NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Aug 06 16:05:29 2012 +0200 (2012-08-06)
changeset 48693 ceeea46bdeba
parent 48683 eeb4480b5877
child 48722 a5e3ba7cbb2a
permissions -rw-r--r--
"isabelle options" prints Isabelle system options;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** HOL ***
    34 
    35 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    36 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    37 
    38 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    39 expressions.
    40 
    41 * Quickcheck:
    42 
    43   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    44     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    45     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    46 
    47 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    48 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    49 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    50 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    51 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Sledgehammer:
    54 
    55   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    56     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    57   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    58   - Renamed options:
    59       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    60       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Document preparation ***
    64 
    65 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    66 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    67 
    68 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    69 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    70 document/root.tex.
    71 
    72 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
    73 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 
    76 *** System ***
    77 
    78 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    79 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    80 build" tool and its examples.  Eventual INCOMPATIBILITY, as isabelle
    81 usedir / make / makeall are rendered obsolete.
    82 
    83 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    84 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    85 
    86   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
    87 
    88 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
    89 required for "isabelle build", for example.
    90 
    91 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
    92 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
    93 "isabelle usedir".
    94 
    95 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
    96 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
    97 configuration.
    98 
    99 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   100 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   101 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   102 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   103 bundled as Isabelle component.
   104 
   105 
   106 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   107 ------------------------------
   108 
   109 *** General ***
   110 
   111 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   112 
   113   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   114     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   115   - markup for bound variables
   116   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   117   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   118   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   119     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   120 
   121 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   122 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   123 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   124 
   125 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   126 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   127 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   128 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   129 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   130 
   131   context
   132     fixes x y z :: 'a
   133     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   134   begin
   135 
   136   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   137 
   138   end
   139 
   140   thm my_trans
   141 
   142 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   143 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   144 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   145 
   146 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   147 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   148 
   149 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   150 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   151 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   152 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   153 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   154 
   155 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   156 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   157 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   158 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   159 indices of schematic variables.
   160 
   161 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   162 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   163 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   164 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   165 etc. was exploited.
   166 
   167 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   168 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   169 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   170 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   171 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   172 of the material of that old tutorial.
   173 
   174 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   175 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   176 manual.
   177 
   178 
   179 *** Pure ***
   180 
   181 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   182 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   183 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   184 
   185 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   186 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   187 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   188 undocumented feature.)
   189 
   190 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   191 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   192 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   193 
   194   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   195 
   196   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   197     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   198 
   199 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   200 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   201 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   202 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   203 
   204 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   205 
   206     num ~> num_token
   207     xnum ~> xnum_token
   208     xstr ~> str_token
   209 
   210 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   211 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   212 position information via constraints).
   213 
   214 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   215 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   216 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   219 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   220 
   221 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   222 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   223 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   226 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   227 
   228 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   229 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   230 
   231   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   232 
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   236 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   239 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   240 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   241 
   242 
   243 *** HOL ***
   244 
   245 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   246 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   247 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   248 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   249 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   250 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   251 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   252 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   253 possible.
   254 
   255 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   256 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   257 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   258 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   259 
   260 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   261 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   264 
   265 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   266 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   267 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   268 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   269 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   270 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   271 
   272   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   273     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   274 
   275   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   276     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   277     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   278 
   279   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   280     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   281 
   282   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   283     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   284     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   285 
   286   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   287     Redefine using other integer operations.
   288 
   289 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   290 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   291 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   292 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   293 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   294 
   295   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   296     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   297     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   298     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   299     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   300 
   301     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   302     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   303 
   304   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   305     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   306     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   307     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   308     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   309     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   310     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   311     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   312 
   313   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   314     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   315     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   316     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   317 
   318   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   319     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   320     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   321     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   322 
   323   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   324     from type nat to type int.
   325 
   326 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   327 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   328 
   329   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   330     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   331     type.  Example syntax:
   332 
   333     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   334       is List.insert
   335 
   336     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   337     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   338     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   339     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   340     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   341     by the package.
   342 
   343   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   344     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   345     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   346     code generation for each constant.
   347 
   348   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   349     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   350     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   351     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   352     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   353 
   354   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   355     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   356     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   357 
   358 * Quotient package:
   359 
   360   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   361     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   362 
   363   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   364     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   365 
   366   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   367     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   368     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   369 
   370   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   371     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   372 
   373 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   374 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   375 
   376 * Quickcheck:
   377 
   378   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   379     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   380     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   381     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   382     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   383 
   384     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   385     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   386     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   387 
   388     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   389     continues searching for genuine ones.
   390 
   391     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   392     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   393     show genuine counterexamples.
   394 
   395   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   396     value generators for a given type and operations.
   397 
   398     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   399     constructors of that type.
   400 
   401   - Support for multisets.
   402 
   403   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   404 
   405   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   406     conjectures in a locale context.
   407 
   408 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   409 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   410 
   411 * Sledgehammer:
   412   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   413     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   414   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   415   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   416     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   417   - Sped up the minimizer.
   418   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   419   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   420   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   421 
   422 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   423 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   424 
   425 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   426 
   427 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   430 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   431 
   432   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   433 
   434 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   435 a list and a nat.
   436 
   437 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   438 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   439 
   440 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   441 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   442 default.
   443 
   444 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   445 
   446   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   447 
   448 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   449 
   450 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   451 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   452 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   453 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   454 one_case.
   455 
   456 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   457 the result of the fact expression.
   458 
   459 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   460 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   461 of some relation theorems:
   462 
   463   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   464   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   465   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   466   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   467   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   468   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   469 
   470 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   471 
   472 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   473 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   474 
   475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   478 to match the constant's name:
   479 
   480   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   481   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   482   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   483   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   484   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   485   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   486   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   487   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   488   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   489   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   490   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   491   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   492   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   493   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   494   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   495   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   496   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   497   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   498   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   499   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   500   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   501   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   502   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   503   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   504 
   505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   508 and corresponding theorem names:
   509 
   510   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   511 
   512   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   513 
   514   - Renamed theorems:
   515 
   516     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   517     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   518     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   519     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   520     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   521     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   522     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   523     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   524     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   525     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   526     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   527     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   528     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   529     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   530     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   531     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   532     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   533     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   534     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   535     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   536     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   537     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   538     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   539 
   540     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   541 
   542     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   543 
   544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   547 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   548 
   549   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   550   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   551   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   552   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   553   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   554   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   555   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   556   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   557   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   558   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   559   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   560   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   561   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   562   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   563   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   564   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   565   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   566   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   567   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   568   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   569   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   570 
   571 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   572 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   577 
   578   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   579   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   580   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   581   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   582   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   583   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   584   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   585   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   586   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   587   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   588   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   589   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   590   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   591   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   592   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   593   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   594   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   595   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   596 
   597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   600 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   601 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   602 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   603 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   604 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   605 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   606 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   607 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   608 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   609 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   610 
   611 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   612 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   613 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   614 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   615 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   616 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   617 
   618 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   619 through option types.
