NEWS
author nipkow
Wed Nov 21 09:07:41 2012 +0100 (2012-11-21)
changeset 50138 ca989d793b34
parent 50132 180d086c30dd
child 50139 7eb626617bbe
permissions -rw-r--r--
new theory of immutable arrays
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    46 
    47 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    48 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    49 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    50 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    51 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    52 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    53 
    54 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    55 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    56 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    57 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    58 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    59 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    60 
    61 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    62 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    63 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    64 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    65 
    66 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    67 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    68 
    69 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    70 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    71 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    72 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    73 potentially infinite message streams.
    74 
    75 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    76 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    77 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    78 schemes.
    79 
    80 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    81 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    82 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    83 
    84 
    85 *** Pure ***
    86 
    87 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    88 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    89 
    90 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    91 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    92 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    93 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    96 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    97 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    98 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    99 with some care where this is really required.
   100 
   101 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   102 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   103 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   104 
   105   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   106 
   107 
   108 *** HOL ***
   109 
   110 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   111 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   114 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   117 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   118 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   119 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   120 accordingly.
   121 
   122 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   123 
   124   - Renamed constants
   125       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   126 
   127   - Renamed facts
   128       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   129 
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   135 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   136 
   137 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   138 to lattice type classes.
   139 
   140 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   141 
   142 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   144 
   145   - Renamed constants:
   146 
   147       prefix ~> prefixeq
   148       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   149 
   150     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   153     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   154     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   155     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   158     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   159 
   160   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   161     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   162     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   163     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   166     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   167 
   168       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   169       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   170       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   171       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   172       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   173       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   174       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   175       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   176       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   177       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   178       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   179       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   180       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   181       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   182       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   183       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   184 
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   188 
   189 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   190 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   191 
   192 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   195 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   196 non-free datatypes.
   197 
   198 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   199 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   200 
   201 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   202 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   203 
   204 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   205 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   206 
   207 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   208 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   209 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   210 
   211 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   212 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   213 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   216 
   217 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   218 expressions.
   219 
   220 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   221 pointfree expressions.
   222 
   223 * Quickcheck:
   224 
   225   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   226     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   227     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   228 
   229 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   230 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   231 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   232 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   233 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Sledgehammer:
   236 
   237   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   238     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   239   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   240   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   241   - Renamed options:
   242       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   243       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   244       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   245       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   246 
   247 
   248 *** Document preparation ***
   249 
   250 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   251 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   252 
   253 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   254 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   255 document/root.tex.
   256 
   257 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   258 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 
   261 *** ML ***
   262 
   263 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   264 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   265 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   266 
   267 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   268 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   269 necessarily printing visible text.
   270 
   271 
   272 *** System ***
   273 
   274 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   275 instead of 4.
   276 
   277 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   278 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   279 for home-made configurations.
   280 
   281 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   282 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   283 
   284 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   285 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   286 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   287 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   288 
   289 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   290 
   291 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   292 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   293 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   294 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   295 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   296 
   297 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   298 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   299 
   300   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   301 
   302 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   303 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   304 
   305 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   306 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   307 "isabelle usedir".
   308 
   309 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   310 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   311 version of Isabelle.
   312 
   313 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   317 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   318 configuration.
   319 
   320 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   321 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   323 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   324 bundled as Isabelle component.
   325 
   326 
   327 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   328 ------------------------------
   329 
   330 *** General ***
   331 
   332 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   333 
   334   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   335     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   336   - markup for bound variables
   337   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   338   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   339   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   340     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   341 
   342 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   343 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   344 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   345 
   346 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   347 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   348 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   349 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   350 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   351 
   352   context
   353     fixes x y z :: 'a
   354     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   355   begin
   356 
   357   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   358 
   359   end
   360 
   361   thm my_trans
   362 
   363 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   364 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   365 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   366 
   367 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   368 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   369 
   370 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   371 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   372 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   373 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   374 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   375 
   376 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   377 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   378 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   379 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   380 indices of schematic variables.
   381 
   382 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   383 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   384 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   385 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   386 etc. was exploited.
   387 
   388 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   389 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   390 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   391 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   392 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   393 of the material of that old tutorial.
   394 
   395 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   396 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   397 manual.
   398 
   399 
   400 *** Pure ***
   401 
   402 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   403 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   404 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   405 
   406 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   407 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   408 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   409 undocumented feature.)
   410 
   411 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   412 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   413 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   414 
   415   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   416 
   417   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   418     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   419 
   420 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   421 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   422 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   423 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   424 
   425 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   426 
   427     num ~> num_token
   428     xnum ~> xnum_token
   429     xstr ~> str_token
   430 
   431 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   432 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   433 position information via constraints).
   434 
   435 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   436 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   437 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   440 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   441 
   442 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   443 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   444 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   447 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   450 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   451 
   452   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   453 
   454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   457 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   458 
   459 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   460 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   461 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   462 
   463 
   464 *** HOL ***
   465 
   466 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   467 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   468 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   469 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   470 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   471 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   472 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   473 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   474 possible.
   475 
   476 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   477 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   478 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   479 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   480 
   481 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   482 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   485 
   486 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   487 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   488 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   489 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   490 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   491 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   492 
   493   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   494     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   495 
   496   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   497     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   498     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   499 
   500   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   501     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   502 
   503   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   504     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   505     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   506 
   507   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   508     Redefine using other integer operations.
   509 
   510 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   511 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   512 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   513 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   514 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   515 
   516   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   517     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   518     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   519     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   520     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   521 
   522     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   523     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   524 
   525   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   526     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   527     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   528     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   529     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   530     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   531     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   532     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   533 
   534   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   535     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   536     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   537     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   538 
   539   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   540     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   541     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   542     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   543 
   544   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   545     from type nat to type int.
   546 
   547 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   548 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   549 
   550   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   551     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   552     type.  Example syntax:
   553 
   554     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   555       is List.insert
   556 
   557     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   558     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   559     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   560     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   561     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   562     by the package.
   563 
   564   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   565     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   566     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   567     code generation for each constant.
   568 
   569   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   570     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   571     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   572     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   573     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   574 
   575   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   576     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   577     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   578 
   579 * Quotient package:
   580 
   581   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   582     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   583 
   584   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   585     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   586 
   587   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   588     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   589     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   592     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   595 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   596 
   597 * Quickcheck:
   598 
   599   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   600     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   601     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   602     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   603     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   604 
   605     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   606     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   607     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   608 
   609     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   610     continues searching for genuine ones.
   611 
   612     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   613     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   614     show genuine counterexamples.
   615 
   616   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   617     value generators for a given type and operations.
   618 
   619     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   620     constructors of that type.
   621 
   622   - Support for multisets.
   623 
   624   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   625 
   626   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   627     conjectures in a locale context.
   628 
   629 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   630 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   631 
   632 * Sledgehammer:
   633   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   634     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   635   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   636   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   637     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   638   - Sped up the minimizer.
   639   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   640   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   641   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   642 
   643 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   644 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   645 
   646 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   647 
   648 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   651 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   652 
   653   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   654 
   655 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   656 a list and a nat.
   657 
   658 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   659 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   660 
   661 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   662 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   663 default.
   664 
   665 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   666 
   667   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   668 
   669 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   670 
   671 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   672 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   674 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   675 one_case.
   676 
   677 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   678 the result of the fact expression.
   679 
   680 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   681 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   682 of some relation theorems:
   683 
   684   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   685   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   686   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   687   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   688   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   689   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   690 
   691 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   692 
   693 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   694 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   695 
   696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   699 to match the constant's name:
   700 
   701   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   702   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   703   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   704   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   705   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   706   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   707   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   708   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   709   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   710   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   711   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   712   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   713   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   714   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   715   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   716   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   717   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   718   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   719   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   720   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   721   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   722   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   723   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   724   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   725 
   726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   729 and corresponding theorem names:
   730 
   731   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   732 
   733   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   734 
   735   - Renamed theorems:
   736 
   737     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   738     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   739     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   740     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   741     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   742     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   743     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   744     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   745     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   746     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   747     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   748     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   749     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   750     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   751     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   752     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   753     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   754     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   755     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   756     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   757     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   758     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   759     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   760 
   761     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   762 
   763     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   764 
   765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   769 
   770   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   771   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   772   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   773   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   774   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   775   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   776   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   777   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   778   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   779   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   780   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   781   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   782   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   783   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   784   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   785   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   786   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   787   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   788   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   789   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   790   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   791 
   792 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   793 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   794 
   795 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   798 
   799   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   800   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   801   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   802   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   803   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   804   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   805   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   806   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   807   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   808   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   809   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   810   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   811   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   812   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   813   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   814   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   815   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   816   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   817 
   818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   821 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   822 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   823 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   824 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   825 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   826 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   827 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   828 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   829 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   830 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   831 
   832 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   833 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   834 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   835 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   836 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   837 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   838 
   839 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   840 through option types.
