 
  1110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1113 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1114 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1115 
  1116 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1117     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1118     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1119     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1120     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1121 
  1122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Fact name consolidation:
  1125     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1126     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1127     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1128     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1129     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1130 
  1131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1134 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1135 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1136 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1137 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1138 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1139 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1143 
  1144 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1145 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1146 
  1147 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1148 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1149 
  1150 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1151 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1152 or the brute way with
  1153 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1154 
  1155 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1156 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1157 stating boundedness of sets.
  1158 
  1159 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1160 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1161 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1164   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1165   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1166   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1167   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1168   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1169   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1170   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1171   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1172   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1173   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1174   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1175 
  1176   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1177 
  1178   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1179 
  1180     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1181     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1182     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1183     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1184     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1185 
  1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1187 
  1188 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1189   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1190 
  1191   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1192 
  1193   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1194 
  1195   - removed constant isDiff
  1196 
  1197   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1198     input syntax.
  1199 
  1200   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1201 
  1202   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1203 
  1204   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1205 
  1206   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1207 
  1208   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1209     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1210     has_vector_derivative.
  1211 
  1212   - Other renamings:
  1213     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1214     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1215     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1216     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1217     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1218     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1219     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1220 
  1221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1222 
  1223 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1224 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1225 in continuous_intros.
  1226 
  1227 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1228 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1229 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1230 
  1231 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1232 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1233 especially removes
  1234 
  1235     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1236 
  1237 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1238     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1239 
  1240 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1241 
  1242   Renamings:
  1243     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1244     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1245     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1246     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1247     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1248     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1249     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1250     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1251     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1252     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1253     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1254     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1255 
  1256     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1257     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1258     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1259 
  1260   Removed theorems:
  1261     complex_zero_def
  1262     complex_add_def
  1263     complex_minus_def
  1264     complex_diff_def
  1265     complex_one_def
  1266     complex_mult_def
  1267     complex_inverse_def
  1268     complex_scaleR_def
  1269 
  1270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1273 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1276 
  1277 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1278 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1279 
  1280 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1281 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1282 
  1283 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1284 
  1285 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287 
  1288 * HOL-Word:
  1289   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1290     of "word_arith_wis".
  1291   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1292     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1293     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1294 
  1295 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1296   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1297   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1298   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1299     (except the AFP)
  1300 
  1301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1302 
  1303 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1304   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1305   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1306     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1307   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1308     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1309     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1310     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1311     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1312     intervals.
  1313   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1314     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1315     - renamed theorems:
  1316         interval ~> box
  1317         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1318         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1319         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1320         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1321         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1322         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1323         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1324         open_interval ~> open_box
  1325         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1326         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1327         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1328         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1329         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1330         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1331         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1332         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1333         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1334         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1335         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1336         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1337         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1338         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1339         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1340         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1341         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1342         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1343         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1344         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1345         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1346         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1347         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1348         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1349 
  1350     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1351         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1352         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1353         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1354         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1355         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1356         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1357         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1358         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1359         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1360         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1361         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1362         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1363         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1364         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1365         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1366         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1367         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1368 
  1369   - renamed theorems:
  1370     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1371     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1372     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1373 
  1374 * HOL-Probability:
  1375   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1376 
  1377     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1378       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1379 
  1380     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1381 
  1382   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1383     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1384 
  1385     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1386     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1387     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1388     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1389     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1390     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1391     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1392     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1393     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1394     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1395     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1396     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1397     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1398     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1399     integral_indicator          ~>
  1400          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1401     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1402     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1403     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1404 
  1405     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1406          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1407 
  1408     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1409          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1410 
  1411     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1412          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1413 
  1414     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1415          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1416          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1417 
  1418     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1419          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1420 
  1421     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1422          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1423 
  1424     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1425          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1426          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1427 
  1428     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1429          nn_integral_real_affine
  1430 
  1431     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1432          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1433 
  1434     The following theorems where removed:
  1435 
  1436     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1437     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1438     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1439     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1440     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1441     integral_cmul_indicator
  1442     integral_real
  1443 
  1444   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1445     distributed random variables.
  1446 
  1447 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1448 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 
  1452 *** Scala ***
  1453 
  1454 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1455 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1456 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1457 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1458 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1461 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 
  1464 *** ML ***
  1465 
  1466 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1467 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1468 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1469 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1470 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1471 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1472 
  1473 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1474 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1475 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1476 actually belongs to it).
  1477 
  1478 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1479 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1480 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1481 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1482 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1483 of schematic variables.
  1484 
  1485 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1486 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487 
  1488 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1489 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1490 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1496 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1497 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 
  1500 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1501 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1503 formal context.
  1504 
  1505 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1506 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1509 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1510 
  1511 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1512 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1513 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1514 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1515 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1516 
  1517 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1518 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1519 purposes.
  1520 
  1521 
  1522 *** System ***
  1523 
  1524 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1525 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1526 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1527 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1528 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1529 
  1530 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1531 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1532 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1533 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1534 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1535 settings variable.
  1536 
  1537 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1538 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1539 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1540 
  1541 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1542 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1543 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1544 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1545 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1546 
  1547 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1548 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1549 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1550 
  1551 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1552 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1553 
  1554 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1555 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1556 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1557 
  1558 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1559 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1560 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1561 processing is started.
  1562 
  1563 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1564 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1565 
  1566 
  1567 
  1568 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1569 -------------------------------------
  1570 
  1571 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1572 
  1573 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1574 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1575 
  1576 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1577 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1578 
  1579 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1580 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1581 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1582 
  1583 
  1584 *** System ***
  1585 
  1586 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1587 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1588 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1589 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1590 
  1591 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1592 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1593 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1594 
  1595 
  1596 
  1597 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1598 -------------------------------------
  1599 
  1600 *** General ***
  1601 
  1602 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1603 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1604 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1607 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1610 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1611 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1612 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1613 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1614 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1615 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1616 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1617 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1618 syntax.
  1619 
  1620 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1621 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1624 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1625 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1626 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1627 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1628 
  1629 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1633 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1634 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1635 
  1636 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1637 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1638 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1639 
  1640 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1641 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1642 
  1643 
  1644 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1645 
  1646 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1647 Documentation panel.
  1648 
  1649 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1650 documentation.
  1651 
  1652 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1653 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1654 
  1655 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1656 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1657 normal editing and checking process.
  1658 
  1659 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1660 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1661 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1662 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1663 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1664 
  1665 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1666 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1667 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1668 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1669 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1670 
  1671 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1672 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1673 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1674 
  1675 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1676 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1677 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1678 to resolve conflict.
  1679 
  1680 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1681 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1682 
  1683 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1684 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1685 such command executions while editing.
  1686 
  1687 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1688 document content.
  1689 
  1690 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1691 toplevel theorem statements.
  1692 
  1693 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1694 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1695 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1696 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1697 
  1698 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1699 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1700 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1701 
  1702 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1703 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1704 
  1705 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1706 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1707 
  1708 
  1709 *** Pure ***
  1710 
  1711 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1712 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1713 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1714 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1715 details.
  1716 
  1717 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1718 
  1719 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1720 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1721 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1722 
  1723 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1727 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1728 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1729 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1732 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1733 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1734 
  1735 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1736 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1737 
  1738 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1739 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1740 situations.
