NEWS
author haftmann
Fri Jul 04 20:18:47 2014 +0200 (2014-07-04)
changeset 57512 cc97b347b301
parent 57508 19240ff4b02d
child 57515 adfb932486df
permissions -rw-r--r--
reduced name variants for assoc and commute on plus and mult
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
     5 ---------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    10 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    11 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    12 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    13 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    14 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    15 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    16 some examples.
    17 
    18 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
    19 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
    20 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
    21 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
    22 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
    23 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
    24 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
    25 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
    26 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    38 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    39 supports input via ` (backquote).
    40 
    41 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    42 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    43 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    44 
    45 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    46 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    47 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
    48 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    49 
    50 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
    51 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    52 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
    53 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54 
    55 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    56 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    57 
    58 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    59 not check existence within the file-system.
    60 
    61 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
    62 isar-ref, jedit, system.
    63 
    64 
    65 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    66 
    67 * Improved Document panel: simplied interaction where every single
    68 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
    69 buffer.
    70 
    71 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
    72 to PIDE hyperlinks.
    73 
    74 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    75 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    76 
    77 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    78 auxiliary ML files.
    79 
    80 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
    81 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
    82 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
    83 
    84 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
    85 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
    86 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    87 
    88 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
    89 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
    90 caret".
    91 
    92 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    93 completion popup and context-menu.
    94 
    95 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
    96 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
    97 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
    98 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
    99 
   100 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   101 to highlight text via regular expression.
   102 
   103 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   104 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   105 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   106 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   107 
   108 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   109 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   110 
   111 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   112 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   113 
   114 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   115 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   116 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   117 
   118 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   119 simplification process, enabled by the "simplifier_trace" attribute
   120 within the context.
   121 
   122 
   123 *** Pure ***
   124 
   125 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   126 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   127 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   128 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   129 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   130 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   131 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   132 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   133 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   134 
   135 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   136 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   137 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   138 renaming needs to be applied:
   139 
   140   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   141   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   142   all            ~>  Pure.all
   143   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   144   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   145 
   146 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   147 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   148 old constants:
   149 
   150 setup {*
   151   fn thy => thy
   152     |> Sign.root_path
   153     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   154     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   155     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   156     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   157 *}
   158 
   159 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   160 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   161 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   162 
   163 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   164 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   165 instantiated theorem.
   166 
   167 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   168 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   169 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   170 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   171 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   172 
   173   attribute_setup standard =
   174     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   175 
   176 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   177 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   178 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   179 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   180 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   181 
   182 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   183 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   184 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   185 
   186 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   187 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   188 
   189 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   190 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   191 
   192 
   193 *** HOL ***
   194 
   195 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   196 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   205 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   211 with the given constants.
   212 
   213 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   214 operations on records.
   215 
   216 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   217 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   222 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   223 
   224 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
   225 
   226     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   227     add_commute ~> add.commute
   228     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   229     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   230     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   231     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
   232     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   233     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
   234     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   235     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   236     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   237     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
   238     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
   239 
   240 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   243 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   244 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   245 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   246 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   249 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   250 
   251 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   252   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   253   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   254   part of theory "Main".
   255 
   256   Theory renamings:
   257     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   258     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   259     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   260     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   261     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   262     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   263     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   264     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   265     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   266     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   267     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   268     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   269     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   270     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   271     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   272     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   273     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   274     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   275     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   276     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   277     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   278     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   279 
   280   New theories:
   281     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   282     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   283     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   284     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   285     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   286 
   287   Discontinued theories:
   288     BNF/BNF.thy
   289     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   290 
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 * New (co)datatype package:
   294   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   295   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   296     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   297   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   298     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   299   - Renamed commands:
   300       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   301       primrec_new ~> primrec
   302       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   305     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   306     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   308     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   309     using "prim(co)rec".
   310     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   312     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   315     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   316     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   317     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Old datatype package:
   320   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   321     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   322     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   324     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   325     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   328   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   329   BNF-based datatype package.
   330 
   331   Renamed constants:
   332     Option.set ~> set_option
   333     Option.map ~> map_option
   334     option_rel ~> rel_option
   335 
   336   Renamed theorems:
   337     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   338     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   339     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   340     option.recs ~> option.rec
   341     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   342     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   343     map.simps ~> list.map
   344     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   345     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   346     the.simps ~> option.sel
   347 
   348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   351     sum_map ~> map_sum
   352     map_pair ~> map_prod
   353     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   354     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   355     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   356     set_rel ~> rel_set
   357     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   358     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   359     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   360     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   361 
   362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   365 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   366 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   367 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   368 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   369 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   370 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   373 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   374 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   375 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   376 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   377 
   378 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   379 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   380 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   381 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   382 
   383 * Sledgehammer:
   384   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   385   - MaSh overhaul:
   386     . New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on
   387       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   388     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   389       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   390       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   391       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   392   - New option:
   393       smt_proofs
   394   - Renamed options:
   395       isar_compress ~> compress
   396       isar_try0 ~> try0
   397 
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   401 
   402 * Nitpick:
   403   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   404     take infinite values.
   405   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   406     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   407   - Removed "std" option.
   408   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   409     "hide_types".
   410 
   411 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   412 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   415 
   416 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   417   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   418   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   419     SUP instead uniformly.
   420   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   421     or SUP and Sup.
   422   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   423   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   424   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   425     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   426     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   427 
   428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   431 
   432 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   433 
   434   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   435   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   436   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   437   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   438 
   439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   442 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   443 
   444 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   445 
   446     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   447     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   448     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   449     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   450     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   451     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   452     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   453     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   454     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   455     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   456     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   457     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   458     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   459     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   460     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   461     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   462     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   463     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   464     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   465     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   466     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   467     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   468     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   469     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   470     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   471     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   472     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   473     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   474     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   475     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   476     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   477     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   478     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   479     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   480     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   481     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   482     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   483     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   484     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   485     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   486     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   487     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   488     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   489     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   490     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   491     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   492     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   493     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   494     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   495     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   496     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   497     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   498     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   499     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   500     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   501     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   502     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   503     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   504     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   505 
   506   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   507   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   508   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   509     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   510 
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   514 
   515   Fact consolidations:
   516     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   517     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   518     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   519     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   520     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   521     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   522     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   523     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   524     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   525     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   526     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   527     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   528     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   529     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   530     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   531     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   532     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   533     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   534     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   535     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   536     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   537     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   538     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   539     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   540     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   541     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   542     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   543     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   544     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   545     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   546     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   547     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   548     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   549     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   550     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   551     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   552     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   553     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   554     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   555     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   556 
   557 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   558 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   559 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   560 
   561 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
   562 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   563 
   564 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   565 
   566 INCOMPATBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
   569 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   570 
   571 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   575     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   576 
   577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
   580   consolidation:
   581     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   582     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   583 
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   587   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   588   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   589   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   590     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   591   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   592     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   593   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   594 
   595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   596 
   597 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   598     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   599     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   600     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   601     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   602 
   603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Fact name consolidation:
   606     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   607     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   608     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   609     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   610     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   611 
   612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   615 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   616 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   617 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   618 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   619 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
   620 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
   621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   624 
   625 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   626 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   627 
   628 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   629 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   630 
   631 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   632 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   633 or the brute way with
   634 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   635 
   636 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
   637 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
   638 stating boundedness of sets.
   639 
   640 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
   641 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
   642 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   645   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   646   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   647   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   648   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   649   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   650   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   651   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   652   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   653   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   654   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   655   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   656 
   657   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   658 
   659   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   660 
   661     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   662     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
   663     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
   664     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
   665     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   666 
   667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   670   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   671 
   672   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   673 
   674   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   675 
   676   - removed constant isDiff
   677 
   678   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
   679     input syntax.
   680 
   681   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
   682 
   683   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   684 
   685   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   686 
   687   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   688 
   689   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
   690     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
   691     has_vector_derivative.
   692 
   693   - Other renamings:
   694     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   695     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   696     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   697     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   698     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   699     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   700     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   701 
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
   705 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
   706 in continuous_intros.
   707 
   708 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
   709 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
   710 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   711 
   712 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
   713 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
   714 especially removes
   715 
   716     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   717 
   718 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   719     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   720 
   721 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   722 
   723   Renamings:
   724     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   725     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   726     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   727     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   728     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   729     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   730     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   731     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   732     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   733     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   734     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   735     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   736 
   737     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   738     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   739     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   740 
   741   Removed theorems:
   742     complex_zero_def
   743     complex_add_def
   744     complex_minus_def
   745     complex_diff_def
   746     complex_one_def
   747     complex_mult_def
   748     complex_inverse_def
   749     complex_scaleR_def
   750 
   751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   754 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
   757 
   758 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
   759 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
   760 
   761 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
   762 
   763 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * HOL-Word:
   767   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
   768     of "word_arith_wis".