   841 
   842 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   843 relations.
   844 
   845 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   849 
   850   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   851   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   852   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   853   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   854   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   855   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   856   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   857   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   858   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   859   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   860   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   861   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   862   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   863   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   864   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   865   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   866   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   867   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   868   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   869   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   870   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   871   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   872   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   873   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   874   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   875   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   876   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   877   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   878   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   879   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   880   zless_le ~> less_le
   881   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   882   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   883   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   884 
   885 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   886 
   887   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   888 
   889 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   890 
   891 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   892 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   893 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   894 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   898 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   899 
   900 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   901 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   902 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   903 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   904 follows:
   905 
   906   Operations:
   907   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   908   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   909   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   910   del -> rbt_del
   911   delete -> rbt_delete
   912   ins -> rbt_ins
   913   insert -> rbt_insert
   914   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   915   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   916   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   917   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   918   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   919   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   920   tree_less -> rbt_less
   921   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   922   union -> rbt_union
   923   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   924   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   925 
   926   Lemmas:
   927   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   928   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   929   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   930   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   931   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   932   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   933   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   934   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   935   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   936   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   937   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   938   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   939   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   940   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   941   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   942   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   943   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   944   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   945   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   946   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   947   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   948   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   949   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   950   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   951   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   952   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   953   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   954   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   955   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   956   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   957   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   958   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   959   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   960   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   961   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   962   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   963   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   964   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   965   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   966   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   967   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   968   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   969   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   970   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   971   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   972   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   973   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   974   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   975   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   976   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   977   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   978   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   979   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   980   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   981   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   982   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   983   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   984   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   985   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   986   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   987   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   988   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   989   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   990   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   991   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   992   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   993   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   994   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   995   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   996   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   997   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   998   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   999   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1000   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1001   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1002   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1003   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1004   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1005   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1006   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1007   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1008   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1009   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1010 
  1011 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1012 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1013 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015   Changed Operations:
  1016   float_abs -> abs
  1017   float_nprt -> nprt
  1018   float_pprt -> pprt
  1019   pow2 -> use powr
  1020   round_down -> float_round_down
  1021   round_up -> float_round_up
  1022   scale -> exponent
  1023 
  1024   Removed Operations:
  1025   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1026 
  1027   Renamed Lemmas:
  1028   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1029   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1030   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1031   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1032   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1033   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1034   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1035   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1036   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1037   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1038   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1039   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1040   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1041   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1042   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1043   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1044   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1045   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1046   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1047   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1048   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1049   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1050   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1051   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1052   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1053   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1054   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1055   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1056   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1057   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1058   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1059   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1060   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1061   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1062   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1063   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1064 
  1065   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1066   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1067   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1068   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1069   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1070   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1071   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1072   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1073   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1074   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1075 
  1076 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1077 association lists with distinct keys.
  1078 
  1079 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1080 annotated commands.
  1081 
  1082 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1083 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1084 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1085 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1088 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1089 instead.
  1090 
  1091   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1092   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1093   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1094   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1095   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1096   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1097   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1098   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1099   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1100   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1101   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1102   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1103   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1104   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1105   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1106   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1107   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1108   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1109   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1110   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1111   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1112   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1113   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1114   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1115   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1116   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1117   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1118   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1119   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1120   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1121   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1122   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1123   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1124   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1125   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1126   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1127   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1128   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1129   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1130   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1131   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1132 
  1133 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1134 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1135 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1136 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1137 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1138 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1139 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1140 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1141 
  1142 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1143 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1144 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1145 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1146 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1147 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1148 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1149 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1150 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1151 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1152 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1153 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1154 
  1155   Renamed constants:
  1156   measure -> emeasure
  1157   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1158   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1159   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1160   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1161 
  1162   Removed locales:
  1163   completeable_measure_space
  1164   finite_measure_space
  1165   finite_prob_space
  1166   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1167   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1168   finite_sigma_algebra
  1169   measure_space
  1170   pair_finite_prob_space
  1171   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1172   pair_finite_space
  1173   pair_sigma_algebra
  1174   product_sigma_algebra
  1175 
  1176   Removed constants:
  1177   conditional_space
  1178   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1179   image_space
  1180   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1181   pair_measure_generator
  1182   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1183   subvimage
  1184 
  1185   Replacement theorems:
  1186   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1187   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1188   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1189   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1190   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1191   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1192   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1193   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1194   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1195   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1196   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1197   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1198   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1199   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1200   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1201   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1202   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1203   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1204   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1205   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1206   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1207   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1208   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1209   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1210   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1211   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1212   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1213   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1214   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1215   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1216   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1217   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1218   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1219   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1220   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1221   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1222   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1223   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1224   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1225   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1226   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1227   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1228   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1229   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1230   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1231   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1232   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1233   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1234   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1235   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1236   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1237   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1238   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1239   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1240   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1241   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1242   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1243   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1244   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1245   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1246   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1247   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1248   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1249   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1250   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1251   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1252   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1253   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1254   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1255   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1256   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1257   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1258   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1259   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1260   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1261   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1262   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1263   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1264   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1265   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1266   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1267   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1268   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1269   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1270   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1271   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1272   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1273   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1274   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1275   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1276   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1277   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1278   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1279   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1280   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1281   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1282   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1283   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1284   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1285   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1286   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1287   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1288   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1289   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1290   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1291   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1292   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1293   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1294   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1295   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1296   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1297   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1298   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1299   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1300   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1301   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1302   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1303   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1304   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1305   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1306   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1307   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1308   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1309   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1310   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1311   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1312   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1313   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1314 
  1315 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1316 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1317 
  1318 
  1319 *** FOL ***
  1320 
  1321 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1322 
  1323 
  1324 *** ZF ***
  1325 
  1326 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1327 analysis.
  1328 
  1329 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1330 
  1331 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 
  1334 *** ML ***
  1335 
  1336 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1337 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1338 
  1339 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1340 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1341 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1342 
  1343 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1344 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1345 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1346 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1347 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1348 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1349 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1350 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1351 
  1352 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1353 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1354 
  1355 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1356 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1357 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1358 
  1359 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1360 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1361 
  1362 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1363 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1364 context as well.
  1365 
  1366 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1367 
  1368   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1369   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1370   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1371   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1372   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1373   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1374   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1375   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1376   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1377   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1378   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1379   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1380 
  1381 
  1382 *** System ***
  1383 
  1384 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1385 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1386 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1387 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1388 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1389 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1390 the generic user home was intended.
  1391 
  1392 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1393 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1394 
  1395 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1396 (not just JRE).
  1397 
  1398 
  1399 
  1400 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1401 ------------------------------------
  1402 
  1403 *** General ***
  1404 
  1405 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1406 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1407 
  1408   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1409     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1410     files for checking).
  1411 
  1412   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1413     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1414     positions.
  1415 
  1416   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1417     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1418     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1419 
  1420   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1421     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1422     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1423 
  1424   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1425     cores.
  1426 
  1427   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1428     versions (garbage collection).
  1429 
  1430 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1431 including some remaining limitations.
  1432 
  1433 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1434 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1435 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1436 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1437 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1441 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1442 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1443 
  1444 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1445 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1446 usedir option -Q.
  1447 
  1448 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1449 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1450 
  1451   long_names   ~> names_long
  1452   short_names  ~> names_short
  1453   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1454 
  1455 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1456 
  1457   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1458 
  1459 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1460 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1461 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1462 
  1463 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1464 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1465 
  1466 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1467   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1468   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1469   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1470     "Classical Reasoner".
  1471 
  1472 
  1473 *** HOL ***
  1474 
  1475 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1476 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1479 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1480 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1481 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1482 class complete_linorder.
  1483 
  1484 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1485 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1486 
  1487 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1488 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1489 
  1490   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1491   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1492   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1493   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1494   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1495   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1496   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1497   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1498   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1499   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1500   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1501 
  1502 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1503 
  1504   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1505   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1506   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1507   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1508   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1509   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1510   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1511   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1512   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1513   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1514   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1515   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1516   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1517   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1518   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1519   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1520 
  1521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1527 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1528 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1529 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1532 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1533 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1537 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1538 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1539 
  1540 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1541 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1542 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1545 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1546 
  1547 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1548 
  1549     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1550     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1551 
  1552 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1553 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1556 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1559 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1560 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1561 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1564   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1565   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1566   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1567   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1568   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1569   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1570 
  1571 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1572 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1575   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1576   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1577   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1578   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1579   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1580   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1581   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1582   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1583   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1584   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1585   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1586   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1587   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1588   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1589   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1590   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1591   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1592   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1593   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1594   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1595   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1596   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1597   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1598   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1599   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1600   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1601   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1602   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1603   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1604   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1605   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1606   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1607   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1608   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1609   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1610   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1611   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1612   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1613   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1614   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1615   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1616   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1617   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1618   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1619   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1620   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1621   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1622   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1623   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1624   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1625   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1626   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1627   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1628   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1629   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1630   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1631   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1632   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1633   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1634   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1635   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1636   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1637   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1638   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1639   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1640   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1641   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1642   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1643   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1644   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1645   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1646   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1647   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1648   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1649   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1650   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1651   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1652   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1653   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1654   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1655   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1656 
  1657 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1658 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1659 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1660 
  1661 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1662 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1663 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1664 
  1665 * Code generation:
  1666 
  1667   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1668     characters in the target language.