   620 
   621 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   622 relations.
   623 
   624 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   625 
   626 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   627 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   628 
   629   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   630   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   631   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   632   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   633   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   634   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   635   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   636   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   637   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   638   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   639   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   640   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   641   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   642   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   643   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   644   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   645   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   646   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   647   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   648   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   649   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   650   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   651   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   652   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   653   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   654   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   655   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   656   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   657   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   658   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   659   zless_le ~> less_le
   660   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   661   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   662   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   663 
   664 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   665 
   666   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   667 
   668 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   669 
   670 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   671 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   672 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   673 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   677 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   678 
   679 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   680 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   681 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   682 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   683 follows:
   684 
   685   Operations:
   686   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   687   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   688   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   689   del -> rbt_del
   690   delete -> rbt_delete
   691   ins -> rbt_ins
   692   insert -> rbt_insert
   693   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   694   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   695   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   696   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   697   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   698   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   699   tree_less -> rbt_less
   700   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   701   union -> rbt_union
   702   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   703   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   704 
   705   Lemmas:
   706   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   707   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   708   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   709   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   710   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   711   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   712   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   713   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   714   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   715   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   716   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   717   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   718   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   719   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   720   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   721   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   722   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   723   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   724   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   725   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   726   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   727   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   728   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   729   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   730   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   731   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   732   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   733   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   734   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   735   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   736   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   737   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   738   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   739   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   740   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   741   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   742   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   743   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   744   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   745   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   746   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   747   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   748   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   749   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   750   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   751   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   752   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   753   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   754   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   755   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   756   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   757   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   758   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   759   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   760   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   761   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   762   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   763   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   764   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   765   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   766   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   767   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   768   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   769   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   770   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   771   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   772   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   773   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   774   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   775   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   776   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   777   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   778   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   779   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   780   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   781   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   782   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   783   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   784   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   785   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   786   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   787   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   788   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   789 
   790 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   791 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   792 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   793 
   794   Changed Operations:
   795   float_abs -> abs
   796   float_nprt -> nprt
   797   float_pprt -> pprt
   798   pow2 -> use powr
   799   round_down -> float_round_down
   800   round_up -> float_round_up
   801   scale -> exponent
   802 
   803   Removed Operations:
   804   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   805 
   806   Renamed Lemmas:
   807   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   808   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   809   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   810   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   811   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   812   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   813   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   814   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   815   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   816   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   817   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   818   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   819   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   820   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   821   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   822   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   823   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   824   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   825   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   826   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   827   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   828   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   829   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   830   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   831   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   832   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   833   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   834   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   835   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   836   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   837   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   838   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   839   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   840   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   841   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   842   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   843 
   844   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   845   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   846   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   847   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   848   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   849   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   850   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   851   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   852   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   853   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   854 
   855 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   856 association lists with distinct keys.
   857 
   858 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   859 annotated commands.
   860 
   861 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   862 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   863 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   864 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   867 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   868 instead.
   869 
   870   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   871   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   872   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   873   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   874   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   875   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   876   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   877   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   878   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   879   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   880   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   881   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   882   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   883   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   884   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   885   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   886   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   887   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   888   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   889   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   890   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   891   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   892   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   893   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   894   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   895   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   896   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   897   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   898   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   899   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   900   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   901   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   902   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   903   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   904   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   905   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   906   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   907   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   908   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   909   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   910   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   911 
   912 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   913 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   914 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   915 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   916 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   917 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   918 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   919 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   920 
   921 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   922 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   923 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   924 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   925 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   926 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   927 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   928 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   929 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   930 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   931 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   932 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934   Renamed constants:
   935   measure -> emeasure
   936   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   937   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   938   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   939   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   940 
   941   Removed locales:
   942   completeable_measure_space
   943   finite_measure_space
   944   finite_prob_space
   945   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   946   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   947   finite_sigma_algebra
   948   measure_space
   949   pair_finite_prob_space
   950   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   951   pair_finite_space
   952   pair_sigma_algebra
   953   product_sigma_algebra
   954 
   955   Removed constants:
   956   conditional_space
   957   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   958   image_space
   959   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   960   pair_measure_generator
   961   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   962   subvimage
   963 
   964   Replacement theorems:
   965   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   966   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   967   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   968   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   969   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   970   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   971   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   972   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   973   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   974   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   975   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   976   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   977   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   978   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   979   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   980   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   981   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   982   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   983   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   984   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   985   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   986   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   987   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   988   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   989   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   990   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   991   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   992   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   993   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   994   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   995   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   996   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   997   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   998   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   999   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1000   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1001   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1002   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1003   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1004   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1005   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1006   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1007   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1008   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1009   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1010   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1011   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1012   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1013   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1014   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1015   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1016   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1017   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1018   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1019   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1020   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1021   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1022   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1023   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1024   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1025   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1026   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1027   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1028   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1029   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1030   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1031   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1032   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1033   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1034   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1035   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1036   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1037   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1038   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1039   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1040   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1041   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1042   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1043   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1044   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1045   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1046   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1047   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1048   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1049   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1050   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1051   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1052   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1053   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1054   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1055   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1056   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1057   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1058   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1059   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1060   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1061   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1062   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1063   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1064   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1065   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1066   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1067   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1068   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1069   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1070   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1071   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1072   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1073   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1074   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1075   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1076   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1077   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1078   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1079   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1080   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1081   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1082   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1083   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1084   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1085   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1086   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1087   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1088   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1089   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1090   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1091   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1092   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1093 
  1094 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1095 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1096 
  1097 
  1098 *** FOL ***
  1099 
  1100 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1101 
  1102 
  1103 *** ZF ***
  1104 
  1105 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1106 analysis.
  1107 
  1108 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1109 
  1110 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 
  1113 *** ML ***
  1114 
  1115 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1116 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1117 
  1118 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1119 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1120 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1121 
  1122 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1123 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1124 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1125 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1126 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1127 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1129 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1130 
  1131 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1132 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1133 
  1134 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1135 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1136 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1137 
  1138 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1139 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1142 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1143 context as well.
  1144 
  1145 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1146 
  1147   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1148   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1149   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1150   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1151   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1152   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1153   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1154   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1155   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1156   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1157   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1158   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1159 
  1160 
  1161 *** System ***
  1162 
  1163 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1164 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1165 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1166 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1167 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1168 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1169 the generic user home was intended.
  1170 
  1171 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1172 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1173 
  1174 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1175 (not just JRE).