   769   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   770     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   771     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   772 
   773 * HOL-Number_Theory:
   774   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
   775   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
   776   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
   777     (except the AFP)
   778 
   779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   782   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
   783   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   784     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   785   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   786     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   787     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   788     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   789     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
   790     intervals.
   791   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
   792     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
   793     - renamed theorems:
   794         interval ~> box
   795         mem_interval ~> mem_box
   796         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
   797         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
   798         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
   799         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
   800         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
   801         subset_interval ~> subset_box
   802         open_interval ~> open_box
   803         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
   804         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
   805         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
   806         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
   807         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
   808         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
   809         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
   810         convex_box ~> convex_prod
   811         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
   812         convex_interval ~> convex_box
   813         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
   814         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
   815         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
   816         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
   817         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
   818         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
   819         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
   820         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
   821         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
   822         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
   823         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
   824         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
   825         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
   826         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
   827 
   828     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
   829         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
   830         has_integral + has_integral_real
   831         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
   832         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
   833         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
   834         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
   835         integral_const + integral_const_real
   836         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
   837         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
   838         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
   839         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
   840         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
   841         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
   842         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
   843         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
   844         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
   845         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
   846 
   847   - renamed theorems:
   848     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   849     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   850     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   851 
   852 * HOL-Probability:
   853   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
   854     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   855 
   856     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   857     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   858     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   859     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   860     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   861     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   862     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   863     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   864     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   865     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   866     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   867     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   868     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   869     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   870     integral_indicator          ~>
   871          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   872     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   873     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   874     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   875 
   876     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   877          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   878 
   879     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   880          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   881 
   882     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   883          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   884 
   885     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   886          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   887          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   888 
   889     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   890          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   891 
   892     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   893          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   894 
   895     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   896          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   897          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   898 
   899     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   900          positive_integral_real_affine
   901 
   902     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   903          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   904 
   905     The following theorems where removed:
   906 
   907     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   908     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   909     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   910     lebesgue_integral_multc
   911     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   912     integral_cmul_indicator
   913     integral_real
   914 
   915   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   916 
   917     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   918       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   919 
   920     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   921 
   922   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
   923     distributed random variables.
   924 
   925 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
   926 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
   927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   928 
   929 
   930 *** Scala ***
   931 
   932 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   933 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   934 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   935 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   936 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937 
   938 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
   939 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 
   942 *** ML ***
   943 
   944 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   945 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   946 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   947 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   948 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   949 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   950 
   951 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   952 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   953 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   954 actually belongs to it).
   955 
   956 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   957 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   958 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   959 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   960 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   961 of schematic variables.
   962 
   963 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   964 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   967 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
   968 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969 
   970 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   974 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   975 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   979 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   981 formal context.
   982 
   983 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   984 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   987 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   988 
   989 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   990 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   991 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   992 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   993 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   994 
   995 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   996 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   997 purposes.
   998 
   999 
  1000 *** System ***
  1001 
  1002 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1003 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1004 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1005 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1006 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1007 
  1008 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1009 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1010 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1011 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1012 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1013 settings variable.
  1014 
  1015 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1016 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1017 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1018 
  1019 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1020 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1021 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1022 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1023 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1024 
  1025 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1026 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1027 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1028 
  1029 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1030 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1031 
  1032 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1033 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1034 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1035 
  1036 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1037 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1038 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1039 processing is started.
  1040 
  1041 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1042 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1043 
  1044 
  1045 
  1046 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1047 -------------------------------------
  1048 
  1049 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1050 
  1051 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1052 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1053 
  1054 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1055 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1056 
  1057 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1058 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1059 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1060 
  1061 
  1062 *** System ***
  1063 
  1064 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1065 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1066 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1067 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1068 
  1069 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1070 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1071 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1072 
  1073 
  1074 
  1075 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1076 -------------------------------------
  1077 
  1078 *** General ***
  1079 
  1080 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1081 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1082 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1083 
  1084 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1085 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1088 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1089 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1090 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1091 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1092 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1093 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1094 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1095 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1096 syntax.
  1097 
  1098 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1099 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1102 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1103 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1105 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1106 
  1107 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1111 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1112 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1113 
  1114 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1115 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1116 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1117 
  1118 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1119 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1120 
  1121 
  1122 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1123 
  1124 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1125 Documentation panel.
  1126 
  1127 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1128 documentation.
  1129 
  1130 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1131 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1132 
  1133 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1134 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1135 normal editing and checking process.
  1136 
  1137 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1138 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1139 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1140 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1141 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1142 
  1143 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1144 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1145 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1146 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1147 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1148 
  1149 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1150 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1151 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1152 
  1153 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1154 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1155 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1156 to resolve conflict.
  1157 
  1158 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1159 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1160 
  1161 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1162 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1163 such command executions while editing.
  1164 
  1165 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1166 document content.
  1167 
  1168 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1169 toplevel theorem statements.
  1170 
  1171 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1172 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1173 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1174 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1175 
  1176 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1177 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1178 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1179 
  1180 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1181 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1182 
  1183 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1184 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1185 
  1186 
  1187 *** Pure ***
  1188 
  1189 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1190 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1191 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1192 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1193 details.
  1194 
  1195 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1196 
  1197 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1198 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1199 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1200 
  1201 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1205 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1206 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1207 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1210 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1211 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1214 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1215 
  1216 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1217 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1218 situations.
  1219 
  1220 
  1221 *** HOL ***
  1222 
  1223 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1224 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1228 
  1229 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1230 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1231 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1232 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1233 
  1234   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1235 
  1236 * Code generator:
  1237   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1238     'code_instance'.
  1239   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1240     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1241 
  1242 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1243 examples.
  1244 
  1245 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1246 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1247 to distinguish both when desired.
  1248 
  1249 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1250 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1251 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1252 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1253 
  1254 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1255 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1256 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1257 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1258 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1259 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1260 
  1261 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1262 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1263 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1264 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1265 
  1266 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1267 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1268 
  1269 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1270 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1271 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1272 
  1273 * Lifting:
  1274   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1275     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1276       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1277       transfer rules
  1278     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1279       correspondence relation can be generated
  1280     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1281       parametricity
  1282     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1283   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1284   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1285     copies
  1286   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1287     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1288     anonymous context)
  1289   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1290     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1291   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1292     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1293   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1294     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1295 
  1296 * Transfer:
  1297   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1298     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1299   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1300   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1301     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1302   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1303 
  1304 * Reification and reflection:
  1305   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1306     "Reification".
  1307   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1308   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1312   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1313     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1314     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1315   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1316     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1317   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1318     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1319     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1320     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1321     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1322     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1323     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1324     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1325   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1326     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1327   - Fact renames:
  1328       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1329       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1333 
  1334 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1335 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1336 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1340 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1341 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1342 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1343 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1344 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1345 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1346 lemmas.
  1347 
  1348 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1349 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1350 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1351 
  1352 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1353 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1354 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1355 
  1356 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1357 top and bottom elements.
  1358 
  1359 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1360 
  1361 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1362 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1363 
  1364  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1365    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1366    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1367 
  1368  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1369    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1370    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1371 
  1372    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1373    arbitrary filter.
  1374 
  1375  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1376    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1377    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1378    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1379    on a compact set.
  1380 
  1381  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1382    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1383    linear_continuum_topology).
  1384 
  1385  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1386    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1387    on all sequences converging to x.
  1388 
  1389  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1390    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1391    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1392    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1393    left or right.
  1394 
  1395  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1396 
  1397      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1398 
  1399  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1400    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1401 
  1402  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1403    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1404    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1405    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1406    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1407    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1408 
  1409  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1410 
  1411    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1412 
  1413    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1414      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1415 
  1416    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1417 
  1418    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1419      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1420 
  1421    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1422 
  1423    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1424 
  1425  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1426 
  1427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Nitpick:
  1430   - Added option "spy".
  1431   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1432 
  1433 * Sledgehammer:
  1434   - Renamed option:
  1435       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1436     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1438   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1439   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1440 
  1441 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1442 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1443 
  1444 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1445   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1446   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1447     generated code.
  1448   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1449   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1450   - Fact renames:
  1451     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1452     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1453     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1454 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1457 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1458 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1459 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1460 
  1461 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1462 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1463 
  1464 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1467 
  1468     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1469     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1470 
  1471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1474 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1475 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1476 
  1477 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1478 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1479 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1480 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * HOL-BNF:
  1483   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1484     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1485     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1486     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1487   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1488     coinduct).
  1489   - Renamed keywords:
  1490     data ~> datatype_new
  1491     codata ~> codatatype
  1492     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1493   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1494     discs ~> disc
  1495     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1496     map_id' ~> map_id
  1497     sels ~> sel
  1498     set_map' ~> set_map
  1499     sets ~> set
  1500 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 
  1503 *** ML ***
  1504 
  1505 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1506 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1507 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1508 Examples.thy in particular.
  1509 
  1510 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1511 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1512 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1513 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1514 
  1515 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1516 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1517 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1518 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1522 
  1523     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1524     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1525 
  1526 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1527 
  1528 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1529 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1530 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1531 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1532 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1533 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1534 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1535 
  1536 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1537 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1538 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1539 clasets separately from the context.