  1669 
  1670   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1671     instead.
  1672 
  1673   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1674 
  1675   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1676     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1677 
  1678       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1679 
  1680 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1683 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1684 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1685 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1686 syntax.
  1687 
  1688 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1689 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1690 
  1691 * Nitpick:
  1692   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1693   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1694   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1695     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1696 
  1697 * Sledgehammer:
  1698   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1699   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1700     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1701   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1702     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1703   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1704     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1706     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1707   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1708     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1709 
  1710 * Metis:
  1711   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1713     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Command 'try':
  1716   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1717     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1719     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1720 
  1721 * Quickcheck:
  1722   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1723     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1724   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1725     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1726   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1727     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1728     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1729     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1730   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1731     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1732 
  1733 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1734 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1735 
  1736 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1737 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1738 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1739 
  1740 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1741 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1745 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1748 arithmetic.
  1749 
  1750 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1751 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1752 and lattice type classes.
  1753 
  1754 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1755 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1756 
  1757 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1758 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1759 
  1760 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1761 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1762 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1765   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1766   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1767   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1768 
  1769 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1770 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1771 constants:
  1772 
  1773   type inat   ~> type enat
  1774   Fin         ~> enat
  1775   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1776   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1777   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1778 
  1779 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1780 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1783 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1784 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1785 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1786 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1787 
  1788 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1789 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1790 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1791 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1792 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1793 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1794 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1795 
  1796   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1797   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1798   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1799   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1800 
  1801 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1802 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1803 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1806   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1807   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1808   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1809   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1810   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1811   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1812   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1813   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1814   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1815   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1816   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1817   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1818   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1819   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1820   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1821   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1822   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1823   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1824   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1825   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1826   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1827   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1828   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1829   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1830   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1831   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1832   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1833   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1834   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1835   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1836   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1837   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1838   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1839   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1840   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1841   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1842   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1843   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1844   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1845   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1846   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1847   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1848   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1849   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1850   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1851   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1852   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1853   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1854   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1855   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1856 
  1857 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1858   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1859   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1860   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1861   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1862     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1867   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1868   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1869   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1870   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1871   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1872   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1873   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1874   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1875   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1876   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1877   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1878   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1879   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1880   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1881   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1882   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1883   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1884   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1885   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1886   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1887   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1888   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1889   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1890   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1891 
  1892 
  1893 *** Document preparation ***
  1894 
  1895 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1896 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1897 same.
  1898 
  1899 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1900 result.
  1901 
  1902 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1903 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1904 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1905 
  1906 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1907 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1908 
  1909 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1910 like this:
  1911 
  1912   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1913   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1914 
  1915 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1916 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1917 layouts.
  1918 
  1919 
  1920 *** ML ***
  1921 
  1922 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1923 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1924 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1925 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1926 under external program control.
  1927 
  1928 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1929 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1930 
  1931 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1932 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1933 (better known as Proof General).
  1934 
  1935 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1936 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1937 
  1938 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1939 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1940 
  1941 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1942 (including quotes etc.).
  1943 
  1944 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1945 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1946 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1947 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1948 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1949 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1950 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1951 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1952 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1953 
  1954 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1955 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1956 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1957 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1958 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1959 
  1960 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1961 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1962 
  1963 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1964 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1965 
  1966 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1967 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1968 
  1969 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1970 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1971 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1972 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1973 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1974 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1975 proper Proof.context.
  1976 
  1977 
  1978 *** System ***
  1979 
  1980 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1981 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1982 
  1983 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1984 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1985 
  1986 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1987 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1988 
  1989   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1990   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1991   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1992   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1993   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1994 
  1995 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1996 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1999 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2000 example:
  2001 
  2002   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2003 
  2004 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2005 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2006 
  2007 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2008 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2009 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2010 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2011 
  2012 
  2013 
  2014 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2015 ----------------------------------
  2016 
  2017 *** General ***
  2018 
  2019 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2020 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2021 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2022 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2023 like this:
  2024 
  2025   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2026 
  2027 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2028 
  2029 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2030 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2031 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2032 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2033 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2034 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2035 
  2036 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2037 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2038 the following package declarations:
  2039 
  2040   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2041   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2042 
  2043 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2044 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2045 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2046 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2047 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2048 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2049 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2050 
  2051 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2052 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2053 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2054 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2055 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2056 
  2057 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2058 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2059 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2060 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2061 
  2062 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2063 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2064 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2065 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2066 
  2067   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2068 
  2069   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2070   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2071   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2072   show_types                    show_types
  2073   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2074   show_consts                   show_consts
  2075   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2076 
  2077   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2078   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2079   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2080 
  2081   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2082   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2083 
  2084   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2085 
  2086   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2087   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2088   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2089   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2090   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2091 
  2092 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2093 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2094 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2095 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2096 
  2097 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2101   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2102 
  2103 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2104 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2105 float_token.
  2106 
  2107 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2108 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2110 
  2111 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2112 DejaVu Sans.
  2113 
  2114 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2115 
  2116 
  2117 *** Pure ***
  2118 
  2119 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2120 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2121 time.
  2122 
  2123 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2124 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2127 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2130 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2131 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2132 command already provided this functionality.
  2133 
  2134 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2135 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2136 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2137 without interpretations.
  2138 
  2139 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2140 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2141 
  2142 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2143 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2144 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2145 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2146 
  2147 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2148 'definition' instead.
  2149 
  2150 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2151 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2152 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2153 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2154 
  2155 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2156 constructors.
  2157 
  2158 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2159 the local file system.
  2160 
  2161 
  2162 *** HOL ***
  2163 
  2164 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2165 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2166 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2167 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2168 
  2169   declare [[coercion f]]
  2170 
  2171 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2172 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2173 
  2174   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2175 
  2176 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2177 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2178 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2179 other theories like this:
  2180 
  2181   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2182 
  2183 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2184 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2185 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2186 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2187 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2188 for examples.
  2189 
  2190 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2191 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2194 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2195 
  2196 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2197 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2198 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2199 
  2200 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2201 functorial structure of types.
  2202 
  2203 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2204 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2205 
  2206 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2207 languages.
  2208 
  2209 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2210 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2214 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2217 combinators any longer.
  2218 
  2219 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2220 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2221 
  2222 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2223 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2224 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2225 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2226 
  2227   record 'a foo = ...
  2228   ...
  2229   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2230 
  2231 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2232 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2234 
  2235 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2236 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2237 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2238 
  2239 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2240 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2241 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2242 
  2243 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2244 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2247 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2248 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2249 independently.
  2250 
  2251 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2252 counter example search.
  2253 
  2254 * Sledgehammer:
  2255   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2256     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2257     sledgehammer").
  2258   - Renamed commands:
  2259     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2260     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2261     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2262     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263   - Renamed options:
  2264     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2265     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2266     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2267     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2268     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * Nitpick:
  2271   - Renamed options:
  2272     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2273     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2274     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2276   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2277   - Added "whack" option.
  2278   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2279   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2280   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2281   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2282     higher cardinalities.
  2283   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2284 
  2285 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2286 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2287 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2288 
  2289     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2290 
  2291 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2292 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2293 
  2294 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2295 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2296 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2297 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2298 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2299 "smt_solver".
  2300 
  2301 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2302 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2303 
  2304 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2305 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2306 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2307 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2310   - Renamed:
  2311     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2312     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314   - Added:
  2315     smt_verbose
  2316     smt_random_seed
  2317     smt_datatypes
  2318     smt_infer_triggers
  2319     smt_monomorph_limit
  2320     cvc3_options
  2321     remote_cvc3_options
  2322     remote_z3_options
  2323     yices_options
  2324 
  2325 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2326 header.
  2327 
  2328 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2329 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2330 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2331 
  2332   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2333 
  2334 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2337 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2342 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2345 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2346 
  2347 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2348 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2351 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2352 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2360 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2363 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2364 for congruent(2)).