  1176 
  1177 
  1178 
  1179 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1180 ------------------------------------
  1181 
  1182 *** General ***
  1183 
  1184 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1185 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1186 
  1187   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1188     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1189     files for checking).
  1190 
  1191   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1192     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1193     positions.
  1194 
  1195   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1196     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1197     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1198 
  1199   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1200     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1201     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1202 
  1203   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1204     cores.
  1205 
  1206   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1207     versions (garbage collection).
  1208 
  1209 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1210 including some remaining limitations.
  1211 
  1212 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1213 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1214 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1215 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1216 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1218 
  1219 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1220 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1221 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1222 
  1223 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1224 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1225 usedir option -Q.
  1226 
  1227 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1228 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1229 
  1230   long_names   ~> names_long
  1231   short_names  ~> names_short
  1232   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1233 
  1234 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1235 
  1236   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1237 
  1238 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1239 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1240 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1241 
  1242 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1243 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1244 
  1245 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1246   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1247   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1248   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1249     "Classical Reasoner".
  1250 
  1251 
  1252 *** HOL ***
  1253 
  1254 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1255 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1256 
  1257 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1258 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1259 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1260 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1261 class complete_linorder.
  1262 
  1263 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1264 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1265 
  1266 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1267 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1268 
  1269   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1270   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1271   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1272   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1273   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1274   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1275   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1276   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1277   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1278   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1279   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1280 
  1281 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1282 
  1283   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1284   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1285   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1286   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1287   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1288   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1289   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1290   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1291   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1292   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1293   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1294   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1295   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1296   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1297   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1298   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1299 
  1300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1306 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1307 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1308 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1309 
  1310 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1311 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1312 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1316 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1317 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1318 
  1319 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1320 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1321 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1324 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1325 
  1326 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1327 
  1328     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1329     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1330 
  1331 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1332 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1335 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1338 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1339 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1340 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1341 
  1342   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1343   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1344   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1345   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1346   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1347   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1348   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1349 
  1350 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1351 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1352 
  1353   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1354   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1355   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1356   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1357   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1358   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1359   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1360   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1361   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1362   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1363   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1364   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1365   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1366   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1367   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1368   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1369   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1370   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1371   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1372   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1373   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1374   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1375   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1376   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1377   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1378   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1379   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1380   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1381   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1382   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1383   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1384   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1385   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1386   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1387   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1388   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1389   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1390   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1391   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1392   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1393   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1394   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1395   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1396   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1397   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1398   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1399   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1400   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1401   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1402   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1403   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1404   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1405   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1406   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1407   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1408   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1409   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1410   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1411   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1412   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1413   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1414   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1415   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1416   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1417   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1418   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1419   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1420   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1421   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1422   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1423   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1424   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1425   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1426   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1427   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1428   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1429   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1430   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1431   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1432   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1433   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1434   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1435 
  1436 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1437 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1438 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1439 
  1440 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1441 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1442 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1443 
  1444 * Code generation:
  1445 
  1446   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1447     characters in the target language.
  1448 
  1449   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1450     instead.
  1451 
  1452   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1453 
  1454   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1455     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1456 
  1457       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1458 
  1459 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1462 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1463 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1464 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1465 syntax.
  1466 
  1467 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1468 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1469 
  1470 * Nitpick:
  1471   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1472   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1473   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1474     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * Sledgehammer:
  1477   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1478   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1479     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1480   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1481     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1482   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1483     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1485     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1486   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1487     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Metis:
  1490   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1492     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Command 'try':
  1495   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1496     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1498     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1499 
  1500 * Quickcheck:
  1501   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1502     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1503   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1504     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1505   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1506     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1507     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1508     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1509   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1510     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1511 
  1512 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1513 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1514 
  1515 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1516 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1517 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1518 
  1519 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1520 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1524 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1527 arithmetic.
  1528 
  1529 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1530 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1531 and lattice type classes.
  1532 
  1533 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1534 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1535 
  1536 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1537 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1538 
  1539 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1540 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1541 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1544   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1545   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1546   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1547 
  1548 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1549 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1550 constants:
  1551 
  1552   type inat   ~> type enat
  1553   Fin         ~> enat
  1554   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1555   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1556   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1557 
  1558 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1559 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1562 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1563 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1564 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1565 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1566 
  1567 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1568 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1569 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1570 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1571 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1572 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1573 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1574 
  1575   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1576   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1577   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1578   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1579 
  1580 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1581 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1582 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1585   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1586   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1587   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1588   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1589   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1590   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1591   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1592   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1593   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1594   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1595   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1596   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1597   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1598   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1599   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1600   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1601   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1602   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1603   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1604   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1605   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1606   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1607   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1608   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1609   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1610   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1611   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1612   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1613   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1614   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1615   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1616   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1617   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1618   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1619   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1620   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1621   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1622   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1623   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1624   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1625   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1626   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1627   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1628   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1629   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1630   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1631   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1632   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1633   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1634   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1635 
  1636 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1637   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1638   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1639   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1640   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1641     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1646   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1647   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1648   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1649   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1650   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1651   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1652   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1653   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1654   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1655   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1656   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1657   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1658   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1659   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1660   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1661   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1662   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1663   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1664   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1665   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1666   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1667   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1668   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1669   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1670 
  1671 
  1672 *** Document preparation ***
  1673 
  1674 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1675 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1676 same.
  1677 
  1678 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1679 result.
  1680 
  1681 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1682 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1683 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1684 
  1685 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1686 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1687 
  1688 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1689 like this:
  1690 
  1691   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1692   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1693 
  1694 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1695 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1696 layouts.
  1697 
  1698 
  1699 *** ML ***
  1700 
  1701 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1702 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1703 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1704 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1705 under external program control.
  1706 
  1707 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1708 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1709 
  1710 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1711 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1712 (better known as Proof General).
  1713 
  1714 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1715 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1716 
  1717 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1718 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1719 
  1720 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1721 (including quotes etc.).
  1722 
  1723 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1724 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1725 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1726 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1727 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1728 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1729 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1730 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1731 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1732 
  1733 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1734 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1735 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1736 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1737 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1738 
  1739 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1740 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1741 
  1742 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1743 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1744 
  1745 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1746 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1747 
  1748 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1749 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1750 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1751 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1752 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1753 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1754 proper Proof.context.