  1540 
  1541 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1542 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1543 
  1544 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1545 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1546 
  1547 
  1548 *** System ***
  1549 
  1550 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1551 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1554 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1557 settings variable.
  1558 
  1559 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1560 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1561 always pdf.
  1562 
  1563 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1564 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1565 
  1566 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1567 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1568 
  1569 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1570 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1571 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1572 
  1573 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1574 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1575 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1576 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1577 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1578 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1579 
  1580 
  1581 
  1582 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1583 -----------------------------------
  1584 
  1585 *** General ***
  1586 
  1587 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1588 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1589 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1590 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1591 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1592 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1593 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1594 
  1595 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1596 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1597 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1598 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1599 
  1600 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1601 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1602 
  1603 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1604 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1605 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1606 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1607 dependencies properly.
  1608 
  1609 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1610 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1611 
  1612 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1613 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1614 
  1615 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1616 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1617 and "class ... context ...".
  1618 
  1619 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1620 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1621 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1622 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1623 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1624 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1625 
  1626 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1627 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1628 
  1629 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1630 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1631 
  1632 
  1633 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1634 
  1635 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1636 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1637 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1638 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1639 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1640 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1641 
  1642 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1643 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1644 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1645 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1646 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1647 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1648 
  1649 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1650 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1651 browser on demand.
  1652 
  1653 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1654 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1655 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1656 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1657 
  1658 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1659 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1660 
  1661 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1662 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1663 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1664 potentially infinite message streams.
  1665 
  1666 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1667 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1668 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1669 schemes.
  1670 
  1671 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1672 symbols.
  1673 
  1674 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1675 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1676 
  1677 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1678 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1679 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1680 
  1681 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1682 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1683 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1684 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1685 
  1686 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1687 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1688 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1689 
  1690 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1691 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1692 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1693 Isabelle distribution.
  1694 
  1695 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1696 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1697 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1698 
  1699 
  1700 *** Pure ***
  1701 
  1702 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1703 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1704 
  1705 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1706 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1707 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708 
  1709 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1710 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1711 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1712 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1713 with some care where this is really required.
  1714 
  1715 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1716 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1717 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1718 
  1719   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1720 
  1721 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1722 a Hasse diagram.
  1723 
  1724 
  1725 *** HOL ***
  1726 
  1727 * Sledgehammer:
  1728 
  1729   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1730     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1731   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1732   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1733   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1734   - Renamed options:
  1735       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1736       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1737       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1738       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1739 
  1740 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1741 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1742 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1743 
  1744 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * Lifting:
  1748   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1749   - quot_del attribute
  1750   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1751 
  1752 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1753 expressions.
  1754 
  1755 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1756 pointfree expressions.
  1757 
  1758 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1759 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1760 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1761 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1765 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1766 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1767 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1768 accordingly.
  1769 
  1770 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1771 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1774 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1779 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1780 
  1781 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1782 
  1783 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1784 
  1785   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1786   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1787 
  1788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1789 
  1790 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1791 
  1792   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1793   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1794 
  1795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1798 
  1799   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1800     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1801     output f x converges to G.
  1802 
  1803   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1804     infinity (at_bot).
  1805 
  1806   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1807     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1808 
  1809   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1810     at_top".
  1811 
  1812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1815 lattice type classes.
  1816 
  1817 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1818 
  1819     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1820     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1821 
  1822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1825 changes as follows.
  1826 
  1827   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1828 
  1829       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1830       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1831 
  1832   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1833     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1834     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1835     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1836 
  1837   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1838     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1839     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1840 
  1841   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1842     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1843     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1844     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1845 
  1846   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1847     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1848 
  1849       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1850       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1851       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1852       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1853       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1854       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1855       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1856       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1857       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1858       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1859       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1860       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1861       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1862       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1863       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1864       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1865 
  1866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867 
  1868 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1869 
  1870 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1871 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1872 
  1873 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1874 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1875 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1876 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1877 
  1878   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1879   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1880   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1881   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1882   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1883   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1884   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1885   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1886   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1887   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1888 
  1889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1892 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1893 Data").
  1894 
  1895 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1896 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1897 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1898 code.
  1899 
  1900 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1901 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1902 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1906 
  1907 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1908 
  1909 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1910 
  1911   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1912   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1913 
  1914 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1915 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1916 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1917 
  1918   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1919 
  1920     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1921     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1922     cart_base i  removed
  1923     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1924 
  1925   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1926 
  1927   Renamed lemmas:
  1928 
  1929     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1930     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1931     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1932     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1933     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1934     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1935     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1936     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1937     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1938     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1939 
  1940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941 
  1942 * HOL/Probability:
  1943 
  1944   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1945 
  1946   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1947     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1948     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1949 
  1950   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1951     projective family).
  1952 
  1953 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1954 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1955 
  1956 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1957 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1958 datatypes.
  1959 
  1960 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1961 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1962 
  1963 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1964 trees for the code generator.
  1965 
  1966 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1967 Lifting/Transfer.
  1968 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973 
  1974 *** Document preparation ***
  1975 
  1976 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1977 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1978 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1979 
  1980 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1981 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1982 
  1983 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1984 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1985 document/root.tex.
  1986 
  1987 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1988 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 
  1991 *** ML ***
  1992 
  1993 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1994 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1995 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1996 
  1997 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1998 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1999 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2000 
  2001 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2002 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2003 necessarily printing visible text.
  2004 
  2005 
  2006 *** System ***
  2007 
  2008 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2009 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2010 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2011 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2012 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2013 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2014 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2015 
  2016 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2017 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2018 
  2019   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2020 
  2021 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2022 
  2023 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2024 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2025 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2026 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2027 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2028 
  2029 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2030 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2031 
  2032 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2033 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2034 
  2035 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2039 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2040 version of Isabelle.
  2041 
  2042 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2043 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2044 
  2045 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2046 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2047 for home-made settings.
  2048 
  2049 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2050 
  2051 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2052 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2053 configuration.
  2054 
  2055 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2056 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2057 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2058 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2059 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2060 
  2061 
  2062 
  2063 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2064 ------------------------------
  2065 
  2066 *** General ***
  2067 
  2068 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2069 
  2070   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2071     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2072   - markup for bound variables
  2073   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2074   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2075   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2076     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2077 
  2078 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2079 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2080 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2081 
  2082 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2083 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2084 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2085 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2086 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2087 
  2088   context
  2089     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2090     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2091   begin
  2092 
  2093   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2094 
  2095   end
  2096 
  2097   thm my_trans
  2098 
  2099 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2100 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2101 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2102 
  2103 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2104 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2105 
  2106 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2107 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2108 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2109 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2110 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2111 
  2112 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2113 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2114 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2115 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2116 indices of schematic variables.
  2117 
  2118 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2119 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2120 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2121 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2122 etc. was exploited.
  2123 
  2124 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2125 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2126 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2127 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2128 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2129 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2130 
  2131 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2132 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2133 manual.
  2134 
  2135 
  2136 *** Pure ***
  2137 
  2138 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2139 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2140 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2141 
  2142 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2143 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2144 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2145 undocumented feature.)
  2146 
  2147 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2148 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2149 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2150 
  2151   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2152 
  2153   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2154     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2155 
  2156 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2157 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2158 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2159 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2160 
  2161 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2162 
  2163     num ~> num_token
  2164     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2165     xstr ~> str_token
  2166 
  2167 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2168 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2169 position information via constraints).
  2170 
  2171 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2172 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2173 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2176 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2177 
  2178 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2179 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2180 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2181 
  2182 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2183 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2184 
  2185 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2186 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2187 
  2188   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2189 
  2190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2191 
  2192 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2193 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2196 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2197 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2198 
  2199 
  2200 *** HOL ***
  2201 
  2202 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2203 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2204 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2205 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2206 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2207 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2208 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2209 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2210 possible.
  2211 
  2212 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2213 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2214 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2215 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2216 
  2217 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2218 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2221 
  2222 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2223 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2224 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2225 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2226 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2227 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2228 
  2229   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2230     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2231 
  2232   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2233     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2234     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2235 
  2236   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2237     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2238 
  2239   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2240     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2241     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2242 
  2243   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2244     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2245 
  2246 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2247 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2248 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2249 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2250 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2251 
  2252   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2253     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2254     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2255     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2256     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2257 
  2258     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2259     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2260 
  2261   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2262     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2263     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2264     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2265     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2266     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2267     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2268     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2269 
  2270   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2271     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2272     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2273     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2274 
  2275   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2276     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2277     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2278     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2279 
  2280   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2281     from type nat to type int.
  2282 
  2283 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2284 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2285 
  2286   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2287     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2288     type.  Example syntax:
  2289 
  2290     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2291       is List.insert
  2292 
  2293     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2294     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2295     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2296     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2297     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2298     by the package.