  1741 
  1742 
  1743 *** HOL ***
  1744 
  1745 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1746 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1748 
  1749 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1750 
  1751 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1752 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1753 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1754 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1755 
  1756   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1757 
  1758 * Code generator:
  1759   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1760     'code_instance'.
  1761   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1762     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1763 
  1764 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1765 examples.
  1766 
  1767 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1768 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1769 to distinguish both when desired.
  1770 
  1771 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1772 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1773 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1774 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1777 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1778 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1779 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1780 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1781 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1784 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1785 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1786 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1787 
  1788 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1789 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1790 
  1791 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1792 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1793 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1794 
  1795 * Lifting:
  1796   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1797     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1798       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1799       transfer rules
  1800     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1801       correspondence relation can be generated
  1802     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1803       parametricity
  1804     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1805   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1806   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1807     copies
  1808   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1809     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1810     anonymous context)
  1811   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1812     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1813   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1814     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1815   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1816     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1817 
  1818 * Transfer:
  1819   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1820     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1821   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1822   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1823     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1824   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1825 
  1826 * Reification and reflection:
  1827   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1828     "Reification".
  1829   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1830   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1832 
  1833 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1834   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1835     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1836     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1837   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1838     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1839   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1840     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1841     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1842     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1843     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1844     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1845     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1846     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1847   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1848     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1849   - Fact renames:
  1850       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1851       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1855 
  1856 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1857 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1858 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1860 
  1861 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1862 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1863 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1864 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1865 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1866 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1867 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1868 lemmas.
  1869 
  1870 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1871 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1872 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1875 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1876 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1877 
  1878 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1879 top and bottom elements.
  1880 
  1881 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1882 
  1883 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1884 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1885 
  1886  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1887    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1888    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1889 
  1890  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1891    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1892    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1893 
  1894    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1895    arbitrary filter.
  1896 
  1897  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1898    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1899    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1900    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1901    on a compact set.
  1902 
  1903  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1904    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1905    linear_continuum_topology).
  1906 
  1907  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1908    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1909    on all sequences converging to x.
  1910 
  1911  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1912    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1913    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1914    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1915    left or right.
  1916 
  1917  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1918 
  1919      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1920 
  1921  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1922    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1923 
  1924  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1925    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1926    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1927    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1928    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1929    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1930 
  1931  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1932 
  1933    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1934 
  1935    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1936      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1937 
  1938    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1939 
  1940    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1941      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1942 
  1943    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1944 
  1945    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1946 
  1947  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1948 
  1949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1950 
  1951 * Nitpick:
  1952   - Added option "spy".
  1953   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1954 
  1955 * Sledgehammer:
  1956   - Renamed option:
  1957       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1958     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1960   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1961   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1962 
  1963 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1964 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1965 
  1966 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1967   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1968   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1969     generated code.
  1970   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1971   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1972   - Fact renames:
  1973     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1974     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1975     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1976 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977 
  1978 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1979 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1980 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1981 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1982 
  1983 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1984 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1985 
  1986 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1989 
  1990     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1991     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1992 
  1993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1996 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1997 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1998 
  1999 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2000 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2001 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2002 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * HOL-BNF:
  2005   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2006     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2007     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2008     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2009   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2010     coinduct).
  2011   - Renamed keywords:
  2012     data ~> datatype_new
  2013     codata ~> codatatype
  2014     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2015   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2016     discs ~> disc
  2017     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2018     map_id' ~> map_id
  2019     sels ~> sel
  2020     set_map' ~> set_map
  2021     sets ~> set
  2022 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2023 
  2024 
  2025 *** ML ***
  2026 
  2027 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2028 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2029 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2030 Examples.thy in particular.
  2031 
  2032 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2033 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2034 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2035 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2036 
  2037 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2038 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2039 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2040 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2044 
  2045     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2046     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2047 
  2048 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2051 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2052 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2053 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2054 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2055 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2056 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2057 
  2058 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2059 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2060 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2061 clasets separately from the context.
  2062 
  2063 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2064 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2065 
  2066 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2067 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2068 
  2069 
  2070 *** System ***
  2071 
  2072 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2073 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2074 
  2075 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2076 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2079 settings variable.
  2080 
  2081 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2082 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2083 always pdf.
  2084 
  2085 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2086 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2087 
  2088 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2089 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2090 
  2091 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2092 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2093 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2094 
  2095 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2096 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2097 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2098 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2099 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2100 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2101 
  2102 
  2103 
  2104 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2105 -----------------------------------
  2106 
  2107 *** General ***
  2108 
  2109 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2110 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2111 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2112 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2113 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2114 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2115 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2116 
  2117 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2118 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2119 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2120 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2121 
  2122 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2123 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2124 
  2125 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2126 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2127 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2128 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2129 dependencies properly.
  2130 
  2131 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2132 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2133 
  2134 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2135 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2136 
  2137 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2138 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2139 and "class ... context ...".
  2140 
  2141 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2142 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2143 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2144 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2145 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2146 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2147 
  2148 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2149 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2150 
  2151 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2152 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2153 
  2154 
  2155 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2156 
  2157 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2158 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2159 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2160 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2161 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2162 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2163 
  2164 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2165 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2166 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2167 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2168 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2169 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2170 
  2171 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2172 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2173 browser on demand.
  2174 
  2175 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2176 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2177 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2178 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2179 
  2180 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2181 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2182 
  2183 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2184 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2185 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2186 potentially infinite message streams.
  2187 
  2188 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2189 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2190 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2191 schemes.
  2192 
  2193 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2194 symbols.
  2195 
  2196 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2197 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2198 
  2199 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2200 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2201 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2202 
  2203 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2204 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2205 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2206 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2207 
  2208 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2209 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2210 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2211 
  2212 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2213 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2214 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2215 Isabelle distribution.
  2216 
  2217 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2218 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2219 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2220 
  2221 
  2222 *** Pure ***
  2223 
  2224 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2225 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2226 
  2227 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2228 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2229 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2232 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2233 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2234 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2235 with some care where this is really required.
  2236 
  2237 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2238 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2239 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2240 
  2241   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2242 
  2243 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2244 a Hasse diagram.
  2245 
  2246 
  2247 *** HOL ***
  2248 
  2249 * Sledgehammer:
  2250 
  2251   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2252     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2253   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2254   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2255   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2256   - Renamed options:
  2257       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2258       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2259       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2260       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2261 
  2262 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2263 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2264 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2265 
  2266 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Lifting:
  2270   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2271   - quot_del attribute
  2272   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2273 
  2274 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2275 expressions.
  2276 
  2277 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2278 pointfree expressions.
  2279 
  2280 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2281 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2282 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2283 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2287 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2288 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2289 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2290 accordingly.
  2291 
  2292 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2293 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2296 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2301 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2302 
  2303 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2304 
  2305 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2306 
  2307   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2308   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2309 
  2310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2313 
  2314   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2315   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2316 
  2317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2320 
  2321   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2322     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2323     output f x converges to G.
  2324 
  2325   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2326     infinity (at_bot).
  2327 
  2328   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2329     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2330 
  2331   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2332     at_top".
  2333 
  2334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2337 lattice type classes.
  2338 
  2339 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2340 
  2341     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2342     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2343 
  2344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2347 changes as follows.