  2365 
  2366 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2367 
  2368   types
  2369     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2370     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2371 
  2372   constants
  2373     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2374     True ~> HOL.True
  2375     False ~> HOL.False
  2376     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2377     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2378     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2379     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2380     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2381     The ~> HOL.The
  2382     All ~> HOL.All
  2383     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2384     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2385     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2386     If ~> HOL.If
  2387     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2388     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2389     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2390     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2391     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2392     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2393     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2394     op : ~> Set.member
  2395     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2396 
  2397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2400 
  2401     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2402     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2403     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2404     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2405     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2406     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2407     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2408     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2409 
  2410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * More stylized fact names:
  2413 
  2414   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2415   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2416   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2417   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2418 
  2419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420 
  2421 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2422 
  2423   constants
  2424     null ~> List.null
  2425 
  2426   facts
  2427     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2428     null_empty ~> null_def
  2429 
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2431 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2432 generation.
  2433 
  2434 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2435 Haskell code.
  2436 
  2437 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2438 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2439 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2442 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2445 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2446 
  2447 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2448 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2449 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2452 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2458 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2459 referred to by its qualified name.
  2460 
  2461   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2462   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2463   product ~>  Enum.product
  2464 
  2465 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2466 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2470 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2471 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2475 sort_key.
  2476 
  2477 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2481 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2482 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2483 
  2484   types
  2485     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2486               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2487               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2488         (depends on your needs)
  2489 
  2490   constants
  2491      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2492      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2493      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2494 
  2495 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2496 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2497 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2498 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2501 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2502 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2503 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2504 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2510 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2511 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2512 
  2513 
  2514 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2515 
  2516 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2517 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2518 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2519 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2520 compatibility.
  2521 
  2522 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2523 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2524 
  2525 
  2526 *** HOLCF ***
  2527 
  2528 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2529 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2530 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2532 
  2533 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2534 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2535 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2536 
  2537   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2538   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2539   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2540 
  2541 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2542 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2543 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2544 
  2545 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2546 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2547 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2548 domain definition now works:
  2549 
  2550   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2551 
  2552 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2553 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2554 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2555 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2556 
  2557   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2558     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2559 
  2560   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2561 
  2562 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2563 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2564 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2567 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2570 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2571 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2572 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2573 
  2574 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2575 
  2576 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2584 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2585 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2586 
  2587 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2588 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2589 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2592 still supported as an input translation.
  2593 
  2594 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2595 
  2596   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2597   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2598   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2599   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2600   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2601   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2602   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2603 
  2604 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2605 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2608   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2609   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2610   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2611   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2612   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2613 
  2614 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2615 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2618 
  2619   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2620   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2621   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2622   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2623 
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2627 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2630 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2633   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2634   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2635   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2636   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2637   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2638   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2639   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2640   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2641   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2642   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2643   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2644   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2645   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2646   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2647   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2648   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2649   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2650   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2651   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2652 
  2653 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2656   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2657   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2658   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2659   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2660   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2661   box_less             ~> box_below
  2662   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2663   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2664   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2665   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2666   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2667   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2668   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2669   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2670   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2671   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2672   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2673   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2674   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2675   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2676   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2677   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2678   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2679   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2680   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2681   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2682   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2683   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2684   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2685   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2686   up_less              ~> up_below
  2687   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2688   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2689   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2690   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2691   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2692   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2693   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2694   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2695   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2696   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2697   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2698   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2699   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2700 
  2701 
  2702 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2703 
  2704 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2705 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 
  2708 *** ML ***
  2709 
  2710 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2711 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2712 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2713 
  2714 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2715 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2716 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2717 
  2718 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2719 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2720 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2721 
  2722 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2723 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2724 
  2725 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2726 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2727 
  2728 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2729 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2730 
  2731 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2732 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2733 
  2734 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2735 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2736 almost all situations.
  2737 
  2738 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2739 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2740 Isabelle/ML.
  2741 
  2742 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2743 meaning.
  2744 
  2745 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2746 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2747 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2748 
  2749 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2750 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2751 
  2752 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2753 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2754 
  2755 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2757 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2758 
  2759 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2760 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2761 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2762 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2763 configuration options.
  2764 
  2765 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2766 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2767 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2768 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2769 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2770 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2771 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2772 
  2773 
  2774 
  2775 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2776 ---------------------------------
  2777 
  2778 *** General ***
  2779 
  2780 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2781 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2782 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2783 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2784 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2785 their full internal name.
  2786 
  2787 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2788 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2789 Some hints on upgrading:
  2790 
  2791   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2792     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2793     which are independent of this issue.
  2794 
  2795   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2796     provides the following special forms:
  2797 
  2798       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2799       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2800       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2801 
  2802     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2803     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2804     extra variables".
  2805 
  2806     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2807     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2808     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2809     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2810     "logic".
  2811 
  2812   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2813     antiquotations:
  2814 
  2815       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2816       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2817       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2818       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2819 
  2820   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2821     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2822     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2823     antiquotations.
  2824 
  2825 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2826 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2827 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2828 diagnose syntax problems.
  2829 
  2830 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2831 
  2832 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2833 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2834 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2835 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2836 
  2837 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2838 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2839 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2840 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841 
  2842 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2843 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2844 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2845 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2846 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2849 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2850 
  2851 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2852 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2853 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2854 
  2855   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2856 
  2857 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2858 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2859 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2860 
  2861 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2862 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2866 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2867 
  2868 
  2869 *** Pure ***
  2870 
  2871 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2872 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2873 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2874 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2875 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2876 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2877 inspect proof terms.
  2878 
  2879 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2880 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2881 are added internally.  For example:
  2882 
  2883   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2884 
  2885 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2886 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2887 
  2888 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889 
  2890 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2891 'class' instead.
  2892 
  2893 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2894 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2898 invariants.
  2899 
  2900 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2901 user space functionality any longer.
  2902 
  2903 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2904 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2908 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2909 
  2910 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2911 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2912 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2913 
  2914 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2915 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2916 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2917 
  2918 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2919 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 
  2922 *** HOL ***
  2923 
  2924 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2925 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2926 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2927 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2928 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2929 
  2930 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2931 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2932 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2933 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2934 
  2935   fun
  2936     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2937   where
  2938     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2939 
  2940   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2941     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2942 
  2943   quotient_definition
  2944     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2945 
  2946 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2947 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2948 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2949 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2950 
  2951 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2952 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2953 
  2954 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2955 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2956 
  2957 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2961 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2962 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2963 
  2964 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2965 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2974 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2977 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2978 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2981   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2982   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2983   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2984   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2985   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2986   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2987   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2988   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2989   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2990   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2991   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2992   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2993   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2994   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2995   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2996   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2997   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2998   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2999   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3000   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3001   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3002   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3003   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3004   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3005   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3006   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3007   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3008   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3009   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3010 
  3011 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3012 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3013 
  3014 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3015 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3016 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3017 
  3018 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3019 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3020 
  3021 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3022 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3025 
  3026 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3027 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3030 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3035 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3036 
  3037 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3038 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3039 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3040 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3041 
  3042 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3043   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3044   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3045   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047 
  3048 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3049 lattices):
  3050 
  3051     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3052     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3053 
  3054     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3055 
  3056     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3057     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3058     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3059     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3060     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3061     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3062     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3063     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3064     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3065     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3066     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3067     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3068     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3069 
  3070     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3071     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3072     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3073     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3074     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3075     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3076     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3077     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3078     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3079     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3080     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3081     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3082     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3083     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3084     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3085     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3086     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3087     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3088 
  3089   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3090   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3091 
  3092     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3093     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3094     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3095     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3096     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3097 
  3098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Refined field classes:
  3101   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3102     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3103     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3104   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3108   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3109   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3110   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3111     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3112   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3113     equal_neg_zero.
  3114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3117 sets to lattices:
  3118 
  3119   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3120   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3121   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3122   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3123   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3124   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3125   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3126   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3127   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3128   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3129 
  3130 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3131 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3132 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3133 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3134 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3135 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3138 multiset order:
  3139 
  3140   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3141     <= and <;
  3142   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3143     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3144     multiset_order;
  3145   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3146     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3147     generation;
  3148   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3149     if needed.
  3150 
  3151 Renamed:
  3152 
  3153   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3154   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3155   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3156 
  3157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3158 
  3159 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3160 
  3161 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3162 
  3163 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3164 
  3165 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3166 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3167 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169   Constants:
  3170   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3171   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3172   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3173   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3174   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3175   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3176   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3177   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3178   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3179   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3180   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3181   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3182   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3183 
  3184   Lemmas:
  3185   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3186   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3187   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3188   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3189   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3190   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3191   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3192   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3193   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3194   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3195   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3196   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3197   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3198 
  3199 * Sledgehammer:
  3200   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3201     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3202     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3203     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3204     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3205     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3206     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3208   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3209     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3210   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3211     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3212     is still experimental.)