  2299 
  2300   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2301     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2302     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2303     code generation for each constant.
  2304 
  2305   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2306     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2307     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2308     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2309     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2310 
  2311   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2312     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2313     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2314 
  2315 * Quotient package:
  2316 
  2317   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2318     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2319 
  2320   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2321     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2322 
  2323   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2324     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2325     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2326 
  2327   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2328     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2331 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2332 
  2333 * Quickcheck:
  2334 
  2335   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2336     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2337     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2338     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2339     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2340 
  2341     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2342     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2343     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2344 
  2345     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2346     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2347 
  2348     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2349     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2350     show genuine counterexamples.
  2351 
  2352   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2353     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2354 
  2355     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2356     constructors of that type.
  2357 
  2358   - Support for multisets.
  2359 
  2360   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2361 
  2362   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2363     conjectures in a locale context.
  2364 
  2365 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2366 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2367 
  2368 * Sledgehammer:
  2369   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2370     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2371   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2372   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2373     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2374   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2375   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2376   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2377   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2378 
  2379 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2380 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2381 
  2382 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2383 
  2384 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2387 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2388 
  2389   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2390 
  2391 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2392 a list and a nat.
  2393 
  2394 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2395 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2396 
  2397 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2398 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2399 default.
  2400 
  2401 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2402 
  2403   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2404 
  2405 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2406 
  2407 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2408 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2409 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2410 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2411 one_case.
  2412 
  2413 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2414 the result of the fact expression.
  2415 
  2416 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2417 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2418 of some relation theorems:
  2419 
  2420   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2421   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2422   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2423   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2424   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2425   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2426 
  2427 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2428 
  2429 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2430 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2431 
  2432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2435 to match the constant's name:
  2436 
  2437   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2438   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2439   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2440   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2441   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2442   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2443   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2444   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2445   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2446   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2447   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2448   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2449   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2450   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2451   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2452   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2453   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2454   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2455   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2456   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2457   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2458   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2459   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2460   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2461 
  2462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2465 and corresponding theorem names:
  2466 
  2467   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2468 
  2469   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2470 
  2471   - Renamed theorems:
  2472 
  2473     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2474     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2475     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2476     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2477     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2478     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2479     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2480     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2481     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2482     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2483     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2484     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2485     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2486     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2487     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2488     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2489     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2490     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2491     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2492     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2493     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2494     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2495     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2496 
  2497     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2498 
  2499     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2500 
  2501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2502 
  2503 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2504 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2505 
  2506   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2507   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2508   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2509   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2510   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2511   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2512   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2513   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2514   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2515   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2516   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2517   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2518   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2519   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2520   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2521   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2522   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2523   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2524   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2525   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2526   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2527 
  2528 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2529 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2532 
  2533 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2534 
  2535   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2536   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2537   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2538   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2539   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2540   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2541   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2542   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2543   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2544   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2545   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2546   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2547   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2548   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2549   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2550   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2551   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2552   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2553 
  2554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2557 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2558 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2559 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2560 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2561 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2562 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2563 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2564 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2565 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2566 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2567 
  2568 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2569 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2570 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2571 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2572 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2573 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2574 
  2575 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2576 through option types.
  2577 
  2578 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2579 relations.
  2580 
  2581 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2585 
  2586   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2587   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2588   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2589   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2590   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2591   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2592   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2593   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2594   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2595   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2596   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2597   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2598   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2599   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2600   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2601   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2602   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2603   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2604   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2605   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2606   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2607   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2608   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2609   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2610   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2611   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2612   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2613   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2614   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2615   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2616   zless_le ~> less_le
  2617   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2618   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2619   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2620 
  2621 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2622 
  2623   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2624 
  2625 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2626 
  2627 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2628 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2629 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2630 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2634 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2635 
  2636 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2637 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2638 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2639 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2640 follows:
  2641 
  2642   Operations:
  2643   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2644   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2645   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2646   del -> rbt_del
  2647   delete -> rbt_delete
  2648   ins -> rbt_ins
  2649   insert -> rbt_insert
  2650   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2651   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2652   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2653   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2654   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2655   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2656   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2657   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2658   union -> rbt_union
  2659   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2660   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2661 
  2662   Lemmas:
  2663   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2664   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2665   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2666   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2667   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2668   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2669   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2670   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2671   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2672   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2673   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2674   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2675   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2676   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2677   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2678   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2679   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2680   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2681   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2682   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2683   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2684   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2685   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2686   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2687   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2688   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2689   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2690   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2691   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2692   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2693   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2694   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2695   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2696   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2697   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2698   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2699   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2700   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2701   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2702   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2703   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2704   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2705   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2706   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2707   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2708   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2709   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2710   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2711   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2712   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2713   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2714   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2715   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2716   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2717   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2718   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2719   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2720   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2721   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2722   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2723   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2724   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2725   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2726   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2727   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2728   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2729   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2730   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2731   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2732   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2733   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2734   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2735   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2736   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2737   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2738   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2739   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2740   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2741   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2742   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2743   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2744   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2745   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2746 
  2747 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2748 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2749 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751   Changed Operations:
  2752   float_abs -> abs
  2753   float_nprt -> nprt
  2754   float_pprt -> pprt
  2755   pow2 -> use powr
  2756   round_down -> float_round_down
  2757   round_up -> float_round_up
  2758   scale -> exponent
  2759 
  2760   Removed Operations:
  2761   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2762 
  2763   Renamed Lemmas:
  2764   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2765   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2766   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2767   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2768   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2769   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2770   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2771   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2772   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2773   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2774   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2775   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2776   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2777   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2778   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2779   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2780   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2781   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2782   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2783   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2784   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2785   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2786   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2787   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2788   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2789   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2790   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2791   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2792   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2793   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2794   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2795   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2796   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2797   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2798   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2799   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2800 
  2801   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2802   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2803   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2804   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2805   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2806   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2807   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2808   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2809   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2810   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2811 
  2812 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2813 association lists with distinct keys.
  2814 
  2815 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2816 annotated commands.
  2817 
  2818 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2819 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2820 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2821 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2822 
  2823 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2824 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2825 instead.
  2826 
  2827   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2828   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2829   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2830   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2831   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2832   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2833   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2834   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2835   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2836   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2837   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2838   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2839   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2840   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2841   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2842   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2843   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2844   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2845   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2846   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2847   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2848   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2849   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2850   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2851   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2852   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2853   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2854   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2855   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2856   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2857   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2858   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2859   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2860   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2861   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2862   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2863   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2864   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2865   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2866   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2867   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2868 
  2869 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2870 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2871 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2872 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2873 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2874 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2875 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2876 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2877 
  2878 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2879 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2880 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2881 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2882 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2883 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2884 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2885 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2886 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2887 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2888 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2889 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891   Renamed constants:
  2892   measure -> emeasure
  2893   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2894   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2895   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2896   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2897 
  2898   Removed locales:
  2899   completeable_measure_space
  2900   finite_measure_space
  2901   finite_prob_space
  2902   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2903   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2904   finite_sigma_algebra
  2905   measure_space
  2906   pair_finite_prob_space
  2907   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2908   pair_finite_space
  2909   pair_sigma_algebra
  2910   product_sigma_algebra
  2911 
  2912   Removed constants:
  2913   conditional_space
  2914   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2915   image_space
  2916   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2917   pair_measure_generator
  2918   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2919   subvimage
  2920 
  2921   Replacement theorems:
  2922   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2923   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2924   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2925   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2926   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2927   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2928   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2929   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2930   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2931   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2932   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2933   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2934   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2935   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2936   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2937   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2938   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2939   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2940   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2941   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2942   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2943   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2944   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2945   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2946   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2947   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2948   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2949   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2950   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2951   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2952   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2953   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2954   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2955   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2956   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2957   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2958   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2959   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2960   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2961   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2962   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2963   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2964   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2965   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2966   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2967   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2968   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2969   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2970   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2971   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2972   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2973   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2974   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2975   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2976   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2977   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2978   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2979   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2980   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2981   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2982   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2983   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2984   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2985   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2986   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2987   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2988   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2989   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2990   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2991   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2992   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2993   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2994   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2995   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2996   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2997   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2998   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2999   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3000   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3001   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3002   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3003   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3004   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3005   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3006   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3007   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3008   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3009   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3010   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3011   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3012   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3013   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3014   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3015   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3016   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3017   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3018   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3019   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3020   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3021   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3022   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3023   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3024   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3025   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3026   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3027   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3028   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3029   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3030   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3031   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3032   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3033   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3034   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3035   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3036   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3037   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3038   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3039   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3040   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3041   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3042   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3043   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3044   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3045   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3046   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3047   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3048   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3049   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3050 
  3051 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3052 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3053 
  3054 
  3055 *** FOL ***
  3056 
  3057 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3058 
  3059 
  3060 *** ZF ***
  3061 
  3062 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3063 analysis.
