NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Feb 20 16:56:51 2014 +0100 (2014-02-20)
changeset 55622 ce575c2212fc
parent 55585 014138b356c4
child 55643 18fe288f6801
permissions -rw-r--r--
clarified markup cumulation order (see also 25306d92f4ad and 0009a6ebc83b), e.g. relevant for completion_context;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    33 auxiliary ML files.
    34 
    35 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    36 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    37 
    38 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    39 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    40 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    41 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    42 
    43 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    44 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    45 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Pure ***
    49 
    50 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    51 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    52 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    53 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    54 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    55 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    56 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    57 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    58 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    59 
    60 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    61 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    62 instantiated theorem.
    63 
    64 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    65 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    66 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    67 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    68 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    69 
    70   attribute_setup standard =
    71     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    72 
    73 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    74 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    75 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    76 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    77 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    78 
    79 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    80 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    81 differently).
    82 
    83 
    84 *** HOL ***
    85 
    86 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    87 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    88 
    89 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    90   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    91   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    92   "Main".
    93   Theory renamings:
    94     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    95     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    96     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    97     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    98     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    99     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   100     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   101     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   102     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   103     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   104     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   105     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   106     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   107     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   108     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   109     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   110     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   111     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   112     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   113     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   114     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   115     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   116   New theories:
   117     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   118     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   119     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   120     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   121     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   122   Discontinued theories:
   123     BNF/BNF.thy
   124     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   125   Renamed commands:
   126     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   127     primrec_new ~> primrec
   128     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   129   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   130 
   131 * Old and new (co)datatype packages:
   132   * Generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed "case_xxx"
   133     and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   134     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   135 
   136 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   137   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   138   datatype package.
   139   Renamed constants:
   140     Option.set ~> set_option
   141     Option.map ~> map_option
   142     option_rel ~> rel_option
   143   Renamed theorems:
   144     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   145     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   146     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   147     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   148     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   149     map.simps ~> list.map
   150     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   151     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   152     the.simps ~> option.sel
   153   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * New theory:
   156     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   157 
   158 * Theory reorganizations:
   159   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   160 
   161 * Sledgehammer:
   162   - New option:
   163       smt_proofs
   164   - Renamed options:
   165       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   166       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   167     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Metis:
   170   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   171     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   174 
   175 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   178 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   179 
   180 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   181 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   182 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   183 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   184 
   185 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   189 with the given constants.
   190 
   191 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   192 
   193 Fact consolidations:
   194     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   195     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   196     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   197     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   198     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   199     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   200     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   201     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   202     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   203     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   204     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   205     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   206     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   207     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   208     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   209     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   210     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   211     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   212     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   213     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   214     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   215     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   216     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   217     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   218     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   219     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   220     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   221     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   222     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   223     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   224     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   225     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   226     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   227     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   228     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   229     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   230     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   231     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   232     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   233     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   234 
   235 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   236 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   237 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   238 
   239 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   240 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   241 
   242 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   243 
   244 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   245 
   246 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   253 operations on records.
   254 
   255 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   259     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   263     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   264     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   268   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   269   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   270   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   271     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   272   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   273     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   274   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   275 INCOMPATBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   278     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   279     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   280     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   281     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Fact name consolidation:
   285     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   286     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   287     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   288     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   289     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   293 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   294 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   295 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   296 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   297 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   298 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   299 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   302 
   303 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   304 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   305 
   306 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   307 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   308 
   309 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   310 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   311 or the brute way with
   312 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   313 
   314 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   315 
   316 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   317 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   320 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   321 
   322 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   323 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   324 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   325 INCOMPATIBILITY
   326 
   327 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   328 
   329 * Nitpick:
   330   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   331     infinite values.
   332 
   333 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   334   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   335   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   336     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   337     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   338     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   339     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   340     intervals.
   341 
   342 
   343 *** Scala ***
   344 
   345 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   346 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   347 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   348 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   349 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 
   351 
   352 *** ML ***
   353 
   354 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   355 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   356 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   357 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   358 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   359 of schematic variables.
   360 
   361 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   362 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   364 formal context.
   365 
   366 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   367 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   368 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   369 actually belongs to it).
   370 
   371 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   372 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   373 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   374 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   375 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   376 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   377 
   378 
   379 *** System ***
   380 
   381 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   382 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   383 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   384 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   385 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   386 
   387 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   388 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   389 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   390 
   391 
   392 
   393 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   394 -------------------------------------
   395 
   396 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   397 
   398 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   399 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   400 
   401 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   402 after edits surrounding the command location.
   403 
   404 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   405 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   406 e.g. out-of-memory).
   407 
   408 
   409 *** System ***
   410 
   411 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   412 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   413 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   414 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   415 
   416 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   417 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   418 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   419 
   420 
   421 
   422 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   423 -------------------------------------
   424 
   425 *** General ***
   426 
   427 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   428 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   429 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   430 
   431 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   432 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   433 
   434 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   435 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   436 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   437 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   438 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   439 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   440 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   441 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   442 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   443 syntax.
   444 
   445 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   446 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   449 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   450 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   451 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   452 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   453 
   454 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   458 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   459 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   460 
   461 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   462 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   463 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   464 
   465 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   466 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   467 
   468 
   469 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   470 
   471 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   472 Documentation panel.
   473 
   474 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   475 documentation.
   476 
   477 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   478 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   479 
   480 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   481 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   482 normal editing and checking process.
   483 
   484 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   485 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   486 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   487 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   488 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   489 
   490 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   491 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   492 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   493 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   494 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   495 
   496 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   497 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   498 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   499 
   500 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   501 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   502 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   503 to resolve conflict.
   504 
   505 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   506 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   507 
   508 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   509 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   510 such command executions while editing.
   511 
   512 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   513 document content.
   514 
   515 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   516 toplevel theorem statements.
   517 
   518 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   519 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   520 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   521 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   522 
   523 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   524 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   525 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   526 
   527 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   528 / Global Options / Appearance".
   529 
   530 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   531 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   532 
   533 
   534 *** Pure ***
   535 
   536 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   537 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   538 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   539 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   540 details.
   541 
   542 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   543 
   544 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   545 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   546 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   547 
   548 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   550 
   551 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   552 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   553 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   554 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   555 
   556 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   557 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   558 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   561 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   562 
   563 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   564 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   565 situations.
   566 
   567 
   568 *** HOL ***
   569 
   570 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   571 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   575 
   576 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   577 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   578 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   579 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   580 
   581   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   582 
   583 * Code generator:
   584   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   585     'code_instance'.
   586   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   587     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   588 
   589 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   590 examples.
   591 
   592 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   593 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   594 to distinguish both when desired.
   595 
   596 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   597 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   598 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   599 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   600 
   601 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   602 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   603 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   604 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   605 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   606 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   609 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   610 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   611 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   612 
   613 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   614 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   615 
   616 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   617 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   618 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   619 
   620 * Lifting:
   621   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   622     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   623       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   624       transfer rules
   625     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   626       correspondence relation can be generated
   627     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   628       parametricity
   629     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   630   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   631   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   632     copies
   633   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   634     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   635     anonymous context)
   636   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   637     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   638   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   639     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   640   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   641     INCOMPATIBILITY
   642 
   643 * Transfer:
   644   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   645     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   646   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   647   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   648     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   649   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   650 
   651 * Reification and reflection:
   652   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   653     "Reification".
   654   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   655   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   659   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   660     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   661     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   662   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   663     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   664   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   665     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   666     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   667     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   668     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   669     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   670     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   671     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   672   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   673     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   674   - Fact renames:
   675       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   676       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   680 
   681 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   682 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   683 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   687 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   688 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   689 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   690 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   691 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   692 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   693 lemmas.
   694 
   695 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   696 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   697 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   700 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   701 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   702 
   703 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   704 top and bottom elements.
   705 
   706 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   707 
   708 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   709 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   710 
   711  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   712    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   713    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   714 
   715  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   716    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   717    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   718 
   719    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   720    arbitrary filter.
   721 
   722  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   723    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   724    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   725    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   726    on a compact set.
   727 
   728  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   729    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   730    linear_continuum_topology).
   731 
   732  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   733    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   734    on all sequences converging to x.
   735 
   736  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   737    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   738    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   739    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   740    left or right.
   741 
   742  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   743 
   744      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   745 
   746  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   747    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   748 
   749  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   750    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   751    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   752    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   753    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   754    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   755 
   756  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   757 
   758    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   759 
   760    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   761      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   762 
   763    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   764 
   765    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   766      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   767 
   768    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   769 
   770    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   771 
   772  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   773 
   774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * Nitpick:
   777   - Added option "spy"
   778   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   779 
   780 * Sledgehammer:
   781   - Renamed option:
   782       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   783     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   785   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   786   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   787 
   788 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   789 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   790 
   791 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   792   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   793   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   794     generated code.