  1755 
  1756 
  1757 *** System ***
  1758 
  1759 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1760 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1761 
  1762 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1763 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1764 
  1765 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1766 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1767 
  1768   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1769   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1770   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1771   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1772   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1773 
  1774 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1775 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1778 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1779 example:
  1780 
  1781   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1782 
  1783 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1784 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1785 
  1786 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1787 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1788 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1789 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1790 
  1791 
  1792 
  1793 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1794 ----------------------------------
  1795 
  1796 *** General ***
  1797 
  1798 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1799 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1800 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1801 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1802 like this:
  1803 
  1804   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1805 
  1806 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1807 
  1808 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1809 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1810 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1811 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1812 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1813 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1814 
  1815 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1816 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1817 the following package declarations:
  1818 
  1819   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1820   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1821 
  1822 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1823 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1824 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1825 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1826 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1827 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1828 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1829 
  1830 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1831 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1832 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1833 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1834 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1835 
  1836 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1837 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1838 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1839 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1840 
  1841 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1842 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1843 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1844 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1845 
  1846   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1847 
  1848   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1849   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1850   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1851   show_types                    show_types
  1852   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1853   show_consts                   show_consts
  1854   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1855 
  1856   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1857   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1858   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1859 
  1860   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1861   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1862 
  1863   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1864 
  1865   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1866   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1867   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1868   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1869   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1870 
  1871 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1872 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1873 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1874 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1875 
  1876 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1880   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1881 
  1882 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1883 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1884 float_token.
  1885 
  1886 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1887 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1891 DejaVu Sans.
  1892 
  1893 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1894 
  1895 
  1896 *** Pure ***
  1897 
  1898 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1899 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1900 time.
  1901 
  1902 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1903 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1906 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1909 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1910 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1911 command already provided this functionality.
  1912 
  1913 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1914 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1915 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1916 without interpretations.
  1917 
  1918 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1919 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1920 
  1921 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1922 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1923 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1924 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1925 
  1926 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1927 'definition' instead.
  1928 
  1929 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1930 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1931 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1932 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1933 
  1934 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1935 constructors.
  1936 
  1937 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1938 the local file system.
  1939 
  1940 
  1941 *** HOL ***
  1942 
  1943 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1944 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1945 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1946 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1947 
  1948   declare [[coercion f]]
  1949 
  1950 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1951 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1952 
  1953   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1954 
  1955 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1956 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1957 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1958 other theories like this:
  1959 
  1960   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1961 
  1962 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1963 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1964 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1965 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1966 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1967 for examples.
  1968 
  1969 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1970 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1973 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1974 
  1975 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1976 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1977 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1978 
  1979 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1980 functorial structure of types.
  1981 
  1982 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1983 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1984 
  1985 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1986 languages.
  1987 
  1988 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1989 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1993 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1996 combinators any longer.
  1997 
  1998 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1999 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2000 
  2001 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2002 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2003 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2004 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2005 
  2006   record 'a foo = ...
  2007   ...
  2008   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2009 
  2010 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2011 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2015 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2016 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2017 
  2018 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2019 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2020 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2021 
  2022 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2023 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2026 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2027 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2028 independently.
  2029 
  2030 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2031 counter example search.
  2032 
  2033 * Sledgehammer:
  2034   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2035     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2036     sledgehammer").
  2037   - Renamed commands:
  2038     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2039     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2040     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2041     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042   - Renamed options:
  2043     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2044     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2045     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2046     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2047     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 * Nitpick:
  2050   - Renamed options:
  2051     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2052     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2053     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2055   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2056   - Added "whack" option.
  2057   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2058   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2059   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2060   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2061     higher cardinalities.
  2062   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2063 
  2064 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2065 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2066 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2067 
  2068     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2069 
  2070 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2071 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2072 
  2073 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2074 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2075 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2076 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2077 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2078 "smt_solver".
  2079 
  2080 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2081 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2082 
  2083 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2084 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2085 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2086 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2087 
  2088 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2089   - Renamed:
  2090     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2091     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2092     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093   - Added:
  2094     smt_verbose
  2095     smt_random_seed
  2096     smt_datatypes
  2097     smt_infer_triggers
  2098     smt_monomorph_limit
  2099     cvc3_options
  2100     remote_cvc3_options
  2101     remote_z3_options
  2102     yices_options
  2103 
  2104 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2105 header.
  2106 
  2107 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2108 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2109 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2110 
  2111   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2112 
  2113 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2116 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2121 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2124 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2125 
  2126 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2127 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2130 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2131 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2139 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2142 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2143 for congruent(2)).
  2144 
  2145 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2146 
  2147   types
  2148     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2149     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2150 
  2151   constants
  2152     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2153     True ~> HOL.True
  2154     False ~> HOL.False
  2155     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2156     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2157     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2158     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2159     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2160     The ~> HOL.The
  2161     All ~> HOL.All
  2162     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2163     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2164     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2165     If ~> HOL.If
  2166     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2167     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2168     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2169     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2170     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2171     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2172     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2173     op : ~> Set.member
  2174     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2175 
  2176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2179 
  2180     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2181     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2182     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2183     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2184     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2185     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2186     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2187     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2188 
  2189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * More stylized fact names:
  2192 
  2193   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2194   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2195   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2196   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2197 
  2198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2201 
  2202   constants
  2203     null ~> List.null
  2204 
  2205   facts
  2206     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2207     null_empty ~> null_def
  2208 
  2209 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2210 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2211 generation.
  2212 
  2213 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2214 Haskell code.
  2215 
  2216 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2217 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2218 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2221 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2224 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2225 
  2226 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2227 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2228 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2231 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2237 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2238 referred to by its qualified name.
  2239 
  2240   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2241   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2242   product ~>  Enum.product
  2243 
  2244 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2245 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2249 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2250 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252 
  2253 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2254 sort_key.
  2255 
  2256 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2260 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2261 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2262 
  2263   types
  2264     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2265               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2266               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2267         (depends on your needs)
  2268 
  2269   constants
  2270      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2271      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2272      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2273 
  2274 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2275 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2276 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2277 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2280 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2281 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2282 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2283 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2289 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2290 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2291 
  2292 
  2293 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2294 
  2295 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2296 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2297 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2298 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2299 compatibility.
  2300 
  2301 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2302 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2303 
  2304 
  2305 *** HOLCF ***
  2306 
  2307 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2308 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2309 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2313 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2314 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2317   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2318   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2319 
  2320 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2321 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2322 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2325 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2326 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2327 domain definition now works:
  2328 
  2329   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2330 
  2331 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2332 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2333 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2334 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2335 
  2336   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2337     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2338 
  2339   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2340 
  2341 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2342 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2343 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2346 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2349 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2350 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2351 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2352 
  2353 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2354 
  2355 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2363 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2364 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2365 
  2366 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2367 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2368 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2371 still supported as an input translation.