  3213   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3214     full-typed mode.
  3215   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3216 
  3217 * Nitpick:
  3218   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3219   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3220   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3221     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3222   - Added support for quotient types.
  3223   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3224     constructs.
  3225   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3226     "termination" proofs).
  3227   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3228   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3229   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3230   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3231     record getters.
  3232   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3233   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3234   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3235   - Added "atoms" option.
  3236   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3237     problems.
  3238   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3239     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3240     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3242     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3246   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3247   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3248   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3249   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3250   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3251   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3252   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3253   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3254   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 
  3257 *** HOLCF ***
  3258 
  3259 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3260 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3261 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3264 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3265 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3266 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3269 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3270 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3271 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3272 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3275 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3276 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3279 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3282   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3283 
  3284 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3285 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3288   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3289   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3290   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3291   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3292 
  3293 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3294 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3297   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3298   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3299 
  3300 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3301 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3305 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3310 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 
  3313 *** ML ***
  3314 
  3315 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3316 
  3317     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3318     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3319 
  3320     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3321     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3322     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3323     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3324 
  3325     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3326     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3327     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3328 
  3329 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3330 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3331 
  3332 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3333 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3334 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3335 
  3336 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3337 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3338 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3339 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3340 
  3341 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3342 the context or even global references.
  3343 
  3344 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3345 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3346 
  3347 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3348 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3349 
  3350   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3351   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3352   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3353   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3354   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3355   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3356   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3357   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3358   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3359   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3360 
  3361 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3362 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3363 
  3364 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3365 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3366 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3367 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3368 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3369 
  3370 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3371 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3372 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3373 Theory_Data version.
  3374 
  3375 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3376 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3377 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3378 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3379 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3380 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3381 explicitly in rare situations.
  3382 
  3383 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3384 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3388 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3391 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3392 quite rare).
  3393 
  3394 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3395 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3398 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3399 terms.
  3400 
  3401 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3402 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3403 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3404 
  3405 
  3406 *** System ***
  3407 
  3408 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3409 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3410 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3411 
  3412 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3413 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3414 respectively.
  3415 
  3416 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3417 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3418 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3419 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3420 
  3421   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3422 
  3423 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3424 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3425 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3426 component.
  3427 
  3428 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3429 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3430 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3431 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3432 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3433 the user for manual installation.
  3434 
  3435 
  3436 
  3437 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3438 -------------------------------------
  3439 
  3440 *** General ***
  3441 
  3442 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3443 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3444 
  3445 
  3446 *** Pure ***
  3447 
  3448 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3449 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3450 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3451 
  3452 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3453 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3454 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3455 
  3456 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3457 interpretation.
  3458 
  3459 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3460 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 
  3463 *** Document preparation ***
  3464 
  3465 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3466 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3467 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3468 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3469 
  3470 
  3471 *** HOL ***
  3472 
  3473 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3474 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3475 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3476 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3477 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3478 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3479 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3480 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3481 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3482 
  3483 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3484 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3485 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3486 
  3487 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3488 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3489 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3490 
  3491 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3492 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3493 
  3494 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3495 
  3496 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3497 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3498 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3499 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3500 
  3501 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3502 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3503 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3504 "mirabelle" utility.
  3505 
  3506 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3507 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3508 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3509 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3510 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3511 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3512 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3513 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3514 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3515 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3516 
  3517 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3518 procedure only.
  3519 
  3520 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3521 
  3522 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3523 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3524 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3525 that fail later.
  3526 
  3527 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3528 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3529 
  3530 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3531 the same method as the approximation method.
  3532 
  3533 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3534 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3535 series expansion.
  3536 
  3537 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3538 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3539 
  3540 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3541 reals.
  3542 
  3543 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3544 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3545 
  3546 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3547 fixpoint theorem.
  3548 
  3549 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3550   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3551     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3552   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3553     accordingly
  3554   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3555     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3556   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3557     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3558 
  3559 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3560 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3561 lattice.
  3562 
  3563 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3564 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3565 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3566 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3567 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3568 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3572   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3573     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3574   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3575     le_inf_iff
  3576   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3577     sup_aci)
  3578   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3579   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3580   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3581     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3582     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3583     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3584     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3585     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3586     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3587     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3588     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3589     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3590     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3591   - authentic syntax for
  3592     Set.Pow
  3593     Set.image
  3594   - mere abbreviations:
  3595     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3596     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3597     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3598     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3599     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3600     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3601     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3602     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3603   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3604 
  3605 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3606 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3607 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3608 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3609 
  3610 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3611 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3612 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3615 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3616 
  3617 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3618 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3619 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3620 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3623 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3624 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3625 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3626 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3627 
  3628 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3629 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3633 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3636 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3637 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3638 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3639 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3640 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3641 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3645     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3646     code_post       replaces    code post
  3647     etc.
  3648   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Renamed methods:
  3651     sizechange -> size_change
  3652     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3653   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3656 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3657 
  3658 * Renamed theorems:
  3659     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3660     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3661     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3662     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3663     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3664   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 *** HOLCF ***
  3674 
  3675 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3676 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3677 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3678 
  3679 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3680 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3681 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3682 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3683 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3684 
  3685 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3686 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3687 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3688 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3689 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3690 
  3691 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3692 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3693 constructor are pre-configured.
  3694 
  3695 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3696 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3697 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3698 
  3699 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3700 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3701 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3702 as well.)
  3703 
  3704 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3705 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3706 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3707 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3708 examples.
  3709 
  3710 
  3711 *** ML ***
  3712 
  3713 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3714 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3715 
  3716 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3717 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3718 position, logical grouping etc.
  3719 
  3720 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3721 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3722 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3723 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3724 
  3725 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3726 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3727 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3728 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3729 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3730 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3731 
  3732 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3733 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3734 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3735 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3736 experiments with references.
  3737 
  3738 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3739 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3740 
  3741 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3742 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3743 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3744 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3745 
  3746 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3747 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3748 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3749 
  3750 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3751 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3752 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3760 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3761 
  3762 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3763 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3764 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3765 
  3766 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3767 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3768 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3771 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3772 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3776 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3777 instead of global theory.
  3778 
  3779 
  3780 *** System ***
  3781 
  3782 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3783 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3784 usedir option -q.
  3785 
  3786 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3787 also the system manual.
  3788 
  3789 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3790 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3791 
  3792 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3793 this is always enabled.
  3794 
  3795 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3796 
  3797 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3798 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3799 currently supported on Linux only.
  3800 
  3801 
  3802 
  3803 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3804 --------------------------------
  3805 
  3806 *** General ***
  3807 
  3808 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3809 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3810 
  3811   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3812     "isatool."
  3813 
  3814   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3815     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3816 
  3817   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3818     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3819 
  3820 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3821 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3822 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3823 
  3824 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3825 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3826 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3827 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3828 via "isabelle emacs".
  3829 
  3830 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3831 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3832 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3833 
  3834 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3835 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3836 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3837 
  3838 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3839 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3840 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3841 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3842 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3843 
  3844 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3845 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3846 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3847 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3848 
  3849 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3850 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3851 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3852 
  3853 
  3854 *** Pure ***
  3855 
  3856 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3857 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3858 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3859 
  3860 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3861 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3862 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3863 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3864 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3865 
  3866 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3867 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3868 useful in locale declarations.
  3869 
  3870 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3871 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3872 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3873 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3874 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3875 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3876 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3877 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3878 no longer generated.
  3879 
  3880 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3881 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3882 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3883 
  3884 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3885 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3886 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3887 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3888 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3889 
  3890 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3892 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3893 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3894 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3895 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3896 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3897 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3898 
  3899 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3900 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3901 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3902 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3903 
  3904 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3907 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3908 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3909 
  3910 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3911 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3914 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3915 in HOL, write
  3916 
  3917     class foo = ...
  3918 
  3919 instead of
  3920 
  3921     class foo = type + ...
  3922 
  3923 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3924 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3927 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3928 
  3929 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3930 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3931 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3932 
  3933 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3934 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3935 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3936 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3937 directly in regular applications.
  3938 
  3939 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3940 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3941 
  3942 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3943 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3944 
  3945 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3946 theory context.
  3947 
  3948 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3949 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3952 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3953 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3954 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3955 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3956 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3957 
  3958   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3959 
  3960 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3961 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3962 normalization.
  3963 
  3964 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3965 addressing etc.
  3966 
  3967 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3968 
  3969   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3970   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3971 
  3972 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3973 
  3974   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3975      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3976      parts of the code generator framework).
  3977 
  3978   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3979      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3980      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3981 
  3982 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3985 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3988 patterns, e.g.