   795   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   796   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   797   - Fact renames:
   798     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   799     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   800     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   801 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 
   803 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   804 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   805 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   806 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   807 
   808 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   809 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   810 
   811 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   814 
   815     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   816     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   817 
   818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   821 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   822 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   823 
   824 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   825 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   826 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   827 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 * HOL-BNF:
   830   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   831     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   832     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   833     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   834   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   835     coinduct).
   836   - Renamed keywords:
   837     data ~> datatype_new
   838     codata ~> codatatype
   839     bnf_def ~> bnf
   840   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   841     discs ~> disc
   842     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   843     map_id' ~> map_id
   844     sels ~> sel
   845     set_map' ~> set_map
   846     sets ~> set
   847 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 
   850 *** ML ***
   851 
   852 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   853 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   854 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   855 Examples.thy in particular.
   856 
   857 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   858 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   859 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   860 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   861 
   862 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   863 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   864 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   865 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   869 
   870     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   871     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   872 
   873 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874 
   875 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   876 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   877 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   878 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   879 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   880 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   881 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   882 
   883 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   884 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   885 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   886 clasets separately from the context.
   887 
   888 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   889 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   890 
   891 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   892 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   893 
   894 
   895 *** System ***
   896 
   897 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   898 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899 
   900 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   901 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   904 settings variable.
   905 
   906 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   907 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   908 always pdf.
   909 
   910 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   911 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   912 
   913 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   914 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   915 
   916 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   917 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   918 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   919 
   920 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   921 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   922 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   923 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   924 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   925 for HTML presentation of theories.
   926 
   927 
   928 
   929 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   930 -----------------------------------
   931 
   932 *** General ***
   933 
   934 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   935 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   936 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   937 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   938 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   939 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   940 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   941 
   942 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   943 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   944 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   945 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   946 
   947 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   948 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   949 
   950 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   951 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   952 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   953 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   954 dependencies properly.
   955 
   956 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   957 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   958 
   959 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   960 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   961 
   962 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   963 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   964 and "class ... context ...".
   965 
   966 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   967 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   968 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   969 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   970 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   971 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   972 
   973 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   974 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   975 
   976 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   977 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   978 
   979 
   980 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   981 
   982 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   983 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   984 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   985 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   986 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   987 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   988 
   989 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   990 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   991 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   992 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   993 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   994 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   995 
   996 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   997 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   998 browser on demand.
   999 
  1000 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1001 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1002 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1003 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1004 
  1005 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1006 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1007 
  1008 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1009 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1010 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1011 potentially infinite message streams.
  1012 
  1013 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1014 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1015 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1016 schemes.
  1017 
  1018 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1019 symbols.
  1020 
  1021 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1022 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1023 
  1024 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1025 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1026 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1027 
  1028 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1029 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1030 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1031 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1032 
  1033 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1034 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1035 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1036 
  1037 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1038 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1039 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1040 Isabelle distribution.
  1041 
  1042 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1043 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1044 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1045 
  1046 
  1047 *** Pure ***
  1048 
  1049 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1050 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1051 
  1052 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1053 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1054 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1057 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1058 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1059 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1060 with some care where this is really required.
  1061 
  1062 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1063 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1064 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1065 
  1066   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1067 
  1068 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1069 a Hasse diagram.
  1070 
  1071 
  1072 *** HOL ***
  1073 
  1074 * Sledgehammer:
  1075 
  1076   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1077     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1078   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1079   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1080   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1081   - Renamed options:
  1082       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1083       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1084       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1085       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1086 
  1087 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1088 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1089 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1090 
  1091 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Lifting:
  1095   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1096   - quot_del attribute
  1097   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1098 
  1099 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1100 expressions.
  1101 
  1102 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1103 pointfree expressions.
  1104 
  1105 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1106 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1107 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1108 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1112 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1113 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1114 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1115 accordingly.
  1116 
  1117 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1118 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1121 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1124 
  1125 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1126 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1127 
  1128 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1129 
  1130 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1131 
  1132   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1133   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1134 
  1135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1138 
  1139   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1140   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1141 
  1142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1145 
  1146   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1147     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1148     output f x converges to G.
  1149 
  1150   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1151     infinity (at_bot).
  1152 
  1153   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1154     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1155 
  1156   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1157     at_top".
  1158 
  1159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1160 
  1161 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1162 lattice type classes.
  1163 
  1164 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1165 
  1166     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1167     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1168 
  1169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1172 changes as follows.
  1173 
  1174   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1175 
  1176       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1177       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1178 
  1179   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1180     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1181     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1182     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1183 
  1184   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1185     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1186     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1187 
  1188   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1189     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1190     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1191     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1192 
  1193   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1194     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1195 
  1196       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1197       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1198       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1199       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1200       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1201       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1202       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1203       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1204       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1205       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1206       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1207       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1208       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1209       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1210       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1211       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1212 
  1213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1216 
  1217 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1218 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1219 
  1220 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1221 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1222 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1223 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1224 
  1225   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1226   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1227   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1228   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1229   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1230   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1231   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1232   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1233   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1234   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1235 
  1236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1239 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1240 Data").
  1241 
  1242 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1243 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1244 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1245 code.
  1246 
  1247 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1248 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1249 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1253 
  1254 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1255 
  1256 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1257 
  1258   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1259   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1260 
  1261 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1262 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1263 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1264 
  1265   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1266 
  1267     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1268     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1269     cart_base i  removed
  1270     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1271 
  1272   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1273 
  1274   Renamed lemmas:
  1275 
  1276     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1277     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1278     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1279     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1280     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1281     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1282     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1283     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1284     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1285     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1286 
  1287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * HOL/Probability:
  1290 
  1291   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1292 
  1293   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1294     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1295     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1296 
  1297   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1298     projective family).
  1299 
  1300 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1301 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1302 
  1303 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1304 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1305 datatypes.
  1306 
  1307 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1308 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1309 
  1310 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1311 trees for the code generator.
  1312 
  1313 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1314 Lifting/Transfer.
  1315 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 
  1321 *** Document preparation ***
  1322 
  1323 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1324 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1325 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1326 
  1327 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1328 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1329 
  1330 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1331 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1332 document/root.tex.
  1333 
  1334 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1335 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 
  1338 *** ML ***
  1339 
  1340 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1341 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1342 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1343 
  1344 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1345 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1346 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1347 
  1348 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1349 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1350 necessarily printing visible text.
  1351 
  1352 
  1353 *** System ***
  1354 
  1355 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1356 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1357 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1358 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1359 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1360 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1361 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1362 
  1363 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1364 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1365 
  1366   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1367 
  1368 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1369 
  1370 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1371 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1372 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1373 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1374 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1375 
  1376 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1377 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1378 
  1379 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1380 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1381 
  1382 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1386 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1387 version of Isabelle.
  1388 
  1389 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1390 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1391 
  1392 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1393 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1394 for home-made settings.
  1395 
  1396 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1397 
  1398 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1399 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1400 configuration.
  1401 
  1402 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1403 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1405 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1406 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1407 
  1408 
  1409 
  1410 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1411 ------------------------------
  1412 
  1413 *** General ***
  1414 
  1415 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1416 
  1417   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1418     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1419   - markup for bound variables
  1420   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1421   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1422   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1423     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1424 
  1425 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1426 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1427 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1428 
  1429 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1430 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1431 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1432 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1433 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1434 
  1435   context
  1436     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1437     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1438   begin
  1439 
  1440   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1441 
  1442   end
  1443 
  1444   thm my_trans
  1445 
  1446 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1447 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1448 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1449 
  1450 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1451 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1452 
  1453 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1454 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1455 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1456 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1457 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1458 
  1459 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1460 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1461 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1462 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1463 indices of schematic variables.
  1464 
  1465 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1466 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1467 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1468 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1469 etc. was exploited.
  1470 
  1471 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1472 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1473 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1474 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1475 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1476 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1477 
  1478 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1479 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1480 manual.
  1481 
  1482 
  1483 *** Pure ***
  1484 
  1485 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1486 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1487 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1488 
  1489 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1490 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1491 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1492 undocumented feature.)
  1493 
  1494 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1495 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1496 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1497 
  1498   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1499 
  1500   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1501     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1502 
  1503 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1504 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1505 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1506 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1507 
  1508 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1509 
  1510     num ~> num_token
  1511     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1512     xstr ~> str_token
  1513 
  1514 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1515 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1516 position information via constraints).
  1517 
  1518 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1519 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1520 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1523 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1524 
  1525 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1526 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1527 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1530 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1533 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1534 
  1535   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1536 
  1537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1540 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1543 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1544 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1545 
  1546 
  1547 *** HOL ***
  1548 
  1549 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1550 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1551 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1552 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1553 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1554 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1555 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1556 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1557 possible.