  2372 
  2373 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2374 
  2375   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2376   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2377   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2378   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2379   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2380   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2381   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2382 
  2383 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2384 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2387   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2388   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2389   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2390   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2391   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2392 
  2393 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2394 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2397 
  2398   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2399   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2400   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2401   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2402 
  2403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2406 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2409 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2410 
  2411   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2412   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2413   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2414   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2415   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2416   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2417   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2418   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2419   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2420   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2421   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2422   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2423   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2424   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2425   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2426   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2427   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2428   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2429   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2430   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2431 
  2432 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2435   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2436   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2437   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2438   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2439   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2440   box_less             ~> box_below
  2441   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2442   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2443   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2444   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2445   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2446   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2447   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2448   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2449   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2450   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2451   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2452   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2453   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2454   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2455   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2456   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2457   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2458   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2459   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2460   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2461   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2462   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2463   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2464   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2465   up_less              ~> up_below
  2466   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2467   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2468   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2469   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2470   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2471   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2472   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2473   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2474   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2475   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2476   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2477   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2478   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2479 
  2480 
  2481 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2482 
  2483 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2484 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2485 
  2486 
  2487 *** ML ***
  2488 
  2489 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2490 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2491 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2492 
  2493 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2494 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2495 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2496 
  2497 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2498 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2499 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2500 
  2501 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2502 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2503 
  2504 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2505 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2506 
  2507 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2508 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2509 
  2510 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2511 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2512 
  2513 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2514 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2515 almost all situations.
  2516 
  2517 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2518 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2519 Isabelle/ML.
  2520 
  2521 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2522 meaning.
  2523 
  2524 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2525 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2526 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2527 
  2528 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2529 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2530 
  2531 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2532 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2533 
  2534 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2535 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2536 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2537 
  2538 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2539 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2540 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2541 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2542 configuration options.
  2543 
  2544 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2545 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2546 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2547 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2548 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2549 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2550 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2551 
  2552 
  2553 
  2554 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2555 ---------------------------------
  2556 
  2557 *** General ***
  2558 
  2559 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2560 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2561 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2562 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2563 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2564 their full internal name.
  2565 
  2566 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2567 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2568 Some hints on upgrading:
  2569 
  2570   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2571     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2572     which are independent of this issue.
  2573 
  2574   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2575     provides the following special forms:
  2576 
  2577       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2578       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2579       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2580 
  2581     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2582     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2583     extra variables".
  2584 
  2585     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2586     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2587     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2588     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2589     "logic".
  2590 
  2591   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2592     antiquotations:
  2593 
  2594       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2595       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2596       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2597       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2598 
  2599   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2600     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2601     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2602     antiquotations.
  2603 
  2604 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2605 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2606 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2607 diagnose syntax problems.
  2608 
  2609 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2610 
  2611 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2612 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2613 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2614 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2615 
  2616 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2617 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2618 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2619 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2622 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2623 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2624 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2625 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2628 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2629 
  2630 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2631 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2632 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2633 
  2634   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2635 
  2636 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2637 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2638 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2639 
  2640 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2641 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2645 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2646 
  2647 
  2648 *** Pure ***
  2649 
  2650 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2651 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2652 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2653 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2654 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2655 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2656 inspect proof terms.
  2657 
  2658 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2659 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2660 are added internally.  For example:
  2661 
  2662   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2663 
  2664 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2665 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2670 'class' instead.
  2671 
  2672 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2673 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2677 invariants.
  2678 
  2679 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2680 user space functionality any longer.
  2681 
  2682 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2683 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685 
  2686 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2687 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2688 
  2689 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2690 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2691 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2692 
  2693 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2694 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2695 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2696 
  2697 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2698 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700 
  2701 *** HOL ***
  2702 
  2703 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2704 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2705 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2706 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2707 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2708 
  2709 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2710 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2711 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2712 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2713 
  2714   fun
  2715     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2716   where
  2717     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2718 
  2719   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2720     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2721 
  2722   quotient_definition
  2723     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2724 
  2725 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2726 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2727 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2728 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2729 
  2730 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2731 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2732 
  2733 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2734 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2735 
  2736 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2740 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2741 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2742 
  2743 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2744 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2753 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2756 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2757 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2760   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2761   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2762   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2763   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2764   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2765   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2766   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2767   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2768   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2769   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2770   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2771   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2772   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2773   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2774   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2775   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2776   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2777   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2778   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2779   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2780   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2781   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2782   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2783   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2784   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2785   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2786   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2787   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2788   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2789 
  2790 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2791 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2792 
  2793 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2794 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2795 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2796 
  2797 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2798 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2799 
  2800 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2801 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2804 
  2805 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2806 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2809 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2812 
  2813 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2814 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2815 
  2816 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2817 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2818 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2819 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2822   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2823   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2824   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2828 lattices):
  2829 
  2830     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2831     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2832 
  2833     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2834 
  2835     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2836     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2837     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2838     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2839     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2840     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2841     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2842     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2843     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2844     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2845     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2846     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2847     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2848 
  2849     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2850     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2851     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2852     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2853     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2854     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2855     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2856     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2857     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2858     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2859     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2860     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2861     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2862     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2863     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2864     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2865     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2866     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2867 
  2868   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2869   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2870 
  2871     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2872     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2873     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2874     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2875     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2876 
  2877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Refined field classes:
  2880   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2881     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2882     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2883   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2887   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2888   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2889   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2890     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2891   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2892     equal_neg_zero.
  2893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2896 sets to lattices:
  2897 
  2898   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2899   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2900   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2901   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2902   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2903   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2904   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2905   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2906   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2907   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2908 
  2909 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2910 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2911 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2912 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2913 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2914 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2917 multiset order:
  2918 
  2919   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2920     <= and <;
  2921   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2922     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2923     multiset_order;
  2924   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2925     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2926     generation;
  2927   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2928     if needed.
  2929 
  2930 Renamed:
  2931 
  2932   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2933   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2934   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2935 
  2936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2939 
  2940 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2941 
  2942 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2943 
  2944 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2945 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2946 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948   Constants:
  2949   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2950   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2951   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2952   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2953   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2954   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2955   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2956   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2957   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2958   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2959   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2960   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2961   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2962 
  2963   Lemmas:
  2964   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2965   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2966   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2967   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2968   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2969   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2970   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2971   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2972   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2973   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2974   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2975   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2976   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2977 
  2978 * Sledgehammer:
  2979   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2980     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2981     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2982     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2983     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2984     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2985     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2987   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2988     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2989   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2990     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2991     is still experimental.)
  2992   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2993     full-typed mode.
  2994   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2995 
  2996 * Nitpick:
  2997   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2998   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2999   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3000     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3001   - Added support for quotient types.
  3002   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3003     constructs.
  3004   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3005     "termination" proofs).
  3006   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3007   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3008   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3009   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3010     record getters.
  3011   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3012   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3013   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3014   - Added "atoms" option.
  3015   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3016     problems.