  3064 
  3065 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3066 
  3067 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3068 
  3069 
  3070 *** ML ***
  3071 
  3072 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3073 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3074 
  3075 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3076 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3077 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3078 
  3079 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3080 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3081 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3082 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3083 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3084 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3085 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3086 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3087 
  3088 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3089 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3090 
  3091 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3092 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3093 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3094 
  3095 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3096 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3099 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3100 context as well.
  3101 
  3102 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3103 
  3104   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3105   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3106   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3107   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3108   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3109   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3110   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3111   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3112   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3113   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3114   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3115   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3116 
  3117 
  3118 *** System ***
  3119 
  3120 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3121 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3122 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3123 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3124 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3125 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3126 the generic user home was intended.
  3127 
  3128 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3129 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3130 
  3131 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3132 (not just JRE).
  3133 
  3134 
  3135 
  3136 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3137 ------------------------------------
  3138 
  3139 *** General ***
  3140 
  3141 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3142 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3143 
  3144   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3145     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3146     files for checking).
  3147 
  3148   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3149     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3150     positions.
  3151 
  3152   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3153     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3154     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3155 
  3156   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3157     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3158     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3159 
  3160   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3161     cores.
  3162 
  3163   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3164     versions (garbage collection).
  3165 
  3166 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3167 including some remaining limitations.
  3168 
  3169 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3170 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3171 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3172 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3173 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3177 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3178 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3179 
  3180 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3181 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3182 usedir option -Q.
  3183 
  3184 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3185 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3186 
  3187   long_names   ~> names_long
  3188   short_names  ~> names_short
  3189   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3190 
  3191 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3192 
  3193   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3194 
  3195 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3196 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3197 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3198 
  3199 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3200 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3201 
  3202 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3203   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3204   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3205   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3206     "Classical Reasoner".
  3207 
  3208 
  3209 *** HOL ***
  3210 
  3211 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3212 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3215 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3216 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3217 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3218 class complete_linorder.
  3219 
  3220 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3221 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3222 
  3223 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3224 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3225 
  3226   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3227   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3228   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3229   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3230   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3231   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3232   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3233   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3234   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3235   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3236   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3237 
  3238 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3239 
  3240   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3241   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3242   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3243   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3244   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3245   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3246   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3247   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3248   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3249   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3250   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3251   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3252   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3253   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3254   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3255   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3256 
  3257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3263 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3264 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3265 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3268 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3269 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3273 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3274 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3275 
  3276 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3277 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3278 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3281 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3282 
  3283 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3284 
  3285     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3286     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3287 
  3288 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3289 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3292 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3295 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3296 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3297 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3300   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3301   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3302   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3303   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3304   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3305   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3306 
  3307 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3308 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3311   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3312   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3313   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3314   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3315   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3316   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3317   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3318   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3319   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3320   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3321   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3322   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3323   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3324   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3325   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3326   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3327   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3328   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3329   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3330   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3331   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3332   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3333   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3334   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3335   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3336   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3337   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3338   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3339   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3340   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3341   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3342   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3343   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3344   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3345   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3346   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3347   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3348   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3349   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3350   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3351   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3352   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3353   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3354   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3355   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3356   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3357   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3358   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3359   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3360   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3361   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3362   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3363   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3364   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3365   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3366   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3367   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3368   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3369   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3370   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3371   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3372   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3373   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3374   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3375   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3376   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3377   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3378   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3379   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3380   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3381   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3382   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3383   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3384   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3385   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3386   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3387   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3388   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3389   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3390   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3391   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3392 
  3393 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3394 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3395 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3396 
  3397 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3398 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3399 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3400 
  3401 * Code generation:
  3402 
  3403   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3404     characters in the target language.
  3405 
  3406   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3407     instead.
  3408 
  3409   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3410 
  3411   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3412     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3413 
  3414       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3415 
  3416 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3419 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3420 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3421 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3422 syntax.
  3423 
  3424 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3425 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3426 
  3427 * Nitpick:
  3428   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3429   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3430   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3431     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Sledgehammer:
  3434   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3435   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3436     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3437   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3438     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3439   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3440     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3442     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3443   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3444     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * Metis:
  3447   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3449     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Command 'try':
  3452   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3453     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3455     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3456 
  3457 * Quickcheck:
  3458   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3459     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3460   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3461     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3462   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3463     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3464     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3465     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3466   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3467     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3468 
  3469 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3470 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3471 
  3472 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3473 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3474 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3475 
  3476 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3477 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3481 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3484 arithmetic.
  3485 
  3486 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3487 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3488 and lattice type classes.
  3489 
  3490 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3491 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3492 
  3493 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3494 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3495 
  3496 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3497 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3498 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3501   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3502   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3503   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3504 
  3505 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3506 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3507 constants:
  3508 
  3509   type inat   ~> type enat
  3510   Fin         ~> enat
  3511   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3512   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3513   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3514 
  3515 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3516 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3519 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3520 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3521 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3522 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3523 
  3524 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3525 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3526 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3527 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3528 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3529 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3530 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3531 
  3532   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3533   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3534   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3535   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3536 
  3537 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3538 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3539 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3542   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3543   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3544   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3545   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3546   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3547   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3548   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3549   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3550   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3551   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3552   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3553   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3554   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3555   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3556   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3557   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3558   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3559   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3560   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3561   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3562   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3563   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3564   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3565   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3566   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3567   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3568   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3569   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3570   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3571   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3572   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3573   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3574   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3575   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3576   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3577   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3578   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3579   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3580   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3581   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3582   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3583   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3584   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3585   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3586   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3587   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3588   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3589   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3590   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3591   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3592 
  3593 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3594   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3595   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3596   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3597   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3598     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3603   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3604   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3605   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3606   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3607   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3608   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3609   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3610   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3611   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3612   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3613   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3614   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3615   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3616   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3617   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3618   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3619   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3620   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3621   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3622   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3623   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3624   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3625   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3626   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3627 
  3628 
  3629 *** Document preparation ***
  3630 
  3631 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3632 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3633 same.
  3634 
  3635 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3636 result.
  3637 
  3638 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3639 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3640 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3641 
  3642 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3643 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3644 
  3645 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3646 like this:
  3647 
  3648   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3649   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3650 
  3651 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3652 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3653 layouts.
  3654 
  3655 
  3656 *** ML ***
  3657 
  3658 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3659 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3660 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3661 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3662 under external program control.
  3663 
  3664 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3665 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3666 
  3667 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3668 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3669 (better known as Proof General).
  3670 
  3671 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3672 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3673 
  3674 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3675 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3676 
  3677 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3678 (including quotes etc.).
  3679 
  3680 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3681 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3682 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3683 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3684 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3685 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3686 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3687 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3688 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3689 
  3690 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3691 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3692 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3693 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3694 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3695 
  3696 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3697 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3698 
  3699 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3700 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3701 
  3702 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3703 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3704 
  3705 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3706 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3707 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3708 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3709 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3710 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3711 proper Proof.context.
  3712 
  3713 
  3714 *** System ***
  3715 
  3716 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3717 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3718 
  3719 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3720 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3721 
  3722 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3723 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3724 
  3725   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3726   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3727   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3728   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3729   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3730 
  3731 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3732 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3735 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3736 example:
  3737 
  3738   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3739 
  3740 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3741 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3742 
  3743 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3744 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3745 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3746 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3747 
  3748 
  3749 
  3750 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3751 ----------------------------------
  3752 
  3753 *** General ***
  3754 
  3755 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3756 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3757 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3758 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3759 like this:
  3760 
  3761   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3762 
  3763 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3764 
  3765 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3766 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3767 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3768 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3769 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3770 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3771 
  3772 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3773 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3774 the following package declarations:
  3775 
  3776   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3777   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3778 
  3779 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3780 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3781 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3782 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3783 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3784 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3785 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3786 
  3787 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3788 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3789 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3790 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3791 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3792 
  3793 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3794 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3795 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3796 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3797 
  3798 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3799 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3800 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3801 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3802 
  3803   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3804 
  3805   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3806   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3807   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3808   show_types                    show_types
  3809   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3810   show_consts                   show_consts
  3811   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3812 
  3813   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3814   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3815   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3816 
  3817   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3818   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3819 
  3820   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3821 
  3822   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3823   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3824   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3825   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3826   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3827 
  3828 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3829 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3830 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3831 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3832 
  3833 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3837   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3838 
  3839 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3840 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3841 float_token.
  3842 
  3843 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3844 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3848 DejaVu Sans.
  3849 
  3850 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3851 
  3852 
  3853 *** Pure ***
  3854 
  3855 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3856 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3857 time.
  3858 
  3859 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3860 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861 
  3862 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3863 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3866 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3867 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3868 command already provided this functionality.
  3869 
  3870 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3871 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3872 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3873 without interpretations.
  3874 
  3875 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3876 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3877 
  3878 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3879 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3880 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3881 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3882 
  3883 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3884 'definition' instead.
  3885 
  3886 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3887 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3888 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3889 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3890 
  3891 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3892 constructors.