  1558 
  1559 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1560 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1561 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1562 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1563 
  1564 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1565 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1568 
  1569 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1570 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1571 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1572 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1573 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1574 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1575 
  1576   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1577     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1578 
  1579   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1580     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1581     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1582 
  1583   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1584     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1585 
  1586   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1587     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1588     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1589 
  1590   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1591     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1592 
  1593 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1594 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1595 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1596 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1597 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1598 
  1599   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1600     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1601     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1602     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1603     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1604 
  1605     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1606     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1607 
  1608   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1609     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1610     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1611     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1612     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1613     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1614     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1615     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1616 
  1617   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1618     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1619     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1620     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1621 
  1622   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1623     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1624     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1625     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1626 
  1627   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1628     from type nat to type int.
  1629 
  1630 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1631 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1632 
  1633   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1634     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1635     type.  Example syntax:
  1636 
  1637     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1638       is List.insert
  1639 
  1640     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1641     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1642     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1643     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1644     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1645     by the package.
  1646 
  1647   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1648     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1649     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1650     code generation for each constant.
  1651 
  1652   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1653     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1654     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1655     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1656     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1657 
  1658   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1659     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1660     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1661 
  1662 * Quotient package:
  1663 
  1664   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1665     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1666 
  1667   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1668     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1669 
  1670   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1671     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1672     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1675     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1678 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1679 
  1680 * Quickcheck:
  1681 
  1682   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1683     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1684     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1685     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1686     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1687 
  1688     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1689     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1690     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1691 
  1692     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1693     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1694 
  1695     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1696     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1697     show genuine counterexamples.
  1698 
  1699   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1700     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1701 
  1702     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1703     constructors of that type.
  1704 
  1705   - Support for multisets.
  1706 
  1707   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1708 
  1709   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1710     conjectures in a locale context.
  1711 
  1712 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1713 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1714 
  1715 * Sledgehammer:
  1716   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1717     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1718   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1719   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1720     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1721   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1722   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1723   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1724   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1725 
  1726 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1727 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1728 
  1729 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1730 
  1731 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1734 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1735 
  1736   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1737 
  1738 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1739 a list and a nat.
  1740 
  1741 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1742 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1743 
  1744 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1745 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1746 default.
  1747 
  1748 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1749 
  1750   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1751 
  1752 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1753 
  1754 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1755 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1756 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1757 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1758 one_case.
  1759 
  1760 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1761 the result of the fact expression.
  1762 
  1763 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1764 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1765 of some relation theorems:
  1766 
  1767   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1768   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1769   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1770   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1771   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1772   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1773 
  1774 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1775 
  1776 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1777 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1778 
  1779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1782 to match the constant's name:
  1783 
  1784   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1785   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1786   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1787   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1788   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1789   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1790   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1791   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1792   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1793   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1794   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1795   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1796   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1797   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1798   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1799   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1800   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1801   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1802   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1803   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1804   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1805   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1806   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1807   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1808 
  1809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1810 
  1811 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1812 and corresponding theorem names:
  1813 
  1814   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1815 
  1816   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1817 
  1818   - Renamed theorems:
  1819 
  1820     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1821     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1822     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1823     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1824     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1825     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1826     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1827     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1828     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1829     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1830     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1831     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1832     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1833     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1834     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1835     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1836     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1837     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1838     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1839     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1840     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1841     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1842     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1843 
  1844     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1845 
  1846     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1847 
  1848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1851 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1852 
  1853   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1854   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1855   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1856   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1857   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1858   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1859   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1860   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1861   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1862   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1863   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1864   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1865   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1866   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1867   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1868   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1869   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1870   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1871   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1872   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1873   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1874 
  1875 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1876 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 
  1880 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1881 
  1882   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1883   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1884   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1885   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1886   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1887   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1888   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1889   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1890   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1891   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1892   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1893   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1894   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1895   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1896   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1897   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1898   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1899   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1900 
  1901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1902 
  1903 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1904 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1905 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1906 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1907 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1908 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1909 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1910 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1911 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1912 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1913 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1914 
  1915 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1916 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1917 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1918 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1919 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1920 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1921 
  1922 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1923 through option types.
  1924 
  1925 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1926 relations.
  1927 
  1928 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1931 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1932 
  1933   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1934   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1935   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1936   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1937   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1938   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1939   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1940   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1941   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1942   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1943   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1944   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1945   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1946   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1947   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1948   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1949   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1950   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1951   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1952   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1953   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1954   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1955   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1956   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1957   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1958   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1959   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1960   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1961   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1962   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1963   zless_le ~> less_le
  1964   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1965   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1966   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1967 
  1968 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1969 
  1970   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1971 
  1972 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1973 
  1974 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1975 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1976 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1977 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1981 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1982 
  1983 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1984 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1985 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1986 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1987 follows:
  1988 
  1989   Operations:
  1990   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1991   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1992   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1993   del -> rbt_del
  1994   delete -> rbt_delete
  1995   ins -> rbt_ins
  1996   insert -> rbt_insert
  1997   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1998   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1999   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2000   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2001   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2002   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2003   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2004   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2005   union -> rbt_union
  2006   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2007   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2008 
  2009   Lemmas:
  2010   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2011   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2012   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2013   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2014   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2015   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2016   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2017   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2018   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2019   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2020   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2021   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2022   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2023   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2024   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2025   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2026   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2027   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2028   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2029   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2030   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2031   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2032   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2033   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2034   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2035   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2036   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2037   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2038   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2039   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2040   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2041   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2042   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2043   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2044   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2045   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2046   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2047   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2048   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2049   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2050   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2051   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2052   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2053   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2054   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2055   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2056   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2057   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2058   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2059   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2060   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2061   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2062   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2063   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2064   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2065   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2066   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2067   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2068   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2069   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2070   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2071   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2072   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2073   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2074   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2075   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2076   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2077   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2078   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2079   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2080   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2081   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2082   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2083   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2084   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2085   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2086   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2087   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2088   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2089   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2090   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2091   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2092   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2093 
  2094 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2095 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2096 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098   Changed Operations:
  2099   float_abs -> abs
  2100   float_nprt -> nprt
  2101   float_pprt -> pprt
  2102   pow2 -> use powr
  2103   round_down -> float_round_down
  2104   round_up -> float_round_up
  2105   scale -> exponent
  2106 
  2107   Removed Operations:
  2108   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2109 
  2110   Renamed Lemmas:
  2111   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2112   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2113   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2114   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2115   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2116   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2117   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2118   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2119   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2120   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2121   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2122   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2123   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2124   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2125   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2126   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2127   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2128   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2129   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2130   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2131   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2132   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2133   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2134   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2135   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2136   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2137   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2138   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2139   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2140   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2141   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2142   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2143   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2144   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2145   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2146   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2147 
  2148   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2149   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2150   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2151   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2152   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2153   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2154   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2155   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2156   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2157   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2158 
  2159 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2160 association lists with distinct keys.
  2161 
  2162 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2163 annotated commands.
  2164 
  2165 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2166 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2167 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2168 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2171 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2172 instead.
  2173 
  2174   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2175   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2176   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2177   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2178   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2179   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2180   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2181   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2182   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2183   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2184   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2185   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2186   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2187   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2188   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2189   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2190   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2191   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2192   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2193   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2194   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2195   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2196   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2197   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2198   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2199   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2200   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2201   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2202   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2203   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2204   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2205   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2206   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2207   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2208   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2209   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2210   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2211   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2212   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2213   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2214   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2215 
  2216 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2217 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2218 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2219 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2220 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2221 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2222 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2223 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2224 
  2225 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2226 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2227 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2228 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2229 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2230 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2231 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2232 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2233 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2234 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2235 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2236 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238   Renamed constants:
  2239   measure -> emeasure
  2240   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2241   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2242   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2243   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2244 
  2245   Removed locales:
  2246   completeable_measure_space
  2247   finite_measure_space
  2248   finite_prob_space
  2249   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2250   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2251   finite_sigma_algebra
  2252   measure_space
  2253   pair_finite_prob_space
  2254   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2255   pair_finite_space
  2256   pair_sigma_algebra
  2257   product_sigma_algebra
  2258 
  2259   Removed constants:
  2260   conditional_space
  2261   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2262   image_space
  2263   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2264   pair_measure_generator
  2265   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2266   subvimage
  2267 
  2268   Replacement theorems:
  2269   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2270   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2271   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2272   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2273   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2274   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2275   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2276   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2277   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2278   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2279   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2280   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2281   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2282   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2283   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2284   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2285   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2286   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2287   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2288   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2289   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2290   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2291   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2292   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2293   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2294   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2295   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2296   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2297   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2298   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2299   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2300   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2301   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2302   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2303   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2304   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2305   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2306   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2307   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2308   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2309   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2310   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2311   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2312   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2313   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2314   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2315   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2316   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2317   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2318   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2319   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2320   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2321   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2322   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2323   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2324   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2325   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2326   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2327   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2328   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2329   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2330   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2331   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2332   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2333   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2334   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2335   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2336   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2337   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2338   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2339   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2340   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2341   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2342   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2343   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2344   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2345   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2346   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2347   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2348   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2349   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2350   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2351   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2352   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2353   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2354   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2355   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2356   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2357   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2358   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2359   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2360   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2361   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2362   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2363   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2364   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2365   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2366   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2367   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2368   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2369   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2370   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2371   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2372   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2373   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2374   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2375   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2376   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2377   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2378   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2379   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2380   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2381   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2382   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2383   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2384   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2385   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2386   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2387   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2388   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2389   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2390   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2391   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2392   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2393   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2394   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2395   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2396   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2397 
  2398 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2399 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2400 
  2401 
  2402 *** FOL ***
  2403 
  2404 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2405 
  2406 
  2407 *** ZF ***
  2408 
  2409 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2410 analysis.