  3017   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3018     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3019     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3021     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3025   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3026   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3027   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3028   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3029   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3030   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3031   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3032   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3033   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 
  3036 *** HOLCF ***
  3037 
  3038 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3039 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3040 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3041 
  3042 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3043 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3044 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3045 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3048 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3049 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3050 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3051 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3054 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3055 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3058 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3061   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3062 
  3063 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3064 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3067   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3068   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3069   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3070   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3071 
  3072 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3073 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3076   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3077   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3078 
  3079 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3080 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3084 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3089 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 
  3092 *** ML ***
  3093 
  3094 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3095 
  3096     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3097     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3098 
  3099     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3100     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3101     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3102     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3103 
  3104     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3105     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3106     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3107 
  3108 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3109 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3110 
  3111 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3112 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3113 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3114 
  3115 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3116 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3117 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3118 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3119 
  3120 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3121 the context or even global references.
  3122 
  3123 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3124 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3125 
  3126 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3127 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3128 
  3129   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3130   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3131   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3132   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3133   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3134   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3135   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3136   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3137   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3138   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3139 
  3140 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3141 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3142 
  3143 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3144 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3145 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3146 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3147 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3148 
  3149 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3150 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3151 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3152 Theory_Data version.
  3153 
  3154 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3155 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3156 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3157 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3158 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3159 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3160 explicitly in rare situations.
  3161 
  3162 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3163 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3167 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3170 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3171 quite rare).
  3172 
  3173 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3174 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3177 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3178 terms.
  3179 
  3180 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3181 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3182 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3183 
  3184 
  3185 *** System ***
  3186 
  3187 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3188 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3189 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3190 
  3191 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3192 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3193 respectively.
  3194 
  3195 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3196 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3197 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3198 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3199 
  3200   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3201 
  3202 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3203 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3204 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3205 component.
  3206 
  3207 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3208 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3209 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3210 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3211 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3212 the user for manual installation.
  3213 
  3214 
  3215 
  3216 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3217 -------------------------------------
  3218 
  3219 *** General ***
  3220 
  3221 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3222 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3223 
  3224 
  3225 *** Pure ***
  3226 
  3227 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3228 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3229 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3230 
  3231 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3232 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3233 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3234 
  3235 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3236 interpretation.
  3237 
  3238 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3239 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 
  3242 *** Document preparation ***
  3243 
  3244 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3245 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3246 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3247 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3248 
  3249 
  3250 *** HOL ***
  3251 
  3252 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3253 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3254 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3255 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3256 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3257 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3258 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3259 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3260 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3261 
  3262 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3263 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3264 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3265 
  3266 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3267 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3268 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3269 
  3270 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3271 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3272 
  3273 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3274 
  3275 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3276 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3277 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3278 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3279 
  3280 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3281 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3282 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3283 "mirabelle" utility.
  3284 
  3285 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3286 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3287 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3288 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3289 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3290 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3291 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3292 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3293 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3294 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3295 
  3296 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3297 procedure only.
  3298 
  3299 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3300 
  3301 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3302 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3303 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3304 that fail later.
  3305 
  3306 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3307 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3308 
  3309 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3310 the same method as the approximation method.
  3311 
  3312 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3313 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3314 series expansion.
  3315 
  3316 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3317 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3318 
  3319 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3320 reals.
  3321 
  3322 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3323 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3324 
  3325 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3326 fixpoint theorem.
  3327 
  3328 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3329   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3330     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3331   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3332     accordingly
  3333   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3334     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3335   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3336     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3337 
  3338 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3339 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3340 lattice.
  3341 
  3342 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3343 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3344 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3345 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3346 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3347 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3351   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3352     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3353   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3354     le_inf_iff
  3355   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3356     sup_aci)
  3357   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3358   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3359   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3360     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3361     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3362     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3363     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3364     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3365     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3366     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3367     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3368     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3369     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3370   - authentic syntax for
  3371     Set.Pow
  3372     Set.image
  3373   - mere abbreviations:
  3374     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3375     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3376     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3377     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3378     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3379     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3380     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3381     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3382   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3383 
  3384 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3385 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3386 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3387 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3388 
  3389 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3390 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3391 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3394 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3397 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3398 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3399 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3402 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3403 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3404 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3405 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3406 
  3407 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3408 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3412 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3415 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3416 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3417 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3418 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3419 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3420 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3424     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3425     code_post       replaces    code post
  3426     etc.
  3427   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Renamed methods:
  3430     sizechange -> size_change
  3431     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3432   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3435 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3436 
  3437 * Renamed theorems:
  3438     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3439     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3440     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3441     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3442     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3443   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 
  3452 *** HOLCF ***
  3453 
  3454 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3455 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3456 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3457 
  3458 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3459 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3460 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3461 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3462 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3463 
  3464 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3465 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3466 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3467 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3468 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3469 
  3470 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3471 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3472 constructor are pre-configured.
  3473 
  3474 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3475 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3476 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3477 
  3478 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3479 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3480 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3481 as well.)
  3482 
  3483 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3484 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3485 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3486 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3487 examples.
  3488 
  3489 
  3490 *** ML ***
  3491 
  3492 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3493 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3494 
  3495 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3496 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3497 position, logical grouping etc.
  3498 
  3499 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3500 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3501 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3502 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3503 
  3504 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3505 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3506 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3507 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3508 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3509 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3510 
  3511 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3512 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3513 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3514 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3515 experiments with references.
  3516 
  3517 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3518 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3519 
  3520 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3521 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3522 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3523 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3524 
  3525 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3526 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3527 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3528 
  3529 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3530 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3531 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3539 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3540 
  3541 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3542 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3543 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3544 
  3545 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3546 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3547 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3550 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3551 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3555 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3556 instead of global theory.
  3557 
  3558 
  3559 *** System ***
  3560 
  3561 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3562 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3563 usedir option -q.
  3564 
  3565 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3566 also the system manual.
  3567 
  3568 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3569 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3570 
  3571 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3572 this is always enabled.
  3573 
  3574 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3575 
  3576 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3577 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3578 currently supported on Linux only.
  3579 
  3580 
  3581 
  3582 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3583 --------------------------------
  3584 
  3585 *** General ***
  3586 
  3587 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3588 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3589 
  3590   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3591     "isatool."
  3592 
  3593   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3594     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3595 
  3596   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3597     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3598 
  3599 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3600 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3601 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3602 
  3603 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3604 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3605 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3606 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3607 via "isabelle emacs".
  3608 
  3609 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3610 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3611 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3612 
  3613 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3614 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3615 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3616 
  3617 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3618 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3619 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3620 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3621 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3622 
  3623 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3624 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3625 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3626 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3627 
  3628 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3629 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3630 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3631 
  3632 
  3633 *** Pure ***
  3634 
  3635 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3636 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3637 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3638 
  3639 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3640 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3641 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3642 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3643 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3644 
  3645 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3646 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3647 useful in locale declarations.