  3989 
  3990     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3991 
  3992 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3993 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3994 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3995 hyphen:
  3996 
  3997     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3998 
  3999 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4000 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4001 
  4002 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4003 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4004 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4005 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4006 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4007 higher-order unification.
  4008 
  4009 
  4010 *** Document preparation ***
  4011 
  4012 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4013 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4014 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4015 
  4016 
  4017 *** HOL ***
  4018 
  4019 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4020 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4021 
  4022 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4023 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4024 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4025 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4026 Main, as before.
  4027 
  4028 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4029 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4030 
  4031 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4032 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4033 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4034 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4035 
  4036 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4037 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4038 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4039 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4040 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4041 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4042 
  4043 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4044 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4045 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4046 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4047 
  4048 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4049 menu.
  4050 
  4051 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4052 (contains the empty clause).
  4053 
  4054 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4055 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4056 
  4057 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4058 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4059 
  4060 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4061 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4062 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4065 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4066 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4067 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4068 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4069 
  4070 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4071 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4072 
  4073 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4074 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4075 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4076 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4077 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4078 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4079 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4080 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4081 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4082 
  4083 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4084 
  4085 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4086 
  4087 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4088 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4091 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4092 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4093 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4094 
  4095 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4096 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4097 
  4098     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4099     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4100     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4101     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4102     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4103     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4104     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4105     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4106 
  4107 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4108 theory Set.
  4109 
  4110 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4111 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4112 
  4113 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4114 
  4115 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4116 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4117 
  4118 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4119 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4120 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4121 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4122 allowed. For examples see
  4123 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4124 
  4125 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4126 
  4127 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4129 
  4130 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4131 structure:
  4132 
  4133     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4134     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4135     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4136     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4137     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4138     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4139     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4140     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4141     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4142     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4143     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4144     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4145     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4146     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4147     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4148     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4149     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4150     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4151     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4152     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4153     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4154     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4155     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4156     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4157     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4158     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4159     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4160     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4161     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4162     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4163     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4164     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4165     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4166 
  4167     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4168     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4169     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4170     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4171     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4172     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4173     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4174     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4175     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4176     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4177 
  4178     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4179     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4180     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4181     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4182     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4183     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4184 
  4185 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4186 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4187 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4188 
  4189 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4190 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4191 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4192 
  4193 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4194 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4197 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4198 
  4199 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4200 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4201 proofs, e.g.
  4202 
  4203   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4204 
  4205 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4206 
  4207 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4208 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4209 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4212 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4216 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4217 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4221 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4222 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4223 preorder_class.*.
  4224 
  4225 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4226 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4227 
  4228 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4229 
  4230   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4231 
  4232 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4233 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4234 fold_image.
  4235 
  4236 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4237 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4238 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4239 the former will disappear at some point.
  4240 
  4241 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4242 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4243 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4244 
  4245 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4246 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4247 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4248 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4249 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4250 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4251 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4252 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4253 
  4254 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4255 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4256 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4257 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4258 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4259 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4260 
  4261     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4262     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4263     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4264     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4265     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4266     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4267     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4268 
  4269 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4270 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4271 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4272 
  4273 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4274 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4275 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4276 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4277 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4278 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4279 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4280 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4281 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4282 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4283 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4284 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4285 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4286 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4287 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4288 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4289 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4290 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4291 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4292 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4293 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4294 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4295 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4296 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4297 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4298 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4299 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4300 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4301 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4302 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4303 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4304 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4305 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4306 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4307 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4308 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4309 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4310 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4311 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4312 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4313 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4314 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4315 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4316 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4317 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4318 
  4319 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4322 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4323 
  4324 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4325 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4326 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4327 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4328 
  4329 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4330 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4331 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4332 theory RealVector.
  4333 
  4334 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4335 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4336 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4337 and inner products are included.
  4338 
  4339 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4340 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4341 supported.
  4342 
  4343 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4344 first diagonalization argument.
  4345 
  4346 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4347 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4348 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4349 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4350 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4351 
  4352     hide (open) const gcd
  4353     abbreviation gcd where
  4354       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4355     notation (output)
  4356       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4357 
  4358 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4359 
  4360 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4361 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4362 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4363 
  4364 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4365 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4366 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4367 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4368 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4369 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4370 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4371 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4372 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4373 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4374 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4375 cases.
  4376 
  4377 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4378 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4379 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4380 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4381 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4382 
  4383     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4384     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4385     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4386     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4387     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4388 
  4389 
  4390 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4391 
  4392 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4393 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4394 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4395 
  4396 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4397 
  4398 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4399 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4400 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4401 
  4402 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4403 
  4404 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4405 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4406 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4407 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4408 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4409 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4410 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4411 
  4412 
  4413 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4414 
  4415 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4416 
  4417 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4418 theory targets.
  4419 
  4420 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4421 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4422 'inductive' etc.
  4423 
  4424 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4425 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4426 
  4427 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4428 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4429 
  4430 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4431 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4432 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4433 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4434 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4435 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4436 the algorithm W:
  4437 
  4438  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4439  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4440          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4441 
  4442 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4443 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4444 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4445 
  4446 
  4447 *** HOLCF ***
  4448 
  4449 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4450 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4451 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4452 
  4453 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4454 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4455 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4456 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4457 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4458 
  4459 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4460 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4461 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 *** ZF ***
  4465 
  4466 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 *** ML ***
  4470 
  4471 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4472 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4473 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4474 5.2.1!
  4475 
  4476 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4477 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4478 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4479 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4480 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4481 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4482 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4483 
  4484 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4485 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4486 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4487 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4488 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4489 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4490 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4491 
  4492 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4493 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4494 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4495 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4496 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4497 
  4498 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4499 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4500 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4501 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4502 Method.add_method.
  4503 
  4504 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4505 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4506 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4507 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4508 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4509 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4510 
  4511 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4512 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4513 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4514 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4515 examples.
  4516 
  4517 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4518 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4519 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4520 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4521 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4522 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4523 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4524 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4525 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4526 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4527 
  4528 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4529 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4530 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4531 
  4532 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4533 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4534 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4535 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4536 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4537 resort for legacy applications.
  4538 
  4539 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4540 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4541 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4542 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4543 explicit runtime argument.
  4544 
  4545 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4546 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4547 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4548 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4549 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4552 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4553 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4554 theory state.
  4555 
  4556 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4557 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4558 
  4559   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4560   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4561   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4562   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4563   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4564   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4565   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4566   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4567   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4568   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4569 
  4570 
  4571 *** System ***
  4572 
  4573 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4574 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4575 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4576 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4577 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4578 
  4579 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4580 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4581 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4582 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4583 
  4584 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4585 
  4586 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4587 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4588 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4589 prover operations.
  4590 
  4591 
  4592 
  4593 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4594 -------------------------------
  4595 
  4596 *** General ***
  4597 
  4598 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4599 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4600 
  4601 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4602 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4603 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4604 provides a proper context already.
  4605 
  4606 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4607 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4608 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4609 
  4610 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4611 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4612 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4613 swap theory imports.
  4614 
  4615 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4616 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4617 
  4618 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4619 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4620 white space without escapes.
  4621 
  4622 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4623 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4624 "foo_bar".
  4625 
  4626 
  4627 *** Pure ***
  4628 
  4629 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4630 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4631 
  4632 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4633 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4634 
  4635 (1) unused_thms
  4636      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4637 
  4638 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4639      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4640      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4641 
  4642 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4643      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4644      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4645      their ancestors.
  4646 
  4647 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4648 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4649 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4650 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4651 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4652 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4653 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4654 
  4655 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4656 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4657 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4658 
  4659 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4660 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4661 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4662 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4663 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4664 
  4665 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4666 
  4667 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4668 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4669 update of theories within ML code.
  4670 
  4671 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4672 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4673 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4674 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4675 
  4676 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4677 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4678 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4682 
  4683 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4684 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4685 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4686 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4687 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4688 
  4689 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4690 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4691 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4692 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4693 situations.
  4694 
  4695 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4696 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4697 proof text.
  4698 
  4699 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4700 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4701 
  4702 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4703 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4704 predicates.
  4705 
  4706 
  4707 *** Document preparation ***
  4708 
  4709 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4710 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4711 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4712 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4713 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4714 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4715 
  4716 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4717 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4718 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4719 
  4720 
  4721 *** HOL ***
  4722 
  4723 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4724 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4725 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4726 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4727 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4728 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4729 
  4730 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4731 with multithreading.
  4732 
  4733 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4734 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4735 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4736 
  4737 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4738 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4739 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4740 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4743 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4744 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4745 and makes them available separately.  See
  4746 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4747 
  4748 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4749 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4750 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4751 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4752 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4753 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4754 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4755 the declared rules.