  2411 
  2412 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2413 
  2414 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 
  2417 *** ML ***
  2418 
  2419 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2420 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2421 
  2422 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2423 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2424 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2425 
  2426 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2427 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2428 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2429 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2430 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2431 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2432 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2433 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2434 
  2435 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2436 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2437 
  2438 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2439 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2440 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2441 
  2442 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2443 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2446 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2447 context as well.
  2448 
  2449 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2450 
  2451   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2452   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2453   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2454   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2455   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2456   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2457   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2458   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2459   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2460   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2461   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2462   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2463 
  2464 
  2465 *** System ***
  2466 
  2467 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2468 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2469 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2470 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2471 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2472 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2473 the generic user home was intended.
  2474 
  2475 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2476 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2477 
  2478 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2479 (not just JRE).
  2480 
  2481 
  2482 
  2483 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2484 ------------------------------------
  2485 
  2486 *** General ***
  2487 
  2488 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2489 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2490 
  2491   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2492     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2493     files for checking).
  2494 
  2495   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2496     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2497     positions.
  2498 
  2499   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2500     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2501     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2502 
  2503   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2504     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2505     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2506 
  2507   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2508     cores.
  2509 
  2510   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2511     versions (garbage collection).
  2512 
  2513 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2514 including some remaining limitations.
  2515 
  2516 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2517 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2518 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2519 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2520 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2524 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2525 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2526 
  2527 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2528 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2529 usedir option -Q.
  2530 
  2531 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2532 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2533 
  2534   long_names   ~> names_long
  2535   short_names  ~> names_short
  2536   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2537 
  2538 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2539 
  2540   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2541 
  2542 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2543 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2544 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2545 
  2546 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2547 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2548 
  2549 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2550   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2551   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2552   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2553     "Classical Reasoner".
  2554 
  2555 
  2556 *** HOL ***
  2557 
  2558 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2559 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2562 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2563 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2564 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2565 class complete_linorder.
  2566 
  2567 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2568 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2569 
  2570 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2571 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2572 
  2573   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2574   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2575   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2576   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2577   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2578   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2579   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2580   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2581   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2582   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2583   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2584 
  2585 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2586 
  2587   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2588   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2589   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2590   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2591   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2592   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2593   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2594   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2595   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2596   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2597   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2598   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2599   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2600   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2601   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2602   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2603 
  2604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2610 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2611 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2612 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2615 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2616 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2620 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2621 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2622 
  2623 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2624 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2625 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2628 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2629 
  2630 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2631 
  2632     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2633     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2634 
  2635 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2636 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2639 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2642 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2643 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2644 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2647   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2648   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2649   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2650   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2651   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2652   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2653 
  2654 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2655 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2658   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2659   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2660   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2661   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2662   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2663   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2664   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2665   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2666   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2667   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2668   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2669   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2670   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2671   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2672   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2673   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2674   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2675   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2676   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2677   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2678   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2679   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2680   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2681   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2682   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2683   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2684   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2685   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2686   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2687   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2688   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2689   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2690   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2691   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2692   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2693   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2694   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2695   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2696   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2697   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2698   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2699   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2700   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2701   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2702   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2703   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2704   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2705   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2706   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2707   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2708   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2709   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2710   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2711   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2712   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2713   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2714   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2715   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2716   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2717   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2718   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2719   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2720   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2721   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2722   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2723   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2724   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2725   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2726   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2727   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2728   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2729   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2730   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2731   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2732   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2733   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2734   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2735   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2736   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2737   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2738   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2739 
  2740 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2741 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2742 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2743 
  2744 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2745 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2746 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2747 
  2748 * Code generation:
  2749 
  2750   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2751     characters in the target language.
  2752 
  2753   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2754     instead.
  2755 
  2756   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2757 
  2758   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2759     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2760 
  2761       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2762 
  2763 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2766 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2767 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2768 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2769 syntax.
  2770 
  2771 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2772 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2773 
  2774 * Nitpick:
  2775   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2776   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2777   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2778     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * Sledgehammer:
  2781   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2782   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2783     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2784   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2785     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2786   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2787     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2789     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2790   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2791     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * Metis:
  2794   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2796     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * Command 'try':
  2799   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2800     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2802     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2803 
  2804 * Quickcheck:
  2805   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2806     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2807   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2808     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2809   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2810     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2811     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2812     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2813   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2814     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2815 
  2816 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2817 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2818 
  2819 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2820 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2821 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2822 
  2823 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2824 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2828 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2831 arithmetic.
  2832 
  2833 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2834 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2835 and lattice type classes.
  2836 
  2837 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2838 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2839 
  2840 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2841 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2842 
  2843 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2844 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2845 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2848   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2849   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2850   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2851 
  2852 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2853 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2854 constants:
  2855 
  2856   type inat   ~> type enat
  2857   Fin         ~> enat
  2858   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2859   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2860   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2861 
  2862 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2863 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2866 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2867 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2868 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2869 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2870 
  2871 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2872 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2873 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2874 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2875 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2876 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2877 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2878 
  2879   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2880   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2881   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2882   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2883 
  2884 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2885 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2886 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2887 
  2888   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2889   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2890   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2891   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2892   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2893   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2894   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2895   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2896   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2897   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2898   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2899   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2900   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2901   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2902   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2903   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2904   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2905   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2906   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2907   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2908   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2909   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2910   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2911   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2912   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2913   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2914   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2915   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2916   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2917   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2918   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2919   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2920   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2921   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2922   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2923   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2924   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2925   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2926   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2927   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2928   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2929   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2930   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2931   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2932   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2933   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2934   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2935   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2936   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2937   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2938   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2939 
  2940 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2941   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2942   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2943   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2944   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2945     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948 
  2949   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2950   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2951   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2952   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2953   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2954   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2955   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2956   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2957   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2958   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2959   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2960   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2961   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2962   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2963   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2964   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2965   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2966   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2967   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2968   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2969   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2970   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2971   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2972   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2973   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2974 
  2975 
  2976 *** Document preparation ***
  2977 
  2978 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2979 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2980 same.
  2981 
  2982 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2983 result.
  2984 
  2985 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2986 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2987 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2988 
  2989 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2990 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2991 
  2992 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2993 like this:
  2994 
  2995   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2996   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2997 
  2998 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2999 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3000 layouts.
  3001 
  3002 
  3003 *** ML ***
  3004 
  3005 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3006 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3007 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3008 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3009 under external program control.
  3010 
  3011 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3012 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3013 
  3014 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3015 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3016 (better known as Proof General).
  3017 
  3018 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3019 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3020 
  3021 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3022 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3023 
  3024 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3025 (including quotes etc.).
  3026 
  3027 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3028 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3029 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3030 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3031 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3032 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3033 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3034 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3035 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3036 
  3037 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3038 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3039 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3040 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3041 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3042 
  3043 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3044 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3045 
  3046 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3047 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3048 
  3049 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3050 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3051 
  3052 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3053 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3054 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3055 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3056 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3057 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3058 proper Proof.context.
  3059 
  3060 
  3061 *** System ***
  3062 
  3063 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3064 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3065 
  3066 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3067 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3068 
  3069 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3070 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3071 
  3072   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3073   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3074   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3075   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3076   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3077 
  3078 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3079 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3082 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3083 example:
  3084 
  3085   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3086 
  3087 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3088 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3089 
  3090 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3091 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3092 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3093 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3094 
  3095 
  3096 
  3097 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3098 ----------------------------------
  3099 
  3100 *** General ***
  3101 
  3102 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3103 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3104 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3105 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3106 like this:
  3107 
  3108   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3109 
  3110 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3111 
  3112 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3113 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3114 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3115 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3116 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3117 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3118 
  3119 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3120 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3121 the following package declarations:
  3122 
  3123   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3124   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3125 
  3126 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3127 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3128 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3129 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3130 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3131 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3132 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3133 
  3134 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3135 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3136 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3137 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3138 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3139 
  3140 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3141 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3142 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3143 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3144 
  3145 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3146 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3147 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3148 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3149 
  3150   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3151 
  3152   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3153   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3154   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3155   show_types                    show_types
  3156   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3157   show_consts                   show_consts
  3158   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3159 
  3160   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3161   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3162   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3163 
  3164   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3165   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3166 
  3167   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3168 
  3169   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3170   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3171   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3172   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3173   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3174 
  3175 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3176 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3177 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3178 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3179 
  3180 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3184   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3185 
  3186 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3187 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3188 float_token.