  3648 
  3649 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3650 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3651 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3652 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3653 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3654 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3655 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3656 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3657 no longer generated.
  3658 
  3659 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3660 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3661 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3662 
  3663 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3664 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3665 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3666 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3667 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3668 
  3669 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3670 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3671 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3672 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3673 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3674 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3675 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3676 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3677 
  3678 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3679 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3680 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3681 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3682 
  3683 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3687 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3688 
  3689 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3690 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3693 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3694 in HOL, write
  3695 
  3696     class foo = ...
  3697 
  3698 instead of
  3699 
  3700     class foo = type + ...
  3701 
  3702 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3703 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3707 
  3708 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3709 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3710 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3711 
  3712 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3713 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3714 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3715 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3716 directly in regular applications.
  3717 
  3718 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3719 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3720 
  3721 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3722 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3723 
  3724 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3725 theory context.
  3726 
  3727 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3728 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3731 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3732 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3733 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3734 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3735 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3736 
  3737   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3738 
  3739 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3740 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3741 normalization.
  3742 
  3743 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3744 addressing etc.
  3745 
  3746 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3747 
  3748   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3749   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3750 
  3751 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3752 
  3753   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3754      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3755      parts of the code generator framework).
  3756 
  3757   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3758      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3759      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3760 
  3761 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3764 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3767 patterns, e.g.
  3768 
  3769     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3770 
  3771 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3772 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3773 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3774 hyphen:
  3775 
  3776     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3777 
  3778 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3779 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3780 
  3781 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3782 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3783 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3784 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3785 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3786 higher-order unification.
  3787 
  3788 
  3789 *** Document preparation ***
  3790 
  3791 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3792 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3793 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3794 
  3795 
  3796 *** HOL ***
  3797 
  3798 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3799 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3800 
  3801 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3802 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3803 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3804 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3805 Main, as before.
  3806 
  3807 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3808 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3809 
  3810 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3811 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3812 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3813 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3814 
  3815 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3816 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3817 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3818 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3819 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3820 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3821 
  3822 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3823 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3824 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3825 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3826 
  3827 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3828 menu.
  3829 
  3830 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3831 (contains the empty clause).
  3832 
  3833 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3834 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3835 
  3836 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3837 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3838 
  3839 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3840 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3841 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3842 
  3843 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3844 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3845 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3846 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3847 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3848 
  3849 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3850 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3851 
  3852 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3853 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3854 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3855 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3856 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3857 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3858 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3859 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3860 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3861 
  3862 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3863 
  3864 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3865 
  3866 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3867 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3870 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3871 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3872 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3873 
  3874 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3875 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3876 
  3877     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3878     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3879     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3880     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3881     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3882     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3883     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3884     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3885 
  3886 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3887 theory Set.
  3888 
  3889 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3890 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3891 
  3892 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3893 
  3894 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3895 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3896 
  3897 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3898 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3899 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3900 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3901 allowed. For examples see
  3902 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3903 
  3904 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3905 
  3906 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3910 structure:
  3911 
  3912     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3913     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3914     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3915     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3916     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3917     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3918     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3919     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3920     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3921     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3922     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3923     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3924     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3925     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3926     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3927     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3928     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3929     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3930     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3931     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3932     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3933     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3934     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3935     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3936     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3937     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3938     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3939     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3940     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3941     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3942     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3943     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3944     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3945 
  3946     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3947     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3948     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3949     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3950     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3951     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3952     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3953     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3954     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3955     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3956 
  3957     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3958     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3959     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3960     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3961     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3962     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3963 
  3964 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3965 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3966 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3967 
  3968 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3969 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3970 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3971 
  3972 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3973 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3976 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3977 
  3978 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3979 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3980 proofs, e.g.
  3981 
  3982   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3983 
  3984 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3985 
  3986 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3987 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3988 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3991 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3995 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3996 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4000 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4001 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4002 preorder_class.*.
  4003 
  4004 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4005 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4006 
  4007 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4008 
  4009   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4010 
  4011 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4012 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4013 fold_image.
  4014 
  4015 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4016 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4017 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4018 the former will disappear at some point.
  4019 
  4020 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4021 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4022 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4023 
  4024 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4025 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4026 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4027 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4028 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4029 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4030 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4031 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4032 
  4033 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4034 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4035 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4036 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4037 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4038 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4039 
  4040     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4041     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4042     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4043     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4044     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4045     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4046     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4047 
  4048 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4049 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4050 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4051 
  4052 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4053 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4054 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4055 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4056 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4057 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4058 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4059 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4060 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4061 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4062 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4063 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4064 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4065 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4066 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4067 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4068 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4069 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4070 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4071 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4072 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4073 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4074 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4075 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4076 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4077 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4078 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4079 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4080 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4081 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4082 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4083 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4084 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4085 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4086 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4087 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4088 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4089 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4090 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4091 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4092 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4093 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4094 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4095 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4096 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4097 
  4098 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4101 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4102 
  4103 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4104 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4105 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4106 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4107 
  4108 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4109 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4110 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4111 theory RealVector.
  4112 
  4113 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4114 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4115 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4116 and inner products are included.
  4117 
  4118 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4119 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4120 supported.
  4121 
  4122 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4123 first diagonalization argument.
  4124 
  4125 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4126 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4127 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4128 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4129 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4130 
  4131     hide (open) const gcd
  4132     abbreviation gcd where
  4133       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4134     notation (output)
  4135       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4136 
  4137 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4138 
  4139 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4140 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4141 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4144 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4145 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4146 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4147 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4148 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4149 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4150 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4151 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4152 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4153 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4154 cases.
  4155 
  4156 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4157 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4158 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4159 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4160 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4161 
  4162     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4163     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4164     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4165     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4166     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4167 
  4168 
  4169 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4170 
  4171 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4172 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4173 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4174 
  4175 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4176 
  4177 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4178 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4179 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4180 
  4181 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4182 
  4183 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4184 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4185 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4186 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4187 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4188 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4189 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4190 
  4191 
  4192 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4193 
  4194 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4195 
  4196 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4197 theory targets.
  4198 
  4199 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4200 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4201 'inductive' etc.
  4202 
  4203 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4204 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4205 
  4206 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4207 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4208 
  4209 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4210 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4211 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4212 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4213 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4214 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4215 the algorithm W:
  4216 
  4217  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4218  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4219          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4220 
  4221 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4222 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4223 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4224 
  4225 
  4226 *** HOLCF ***
  4227 
  4228 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4229 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4230 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4231 
  4232 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4233 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4234 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4235 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4236 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4239 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4240 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 
  4243 *** ZF ***
  4244 
  4245 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4246 
  4247 
  4248 *** ML ***
  4249 
  4250 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4251 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4252 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4253 5.2.1!