  2348 
  2349   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2350 
  2351       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2352       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2353 
  2354   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2355     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2356     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2357     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2358 
  2359   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2360     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2361     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2362 
  2363   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2364     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2365     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2366     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2367 
  2368   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2369     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2370 
  2371       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2372       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2373       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2374       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2375       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2376       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2377       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2378       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2379       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2380       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2381       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2382       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2383       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2384       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2385       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2386       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2387 
  2388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2391 
  2392 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2393 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2394 
  2395 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2396 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2397 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2398 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2399 
  2400   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2401   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2402   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2403   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2404   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2405   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2406   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2407   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2408   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2409   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2410 
  2411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412 
  2413 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2414 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2415 Data").
  2416 
  2417 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2418 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2419 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2420 code.
  2421 
  2422 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2423 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2424 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2426 
  2427 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2428 
  2429 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2430 
  2431 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2432 
  2433   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2434   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2435 
  2436 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2437 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2438 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2439 
  2440   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2441 
  2442     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2443     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2444     cart_base i  removed
  2445     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2446 
  2447   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2448 
  2449   Renamed lemmas:
  2450 
  2451     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2452     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2453     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2454     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2455     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2456     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2457     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2458     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2459     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2460     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2461 
  2462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * HOL/Probability:
  2465 
  2466   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2467 
  2468   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2469     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2470     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2471 
  2472   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2473     projective family).
  2474 
  2475 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2476 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2477 
  2478 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2479 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2480 datatypes.
  2481 
  2482 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2483 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2484 
  2485 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2486 trees for the code generator.
  2487 
  2488 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2489 Lifting/Transfer.
  2490 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2491 
  2492 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 
  2496 *** Document preparation ***
  2497 
  2498 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2499 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2500 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2501 
  2502 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2503 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2504 
  2505 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2506 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2507 document/root.tex.
  2508 
  2509 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2510 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 
  2513 *** ML ***
  2514 
  2515 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2516 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2517 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2518 
  2519 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2520 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2521 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2522 
  2523 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2524 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2525 necessarily printing visible text.
  2526 
  2527 
  2528 *** System ***
  2529 
  2530 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2531 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2532 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2533 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2534 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2535 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2536 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2537 
  2538 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2539 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2540 
  2541   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2542 
  2543 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2544 
  2545 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2546 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2547 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2548 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2549 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2550 
  2551 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2552 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2553 
  2554 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2555 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2556 
  2557 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2561 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2562 version of Isabelle.
  2563 
  2564 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2565 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2566 
  2567 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2568 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2569 for home-made settings.
  2570 
  2571 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2572 
  2573 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2574 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2575 configuration.
  2576 
  2577 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2578 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2579 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2580 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2581 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2582 
  2583 
  2584 
  2585 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2586 ------------------------------
  2587 
  2588 *** General ***
  2589 
  2590 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2591 
  2592   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2593     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2594   - markup for bound variables
  2595   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2596   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2597   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2598     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2599 
  2600 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2601 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2602 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2603 
  2604 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2605 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2606 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2607 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2608 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2609 
  2610   context
  2611     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2612     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2613   begin
  2614 
  2615   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2616 
  2617   end
  2618 
  2619   thm my_trans
  2620 
  2621 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2622 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2623 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2624 
  2625 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2626 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2627 
  2628 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2629 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2630 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2631 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2632 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2633 
  2634 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2635 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2636 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2637 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2638 indices of schematic variables.
  2639 
  2640 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2641 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2642 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2643 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2644 etc. was exploited.
  2645 
  2646 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2647 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2648 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2649 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2650 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2651 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2652 
  2653 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2654 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2655 manual.
  2656 
  2657 
  2658 *** Pure ***
  2659 
  2660 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2661 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2662 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2663 
  2664 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2665 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2666 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2667 undocumented feature.)
  2668 
  2669 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2670 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2671 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2672 
  2673   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2674 
  2675   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2676     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2677 
  2678 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2679 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2680 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2681 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2682 
  2683 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2684 
  2685     num ~> num_token
  2686     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2687     xstr ~> str_token
  2688 
  2689 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2690 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2691 position information via constraints).
  2692 
  2693 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2694 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2695 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2698 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2699 
  2700 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2701 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2702 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2705 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2708 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2709 
  2710   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2711 
  2712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2715 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2718 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2719 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2720 
  2721 
  2722 *** HOL ***
  2723 
  2724 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2725 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2726 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2727 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2728 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2729 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2730 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2731 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2732 possible.
  2733 
  2734 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2735 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2736 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2737 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2738 
  2739 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2740 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2743 
  2744 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2745 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2746 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2747 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2748 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2749 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2750 
  2751   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2752     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2753 
  2754   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2755     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2756     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2757 
  2758   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2759     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2760 
  2761   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2762     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2763     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2764 
  2765   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2766     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2767 
  2768 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2769 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2770 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2771 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2772 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2773 
  2774   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2775     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2776     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2777     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2778     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2779 
  2780     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2781     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2782 
  2783   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2784     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2785     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2786     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2787     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2788     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2789     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2790     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2791 
  2792   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2793     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2794     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2795     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2796 
  2797   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2798     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2799     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2800     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2801 
  2802   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2803     from type nat to type int.
  2804 
  2805 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2806 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2807 
  2808   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2809     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2810     type.  Example syntax:
  2811 
  2812     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2813       is List.insert
  2814 
  2815     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2816     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2817     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2818     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2819     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2820     by the package.
  2821 
  2822   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2823     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2824     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2825     code generation for each constant.
  2826 
  2827   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2828     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2829     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2830     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2831     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2832 
  2833   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2834     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2835     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2836 
  2837 * Quotient package:
  2838 
  2839   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2840     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2841 
  2842   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2843     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2844 
  2845   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2846     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2847     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2850     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2853 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2854 
  2855 * Quickcheck:
  2856 
  2857   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2858     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2859     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2860     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2861     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2862 
  2863     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2864     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2865     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2866 
  2867     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2868     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2869 
  2870     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2871     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2872     show genuine counterexamples.
  2873 
  2874   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2875     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2876 
  2877     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2878     constructors of that type.
  2879 
  2880   - Support for multisets.
  2881 
  2882   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2883 
  2884   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2885     conjectures in a locale context.
  2886 
  2887 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2888 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2889 
  2890 * Sledgehammer:
  2891   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2892     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2893   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2894   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2895     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2896   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2897   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2898   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2899   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2900 
  2901 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2902 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2903 
  2904 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2905 
  2906 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2907 
  2908 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2909 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2910 
  2911   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2912 
  2913 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2914 a list and a nat.
  2915 
  2916 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2917 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2918 
  2919 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2920 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2921 default.
  2922 
  2923 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2924 
  2925   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2926 
  2927 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2928 
  2929 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2930 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2931 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2932 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2933 one_case.
  2934 
  2935 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2936 the result of the fact expression.