  3189 
  3190 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3191 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3195 DejaVu Sans.
  3196 
  3197 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3198 
  3199 
  3200 *** Pure ***
  3201 
  3202 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3203 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3204 time.
  3205 
  3206 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3207 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3210 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3213 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3214 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3215 command already provided this functionality.
  3216 
  3217 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3218 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3219 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3220 without interpretations.
  3221 
  3222 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3223 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3224 
  3225 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3226 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3227 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3228 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3229 
  3230 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3231 'definition' instead.
  3232 
  3233 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3234 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3235 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3236 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3237 
  3238 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3239 constructors.
  3240 
  3241 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3242 the local file system.
  3243 
  3244 
  3245 *** HOL ***
  3246 
  3247 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3248 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3249 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3250 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3251 
  3252   declare [[coercion f]]
  3253 
  3254 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3255 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3256 
  3257   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3258 
  3259 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3260 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3261 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3262 other theories like this:
  3263 
  3264   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3265 
  3266 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3267 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3268 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3269 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3270 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3271 for examples.
  3272 
  3273 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3274 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3277 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3278 
  3279 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3280 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3281 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3282 
  3283 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3284 functorial structure of types.
  3285 
  3286 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3287 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3288 
  3289 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3290 languages.
  3291 
  3292 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3293 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3297 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3300 combinators any longer.
  3301 
  3302 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3303 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3304 
  3305 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3306 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3307 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3308 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3309 
  3310   record 'a foo = ...
  3311   ...
  3312   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3313 
  3314 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3315 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3319 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3320 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3321 
  3322 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3323 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3324 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3325 
  3326 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3327 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3330 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3331 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3332 independently.
  3333 
  3334 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3335 counter example search.
  3336 
  3337 * Sledgehammer:
  3338   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3339     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3340     sledgehammer").
  3341   - Renamed commands:
  3342     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3343     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3344     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3345     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346   - Renamed options:
  3347     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3348     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3349     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3350     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3351     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 * Nitpick:
  3354   - Renamed options:
  3355     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3356     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3357     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3359   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3360   - Added "whack" option.
  3361   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3362   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3363   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3364   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3365     higher cardinalities.
  3366   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3367 
  3368 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3369 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3370 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3371 
  3372     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3373 
  3374 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3375 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3376 
  3377 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3378 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3379 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3380 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3381 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3382 "smt_solver".
  3383 
  3384 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3385 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3386 
  3387 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3388 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3389 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3390 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3393   - Renamed:
  3394     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3395     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3396     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397   - Added:
  3398     smt_verbose
  3399     smt_random_seed
  3400     smt_datatypes
  3401     smt_infer_triggers
  3402     smt_monomorph_limit
  3403     cvc3_options
  3404     remote_cvc3_options
  3405     remote_z3_options
  3406     yices_options
  3407 
  3408 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3409 header.
  3410 
  3411 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3412 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3413 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3414 
  3415   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3416 
  3417 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3420 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3425 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3428 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3429 
  3430 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3431 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3434 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3435 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3443 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3446 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3447 for congruent(2)).
  3448 
  3449 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3450 
  3451   types
  3452     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3453     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3454 
  3455   constants
  3456     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3457     True ~> HOL.True
  3458     False ~> HOL.False
  3459     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3460     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3461     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3462     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3463     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3464     The ~> HOL.The
  3465     All ~> HOL.All
  3466     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3467     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3468     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3469     If ~> HOL.If
  3470     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3471     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3472     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3473     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3474     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3475     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3476     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3477     op : ~> Set.member
  3478     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3479 
  3480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3483 
  3484     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3485     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3486     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3487     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3488     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3489     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3490     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3491     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3492 
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * More stylized fact names:
  3496 
  3497   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3498   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3499   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3500   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3501 
  3502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3505 
  3506   constants
  3507     null ~> List.null
  3508 
  3509   facts
  3510     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3511     null_empty ~> null_def
  3512 
  3513 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3514 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3515 generation.
  3516 
  3517 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3518 Haskell code.
  3519 
  3520 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3521 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3522 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3525 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3528 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3529 
  3530 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3531 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3532 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3533 
  3534 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3535 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3541 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3542 referred to by its qualified name.
  3543 
  3544   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3545   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3546   product ~>  Enum.product
  3547 
  3548 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3549 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3553 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3554 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3558 sort_key.
  3559 
  3560 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3564 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3565 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3566 
  3567   types
  3568     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3569               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3570               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3571         (depends on your needs)
  3572 
  3573   constants
  3574      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3575      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3576      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3577 
  3578 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3579 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3580 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3581 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3584 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3585 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3586 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3587 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3593 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3594 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3595 
  3596 
  3597 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3598 
  3599 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3600 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3601 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3602 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3603 compatibility.
  3604 
  3605 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3606 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3607 
  3608 
  3609 *** HOLCF ***
  3610 
  3611 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3612 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3613 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3617 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3618 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3621   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3622   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3623 
  3624 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3625 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3626 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3629 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3630 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3631 domain definition now works:
  3632 
  3633   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3634 
  3635 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3636 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3637 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3638 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3639 
  3640   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3641     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3642 
  3643   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3644 
  3645 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3646 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3647 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3650 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3653 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3654 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3655 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3656 
  3657 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3658 
  3659 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3667 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3668 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3669 
  3670 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3671 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3672 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3675 still supported as an input translation.
  3676 
  3677 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3678 
  3679   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3680   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3681   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3682   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3683   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3684   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3685   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3686 
  3687 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3688 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3691   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3692   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3693   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3694   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3695   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3696 
  3697 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3698 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3701 
  3702   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3703   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3704   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3705   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3706 
  3707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3710 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3713 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3716   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3717   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3718   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3719   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3720   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3721   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3722   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3723   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3724   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3725   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3726   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3727   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3728   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3729   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3730   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3731   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3732   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3733   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3734   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3735 
  3736 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737 
  3738   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3739   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3740   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3741   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3742   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3743   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3744   box_less             ~> box_below
  3745   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3746   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3747   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3748   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3749   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3750   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3751   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3752   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3753   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3754   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3755   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3756   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3757   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3758   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3759   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3760   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3761   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3762   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3763   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3764   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3765   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3766   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3767   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3768   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3769   up_less              ~> up_below
  3770   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3771   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3772   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3773   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3774   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3775   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3776   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3777   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3778   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3779   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3780   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3781   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3782   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3783 
  3784 
  3785 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3786 
  3787 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3788 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 
  3791 *** ML ***
  3792 
  3793 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3794 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3795 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3796 
  3797 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3798 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3799 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3800 
  3801 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3802 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3803 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3804 
  3805 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3806 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3807 
  3808 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3809 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3810 
  3811 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3812 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3813 
  3814 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3815 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3816 
  3817 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3818 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3819 almost all situations.
  3820 
  3821 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3822 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3823 Isabelle/ML.
  3824 
  3825 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3826 meaning.
  3827 
  3828 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3829 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3830 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3831 
  3832 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3833 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3834 
  3835 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3836 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3837 
  3838 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3839 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3840 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3841 
  3842 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3843 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3844 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3845 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3846 configuration options.
  3847 
  3848 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3849 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3850 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3851 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3852 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3853 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3854 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3855 
  3856 
  3857 
  3858 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3859 ---------------------------------
  3860 
  3861 *** General ***
  3862 
  3863 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3864 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3865 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3866 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3867 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3868 their full internal name.
  3869 
  3870 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3871 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3872 Some hints on upgrading:
  3873 
  3874   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3875     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3876     which are independent of this issue.
  3877 
  3878   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3879     provides the following special forms:
  3880 
  3881       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3882       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3883       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3884 
  3885     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3886     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3887     extra variables".
  3888 
  3889     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3890     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3891     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3892     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3893     "logic".
  3894 
  3895   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3896     antiquotations:
  3897 
  3898       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3899       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3900       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3901       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3902 
  3903   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3904     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3905     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3906     antiquotations.
  3907 
  3908 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3909 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3910 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3911 diagnose syntax problems.