  4756 
  4757 This setup also deals with rules like
  4758 
  4759   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4760 
  4761 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4762 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4763 
  4764 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4765 
  4766   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4767 
  4768   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4769     definitions on => and bool.
  4770 
  4771   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4772     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4773     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4774 
  4775       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4776       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4777       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4778       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4779       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4780       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4781       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4782       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4783 
  4784   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4785     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4786     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4787 
  4788   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4789     The proof pattern
  4790 
  4791       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4792       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4793 
  4794     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4795     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4796 
  4797       have "EX S. P S"
  4798       proof
  4799         show "P S" <...>
  4800       qed
  4801 
  4802   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4803     The proof pattern
  4804 
  4805       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4806       also have "S = T" <...>
  4807       finally have "P T" .
  4808 
  4809     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4810     must be replaced by something like
  4811 
  4812       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4813       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4814       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4815 
  4816   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4817     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4818 
  4819       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4820 
  4821     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4822     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4823     type of the form
  4824 
  4825       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4826 
  4827     rather than
  4828 
  4829       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4830 
  4831 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4832 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4833 
  4834 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4837 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4841 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4844 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4847 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4848 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4851 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4852 
  4853   less_trans
  4854   less_linear
  4855   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4856   le_less_trans
  4857   less_le_trans
  4858   less_not_sym
  4859   less_asym
  4860 
  4861 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4862 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4863 and different variable names.
  4864 
  4865 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4866 
  4867 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4868 finite maps.
  4869 
  4870 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4871 
  4872 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4873 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4874 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4875 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4876 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4877 accordingly.
  4878 
  4879 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4880 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4881 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4882 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4883 
  4884 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4885 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4886 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4887 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4888 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4892 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4895 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4896 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4897 
  4898 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4902 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4903 
  4904 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4905 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4908 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4911 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4915 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4916 
  4917 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4918 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4919 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4920 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4921 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4922 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4925 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4926 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4927 
  4928 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4929 
  4930 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4931 
  4932 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4933 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4934 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4935 
  4936 
  4937 *** ZF ***
  4938 
  4939 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4940 same session:
  4941 
  4942   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4943   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4944   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4945   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4946   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4947   List      -> List_ZF
  4948   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4949 
  4950 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4951 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4952 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4953 
  4954 
  4955 *** ML ***
  4956 
  4957 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4958 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4959 
  4960 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4961 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4962 
  4963 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4964 
  4965 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4966 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4967 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4968 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4969 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4970 
  4971 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4972 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4973 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4974 
  4975 
  4976 *** System ***
  4977 
  4978 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4979 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4980 
  4981 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4982 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4983 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4984 
  4985 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4986 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4987 
  4988 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4989 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4990 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4991 
  4992 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4993 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4994 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4995 
  4996 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4997 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4998 
  4999 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5000 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5001 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5002 script.
  5003 
  5004 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5005 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5006 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5007 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5008 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5009 
  5010 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5011 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5012 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5013 
  5014 
  5015 
  5016 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5017 -----------------------------------
  5018 
  5019 *** General ***
  5020 
  5021 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5022 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5023 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5024 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5025 
  5026 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5027 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5028 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5029 
  5030 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5031 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5032 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5033 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5034 
  5035 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5036 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5037 quotes.
  5038 
  5039 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5040 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5041 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5042 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5043 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5044 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5045 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5047 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5048 
  5049 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5050 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5051 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5052 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5053 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5054 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5055 
  5056 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5057 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5058 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5059 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5060 
  5061 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5062 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5063 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5064 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5065 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5066 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5067 
  5068 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5069 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5070 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5071 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5072 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5073 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5074 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5075 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5076 
  5077 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5078 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5079 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5080 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5081 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5082 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5083 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5084 
  5085 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5086 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5087 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5088 
  5089 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5090 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5091 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5092 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5093 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5094 limit is imposed.
  5095 
  5096 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5097 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5098 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5099 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5100 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5101 and scalability.
  5102 
  5103 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5104 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5105 
  5106 
  5107 *** Document preparation ***
  5108 
  5109 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5110 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5111 current context.
  5112 
  5113 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5114 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5115 
  5116 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5117 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5118 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5119 
  5120 
  5121 *** Pure ***
  5122 
  5123 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5124 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5125 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5126 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5127 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5128 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5129 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5130 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5131 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5132 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5133 
  5134 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5135 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5136 sketch:
  5137 
  5138     internal compilation:
  5139         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5140     writing SML code to a file:
  5141         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5142     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5143         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5144     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5145         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5146 
  5147     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5148         method ``eval''
  5149 
  5150 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5151 
  5152 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5153 
  5154     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5155     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5156     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5157     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5158 
  5159 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5160 
  5161     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5162       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5163 
  5164     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5165       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5166 
  5167     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5168       {(target)}+
  5169         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5170 
  5171     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5172       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5173         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5174 
  5175 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5176 
  5177 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5178 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5179 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5180 codegen".
  5181 
  5182 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5183 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5184 annotations).
  5185 
  5186 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5187 syntax.
  5188 
  5189 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5190 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5191 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5192 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5193 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5194 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5195 
  5196 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5197 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5198 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5199 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5200 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5201 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5202 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5203 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5204 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5205 equations, see section "definitions".
  5206 
  5207 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5208 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5209 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5210 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5211 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5212 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5213 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5214 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5215 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5216 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5217 
  5218 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5219 configuration options:
  5220 
  5221   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5222   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5223   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5224   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5225   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5226   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5227   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5228   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5229   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5230 
  5231 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5232 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5233 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5234 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5235 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5236 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5237 order.
  5238 
  5239 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5240 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5241 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5242 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5243 context encountered later on.
  5244 
  5245 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5246 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5247 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5248 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5249 
  5250 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5251 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5252 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5253 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5254 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5255 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5256 
  5257 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5258 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5259 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5260 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5261 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5262 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5263 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5264 more permissive.
  5265 
  5266 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5267 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5268 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5269 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5270 maintainability of proof texts.
  5271 
  5272 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5273 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5274 
  5275   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5276   then guess x and y by clarify
  5277 
  5278 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5279 proof tools being involved here.
  5280 
  5281 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5282 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5283 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5284 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5285 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5286 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5287 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5288 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5289 
  5290 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5291 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5292 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5293 
  5294   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5295   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5296   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5297   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5298 
  5299 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5300 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5301 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5302 
  5303 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5304 both named and unnamed ones.
  5305 
  5306 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5307 
  5308   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5309 
  5310 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5311 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5312 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5313 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5314 
  5315 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5316 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5317 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5318 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5319 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5320 
  5321 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5322 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5323 
  5324 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5325 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5326 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5327 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5328 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5329 originally first one.
  5330 
  5331 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5332 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5333 expected.
  5334 
  5335 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5336 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5337 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5338 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5339 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5340 
  5341   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5342     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5343     obtains x where "P x"
  5344 
  5345   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5346     assumes "A & B"
  5347     obtains A and B
  5348 
  5349   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5350     assumes "A | B"
  5351     obtains
  5352       A
  5353     | B
  5354 
  5355 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5356 explicitly:
  5357 
  5358   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5359     obtains "~ thesis"
  5360 
  5361   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5362     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5363 
  5364 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5365 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5366 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5367 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5368 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5369 case_names).
  5370 
  5371 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5372 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5373 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5374 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5375 
  5376 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5377 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5378 top-level lemma.
  5379 
  5380 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5381 introduction rule (default "that").
  5382 
  5383 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5384 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5385 to occur.
  5386 
  5387 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5388 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5389 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5390 representations independently of name spaces.
  5391 
  5392 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5393 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5394 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5395 
  5396 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5397 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5398 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5399 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5400 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5401 current context.
  5402 
  5403 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5404 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5405 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5406 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5407 
  5408   axiomatization
  5409     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5410     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5411 
  5412   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5413   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5414 
  5415   abbreviation
  5416     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5417     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5418 
  5419 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5420 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5421 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5422 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5423 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5424 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5425 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5426 
  5427 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5428 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5429 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5430 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5431 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5432 
  5433 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5434 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5435 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5436 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5437 
  5438 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5439 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5440 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5441 
  5442   definition "K x _ = x"
  5443 
  5444   inductive conj for A B
  5445   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5446 
  5447 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5448 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5449 abbreviations on output.
  5450 
  5451 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5452 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5453 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5454 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5455 
  5456 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5457 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5458 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5459 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5460 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5461 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5462 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5463 
  5464 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5465 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5466 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5467 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5468 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5469 
  5470 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5471 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5472 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5473 
  5474 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5475 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5476 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5477 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5478 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5479 
  5480   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5481     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5482 
  5483 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5484 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5485 partial_order.