  2937 
  2938 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2939 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2940 of some relation theorems:
  2941 
  2942   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2943   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2944   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2945   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2946   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2947   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2948 
  2949 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2950 
  2951 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2952 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2953 
  2954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2957 to match the constant's name:
  2958 
  2959   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2960   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2961   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2962   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2963   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2964   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2965   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2966   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2967   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2968   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2969   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2970   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2971   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2972   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2973   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2974   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2975   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2976   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2977   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2978   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2979   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2980   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2981   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2982   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2983 
  2984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2987 and corresponding theorem names:
  2988 
  2989   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2990 
  2991   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2992 
  2993   - Renamed theorems:
  2994 
  2995     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2996     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2997     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2998     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2999     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3000     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3001     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3002     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3003     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3004     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3005     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3006     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3007     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3008     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3009     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3010     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3011     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3012     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3013     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3014     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3015     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3016     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3017     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3018 
  3019     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3020 
  3021     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3022 
  3023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3026 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3027 
  3028   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3029   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3030   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3031   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3032   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3033   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3034   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3035   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3036   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3037   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3038   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3039   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3040   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3041   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3042   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3043   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3044   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3045   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3046   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3047   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3048   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3049 
  3050 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3051 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054 
  3055 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3056 
  3057   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3058   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3059   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3060   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3061   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3062   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3063   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3064   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3065   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3066   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3067   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3068   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3069   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3070   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3071   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3072   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3073   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3074   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3075 
  3076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3079 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3080 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3081 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3082 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3083 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3084 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3085 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3086 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3087 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3088 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3089 
  3090 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3091 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3092 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3093 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3094 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3095 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3096 
  3097 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3098 through option types.
  3099 
  3100 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3101 relations.
  3102 
  3103 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3106 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3107 
  3108   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3109   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3110   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3111   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3112   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3113   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3114   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3115   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3116   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3117   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3118   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3119   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3120   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3121   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3122   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3123   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3124   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3125   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3126   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3127   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3128   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3129   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3130   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3131   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3132   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3133   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3134   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3135   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3136   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3137   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3138   zless_le ~> less_le
  3139   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3140   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3141   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3142 
  3143 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3144 
  3145   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3146 
  3147 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3148 
  3149 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3150 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3151 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3152 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3156 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3157 
  3158 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3159 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3160 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3161 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3162 follows:
  3163 
  3164   Operations:
  3165   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3166   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3167   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3168   del -> rbt_del
  3169   delete -> rbt_delete
  3170   ins -> rbt_ins
  3171   insert -> rbt_insert
  3172   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3173   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3174   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3175   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3176   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3177   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3178   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3179   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3180   union -> rbt_union
  3181   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3182   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3183 
  3184   Lemmas:
  3185   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3186   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3187   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3188   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3189   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3190   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3191   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3192   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3193   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3194   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3195   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3196   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3197   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3198   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3199   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3200   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3201   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3202   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3203   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3204   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3205   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3206   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3207   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3208   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3209   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3210   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3211   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3212   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3213   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3214   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3215   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3216   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3217   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3218   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3219   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3220   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3221   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3222   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3223   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3224   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3225   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3226   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3227   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3228   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3229   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3230   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3231   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3232   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3233   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3234   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3235   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3236   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3237   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3238   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3239   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3240   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3241   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3242   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3243   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3244   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3245   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3246   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3247   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3248   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3249   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3250   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3251   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3252   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3253   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3254   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3255   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3256   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3257   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3258   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3259   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3260   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3261   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3262   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3263   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3264   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3265   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3266   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3267   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3268 
  3269 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3270 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3271 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273   Changed Operations:
  3274   float_abs -> abs
  3275   float_nprt -> nprt
  3276   float_pprt -> pprt
  3277   pow2 -> use powr
  3278   round_down -> float_round_down
  3279   round_up -> float_round_up
  3280   scale -> exponent
  3281 
  3282   Removed Operations:
  3283   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3284 
  3285   Renamed Lemmas:
  3286   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3287   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3288   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3289   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3290   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3291   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3292   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3293   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3294   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3295   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3296   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3297   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3298   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3299   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3300   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3301   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3302   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3303   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3304   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3305   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3306   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3307   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3308   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3309   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3310   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3311   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3312   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3313   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3314   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3315   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3316   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3317   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3318   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3319   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3320   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3321   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3322 
  3323   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3324   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3325   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3326   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3327   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3328   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3329   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3330   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3331   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3332   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3333 
  3334 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3335 association lists with distinct keys.
  3336 
  3337 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3338 annotated commands.
  3339 
  3340 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3341 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3342 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3343 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3346 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3347 instead.
  3348 
  3349   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3350   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3351   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3352   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3353   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3354   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3355   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3356   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3357   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3358   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3359   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3360   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3361   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3362   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3363   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3364   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3365   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3366   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3367   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3368   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3369   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3370   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3371   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3372   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3373   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3374   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3375   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3376   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3377   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3378   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3379   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3380   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3381   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3382   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3383   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3384   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3385   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3386   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3387   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3388   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3389   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3390 
  3391 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3392 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3393 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3394 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3395 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3396 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3397 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3398 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3399 
  3400 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3401 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3402 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3403 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3404 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3405 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3406 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3407 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3408 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3409 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3410 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3411 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413   Renamed constants:
  3414   measure -> emeasure
  3415   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3416   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3417   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3418   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3419 
  3420   Removed locales:
  3421   completeable_measure_space
  3422   finite_measure_space
  3423   finite_prob_space
  3424   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3425   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3426   finite_sigma_algebra
  3427   measure_space
  3428   pair_finite_prob_space
  3429   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3430   pair_finite_space
  3431   pair_sigma_algebra
  3432   product_sigma_algebra
  3433 
  3434   Removed constants:
  3435   conditional_space
  3436   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3437   image_space
  3438   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3439   pair_measure_generator
  3440   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3441   subvimage
  3442 
  3443   Replacement theorems:
  3444   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3445   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3446   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3447   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3448   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3449   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3450   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3451   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3452   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3453   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3454   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3455   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3456   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3457   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3458   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3459   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3460   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3461   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3462   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3463   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3464   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3465   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3466   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3467   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3468   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3469   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3470   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3471   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3472   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3473   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3474   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3475   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3476   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3477   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3478   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3479   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3480   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3481   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3482   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3483   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3484   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3485   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3486   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3487   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3488   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3489   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3490   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3491   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3492   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3493   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3494   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3495   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3496   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3497   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3498   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3499   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3500   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3501   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3502   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3503   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3504   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3505   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3506   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3507   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3508   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3509   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3510   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3511   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3512   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3513   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3514   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3515   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3516   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3517   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3518   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3519   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3520   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3521   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3522   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3523   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3524   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3525   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3526   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3527   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3528   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3529   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3530   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3531   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3532   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3533   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3534   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3535   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3536   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3537   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3538   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3539   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3540   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3541   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3542   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3543   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3544   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3545   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3546   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3547   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3548   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3549   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3550   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3551   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3552   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3553   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3554   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3555   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3556   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3557   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3558   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3559   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3560   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3561   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3562   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3563   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3564   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3565   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3566   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3567   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3568   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3569   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3570   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3571   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3572 
  3573 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3574 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3575 
  3576 
  3577 *** FOL ***
  3578 
  3579 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3580 
  3581 
  3582 *** ZF ***
  3583 
  3584 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3585 analysis.
  3586 
  3587 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3588 
  3589 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 
  3592 *** ML ***
  3593 
  3594 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3595 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3596 
  3597 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3598 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3599 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3600 
  3601 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3602 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3603 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3604 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3605 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3606 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3608 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3609 
  3610 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3611 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3612 
  3613 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3614 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3615 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3616 
  3617 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3618 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3621 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3622 context as well.
  3623 
  3624 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3625 
  3626   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3627   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3628   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3629   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3630   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3631   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3632   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3633   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3634   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3635   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3636   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3637   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** System ***
  3641 
  3642 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3643 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3644 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3645 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3646 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3647 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3648 the generic user home was intended.
  3649 
  3650 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3651 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3652 
  3653 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3654 (not just JRE).