  3912 
  3913 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3914 
  3915 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3916 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3917 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3918 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3919 
  3920 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3921 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3922 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3923 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3926 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3927 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3928 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3929 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3932 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3933 
  3934 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3935 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3936 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3937 
  3938   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3939 
  3940 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3941 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3942 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3943 
  3944 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3945 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3949 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3950 
  3951 
  3952 *** Pure ***
  3953 
  3954 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3955 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3956 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3957 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3958 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3959 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3960 inspect proof terms.
  3961 
  3962 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3963 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3964 are added internally.  For example:
  3965 
  3966   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3967 
  3968 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3969 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3974 'class' instead.
  3975 
  3976 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3977 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3981 invariants.
  3982 
  3983 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3984 user space functionality any longer.
  3985 
  3986 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3987 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3991 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3992 
  3993 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3994 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3995 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3996 
  3997 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3998 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3999 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4000 
  4001 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4002 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 
  4005 *** HOL ***
  4006 
  4007 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4008 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4009 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4010 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4011 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4012 
  4013 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4014 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4015 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4016 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4017 
  4018   fun
  4019     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4020   where
  4021     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4022 
  4023   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4024     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4025 
  4026   quotient_definition
  4027     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4028 
  4029 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4030 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4031 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4032 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4033 
  4034 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4035 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4036 
  4037 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4038 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4039 
  4040 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4044 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4045 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4046 
  4047 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4048 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4057 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4060 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4061 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4064   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4065   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4066   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4067   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4068   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4069   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4070   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4071   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4072   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4073   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4074   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4075   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4076   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4077   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4078   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4079   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4080   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4081   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4082   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4083   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4084   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4085   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4086   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4087   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4088   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4089   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4090   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4091   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4092   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4093 
  4094 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4095 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4096 
  4097 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4098 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4099 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4100 
  4101 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4102 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4103 
  4104 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4105 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4106 
  4107 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4108 
  4109 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4110 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4113 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4118 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4119 
  4120 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4121 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4122 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4123 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4126   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4127   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4128   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4132 lattices):
  4133 
  4134     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4135     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4136 
  4137     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4138 
  4139     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4140     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4141     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4142     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4143     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4144     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4145     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4146     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4147     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4148     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4149     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4150     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4151     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4152 
  4153     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4154     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4155     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4156     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4157     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4158     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4159     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4160     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4161     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4162     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4163     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4164     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4165     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4166     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4167     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4168     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4169     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4170     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4171 
  4172   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4173   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4174 
  4175     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4176     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4177     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4178     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4179     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4180 
  4181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Refined field classes:
  4184   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4185     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4186     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4187   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4191   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4192   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4193   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4194     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4195   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4196     equal_neg_zero.
  4197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4200 sets to lattices:
  4201 
  4202   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4203   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4204   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4205   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4206   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4207   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4208   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4209   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4210   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4211   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4212 
  4213 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4214 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4215 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4216 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4217 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4218 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4221 multiset order:
  4222 
  4223   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4224     <= and <;
  4225   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4226     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4227     multiset_order;
  4228   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4229     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4230     generation;
  4231   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4232     if needed.
  4233 
  4234 Renamed:
  4235 
  4236   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4237   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4238   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4239 
  4240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4243 
  4244 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4245 
  4246 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4247 
  4248 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4249 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4250 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252   Constants:
  4253   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4254   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4255   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4256   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4257   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4258   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4259   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4260   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4261   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4262   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4263   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4264   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4265   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4266 
  4267   Lemmas:
  4268   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4269   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4270   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4271   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4272   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4273   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4274   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4275   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4276   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4277   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4278   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4279   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4280   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4281 
  4282 * Sledgehammer:
  4283   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4284     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4285     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4286     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4287     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4288     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4289     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4291   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4292     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4293   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4294     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4295     is still experimental.)
  4296   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4297     full-typed mode.
  4298   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4299 
  4300 * Nitpick:
  4301   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4302   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4303   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4304     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4305   - Added support for quotient types.
  4306   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4307     constructs.
  4308   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4309     "termination" proofs).
  4310   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4311   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4312   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4313   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4314     record getters.
  4315   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4316   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4317   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4318   - Added "atoms" option.
  4319   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4320     problems.
  4321   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4322     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4323     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4325     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4329   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4330   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4331   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4332   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4333   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4334   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4335   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4336   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4337   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338 
  4339 
  4340 *** HOLCF ***
  4341 
  4342 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4343 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4344 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4347 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4348 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4349 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4352 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4353 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4354 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4355 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4358 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4359 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4360 
  4361 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4362 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4363 
  4364   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4365   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4366 
  4367 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4368 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4371   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4372   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4373   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4374   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4375 
  4376 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4377 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4380   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4381   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4382 
  4383 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4384 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4386 
  4387 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4388 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4391 
  4392 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4393 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 
  4396 *** ML ***
  4397 
  4398 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4399 
  4400     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4401     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4402 
  4403     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4404     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4405     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4406     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4407 
  4408     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4409     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4410     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4411 
  4412 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4413 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4414 
  4415 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4416 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4417 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4418 
  4419 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4420 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4421 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4422 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4423 
  4424 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4425 the context or even global references.
  4426 
  4427 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4428 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4429 
  4430 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4431 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4432 
  4433   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4434   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4435   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4436   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4437   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4438   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4439   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4440   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4441   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4442   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4443 
  4444 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4445 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4446 
  4447 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4448 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4449 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4450 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4451 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4452 
  4453 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4454 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4455 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4456 Theory_Data version.
  4457 
  4458 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4459 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4460 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4461 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4462 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4463 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4464 explicitly in rare situations.
  4465 
  4466 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4467 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4471 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4472 
  4473 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4474 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4475 quite rare).
  4476 
  4477 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4478 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4481 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4482 terms.
  4483 
  4484 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4485 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4486 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4487 
  4488 
  4489 *** System ***
  4490 
  4491 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4492 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4493 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4494 
  4495 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4496 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4497 respectively.
  4498 
  4499 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4500 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4501 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4502 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4503 
  4504   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4505 
  4506 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4507 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4508 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4509 component.
  4510 
  4511 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4512 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4513 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4514 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4515 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4516 the user for manual installation.
  4517 
  4518 
  4519 
  4520 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4521 -------------------------------------
  4522 
  4523 *** General ***
  4524 
  4525 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4526 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4527 
  4528 
  4529 *** Pure ***
  4530 
  4531 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4532 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4533 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4534 
  4535 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4536 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4537 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4538 
  4539 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4540 interpretation.
  4541 
  4542 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4543 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 
  4546 *** Document preparation ***
  4547 
  4548 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4549 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4550 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4551 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4552 
  4553 
  4554 *** HOL ***
  4555 
  4556 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4557 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4558 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4559 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4560 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4561 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4562 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4563 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4564 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4565 
  4566 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4567 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4568 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4569 
  4570 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4571 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4572 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4573 
  4574 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4575 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4576 
  4577 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4578 
  4579 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4580 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4581 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4582 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4583 
  4584 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4585 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4586 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4587 "mirabelle" utility.
  4588 
  4589 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4590 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4591 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4592 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4593 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4594 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4595 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4596 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4597 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4598 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4599 
  4600 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4601 procedure only.
  4602 
  4603 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4604 
  4605 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4606 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4607 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4608 that fail later.
  4609 
  4610 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4611 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4612 
  4613 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4614 the same method as the approximation method.
  4615 
  4616 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4617 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4618 series expansion.
  4619 
  4620 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4621 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4622 
  4623 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4624 reals.
  4625 
  4626 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4627 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4628 
  4629 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4630 fixpoint theorem.
  4631 
  4632 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4633   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4634     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4635   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4636     accordingly
  4637   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4638     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4639   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4640     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4641 
  4642 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4643 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4644 lattice.
  4645 
  4646 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4647 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4648 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4649 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4650 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4651 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4655   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4656     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4657   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4658     le_inf_iff
  4659   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4660     sup_aci)
  4661   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4662   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4663   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4664     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4665     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4666     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4667     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4668     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4669     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4670     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4671     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4672     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4673     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4674   - authentic syntax for
  4675     Set.Pow
  4676     Set.image
  4677   - mere abbreviations:
  4678     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4679     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4680     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4681     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4682     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4683     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4684     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4685     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4686   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4687 
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4689 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4690 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4691 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4692 
  4693 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4694 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4695 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4698 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4701 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4702 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4703 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4706 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4707 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4708 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4709 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4710 
  4711 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4712 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4716 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4717 
  4718 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4719 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4720 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4721 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4722 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4723 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4724 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4728     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4729     code_post       replaces    code post
  4730     etc.
  4731   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Renamed methods:
  4734     sizechange -> size_change
  4735     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4736   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4739 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4740 
  4741 * Renamed theorems:
  4742     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4743     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4744     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4745     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4746     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4747   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 
  4756 *** HOLCF ***
  4757 
  4758 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4759 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4760 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4761 
  4762 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4763 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4764 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4765 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4766 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4767 
  4768 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4769 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4770 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4771 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4772 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4773 
  4774 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4775 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4776 constructor are pre-configured.