  3893 
  3894 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3895 the local file system.
  3896 
  3897 
  3898 *** HOL ***
  3899 
  3900 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3901 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3902 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3903 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3904 
  3905   declare [[coercion f]]
  3906 
  3907 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3908 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3909 
  3910   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3911 
  3912 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3913 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3914 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3915 other theories like this:
  3916 
  3917   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3918 
  3919 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3920 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3921 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3922 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3923 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3924 for examples.
  3925 
  3926 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3927 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3930 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3931 
  3932 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3933 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3934 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3935 
  3936 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3937 functorial structure of types.
  3938 
  3939 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3940 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3941 
  3942 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3943 languages.
  3944 
  3945 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3946 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3950 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3953 combinators any longer.
  3954 
  3955 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3956 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3957 
  3958 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3959 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3960 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3961 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3962 
  3963   record 'a foo = ...
  3964   ...
  3965   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3966 
  3967 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3968 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3972 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3973 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3974 
  3975 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3976 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3977 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3978 
  3979 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3980 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3983 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3984 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3985 independently.
  3986 
  3987 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3988 counter example search.
  3989 
  3990 * Sledgehammer:
  3991   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3992     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3993     sledgehammer").
  3994   - Renamed commands:
  3995     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3996     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3997     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3998     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999   - Renamed options:
  4000     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4001     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4002     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4003     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4004     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 * Nitpick:
  4007   - Renamed options:
  4008     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4009     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4010     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4012   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4013   - Added "whack" option.
  4014   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4015   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4016   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4017   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4018     higher cardinalities.
  4019   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4020 
  4021 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4022 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4023 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4024 
  4025     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4026 
  4027 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4028 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4029 
  4030 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4031 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4032 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4033 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4034 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4035 "smt_solver".
  4036 
  4037 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4038 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4039 
  4040 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4041 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4042 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4043 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4046   - Renamed:
  4047     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4048     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4049     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050   - Added:
  4051     smt_verbose
  4052     smt_random_seed
  4053     smt_datatypes
  4054     smt_infer_triggers
  4055     smt_monomorph_limit
  4056     cvc3_options
  4057     remote_cvc3_options
  4058     remote_z3_options
  4059     yices_options
  4060 
  4061 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4062 header.
  4063 
  4064 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4065 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4066 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4067 
  4068   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4069 
  4070 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4073 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4078 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4081 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4082 
  4083 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4084 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4087 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4088 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091 
  4092 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4096 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4099 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4100 for congruent(2)).
  4101 
  4102 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4103 
  4104   types
  4105     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4106     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4107 
  4108   constants
  4109     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4110     True ~> HOL.True
  4111     False ~> HOL.False
  4112     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4113     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4114     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4115     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4116     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4117     The ~> HOL.The
  4118     All ~> HOL.All
  4119     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4120     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4121     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4122     If ~> HOL.If
  4123     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4124     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4125     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4126     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4127     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4128     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4129     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4130     op : ~> Set.member
  4131     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4132 
  4133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4136 
  4137     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4138     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4139     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4140     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4141     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4142     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4143     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4144     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4145 
  4146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148 * More stylized fact names:
  4149 
  4150   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4151   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4152   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4153   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4154 
  4155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4158 
  4159   constants
  4160     null ~> List.null
  4161 
  4162   facts
  4163     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4164     null_empty ~> null_def
  4165 
  4166 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4167 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4168 generation.
  4169 
  4170 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4171 Haskell code.
  4172 
  4173 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4174 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4175 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4178 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4181 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4182 
  4183 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4184 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4185 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 
  4187 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4188 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4192 
  4193 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4194 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4195 referred to by its qualified name.
  4196 
  4197   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4198   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4199   product ~>  Enum.product
  4200 
  4201 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4202 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4206 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4207 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4211 sort_key.
  4212 
  4213 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4217 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4218 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4219 
  4220   types
  4221     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4222               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4223               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4224         (depends on your needs)
  4225 
  4226   constants
  4227      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4228      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4229      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4230 
  4231 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4232 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4233 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4234 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4237 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4238 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4239 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4240 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4246 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4247 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4248 
  4249 
  4250 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4251 
  4252 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4253 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4254 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4255 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4256 compatibility.
  4257 
  4258 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4259 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4260 
  4261 
  4262 *** HOLCF ***
  4263 
  4264 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4265 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4266 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4270 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4271 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4272 
  4273   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4274   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4275   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4276 
  4277 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4278 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4279 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4282 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4283 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4284 domain definition now works:
  4285 
  4286   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4287 
  4288 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4289 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4290 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4291 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4292 
  4293   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4294     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4295 
  4296   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4297 
  4298 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4299 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4300 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4303 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4306 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4307 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4308 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4309 
  4310 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4311 
  4312 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4320 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4321 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4322 
  4323 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4324 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4325 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4328 still supported as an input translation.
  4329 
  4330 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4331 
  4332   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4333   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4334   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4335   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4336   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4337   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4338   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4339 
  4340 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4341 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4342 
  4343   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4344   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4345   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4346   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4347   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4348   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4349 
  4350 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4351 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4354 
  4355   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4356   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4357   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4358   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4359 
  4360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4363 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4366 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4369   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4370   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4371   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4372   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4373   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4374   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4375   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4376   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4377   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4378   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4379   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4380   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4381   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4382   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4383   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4384   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4385   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4386   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4387   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4388 
  4389 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4392   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4393   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4394   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4395   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4396   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4397   box_less             ~> box_below
  4398   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4399   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4400   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4401   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4402   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4403   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4404   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4405   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4406   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4407   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4408   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4409   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4410   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4411   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4412   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4413   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4414   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4415   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4416   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4417   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4418   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4419   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4420   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4421   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4422   up_less              ~> up_below
  4423   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4424   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4425   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4426   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4427   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4428   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4429   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4430   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4431   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4432   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4433   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4434   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4435   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4436 
  4437 
  4438 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4439 
  4440 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4441 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** ML ***
  4445 
  4446 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4447 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4448 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4449 
  4450 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4451 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4452 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4453 
  4454 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4455 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4456 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4457 
  4458 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4459 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4460 
  4461 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4462 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4463 
  4464 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4465 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4466 
  4467 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4468 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4469 
  4470 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4471 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4472 almost all situations.
  4473 
  4474 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4475 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4476 Isabelle/ML.
  4477 
  4478 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4479 meaning.
  4480 
  4481 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4482 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4483 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4484 
  4485 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4486 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4487 
  4488 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4489 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4490 
  4491 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4492 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4493 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4494 
  4495 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4496 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4497 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4498 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4499 configuration options.
  4500 
  4501 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4502 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4503 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4504 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4505 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4506 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4507 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4508 
  4509 
  4510 
  4511 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4512 ---------------------------------
  4513 
  4514 *** General ***
  4515 
  4516 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4517 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4518 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4519 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4520 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4521 their full internal name.
  4522 
  4523 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4524 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4525 Some hints on upgrading:
  4526 
  4527   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4528     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4529     which are independent of this issue.
  4530 
  4531   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4532     provides the following special forms:
  4533 
  4534       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4535       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4536       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4537 
  4538     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4539     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4540     extra variables".
  4541 
  4542     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4543     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4544     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4545     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4546     "logic".
  4547 
  4548   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4549     antiquotations:
  4550 
  4551       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4552       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4553       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4554       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4555 
  4556   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4557     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4558     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4559     antiquotations.
  4560 
  4561 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4562 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4563 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4564 diagnose syntax problems.
  4565 
  4566 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4567 
  4568 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4569 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4570 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4571 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4572 
  4573 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4574 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4575 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4576 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4579 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4580 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4581 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4582 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4585 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4586 
  4587 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4588 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4589 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4590 
  4591   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4592 
  4593 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4594 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4595 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4596 
  4597 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4598 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4602 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 *** Pure ***
  4606 
  4607 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4608 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4609 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4610 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4611 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4612 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4613 inspect proof terms.
  4614 
  4615 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4616 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4617 are added internally.  For example:
  4618 
  4619   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4620 
  4621 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4622 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4623 
  4624 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4627 'class' instead.
  4628 
  4629 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4630 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4634 invariants.
  4635 
  4636 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4637 user space functionality any longer.