  5486 
  5487 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5488 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5489 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5490 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5491 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5492 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5493 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5494 examples.
  5495 
  5496 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5497 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5498 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5499 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5500 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5501 
  5502 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5503 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5504 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5505 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5506 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5507 
  5508   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5509   (induct set: foo bar)
  5510   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5511   (induct type: foo bar)
  5512 
  5513 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5514 new format.
  5515 
  5516 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5517 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5518 
  5519 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5520 considered a legacy feature.
  5521 
  5522 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5523 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5526 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5527 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5528 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5529 
  5530 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5531 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5532 manipulating the claset.
  5533 
  5534 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5535 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5536 least one premise.
  5537 
  5538 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5539 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5540 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5541 rule steps.
  5542 
  5543 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5544 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5545 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5546 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5547 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5548 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5549 
  5550 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5551 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5552 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5553 
  5554 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5555 the graph browser tool.
  5556 
  5557 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5558 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5559 
  5560 
  5561 *** HOL ***
  5562 
  5563 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5564 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5565 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5566 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5567 multi-threading.
  5568 
  5569 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5570 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5571 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5572 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5573 work with multi-threading.
  5574 
  5575 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5576 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5577 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5578 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5579 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5580 
  5581 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5582 
  5583 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5584 equality.
  5585 
  5586 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5587 the new 'class' package:
  5588 
  5589     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5590     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5591     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5592     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5593     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5594     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5595     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5596     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5597     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5598     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5599     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5600     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5601     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5602     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5603     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5604     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5605     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5606     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5607     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5608     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5609 
  5610 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5611 
  5612 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5613 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5614 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5615 names.
  5616 
  5617 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5618 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5619 
  5620 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5621 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5622 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5623 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5624 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5625 
  5626 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5627 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5628 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5629 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5630 
  5631 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5632 
  5633 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5634 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5635 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5636 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5638 
  5639 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5640 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5641 
  5642 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5643 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5644 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5647 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5648 
  5649 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5650 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5651 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5652 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5653 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5654 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5655 in the current context.
  5656 
  5657 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5658 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5660 
  5661 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5662 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5663 
  5664 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5665 
  5666     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5667     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5668 
  5669     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5670       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5671     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5672     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5673 
  5674     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5675     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5676 
  5677   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5678 
  5679     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5680     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5681     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5682     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5683     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5684     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5685     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5686     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5687     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5688     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5689     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5690     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5691     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5692     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5693     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5694     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5695     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5696     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5697     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5698     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5699     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5700     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5701     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5702     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5703     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5704     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5705     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5706     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5707     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5708     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5709     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5710     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5711     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5712     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5713     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5714 
  5715     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5716     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5717     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5718     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5719     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5720     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5721     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5722     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5723     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5724     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5725     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5726     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5727     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5728     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5729     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5730     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5731     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5732 
  5733     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5734     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5735     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5736     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5737     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5738     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5739     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5740     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5741     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5742     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5743     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5744     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5745     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5746     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5747     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5748     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5749     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5750     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5751     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5752     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5753     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5754     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5755     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5756     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5757     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5758     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5759     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5760     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5761 
  5762     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5763     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5764     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5765     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5766     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5767     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5768 
  5769     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5770     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5771     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5772     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5773 
  5774     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5775     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5776 
  5777     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5778     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5779 
  5780 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5781 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5782 
  5783 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5784 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5785 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5786 "*.size".
  5787 
  5788 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5790 
  5791 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5792 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5793 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5794 
  5795 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5796 
  5797 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5798 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5799 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5800 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5801 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5802 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5803 numerals on all operations.
  5804 
  5805 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5806 
  5807 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5808 
  5809 * Code generator library theories:
  5810   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5811     languages.
  5812   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5813     languages.
  5814   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5815     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5816   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5817   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5818     denominator).
  5819   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5820     representable by rational numbers.
  5821   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5822     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5823     includes Code_Integer.
  5824   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5825     target-language built-in integers.
  5826   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5827     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5828 
  5829 * New package for inductive predicates
  5830 
  5831   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5832 
  5833     inductive
  5834       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5835       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5836     where
  5837       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5838     | ...
  5839 
  5840   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5841 
  5842     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5843 
  5844     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5845     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5846 
  5847     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5848     intros
  5849       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5850       ...
  5851 
  5852   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5853   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5854 
  5855     inductive_set
  5856       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5857       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5858     where
  5859       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5860     | ...
  5861 
  5862   or
  5863 
  5864     inductive_set
  5865       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5866       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5867       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5868     where
  5869       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5870     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5871     | ...
  5872 
  5873   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5874 
  5875   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5876   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5877 
  5878   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5879 
  5880   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5881     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5882     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5883     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5884     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5885 
  5886   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5887     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5888     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5889     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5890     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5891     statements of the form
  5892 
  5893       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5894 
  5895     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5896     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5897 
  5898       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5899 
  5900   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5901 
  5902       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5903         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5904         ==> ... ==> P
  5905 
  5906     for predicates and
  5907 
  5908       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5909         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5910         ==> ... ==> P
  5911 
  5912     for sets rather than
  5913 
  5914       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5915         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5916         ==> ... ==> P
  5917 
  5918     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5919     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5920     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5921 
  5922   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5923     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5924     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5925 
  5926 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5927 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5928 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5929 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5930 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5931 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5932 
  5933 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5934 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5935 
  5936 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5937 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5938 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5939 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5940 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5941 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5942 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5943 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5944 variable.
  5945 
  5946 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5947 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5948 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5949 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5950   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5951   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5952 
  5953 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5954 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5955 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5956 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5957 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5958 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5959 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5960 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5961 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5962 
  5963 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5964 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5965 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5966 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5967 rat, etc.
  5968 
  5969 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5970 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5971 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5972 
  5973 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5974 
  5975 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5976 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5977 
  5978 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5979 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5980 
  5981 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5982 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5983 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5984 
  5985 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5986 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5988 
  5989 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5990 
  5991 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5992 
  5993 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5994 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5995 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5996 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5997 
  5998 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5999 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6000 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6001 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6002 
  6003 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6004 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6005 algebraic operations.
  6006 
  6007 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6012 
  6013 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6014 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6015 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6016 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6017 adapted.
  6018 
  6019 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6020 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6021 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6022 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6023 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6024 
  6025 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6026 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6027 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6028 
  6029 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6030 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6031 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6032 
  6033 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6034 
  6035 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6036 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6037 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6038   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6039       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6040   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6041   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6042   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6043 
  6044 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6045 
  6046 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6047 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6048 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6049 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6050 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6051 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6052 
  6053 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6054 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6055 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6056 
  6057 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6058 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6059 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6063 
  6064 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6065 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6066 
  6067 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6068 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6069 
  6070 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6071 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6072 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6073 
  6074 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6075 True/False.
  6076 
  6077 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6078 
  6079 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6080 
  6081 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6082 ``rule'' method.
  6083 
  6084 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6085 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6086 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6087 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6088 
  6089 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6090 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6091 
  6092 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6093 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6094 
  6095 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6096 Library.
  6097 
  6098 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6099 
  6100 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6101 as greatest fixed-point.
  6102 
  6103 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6104 association lists.
  6105 
  6106 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6107 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6108 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6109 
  6110 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6111 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6112 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6113 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6114 behavior.
  6115 
  6116 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6117 
  6118 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6119 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6120 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6121 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6122 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6123 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6124 
  6125 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6126 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6127 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6128 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6129 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6130 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6131 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6132 
  6133 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6134 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6135 
  6136 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6137 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6138 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6139 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6140 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6141 
  6142 
  6143 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6144 
  6145 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6146 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6147 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6148 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6150 
  6151 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6152 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6153 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6154 
  6155 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6156 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6157 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6158 
  6159 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6160 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6161 
  6162 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6163 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6164 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6166 
  6167   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6168   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6169   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6170   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6171   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6172   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6173   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6174   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6175   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6176   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6177   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6178   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6179   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6180   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6181   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6182 
  6183 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6184 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6185 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6186 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6187 
  6188   approx        <-- capprox
  6189   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6190   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6191   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6192   monad         <-- cmonad
  6193   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6194   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6195   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6196   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6197 
  6198 
  6199 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6200 
  6201 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6202 
  6203 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6205 
  6206 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6207 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6210 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6211 of algebraic structures.
  6212 
  6213 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6214 
  6215 
  6216 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6217 
  6218 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6219 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6220 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6221 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6222 
  6223 
  6224 *** ML ***
  6225 
  6226 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6227 (even on SML/NJ).
  6228 
  6229 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6230 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6231 compile-time.  For example:
  6232 
  6233 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6234 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6235 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6236 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6237 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6238 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6239 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6240 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}