  4777 
  4778 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4779 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4780 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4781 
  4782 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4783 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4784 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4785 as well.)
  4786 
  4787 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4788 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4789 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4790 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4791 examples.
  4792 
  4793 
  4794 *** ML ***
  4795 
  4796 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4797 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4798 
  4799 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4800 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4801 position, logical grouping etc.
  4802 
  4803 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4804 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4805 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4806 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4807 
  4808 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4809 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4810 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4811 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4812 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4813 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4814 
  4815 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4816 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4817 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4818 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4819 experiments with references.
  4820 
  4821 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4822 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4823 
  4824 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4825 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4826 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4827 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4828 
  4829 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4830 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4831 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4832 
  4833 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4834 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4835 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4843 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4844 
  4845 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4846 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4847 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4848 
  4849 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4850 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4851 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4854 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4855 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4859 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4860 instead of global theory.
  4861 
  4862 
  4863 *** System ***
  4864 
  4865 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4866 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4867 usedir option -q.
  4868 
  4869 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4870 also the system manual.
  4871 
  4872 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4873 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4874 
  4875 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4876 this is always enabled.
  4877 
  4878 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4879 
  4880 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4881 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4882 currently supported on Linux only.
  4883 
  4884 
  4885 
  4886 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4887 --------------------------------
  4888 
  4889 *** General ***
  4890 
  4891 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4892 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4893 
  4894   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4895     "isatool."
  4896 
  4897   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4898     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4899 
  4900   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4901     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4902 
  4903 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4904 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4905 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4906 
  4907 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4908 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4909 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4910 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4911 via "isabelle emacs".
  4912 
  4913 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4914 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4915 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4916 
  4917 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4918 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4919 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4920 
  4921 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4922 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4923 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4924 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4925 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4926 
  4927 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4928 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4929 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4930 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4931 
  4932 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4933 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4934 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4935 
  4936 
  4937 *** Pure ***
  4938 
  4939 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4940 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4941 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4942 
  4943 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4944 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4945 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4946 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4947 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4948 
  4949 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4950 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4951 useful in locale declarations.
  4952 
  4953 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4954 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4955 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4956 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4957 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4958 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4959 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4960 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4961 no longer generated.
  4962 
  4963 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4964 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4965 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4966 
  4967 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4968 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4969 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4970 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4971 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4972 
  4973 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4974 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4975 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4976 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4977 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4978 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4979 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4980 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4981 
  4982 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4983 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4984 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4985 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4986 
  4987 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 
  4989 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4990 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4991 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4992 
  4993 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4994 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4997 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4998 in HOL, write
  4999 
  5000     class foo = ...
  5001 
  5002 instead of
  5003 
  5004     class foo = type + ...
  5005 
  5006 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5007 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5010 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5011 
  5012 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5013 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5014 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5015 
  5016 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5017 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5018 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5019 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5020 directly in regular applications.
  5021 
  5022 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5023 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5024 
  5025 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5026 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5027 
  5028 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5029 theory context.
  5030 
  5031 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5032 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5033 
  5034 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5035 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5036 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5037 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5038 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5039 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5040 
  5041   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5042 
  5043 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5044 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5045 normalization.
  5046 
  5047 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5048 addressing etc.
  5049 
  5050 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5051 
  5052   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5053   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5054 
  5055 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5056 
  5057   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5058      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5059      parts of the code generator framework).
  5060 
  5061   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5062      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5063      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5064 
  5065 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5068 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5071 patterns, e.g.
  5072 
  5073     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5074 
  5075 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5076 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5077 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5078 hyphen:
  5079 
  5080     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5081 
  5082 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5083 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5084 
  5085 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5086 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5087 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5088 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5089 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5090 higher-order unification.
  5091 
  5092 
  5093 *** Document preparation ***
  5094 
  5095 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5096 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5097 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5098 
  5099 
  5100 *** HOL ***
  5101 
  5102 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5103 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5104 
  5105 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5106 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5107 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5108 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5109 Main, as before.
  5110 
  5111 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5112 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5113 
  5114 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5115 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5116 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5117 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5118 
  5119 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5120 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5121 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5122 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5123 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5124 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5125 
  5126 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5127 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5128 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5129 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5130 
  5131 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5132 menu.
  5133 
  5134 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5135 (contains the empty clause).
  5136 
  5137 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5138 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5139 
  5140 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5141 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5142 
  5143 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5144 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5145 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5148 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5149 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5150 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5151 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5152 
  5153 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5154 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5155 
  5156 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5157 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5158 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5159 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5160 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5161 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5162 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5163 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5164 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5165 
  5166 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5167 
  5168 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5169 
  5170 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5171 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5174 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5175 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5176 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5177 
  5178 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5179 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5180 
  5181     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5182     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5183     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5184     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5185     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5186     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5187     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5188     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5189 
  5190 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5191 theory Set.
  5192 
  5193 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5194 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5195 
  5196 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5197 
  5198 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5199 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5200 
  5201 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5202 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5203 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5204 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5205 allowed. For examples see
  5206 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5207 
  5208 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5209 
  5210 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5212 
  5213 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5214 structure:
  5215 
  5216     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5217     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5218     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5219     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5220     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5221     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5222     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5223     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5224     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5225     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5226     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5227     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5228     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5229     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5230     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5231     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5232     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5233     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5234     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5235     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5236     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5237     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5238     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5239     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5240     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5241     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5242     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5243     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5244     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5245     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5246     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5247     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5248     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5249 
  5250     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5251     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5252     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5253     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5254     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5255     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5256     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5257     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5258     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5259     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5260 
  5261     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5262     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5263     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5264     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5265     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5266     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5267 
  5268 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5269 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5270 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5271 
  5272 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5273 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5274 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5275 
  5276 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5277 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5278 
  5279 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5280 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5281 
  5282 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5283 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5284 proofs, e.g.
  5285 
  5286   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5287 
  5288 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5289 
  5290 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5291 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5292 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5295 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5297 
  5298 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5299 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5300 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5304 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5305 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5306 preorder_class.*.
  5307 
  5308 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5309 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5310 
  5311 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5312 
  5313   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5314 
  5315 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5316 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5317 fold_image.
  5318 
  5319 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5320 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5321 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5322 the former will disappear at some point.
  5323 
  5324 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5325 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5326 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5327 
  5328 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5329 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5330 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5331 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5332 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5333 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5334 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5335 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5336 
  5337 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5338 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5339 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5340 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5341 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5342 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5343 
  5344     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5345     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5346     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5347     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5348     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5349     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5350     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5351 
  5352 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5353 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5354 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5355 
  5356 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5357 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5358 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5359 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5360 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5361 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5362 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5363 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5364 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5365 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5366 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5367 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5368 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5369 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5370 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5371 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5372 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5373 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5374 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5375 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5376 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5377 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5378 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5379 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5380 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5381 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5382 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5383 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5384 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5385 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5386 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5387 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5388 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5389 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5390 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5391 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5392 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5393 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5394 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5395 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5396 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5397 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5398 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5399 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5400 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5401 
  5402 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5403 
  5404 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5405 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5406 
  5407 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5408 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5409 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5410 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5411 
  5412 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5413 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5414 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5415 theory RealVector.
  5416 
  5417 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5418 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5419 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5420 and inner products are included.
  5421 
  5422 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5423 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5424 supported.
  5425 
  5426 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5427 first diagonalization argument.
  5428 
  5429 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5430 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5431 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5432 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5433 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5434 
  5435     hide (open) const gcd
  5436     abbreviation gcd where
  5437       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5438     notation (output)
  5439       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5440 
  5441 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5442 
  5443 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5444 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5445 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5446 
  5447 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5448 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5449 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5450 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5451 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5452 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5453 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5454 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5455 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5456 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5457 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5458 cases.
  5459 
  5460 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5461 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5462 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5463 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5464 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5465 
  5466     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5467     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5468     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5469     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5470     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5471 
  5472 
  5473 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5474 
  5475 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5476 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5477 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5478 
  5479 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5480 
  5481 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5482 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5483 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5484 
  5485 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5486 
  5487 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5488 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5489 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5490 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5491 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5492 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5493 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5494 
  5495 
  5496 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5497 
  5498 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5499 
  5500 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5501 theory targets.
  5502 
  5503 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5504 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5505 'inductive' etc.
  5506 
  5507 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5508 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5509 
  5510 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5511 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5512 
  5513 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5514 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5515 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5516 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5517 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5518 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5519 the algorithm W:
  5520 
  5521  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5522  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5523          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5524 
  5525 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5526 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5527 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5528 
  5529 
  5530 *** HOLCF ***
  5531 
  5532 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5533 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5534 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5535 
  5536 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5537 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5538 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5539 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5540 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5543 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5544 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545 
  5546 
  5547 *** ZF ***
  5548 
  5549 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5550 
  5551 
  5552 *** ML ***
  5553 
  5554 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5555 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5556 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5557 5.2.1!