  4638 
  4639 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4640 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4644 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4645 
  4646 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4647 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4648 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4649 
  4650 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4651 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4652 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4653 
  4654 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4655 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 
  4658 *** HOL ***
  4659 
  4660 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4661 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4662 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4663 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4664 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4665 
  4666 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4667 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4668 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4669 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4670 
  4671   fun
  4672     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4673   where
  4674     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4675 
  4676   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4677     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4678 
  4679   quotient_definition
  4680     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4681 
  4682 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4683 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4684 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4685 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4686 
  4687 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4688 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4689 
  4690 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4691 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4692 
  4693 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4697 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4698 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4699 
  4700 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4701 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4702 
  4703 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4710 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4713 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4714 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4717   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4718   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4719   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4720   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4721   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4722   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4723   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4724   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4725   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4726   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4727   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4728   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4729   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4730   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4731   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4732   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4733   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4734   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4735   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4736   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4737   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4738   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4739   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4740   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4741   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4742   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4743   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4744   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4745   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4746 
  4747 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4748 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4749 
  4750 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4751 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4752 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4753 
  4754 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4755 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4756 
  4757 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4758 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4759 
  4760 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4761 
  4762 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4763 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4766 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769 
  4770 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4771 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4772 
  4773 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4774 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4775 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4776 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4777 
  4778 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4779   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4780   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4781   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4785 lattices):
  4786 
  4787     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4788     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4789 
  4790     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4791 
  4792     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4793     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4794     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4795     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4796     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4797     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4798     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4799     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4800     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4801     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4802     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4803     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4804     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4805 
  4806     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4807     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4808     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4809     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4810     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4811     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4812     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4813     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4814     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4815     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4816     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4817     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4818     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4819     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4820     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4821     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4822     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4823     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4824 
  4825   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4826   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4827 
  4828     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4829     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4830     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4831     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4832     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4833 
  4834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Refined field classes:
  4837   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4838     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4839     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4840   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4844   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4845   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4846   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4847     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4848   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4849     equal_neg_zero.
  4850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4853 sets to lattices:
  4854 
  4855   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4856   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4857   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4858   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4859   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4860   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4861   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4862   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4863   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4864   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4865 
  4866 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4867 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4868 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4869 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4870 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4871 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4872 
  4873 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4874 multiset order:
  4875 
  4876   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4877     <= and <;
  4878   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4879     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4880     multiset_order;
  4881   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4882     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4883     generation;
  4884   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4885     if needed.
  4886 
  4887 Renamed:
  4888 
  4889   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4890   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4891   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4892 
  4893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4894 
  4895 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4896 
  4897 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4898 
  4899 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4900 
  4901 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4902 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4903 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905   Constants:
  4906   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4907   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4908   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4909   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4910   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4911   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4912   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4913   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4914   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4915   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4916   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4917   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4918   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4919 
  4920   Lemmas:
  4921   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4922   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4923   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4924   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4925   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4926   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4927   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4928   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4929   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4930   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4931   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4932   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4933   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4934 
  4935 * Sledgehammer:
  4936   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4937     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4938     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4939     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4940     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4941     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4942     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4944   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4945     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4946   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4947     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4948     is still experimental.)
  4949   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4950     full-typed mode.
  4951   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4952 
  4953 * Nitpick:
  4954   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4955   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4956   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4957     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4958   - Added support for quotient types.
  4959   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4960     constructs.
  4961   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4962     "termination" proofs).
  4963   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4964   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4965   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4966   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4967     record getters.
  4968   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4969   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4970   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4971   - Added "atoms" option.
  4972   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4973     problems.
  4974   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4975     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4976     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4977   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4978     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4979   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4980 
  4981 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4982   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4983   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4984   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4985   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4986   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4987   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4988   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4989   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4990   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4991 
  4992 
  4993 *** HOLCF ***
  4994 
  4995 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4996 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4997 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5000 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5001 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5002 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5005 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5006 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5007 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5008 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5011 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5012 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5013 
  5014 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5015 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5018   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5019 
  5020 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5021 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5022 
  5023   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5024   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5025   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5026   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5027   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5028 
  5029 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5030 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5033   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5034   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5035 
  5036 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5037 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5039 
  5040 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5041 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5046 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 
  5049 *** ML ***
  5050 
  5051 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5052 
  5053     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5054     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5055 
  5056     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5057     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5058     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5059     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5060 
  5061     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5062     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5063     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5064 
  5065 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5066 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5067 
  5068 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5069 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5070 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5071 
  5072 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5073 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5074 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5075 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5076 
  5077 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5078 the context or even global references.
  5079 
  5080 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5081 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5082 
  5083 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5084 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5085 
  5086   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5087   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5088   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5089   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5090   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5091   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5092   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5093   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5094   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5095   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5096 
  5097 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5098 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5099 
  5100 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5101 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5102 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5103 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5104 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5105 
  5106 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5107 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5108 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5109 Theory_Data version.
  5110 
  5111 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5112 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5113 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5114 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5115 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5116 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5117 explicitly in rare situations.
  5118 
  5119 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5120 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5122 
  5123 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5124 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5127 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5128 quite rare).
  5129 
  5130 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5131 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5132 
  5133 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5134 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5135 terms.
  5136 
  5137 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5138 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5139 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5140 
  5141 
  5142 *** System ***
  5143 
  5144 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5145 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5146 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5147 
  5148 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5149 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5150 respectively.
  5151 
  5152 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5153 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5154 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5155 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5156 
  5157   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5158 
  5159 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5160 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5161 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5162 component.
  5163 
  5164 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5165 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5166 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5167 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5168 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5169 the user for manual installation.
  5170 
  5171 
  5172 
  5173 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5174 -------------------------------------
  5175 
  5176 *** General ***
  5177 
  5178 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5179 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5180 
  5181 
  5182 *** Pure ***
  5183 
  5184 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5185 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5186 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5187 
  5188 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5189 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5190 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5191 
  5192 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5193 interpretation.
  5194 
  5195 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5196 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 
  5199 *** Document preparation ***
  5200 
  5201 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5202 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5203 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5204 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5205 
  5206 
  5207 *** HOL ***
  5208 
  5209 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5210 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5211 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5212 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5213 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5214 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5215 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5216 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5217 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5218 
  5219 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5220 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5221 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5222 
  5223 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5224 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5225 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5226 
  5227 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5228 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5229 
  5230 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5231 
  5232 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5233 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5234 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5235 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5236 
  5237 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5238 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5239 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5240 "mirabelle" utility.
  5241 
  5242 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5243 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5244 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5245 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5246 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5247 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5248 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5249 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5250 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5251 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5252 
  5253 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5254 procedure only.
  5255 
  5256 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5257 
  5258 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5259 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5260 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5261 that fail later.
  5262 
  5263 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5264 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5265 
  5266 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5267 the same method as the approximation method.
  5268 
  5269 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5270 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5271 series expansion.
  5272 
  5273 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5274 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5275 
  5276 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5277 reals.
  5278 
  5279 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5280 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5281 
  5282 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5283 fixpoint theorem.
  5284 
  5285 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5286   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5287     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5288   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5289     accordingly
  5290   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5291     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5292   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5293     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5294 
  5295 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5296 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5297 lattice.
  5298 
  5299 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5300 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5301 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5302 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5303 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5304 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5306 
  5307 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5308   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5309     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5310   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5311     le_inf_iff
  5312   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5313     sup_aci)
  5314   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5315   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5316   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5317     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5318     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5319     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5320     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5321     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5322     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5323     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5324     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5325     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5326     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5327   - authentic syntax for
  5328     Set.Pow
  5329     Set.image
  5330   - mere abbreviations:
  5331     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5332     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5333     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5334     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5335     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5336     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5337     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5338     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5339   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5340 
  5341 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5342 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5343 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5344 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5345 
  5346 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5347 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5348 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5349 
  5350 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5351 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5354 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5355 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5356 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5357 
  5358 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5359 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5360 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5361 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5362 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5363 
  5364 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5365 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5367 
  5368 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5369 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5370 
  5371 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5372 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5373 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5374 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5375 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5376 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5377 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5381     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5382     code_post       replaces    code post
  5383     etc.
  5384   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * Renamed methods:
  5387     sizechange -> size_change
  5388     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5389   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5392 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5393 
  5394 * Renamed theorems:
  5395     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5396     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5397     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5398     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5399     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5400   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 
  5409 *** HOLCF ***
  5410 
  5411 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5412 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5413 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5414 
  5415 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5416 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5417 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5418 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5419 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5420 
  5421 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5422 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5423 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5424 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5425 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5426 
  5427 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5428 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5429 constructor are pre-configured.
  5430 
  5431 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5432 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5433 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5434 
  5435 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5436 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5437 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5438 as well.)
  5439 
  5440 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5441 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5442 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5443 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5444 examples.
  5445 
  5446 
  5447 *** ML ***
  5448 
  5449 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5450 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5451 
  5452 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5453 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5454 position, logical grouping etc.
  5455 
  5456 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5457 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5458 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5459 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5460 
  5461 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5462 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5463 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5464 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5465 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5466 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5467 
  5468 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5469 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5470 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5471 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5472 experiments with references.
  5473 
  5474 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5475 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5476 
  5477 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5478 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5479 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5480 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5481 
  5482 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5483 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5484 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5485 
  5486 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5487 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5488 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5491 
  5492 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5494 
  5495 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5496 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5497 
  5498 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5499 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5500 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5501 
  5502 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5503 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5504 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5507 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5508 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5512 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5513 instead of global theory.
  5514 
  5515 
  5516 *** System ***
  5517 
  5518 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5519 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5520 usedir option -q.
  5521 
  5522 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5523 also the system manual.