  3655 
  3656 
  3657 
  3658 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3659 ------------------------------------
  3660 
  3661 *** General ***
  3662 
  3663 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3664 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3665 
  3666   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3667     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3668     files for checking).
  3669 
  3670   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3671     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3672     positions.
  3673 
  3674   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3675     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3676     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3677 
  3678   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3679     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3680     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3681 
  3682   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3683     cores.
  3684 
  3685   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3686     versions (garbage collection).
  3687 
  3688 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3689 including some remaining limitations.
  3690 
  3691 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3692 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3693 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3694 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3695 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3699 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3700 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3701 
  3702 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3703 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3704 usedir option -Q.
  3705 
  3706 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3707 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3708 
  3709   long_names   ~> names_long
  3710   short_names  ~> names_short
  3711   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3712 
  3713 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3714 
  3715   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3716 
  3717 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3718 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3719 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3720 
  3721 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3722 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3723 
  3724 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3725   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3726   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3727   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3728     "Classical Reasoner".
  3729 
  3730 
  3731 *** HOL ***
  3732 
  3733 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3734 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3737 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3738 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3739 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3740 class complete_linorder.
  3741 
  3742 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3743 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3744 
  3745 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3746 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3747 
  3748   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3749   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3750   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3751   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3752   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3753   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3754   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3755   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3756   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3757   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3758   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3759 
  3760 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3761 
  3762   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3763   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3764   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3765   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3766   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3767   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3768   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3769   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3770   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3771   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3772   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3773   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3774   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3775   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3776   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3777   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3778 
  3779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3785 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3786 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3787 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3790 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3791 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3795 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3796 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3797 
  3798 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3799 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3800 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3803 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3804 
  3805 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3806 
  3807     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3808     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3809 
  3810 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3811 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3814 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3817 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3818 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3819 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3820 
  3821   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3822   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3823   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3824   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3825   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3826   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3827   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3828 
  3829 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3830 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3833   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3834   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3835   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3836   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3837   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3838   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3839   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3840   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3841   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3842   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3843   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3844   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3845   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3846   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3847   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3848   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3849   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3850   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3851   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3852   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3853   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3854   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3855   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3856   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3857   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3858   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3859   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3860   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3861   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3862   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3863   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3864   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3865   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3866   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3867   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3868   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3869   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3870   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3871   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3872   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3873   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3874   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3875   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3876   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3877   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3878   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3879   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3880   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3881   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3882   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3883   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3884   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3885   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3886   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3887   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3888   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3889   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3890   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3891   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3892   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3893   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3894   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3895   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3896   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3897   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3898   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3899   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3900   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3901   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3902   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3903   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3904   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3905   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3906   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3907   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3908   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3909   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3910   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3911   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3912   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3913   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3914 
  3915 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3916 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3917 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3918 
  3919 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3920 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3921 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3922 
  3923 * Code generation:
  3924 
  3925   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3926     characters in the target language.
  3927 
  3928   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3929     instead.
  3930 
  3931   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3932 
  3933   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3934     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3935 
  3936       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3937 
  3938 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3939 
  3940 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3941 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3942 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3943 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3944 syntax.
  3945 
  3946 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3947 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3948 
  3949 * Nitpick:
  3950   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3951   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3952   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3953     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Sledgehammer:
  3956   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3957   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3958     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3959   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3960     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3961   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3962     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3964     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3965   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3966     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Metis:
  3969   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3971     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 * Command 'try':
  3974   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3975     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3977     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3978 
  3979 * Quickcheck:
  3980   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3981     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3982   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3983     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3984   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3985     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3986     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3987     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3988   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3989     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3990 
  3991 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3992 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3993 
  3994 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3995 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3996 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3997 
  3998 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3999 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4003 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4006 arithmetic.
  4007 
  4008 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4009 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4010 and lattice type classes.
  4011 
  4012 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4013 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4014 
  4015 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4016 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4017 
  4018 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4019 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4020 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4023   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4024   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4025   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4026 
  4027 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4028 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4029 constants:
  4030 
  4031   type inat   ~> type enat
  4032   Fin         ~> enat
  4033   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4034   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4035   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4036 
  4037 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4038 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039 
  4040 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4041 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4042 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4043 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4044 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4045 
  4046 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4047 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4048 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4049 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4050 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4051 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4052 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4053 
  4054   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4055   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4056   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4057   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4058 
  4059 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4060 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4061 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4064   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4065   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4066   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4067   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4068   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4069   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4070   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4071   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4072   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4073   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4074   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4075   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4076   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4077   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4078   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4079   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4080   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4081   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4082   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4083   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4084   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4085   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4086   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4087   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4088   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4089   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4090   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4091   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4092   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4093   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4094   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4095   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4096   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4097   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4098   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4099   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4100   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4101   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4102   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4103   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4104   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4105   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4106   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4107   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4108   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4109   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4110   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4111   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4112   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4113   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4114 
  4115 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4116   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4117   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4118   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4119   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4120     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4121 
  4122 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4125   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4126   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4127   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4128   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4129   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4130   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4131   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4132   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4133   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4134   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4135   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4136   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4137   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4138   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4139   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4140   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4141   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4142   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4143   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4144   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4145   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4146   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4147   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4148   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4149 
  4150 
  4151 *** Document preparation ***
  4152 
  4153 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4154 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4155 same.
  4156 
  4157 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4158 result.
  4159 
  4160 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4161 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4162 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4163 
  4164 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4165 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4166 
  4167 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4168 like this:
  4169 
  4170   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4171   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4172 
  4173 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4174 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4175 layouts.
  4176 
  4177 
  4178 *** ML ***
  4179 
  4180 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4181 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4182 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4183 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4184 under external program control.
  4185 
  4186 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4187 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4188 
  4189 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4190 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4191 (better known as Proof General).
  4192 
  4193 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4194 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4195 
  4196 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4197 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4198 
  4199 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4200 (including quotes etc.).
  4201 
  4202 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4203 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4204 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4205 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4206 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4207 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4208 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4209 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4210 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4211 
  4212 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4213 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4214 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4215 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4216 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4217 
  4218 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4219 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4220 
  4221 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4222 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4223 
  4224 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4225 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4226 
  4227 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4228 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4229 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4230 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4231 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4232 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4233 proper Proof.context.
  4234 
  4235 
  4236 *** System ***
  4237 
  4238 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4239 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4240 
  4241 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4242 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4243 
  4244 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4245 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4246 
  4247   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4248   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4249   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4250   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4251   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4252 
  4253 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4254 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4257 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4258 example:
  4259 
  4260   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4261 
  4262 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4263 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4264 
  4265 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4266 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4267 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4268 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4269 
  4270 
  4271 
  4272 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4273 ----------------------------------
  4274 
  4275 *** General ***
  4276 
  4277 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4278 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4279 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4280 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4281 like this:
  4282 
  4283   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4284 
  4285 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4286 
  4287 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4288 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4289 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4290 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4291 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4292 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4293 
  4294 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4295 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4296 the following package declarations:
  4297 
  4298   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4299   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4300 
  4301 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4302 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4303 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4304 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4305 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4306 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4307 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4308 
  4309 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4310 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4311 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4312 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4313 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4314 
  4315 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4316 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4317 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4318 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4321 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4322 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4323 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4324 
  4325   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4326 
  4327   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4328   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4329   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4330   show_types                    show_types
  4331   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4332   show_consts                   show_consts
  4333   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4334 
  4335   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4336   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4337   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4338 
  4339   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4340   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4341 
  4342   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4343 
  4344   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4345   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4346   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4347   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4348   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4349 
  4350 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4351 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4352 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4353 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4354 
  4355 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4359   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4360 
  4361 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4362 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4363 float_token.