  5558 
  5559 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5560 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5561 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5562 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5563 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5564 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5565 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5566 
  5567 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5568 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5569 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5570 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5571 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5572 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5573 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5574 
  5575 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5576 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5577 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5578 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5579 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5580 
  5581 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5582 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5583 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5584 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5585 Method.add_method.
  5586 
  5587 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5588 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5589 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5590 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5591 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5592 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5593 
  5594 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5595 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5596 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5597 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5598 examples.
  5599 
  5600 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5601 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5602 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5603 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5604 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5605 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5606 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5607 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5608 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5609 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5610 
  5611 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5612 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5613 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5614 
  5615 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5616 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5617 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5618 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5619 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5620 resort for legacy applications.
  5621 
  5622 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5623 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5624 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5625 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5626 explicit runtime argument.
  5627 
  5628 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5629 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5630 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5631 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5632 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 
  5634 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5635 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5636 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5637 theory state.
  5638 
  5639 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5640 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5641 
  5642   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5643   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5644   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5645   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5646   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5647   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5648   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5649   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5650   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5651   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5652 
  5653 
  5654 *** System ***
  5655 
  5656 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5657 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5658 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5659 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5660 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5661 
  5662 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5663 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5664 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5665 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5666 
  5667 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5668 
  5669 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5670 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5671 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5672 prover operations.
  5673 
  5674 
  5675 
  5676 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5677 -------------------------------
  5678 
  5679 *** General ***
  5680 
  5681 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5682 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5683 
  5684 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5685 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5686 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5687 provides a proper context already.
  5688 
  5689 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5690 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5691 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5692 
  5693 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5694 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5695 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5696 swap theory imports.
  5697 
  5698 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5699 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5700 
  5701 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5702 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5703 white space without escapes.
  5704 
  5705 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5706 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5707 "foo_bar".
  5708 
  5709 
  5710 *** Pure ***
  5711 
  5712 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5713 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5714 
  5715 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5716 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5717 
  5718 (1) unused_thms
  5719      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5720 
  5721 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5722      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5723      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5724 
  5725 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5726      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5727      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5728      their ancestors.
  5729 
  5730 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5731 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5732 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5733 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5734 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5735 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5736 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5737 
  5738 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5739 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5740 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5741 
  5742 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5743 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5744 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5745 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5746 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5747 
  5748 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5749 
  5750 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5751 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5752 update of theories within ML code.
  5753 
  5754 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5755 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5756 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5757 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5758 
  5759 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5760 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5761 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5763 
  5764 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5765 
  5766 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5767 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5768 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5769 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5770 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5771 
  5772 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5773 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5774 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5775 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5776 situations.
  5777 
  5778 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5779 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5780 proof text.
  5781 
  5782 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5783 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5784 
  5785 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5786 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5787 predicates.
  5788 
  5789 
  5790 *** Document preparation ***
  5791 
  5792 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5793 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5794 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5795 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5796 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5797 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5798 
  5799 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5800 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5801 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5802 
  5803 
  5804 *** HOL ***
  5805 
  5806 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5807 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5808 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5809 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5810 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5811 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5812 
  5813 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5814 with multithreading.
  5815 
  5816 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5817 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5818 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5819 
  5820 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5821 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5822 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5823 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5824 
  5825 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5826 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5827 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5828 and makes them available separately.  See
  5829 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5830 
  5831 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5832 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5833 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5834 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5835 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5836 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5837 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5838 the declared rules.
  5839 
  5840 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5841 
  5842   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5843 
  5844 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5845 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5846 
  5847 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5848 
  5849   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5850 
  5851   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5852     definitions on => and bool.
  5853 
  5854   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5855     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5856     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5857 
  5858       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5859       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5860       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5861       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5862       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5863       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5864       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5865       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5866 
  5867   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5868     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5869     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5870 
  5871   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5872     The proof pattern
  5873 
  5874       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5875       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5876 
  5877     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5878     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5879 
  5880       have "EX S. P S"
  5881       proof
  5882         show "P S" <...>
  5883       qed
  5884 
  5885   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5886     The proof pattern
  5887 
  5888       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5889       also have "S = T" <...>
  5890       finally have "P T" .
  5891 
  5892     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5893     must be replaced by something like
  5894 
  5895       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5896       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5897       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5898 
  5899   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5900     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5901 
  5902       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5903 
  5904     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5905     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5906     type of the form
  5907 
  5908       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5909 
  5910     rather than
  5911 
  5912       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5913 
  5914 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5915 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5916 
  5917 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5918 
  5919 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5920 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5924 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5925 
  5926 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5927 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5930 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5931 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5932 
  5933 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5934 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5935 
  5936   less_trans
  5937   less_linear
  5938   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5939   le_less_trans
  5940   less_le_trans
  5941   less_not_sym
  5942   less_asym
  5943 
  5944 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5945 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5946 and different variable names.
  5947 
  5948 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5949 
  5950 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5951 finite maps.
  5952 
  5953 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5954 
  5955 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5956 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5957 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5958 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5959 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5960 accordingly.
  5961 
  5962 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5963 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5964 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5965 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5966 
  5967 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5968 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5969 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5970 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5971 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5973 
  5974 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5975 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5976 
  5977 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5978 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5979 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5980 
  5981 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5983 
  5984 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5985 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5986 
  5987 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5988 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5989 
  5990 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5991 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5994 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5996 
  5997 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5998 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5999 
  6000 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6001 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6002 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6003 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6004 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6005 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6008 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6009 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6010 
  6011 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6012 
  6013 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6014 
  6015 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6016 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6017 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6018 
  6019 
  6020 *** ZF ***
  6021 
  6022 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6023 same session:
  6024 
  6025   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6026   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6027   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6028   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6029   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6030   List      -> List_ZF
  6031   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6032 
  6033 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6034 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6035 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6036 
  6037 
  6038 *** ML ***
  6039 
  6040 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6041 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6042 
  6043 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6044 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6045 
  6046 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6047 
  6048 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6049 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6050 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6051 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6052 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6053 
  6054 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6055 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6056 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6057 
  6058 
  6059 *** System ***
  6060 
  6061 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6062 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6063 
  6064 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6065 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6066 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6067 
  6068 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6069 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6070 
  6071 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6072 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6073 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6074 
  6075 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6076 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6077 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6078 
  6079 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6080 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6081 
  6082 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6083 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6084 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6085 script.
  6086 
  6087 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6088 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6089 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6090 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6091 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6092 
  6093 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6094 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6095 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6096 
  6097 
  6098 
  6099 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6100 -----------------------------------
  6101 
  6102 *** General ***
  6103 
  6104 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6105 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6106 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6107 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6108 
  6109 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6110 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6111 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6112 
  6113 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6114 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6115 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6116 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6117 
  6118 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6119 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6120 quotes.
  6121 
  6122 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6123 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6124 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6125 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6126 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6127 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6128 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6129 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6130 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6131 
  6132 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6133 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6134 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6135 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6136 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6137 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6138 
  6139 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6140 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6141 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6142 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6143 
  6144 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6145 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6146 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6147 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6148 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6149 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6150 
  6151 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6152 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6153 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6154 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6155 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6156 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6157 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6158 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6159 
  6160 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6161 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6162 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6163 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6164 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6165 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6166 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6167 
  6168 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6169 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6170 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6171 
  6172 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6173 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6174 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6175 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6176 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6177 limit is imposed.
  6178 
  6179 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6180 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6181 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6182 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6183 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6184 and scalability.
  6185 
  6186 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6187 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6188 
  6189 
  6190 *** Document preparation ***
  6191 
  6192 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6193 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6194 current context.
  6195 
  6196 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6197 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6198 
  6199 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6200 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6201 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6202 
  6203 
  6204 *** Pure ***
  6205 
  6206 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6207 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6208 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6209 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6210 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6211 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6212 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6213 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6214 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6215 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6216 
  6217 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6218 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6219 sketch:
  6220 
  6221     internal compilation:
  6222         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6223     writing SML code to a file:
  6224         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6225     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6226         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6227     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6228         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6229 
  6230     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6231         method ``eval''
  6232 
  6233 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6234 
  6235 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6236 
  6237     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6238     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6239     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6240     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6241 
  6242 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6243 
  6244     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6245       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6246 
  6247     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6248       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6249 
  6250     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6251       {(target)}+
  6252         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6253 
  6254     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6255       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6256         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6257 
  6258 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6259 
  6260 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6261 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6262 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6263 codegen".
  6264 
  6265 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6266 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6267 annotations).
  6268 
  6269 * Command '