  5524 
  5525 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5526 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5527 
  5528 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5529 this is always enabled.
  5530 
  5531 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5532 
  5533 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5534 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5535 currently supported on Linux only.
  5536 
  5537 
  5538 
  5539 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5540 --------------------------------
  5541 
  5542 *** General ***
  5543 
  5544 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5545 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5546 
  5547   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5548     "isatool."
  5549 
  5550   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5551     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5552 
  5553   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5554     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5555 
  5556 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5557 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5558 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5559 
  5560 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5561 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5562 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5563 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5564 via "isabelle emacs".
  5565 
  5566 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5567 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5568 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5569 
  5570 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5571 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5572 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5573 
  5574 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5575 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5576 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5577 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5578 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5579 
  5580 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5581 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5582 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5583 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5584 
  5585 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5586 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5587 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5588 
  5589 
  5590 *** Pure ***
  5591 
  5592 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5593 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5594 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5595 
  5596 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5597 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5598 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5599 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5600 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5601 
  5602 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5603 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5604 useful in locale declarations.
  5605 
  5606 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5607 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5608 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5609 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5610 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5611 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5612 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5613 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5614 no longer generated.
  5615 
  5616 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5617 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5618 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5619 
  5620 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5621 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5622 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5623 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5624 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5625 
  5626 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5627 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5628 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5629 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5630 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5631 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5632 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5633 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5634 
  5635 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5636 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5637 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5638 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5639 
  5640 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5641 
  5642 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5643 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5644 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5645 
  5646 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5647 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5648 
  5649 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5650 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5651 in HOL, write
  5652 
  5653     class foo = ...
  5654 
  5655 instead of
  5656 
  5657     class foo = type + ...
  5658 
  5659 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5660 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5661 
  5662 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5663 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5664 
  5665 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5666 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5667 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5668 
  5669 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5670 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5671 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5672 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5673 directly in regular applications.
  5674 
  5675 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5676 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5677 
  5678 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5679 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5680 
  5681 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5682 theory context.
  5683 
  5684 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5685 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5686 
  5687 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5688 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5689 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5690 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5691 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5692 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5693 
  5694   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5695 
  5696 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5697 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5698 normalization.
  5699 
  5700 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5701 addressing etc.
  5702 
  5703 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5704 
  5705   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5706   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5707 
  5708 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5709 
  5710   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5711      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5712      parts of the code generator framework).
  5713 
  5714   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5715      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5716      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5717 
  5718 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5719 
  5720 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5721 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5722 
  5723 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5724 patterns, e.g.
  5725 
  5726     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5727 
  5728 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5729 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5730 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5731 hyphen:
  5732 
  5733     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5734 
  5735 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5736 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5737 
  5738 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5739 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5740 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5741 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5742 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5743 higher-order unification.
  5744 
  5745 
  5746 *** Document preparation ***
  5747 
  5748 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5749 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5750 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5751 
  5752 
  5753 *** HOL ***
  5754 
  5755 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5756 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5757 
  5758 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5759 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5760 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5761 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5762 Main, as before.
  5763 
  5764 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5765 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5766 
  5767 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5768 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5769 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5770 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5771 
  5772 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5773 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5774 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5775 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5776 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5777 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5778 
  5779 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5780 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5781 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5782 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5783 
  5784 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5785 menu.
  5786 
  5787 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5788 (contains the empty clause).
  5789 
  5790 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5791 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5792 
  5793 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5794 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5795 
  5796 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5797 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5798 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5801 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5802 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5803 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5804 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5805 
  5806 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5807 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5808 
  5809 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5810 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5811 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5812 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5813 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5814 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5815 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5816 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5817 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5818 
  5819 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5820 
  5821 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5822 
  5823 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5824 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5827 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5828 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5829 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5830 
  5831 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5832 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5833 
  5834     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5835     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5836     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5837     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5838     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5839     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5840     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5841     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5842 
  5843 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5844 theory Set.
  5845 
  5846 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5847 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5848 
  5849 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5850 
  5851 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5852 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5853 
  5854 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5855 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5856 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5857 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5858 allowed. For examples see
  5859 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5860 
  5861 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5862 
  5863 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5865 
  5866 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5867 structure:
  5868 
  5869     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5870     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5871     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5872     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5873     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5874     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5875     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5876     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5877     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5878     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5879     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5880     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5881     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5882     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5883     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5884     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5885     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5886     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5887     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5888     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5889     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5890     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5891     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5892     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5893     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5894     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5895     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5896     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5897     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5898     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5899     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5900     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5901     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5902 
  5903     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5904     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5905     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5906     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5907     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5908     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5909     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5910     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5911     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5912     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5913 
  5914     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5915     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5916     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5917     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5918     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5919     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5920 
  5921 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5922 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5923 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5924 
  5925 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5926 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5927 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5928 
  5929 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5930 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5933 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5934 
  5935 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5936 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5937 proofs, e.g.
  5938 
  5939   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5940 
  5941 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5942 
  5943 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5944 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5945 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5946 
  5947 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5948 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5950 
  5951 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5952 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5953 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5957 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5958 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5959 preorder_class.*.
  5960 
  5961 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5962 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5963 
  5964 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5965 
  5966   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5967 
  5968 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5969 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5970 fold_image.
  5971 
  5972 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5973 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5974 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5975 the former will disappear at some point.
  5976 
  5977 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5978 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5979 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5980 
  5981 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5982 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5983 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5984 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5985 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5986 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5987 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5988 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5989 
  5990 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5991 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5992 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5993 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5994 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5995 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5996 
  5997     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5998     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5999     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  6000     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  6001     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  6002     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  6003     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6004 
  6005 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  6006 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6007 rename old lemmas as follows:
  6008 
  6009 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  6010 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  6011 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  6012 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  6013 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  6014 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  6015 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  6016 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  6017 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  6018 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  6019 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  6020 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  6021 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  6022 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  6023 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  6024 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  6025 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  6026 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  6027 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  6028 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  6029 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  6030 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  6031 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  6032 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  6033 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  6034 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  6035 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6036 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  6037 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  6038 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  6039 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  6040 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  6041 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  6042 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  6043 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  6044 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  6045 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  6046 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  6047 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  6048 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  6049 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  6050 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  6051 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  6052 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  6053 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  6054 
  6055 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  6058 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  6059 
  6060 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  6061 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  6062 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  6063 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  6064 
  6065 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  6066 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  6067 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  6068 theory RealVector.
  6069 
  6070 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  6071 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  6072 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  6073 and inner products are included.
  6074 
  6075 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  6076 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  6077 supported.
  6078 
  6079 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  6080 first diagonalization argument.
  6081 
  6082 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  6083 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  6084 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  6085 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6086 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  6087 
  6088     hide (open) const gcd
  6089     abbreviation gcd where
  6090       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  6091     notation (output)
  6092       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  6093 
  6094 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  6095 
  6096 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  6097 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  6098 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6099 
  6100 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  6101 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  6102 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  6103 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  6104 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  6105 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  6106 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  6107 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  6108 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  6109 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  6110 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  6111 cases.
  6112 
  6113 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  6114 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  6115 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  6116 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  6117 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  6118 
  6119     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  6120     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  6121     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  6122     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  6123     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  6124 
  6125 
  6126 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6127 
  6128 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  6129 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  6130 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  6131 
  6132 * New theory of factorial domains.
  6133 
  6134 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  6135 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  6136 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  6137 
  6138 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6139 
  6140 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  6141 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  6142 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  6143 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  6144 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  6145 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  6146 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  6147 
  6148 
  6149 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6150 
  6151 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  6152 
  6153 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  6154 theory targets.
  6155 
  6156 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  6157 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  6158 'inductive' etc.
  6159 
  6160 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  6161 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  6162 
  6163 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  6164 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  6165 
  6166 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  6167 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  6168 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  6169 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  6170 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  6171 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  6172 the algorithm W:
  6173 
  6174  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6175  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6176          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6177 
  6178 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6179 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6180 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6181 
  6182 
  6183 *** HOLCF ***
  6184 
  6185 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6186 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6187 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6188 
  6189 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6190 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6191 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6192 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6193 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6196 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6197 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6198 
  6199 
  6200 *** ZF ***
  6201 
  6202 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6203 
  6204 
  6205 *** ML ***
  6206 
  6207 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6208 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6209 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6210 5.2.1!
  6211 
  6212 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6213 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6214 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6215 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6216 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6217 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6218 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6219 
  6220 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6221 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6222 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6223 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6224 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6225 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6226 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6227 
  6228 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6229 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6230 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6231 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6232 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6233 
  6234 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6235 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6236 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6237 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6238 Method.add_method.
  6239 
  6240 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6241 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6242 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6243 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6244 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6245 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6246 
  6247 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6248 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6249 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6250 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6251 examples.
  6252 
  6253 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6254 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6255 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6256 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6257 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6258 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6259 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6260 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6261 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6262 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6263 
  6264 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6265 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the