  4364 
  4365 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4366 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4370 DejaVu Sans.
  4371 
  4372 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4373 
  4374 
  4375 *** Pure ***
  4376 
  4377 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4378 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4379 time.
  4380 
  4381 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4382 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4385 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4386 
  4387 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4388 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4389 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4390 command already provided this functionality.
  4391 
  4392 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4393 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4394 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4395 without interpretations.
  4396 
  4397 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4398 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4399 
  4400 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4401 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4402 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4403 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4404 
  4405 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4406 'definition' instead.
  4407 
  4408 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4409 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4410 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4411 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4412 
  4413 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4414 constructors.
  4415 
  4416 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4417 the local file system.
  4418 
  4419 
  4420 *** HOL ***
  4421 
  4422 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4423 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4424 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4425 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4426 
  4427   declare [[coercion f]]
  4428 
  4429 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4430 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4431 
  4432   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4433 
  4434 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4435 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4436 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4437 other theories like this:
  4438 
  4439   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4440 
  4441 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4442 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4443 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4444 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4445 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4446 for examples.
  4447 
  4448 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4449 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4452 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4453 
  4454 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4455 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4456 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4457 
  4458 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4459 functorial structure of types.
  4460 
  4461 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4462 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4463 
  4464 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4465 languages.
  4466 
  4467 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4468 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4470 
  4471 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4472 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4473 
  4474 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4475 combinators any longer.
  4476 
  4477 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4478 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4479 
  4480 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4481 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4482 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4483 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4484 
  4485   record 'a foo = ...
  4486   ...
  4487   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4488 
  4489 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4490 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4494 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4495 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4496 
  4497 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4498 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4499 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4500 
  4501 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4502 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503 
  4504 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4505 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4506 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4507 independently.
  4508 
  4509 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4510 counter example search.
  4511 
  4512 * Sledgehammer:
  4513   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4514     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4515     sledgehammer").
  4516   - Renamed commands:
  4517     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4518     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4519     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4520     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521   - Renamed options:
  4522     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4523     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4524     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4525     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4526     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 
  4528 * Nitpick:
  4529   - Renamed options:
  4530     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4531     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4532     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4533   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4534   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4535   - Added "whack" option.
  4536   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4537   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4538   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4539   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4540     higher cardinalities.
  4541   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4542 
  4543 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4544 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4545 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4546 
  4547     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4548 
  4549 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4550 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4551 
  4552 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4553 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4554 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4555 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4556 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4557 "smt_solver".
  4558 
  4559 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4560 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4561 
  4562 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4563 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4564 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4565 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4568   - Renamed:
  4569     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4570     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4571     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572   - Added:
  4573     smt_verbose
  4574     smt_random_seed
  4575     smt_datatypes
  4576     smt_infer_triggers
  4577     smt_monomorph_limit
  4578     cvc3_options
  4579     remote_cvc3_options
  4580     remote_z3_options
  4581     yices_options
  4582 
  4583 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4584 header.
  4585 
  4586 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4587 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4589 
  4590   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4591 
  4592 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4595 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4600 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4603 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4604 
  4605 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4606 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4607 
  4608 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4609 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4610 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4618 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4621 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4622 for congruent(2)).
  4623 
  4624 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4625 
  4626   types
  4627     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4628     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4629 
  4630   constants
  4631     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4632     True ~> HOL.True
  4633     False ~> HOL.False
  4634     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4635     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4636     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4637     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4638     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4639     The ~> HOL.The
  4640     All ~> HOL.All
  4641     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4642     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4643     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4644     If ~> HOL.If
  4645     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4646     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4647     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4648     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4649     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4650     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4651     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4652     op : ~> Set.member
  4653     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4654 
  4655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4658 
  4659     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4660     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4661     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4662     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4663     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4664     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4665     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4666     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4667 
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * More stylized fact names:
  4671 
  4672   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4673   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4674   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4675   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4676 
  4677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4680 
  4681   constants
  4682     null ~> List.null
  4683 
  4684   facts
  4685     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4686     null_empty ~> null_def
  4687 
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4689 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4690 generation.
  4691 
  4692 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4693 Haskell code.
  4694 
  4695 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4696 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4697 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4700 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4703 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4704 
  4705 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4706 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4707 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4710 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4716 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4717 referred to by its qualified name.
  4718 
  4719   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4720   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4721   product ~>  Enum.product
  4722 
  4723 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4724 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4728 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4729 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4733 sort_key.
  4734 
  4735 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4739 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4740 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4741 
  4742   types
  4743     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4744               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4745               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4746         (depends on your needs)
  4747 
  4748   constants
  4749      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4750      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4751      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4752 
  4753 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4754 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4755 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4756 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4759 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4760 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4761 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4762 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4766 
  4767 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4768 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4769 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4770 
  4771 
  4772 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4773 
  4774 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4775 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4776 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4777 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4778 compatibility.
  4779 
  4780 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4781 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4782 
  4783 
  4784 *** HOLCF ***
  4785 
  4786 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4787 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4788 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4792 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4793 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4796   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4797   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4798 
  4799 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4800 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4801 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4804 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4805 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4806 domain definition now works:
  4807 
  4808   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4809 
  4810 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4811 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4812 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4813 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4814 
  4815   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4816     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4817 
  4818   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4819 
  4820 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4821 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4822 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4825 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4828 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4829 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4830 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4831 
  4832 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4833 
  4834 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4842 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4843 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4844 
  4845 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4846 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4847 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4850 still supported as an input translation.
  4851 
  4852 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4853 
  4854   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4855   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4856   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4857   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4858   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4859   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4860   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4861 
  4862 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4863 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4866   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4867   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4868   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4869   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4870   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4871 
  4872 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4873 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4876 
  4877   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4878   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4879   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4880   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4881 
  4882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4885 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4886 
  4887 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4888 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4891   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4892   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4893   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4894   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4895   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4896   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4897   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4898   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4899   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4900   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4901   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4902   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4903   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4904   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4905   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4906   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4907   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4908   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4909   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4910 
  4911 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4914   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4915   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4916   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4917   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4918   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4919   box_less             ~> box_below
  4920   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4921   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4922   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4923   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4924   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4925   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4926   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4927   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4928   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4929   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4930   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4931   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4932   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4933   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4934   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4935   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4936   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4937   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4938   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4939   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4940   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4941   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4942   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4943   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4944   up_less              ~> up_below
  4945   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4946   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4947   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4948   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4949   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4950   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4951   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4952   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4953   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4954   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4955   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4956   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4957   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4958 
  4959 
  4960 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4961 
  4962 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4963 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 
  4966 *** ML ***
  4967 
  4968 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4969 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4970 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4971 
  4972 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4973 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4974 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4975 
  4976 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4977 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4978 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4979 
  4980 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4981 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4982 
  4983 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4984 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4985 
  4986 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4987 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4988 
  4989 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4990 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4991 
  4992 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4993 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4994 almost all situations.
  4995 
  4996 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4997 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4998 Isabelle/ML.
  4999 
  5000 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5001 meaning.
  5002 
  5003 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5004 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5005 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5006 
  5007 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5008 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5009 
  5010 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5011 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5012 
  5013 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5014 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5015 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5016 
  5017 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5018 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5019 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5020 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5021 configuration options.
  5022 
  5023 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5024 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5025 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5026 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5027 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5028 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5029 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5030 
  5031 
  5032 
  5033 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5034 ---------------------------------
  5035 
  5036 *** General ***
  5037 
  5038 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5039 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5040 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5041 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5042 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5043 their full internal name.
  5044 
  5045 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5046 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5047 Some hints on upgrading:
  5048 
  5049   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5050     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5051     which are independent of this issue.
  5052 
  5053   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5054     provides the following special forms:
  5055 
  5056       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5057       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5058       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5059 
  5060     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5061     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5062     extra variables".
  5063 
  5064     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5065     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5066     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5067     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5068     "logic".
  5069 
  5070   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5071     antiquotations:
  5072 
  5073       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5074       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5075       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5076       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5077 
  5078   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5079     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5080     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5081     antiquotations.
  5082 
  5083 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5084 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5085 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5086 diagnose syntax problems.
  5087 
  5088 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5089 
  5090 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5091 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5092 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5093 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5094 
  5095 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5096 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5097 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5098 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5099 
  5100 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5101 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5102 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5103 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5104 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5105 
  5106 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5107 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5108 
  5109 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5110 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5111 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5112 
  5113   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5114 
  5115 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5116 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5117 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5118 
  5119 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5120 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5122 
  5123 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5124 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5125 
  5126 
  5127 *** Pure ***
  5128 
  5129 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5130 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5131 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5132 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5133 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5134 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5135 inspect proof terms.
  5136 
  5137 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5138 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5139 are added internally.  For example:
  5140 
  5141   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5142 
  5143 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5144 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5145 
  5146 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5147 
  5148 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5149 'class' instead.
  5150 
  5151 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5152 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5154 
  5155 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5156 invariants.
  5157 
  5158 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5159 user space functionality any longer.
  5160 
  5161 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5162 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5166 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5167 
  5168 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5169 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5170 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5171 
  5172 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5173 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5174 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5175 
  5176 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5177 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5178 
  5179 
  5180 *** HOL ***
  5181 
  5182 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5183 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5184 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5185 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5186 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5187 
  5188 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5189 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5190 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5191 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5192 
  5193   fun
  5194     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5195   where
  5196     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5197 
  5198   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5199     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5200 
  5201   quotient_definition
  5202     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5203 
  5204 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5205 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5206 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5207 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5208 
  5209 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5210 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5211 
  5212 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5213 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5214 
  5215 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5219 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5220 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5221 
  5222 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5223 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5224 
  5225 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5227 
  5228 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5232 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5233 
  5234 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5235 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5236 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5237 
  5238   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5239   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5240   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5241   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5242   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5243   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5244   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5245   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5246   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5247   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5248   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5249   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5250   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5251   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5252   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5253   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5254   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5255   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5256   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5257   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5258   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5259   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5260   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5261   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5262   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5263   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5264   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5265   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5266   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5267   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5268 
  5269 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5270 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5271 
  5272 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5273 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5274 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5277 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5278 
  5279 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5280 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5281 
  5282 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5283 
  5284 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5285 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5286 
  5287 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5288 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5291 
  5292 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5293 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5294 
  5295 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5296 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5297 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5298 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5299 
  5300 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5301   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5302   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5303   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5307 lattices):
  5308 
  5309     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5310     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5311 
  5312     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5313 
  5314     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5315     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5316     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5317     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5318     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5319     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5320     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5321     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5322     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5323     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5324     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5325     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5326     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5327 
  5328     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5329     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5330     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5331     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5332     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5333     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5334     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5335     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5336     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5337     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5338     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5339     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5340     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5341     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5342     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5343     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5344     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5345     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5346 
  5347   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5348   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5349 
  5350     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5351     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5352     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5353     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5354     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5355 
  5356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5357 
  5358 * Refined field classes:
  5359   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5360     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5361     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5362   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5366   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5367   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5368   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5369     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5370   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5371     equal_neg_zero.
  5372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5373 
  5374 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5375 sets to lattices:
  5376 
  5377   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5378   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5379   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5380   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5381   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5382   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5383   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5384   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5385   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5386   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5387 
  5388 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5389 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5390 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5391 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5392 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5393 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5394 
  5395 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5396 multiset order:
  5397 
  5398   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5399     <= and <;
  5400   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5401     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5402     multiset_order;
  5403   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5404     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5405     generation;
  5406   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5407     if needed.
  5408 
  5409 Renamed:
  5410 
  5411   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5412   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5413   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5414 
  5415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5416 
  5417 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5418 
  5419 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5420 
  5421 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5422 
  5423 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5424 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5425 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5426 
  5427   Constants:
  5428   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5429   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5430   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5431   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5432   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5433   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5434   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5435   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5436   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5437   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5438   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5439   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5440   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5441 
  5442   Lemmas:
  5443   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5444   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5445   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5446   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5447   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5448   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5449   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5450   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5451   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5452   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5453   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5454   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5455   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5456 
  5457 * Sledgehammer:
  5458   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5459     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5460     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5461     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5462     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5463     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5464     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5465   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5466   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5467     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5468   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5469     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5470     is still experimental.)
  5471   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5472     full-typed mode.
  5473   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5474 
  5475 * Nitpick:
  5476   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5477   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5478   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5479     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5480   - Added support for quotient types.
  5481   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5482     constructs.
  5483   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5484     "termination" proofs).
  5485   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5486   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5487   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5488   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5489     record getters.
  5490   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5491   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5492   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5493   - Added "atoms" option.
  5494   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5495     problems.
  5496   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5497     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5498     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5500     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5501   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5504   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5505   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5506   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5507   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5508   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5509   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5510   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5511   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5512   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5513 
  5514 
  5515 *** HOLCF ***
  5516 
  5517 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5518 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5519 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5522 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5523 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5524 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5527 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5528 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5529 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5530 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5531 
  5532 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5533 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5534 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5535 
  5536 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5537 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5538 
  5539   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5540   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5541 
  5542 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5543 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5546   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5547   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5548   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5549   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5550 
  5551 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5552 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5553 
  5554   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5555   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5556   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5557 
  5558 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5559 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5563 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5566 
  5567 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5568 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5569 
  5570 
  5571 *** ML ***
  5572 
  5573 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5574 
  5575     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5576     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5577 
  5578     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5579     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5580     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5581     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5582 
  5583     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5584     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5585     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5586 
  5587 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5588 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5589 
  5590 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5591 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5592 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5593 
  5594 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5595 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5596 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5597 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5598 
  5599 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5600 the context or even global references.
  5601 
  5602 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5603 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5604 
  5605 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5606 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5607 
  5608   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5609   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5610   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5611   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5612   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5613   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5614   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5615   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5616   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5617   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5618 
  5619 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5620 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5621 
  5622 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5623 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5624 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5625 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5626 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5627 
  5628 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5629 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5630 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5631 Theory_Data version.
  5632 
  5633 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5634 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5635 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5636 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5637 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5638 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5639 explicitly in rare situations.
  5640 
  5641 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5642 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5646 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5647 
  5648 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5649 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5650 quite rare).
  5651 
  5652 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5653 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5656 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5657 terms.
  5658 
  5659 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5660 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5661 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5662 
  5663 
  5664 *** System ***
  5665 
  5666 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5667 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5668 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5669 
  5670 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5671 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5672 respectively.
  5673 
  5674 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5675 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5676 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5677 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5678 
  5679   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5680 
  5681 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5682 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5683 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5684 component.
  5685 
  5686 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5687 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5688 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5689 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5690 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5691 the user for manual installation.
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 
  5695 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5696 -------------------------------------
  5697 
  5698 *** General ***
  5699 
  5700 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5701 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5702 
  5703 
  5704 *** Pure ***
  5705 
  5706 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5707 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5708 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5709 
  5710 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5711 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5712 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5713 
  5714 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5715 interpretation.
  5716 
  5717 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5718 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5719 
  5720 
  5721 *** Document preparation ***
  5722 
  5723 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5724 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5725 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5726 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5727 
  5728 
  5729 *** HOL ***
  5730 
  5731 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5732 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5733 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5734 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5735 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5736 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5737 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5738 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5739 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5740 
  5741 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5742 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5743 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5744 
  5745 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5746 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5747 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5748 
  5749 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5750 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5751 
  5752 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5753 
  5754 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5755 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5756 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5757 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5758 
  5759 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5760 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5761 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5762 "mirabelle" utility.
  5763 
  5764 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5765 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5766 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5767 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5768 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5769 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5770 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5771 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5772 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5773 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5774 
  5775 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5776 procedure only.
  5777 
  5778 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5779 
  5780 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5781 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5782 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5783 that fail later.
  5784 
  5785 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5786 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5787 
  5788 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5789 the same method as the approximation method.
  5790 
  5791 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5792 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5793 series expansion.
  5794 
  5795 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5796 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5797 
  5798 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5799 reals.
  5800 
  5801 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5802 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5803 
  5804 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5805 fixpoint theorem.
  5806 
  5807 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5808   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5809     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5810   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5811     accordingly
  5812   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5813     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5814   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5815     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5816 
  5817 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5818 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5819 lattice.
  5820 
  5821 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5822 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5823 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5824 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5825 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5826 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5828 
  5829 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5830   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5831     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5832   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5833     le_inf_iff
  5834   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5835     sup_aci)
  5836   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5837   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5838   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5839     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5840     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5841     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5842     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5843     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5844     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5845     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5846     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5847     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5848     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5849   - authentic syntax for
  5850     Set.Pow
  5851     Set.image
  5852   - mere abbreviations:
  5853     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5854     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5855     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5856     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5857     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5858     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5859     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5860     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5861   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5862 
  5863 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5864 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5865 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5866 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5867 
  5868 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5869 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5870 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5873 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5876 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5877 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5878 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5879 
  5880 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5881 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5882 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5883 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5884 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5885 
  5886 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5887 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889 
  5890 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5891 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5892 
  5893 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5894 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5895 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5896 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5897 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5898 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5899 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5901 
  5902 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5903     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5904     code_post       replaces    code post
  5905     etc.
  5906   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 * Renamed methods:
  5909     sizechange -> size_change
  5910     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5911   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5912 
  5913 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5914 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5915 
  5916 * Renamed theorems:
  5917     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5918     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5919     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5920     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5921     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5922   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5929 
  5930 
  5931 *** HOLCF ***
  5932 
  5933 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5934 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5935 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5936 
  5937 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5938 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5939 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5940 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5941 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5942 
  5943 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5944 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5945 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5946 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5947 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5948 
  5949 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5950 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5951 constructor are pre-configured.
  5952 
  5953 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5954 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5955 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5956 
  5957 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5958 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5959 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5960 as well.)
  5961 
  5962 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5963 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5964 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5965 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5966 examples.
  5967 
  5968 
  5969 *** ML ***
  5970 
  5971 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5972 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5973 
  5974 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5975 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5976 position, logical grouping etc.
  5977 
  5978 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5979 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5980 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5981 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5982 
  5983 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5984 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5985 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5986 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5987 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5988 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5989 
  5990 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5991 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5992 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5993 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5994 experiments with references.
  5995 
  5996 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5997 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5998 
  5999 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  6000 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  6001 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  6002 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6003 
  6004 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6005 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6006 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6007 
  6008 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6009 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6010 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 
  6012 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6018 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6019 
  6020 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6021 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6022 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6023 
  6024 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6025 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6026 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6027 
  6028 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6029 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6030 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 
  6033 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6034 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6035 instead of global theory.
  6036 
  6037 
  6038 *** System ***
  6039 
  6040 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6041 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6042 usedir option -q.
  6043 
  6044 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6045 also the system manual.
  6046 
  6047 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6048 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6049 
  6050 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6051 this is always enabled.
  6052 
  6053 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6054 
  6055 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6056 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6057 currently supported on Linux only.
  6058 
  6059 
  6060 
  6061 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6062 --------------------------------
  6063 
  6064 *** General ***
  6065 
  6066 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6067 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6068 
  6069   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6070     "isatool."
  6071 
  6072   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6073     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6074 
  6075   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6076     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6077 
  6078 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6079 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6080 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6081 
  6082 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6083 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6084 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6085 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6086 via "isabelle emacs".
  6087 
  6088 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6089 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6090 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6091 
  6092 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6093 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6094 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6095 
  6096 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6097 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6098 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6099 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6100 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6101 
  6102 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6103 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6104 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6105 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6106 
  6107 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6108 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6109 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6110 
  6111 
  6112 *** Pure ***
  6113 
  6114 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6115 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6116 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6117 
  6118 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6119 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6120 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6121 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6122 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6123 
  6124 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6125 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6126 useful in locale declarations.
  6127 
  6128 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6129 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6130 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6131 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6132 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6133 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6134 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6135 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6136 no longer generated.
  6137 
  6138 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6139 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6140 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6141 
  6142 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6143 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6144 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6145 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6146 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6147 
  6148 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6149 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6150 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6151 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6152 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6153 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6154 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6155 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6156 
  6157 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6158 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6159 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6160 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6161 
  6162 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6163 
  6164 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6165 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6166 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6167 
  6168 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6169 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6172 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6173 in HOL, write
  6174 
  6175     class foo = ...
  6176 
  6177 instead of
  6178 
  6179     class foo = type + ...
  6180 
  6181 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6182 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6183 
  6184 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6185 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6186 
  6187 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6188 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6189 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6190 
  6191 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6192 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6193 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6194 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6195 directly in regular applications.
  6196 
  6197 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6198 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6199 
  6200 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6201 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6202 
  6203 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6204 theory context.
  6205 
  6206 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6207 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6210 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6211 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6212 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6213 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6214 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6215 
  6216   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6217 
  6218 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6219 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6220 normalization.
  6221 
  6222 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6223 addressing etc.
  6224 
  6225 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6226 
  6227   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6228   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6229 
  6230 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6231 
  6232   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6233      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6234      parts of the code generator framework).
  6235 
  6236   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6237      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6238      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6239 
  6240 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6241 
  6242 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6243 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6244 
  6245 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6246 patterns, e.g.
  6247 
  6248     find_consts "_ => bool"
  6249 
  6250 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  6251 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  6252 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  6253 hyphen:
  6254 
  6255     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  6256 
  6257 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  6258 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  6259 
  6260 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  6261 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  6262 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  6263 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  6264 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  6265 higher-order unification.
  6266 
  6267 
  6268 *** Document preparation ***
  6269 
  6270 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  6271 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  6272 syntax just like the Isar com