  4254 
  4255 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4256 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4257 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4258 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4259 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4260 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4261 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4262 
  4263 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4264 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4265 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4266 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4267 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4268 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4269 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4270 
  4271 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4272 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4273 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4274 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4275 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4276 
  4277 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4278 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4279 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4280 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4281 Method.add_method.
  4282 
  4283 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4284 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4285 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4286 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4287 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4288 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4289 
  4290 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4291 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4292 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4293 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4294 examples.
  4295 
  4296 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4297 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4298 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4299 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4300 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4301 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4302 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4303 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4304 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4305 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4306 
  4307 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4308 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4309 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4310 
  4311 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4312 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4313 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4314 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4315 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4316 resort for legacy applications.
  4317 
  4318 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4319 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4320 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4321 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4322 explicit runtime argument.
  4323 
  4324 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4325 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4326 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4327 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4328 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4331 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4332 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4333 theory state.
  4334 
  4335 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4336 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4337 
  4338   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4339   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4340   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4341   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4342   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4343   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4344   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4345   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4346   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4347   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4348 
  4349 
  4350 *** System ***
  4351 
  4352 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4353 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4354 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4355 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4356 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4357 
  4358 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4359 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4360 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4361 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4362 
  4363 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4364 
  4365 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4366 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4367 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4368 prover operations.
  4369 
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4373 -------------------------------
  4374 
  4375 *** General ***
  4376 
  4377 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4378 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4379 
  4380 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4381 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4382 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4383 provides a proper context already.
  4384 
  4385 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4386 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4387 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4388 
  4389 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4390 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4391 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4392 swap theory imports.
  4393 
  4394 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4395 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4396 
  4397 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4398 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4399 white space without escapes.
  4400 
  4401 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4402 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4403 "foo_bar".
  4404 
  4405 
  4406 *** Pure ***
  4407 
  4408 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4409 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4410 
  4411 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4412 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4413 
  4414 (1) unused_thms
  4415      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4416 
  4417 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4418      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4419      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4420 
  4421 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4422      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4423      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4424      their ancestors.
  4425 
  4426 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4427 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4428 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4429 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4430 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4431 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4432 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4433 
  4434 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4435 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4436 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4437 
  4438 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4439 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4440 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4441 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4442 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4443 
  4444 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4445 
  4446 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4447 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4448 update of theories within ML code.
  4449 
  4450 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4452 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4453 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4454 
  4455 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4456 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4457 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4461 
  4462 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4463 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4464 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4465 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4466 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4467 
  4468 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4469 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4470 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4471 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4472 situations.
  4473 
  4474 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4475 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4476 proof text.
  4477 
  4478 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4479 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4480 
  4481 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4482 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4483 predicates.
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 *** Document preparation ***
  4487 
  4488 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4489 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4490 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4491 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4492 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4493 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4494 
  4495 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4496 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4497 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4498 
  4499 
  4500 *** HOL ***
  4501 
  4502 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4503 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4504 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4505 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4506 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4507 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4508 
  4509 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4510 with multithreading.
  4511 
  4512 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4513 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4514 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4515 
  4516 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4517 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4518 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4519 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4522 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4523 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4524 and makes them available separately.  See
  4525 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4526 
  4527 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4528 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4529 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4530 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4531 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4532 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4533 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4534 the declared rules.
  4535 
  4536 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4537 
  4538   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4539 
  4540 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4541 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4542 
  4543 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4544 
  4545   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4546 
  4547   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4548     definitions on => and bool.
  4549 
  4550   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4551     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4552     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4553 
  4554       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4555       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4556       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4557       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4558       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4559       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4560       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4561       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4562 
  4563   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4564     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4565     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4566 
  4567   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4568     The proof pattern
  4569 
  4570       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4571       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4572 
  4573     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4574     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4575 
  4576       have "EX S. P S"
  4577       proof
  4578         show "P S" <...>
  4579       qed
  4580 
  4581   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4582     The proof pattern
  4583 
  4584       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4585       also have "S = T" <...>
  4586       finally have "P T" .
  4587 
  4588     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4589     must be replaced by something like
  4590 
  4591       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4592       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4593       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4594 
  4595   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4596     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4597 
  4598       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4599 
  4600     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4601     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4602     type of the form
  4603 
  4604       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4605 
  4606     rather than
  4607 
  4608       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4609 
  4610 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4611 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4612 
  4613 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4616 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4620 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4623 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 
  4625 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4626 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4627 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4630 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4631 
  4632   less_trans
  4633   less_linear
  4634   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4635   le_less_trans
  4636   less_le_trans
  4637   less_not_sym
  4638   less_asym
  4639 
  4640 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4641 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4642 and different variable names.
  4643 
  4644 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4645 
  4646 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4647 finite maps.
  4648 
  4649 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4650 
  4651 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4652 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4653 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4654 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4655 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4656 accordingly.
  4657 
  4658 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4659 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4660 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4661 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4662 
  4663 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4664 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4665 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4666 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4667 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4671 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4674 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4675 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4676 
  4677 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4681 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4682 
  4683 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4684 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4687 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4690 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4694 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4697 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4698 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4699 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4700 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4701 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4702 
  4703 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4704 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4706 
  4707 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4708 
  4709 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4710 
  4711 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4712 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4713 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4714 
  4715 
  4716 *** ZF ***
  4717 
  4718 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4719 same session:
  4720 
  4721   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4722   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4723   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4724   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4725   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4726   List      -> List_ZF
  4727   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4728 
  4729 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4730 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4731 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4732 
  4733 
  4734 *** ML ***
  4735 
  4736 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4737 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4738 
  4739 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4740 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4741 
  4742 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4743 
  4744 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4745 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4746 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4747 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4748 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4749 
  4750 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4751 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4752 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4753 
  4754 
  4755 *** System ***
  4756 
  4757 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4758 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4759 
  4760 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4761 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4762 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4763 
  4764 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4765 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4766 
  4767 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4768 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4769 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4770 
  4771 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4772 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4773 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4774 
  4775 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4776 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4777 
  4778 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4779 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4780 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4781 script.
  4782 
  4783 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4784 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4785 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4786 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4787 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4788 
  4789 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4790 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4791 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4792 
  4793 
  4794 
  4795 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4796 -----------------------------------
  4797 
  4798 *** General ***
  4799 
  4800 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4801 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4802 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4803 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4804 
  4805 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4806 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4807 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4810 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4811 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4812 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4815 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4816 quotes.
  4817 
  4818 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4819 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4820 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4821 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4822 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4823 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4824 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4825 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4826 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4827 
  4828 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4829 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4830 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4831 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4832 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4833 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4834 
  4835 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4836 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4837 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4838 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4839 
  4840 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4841 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4842 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4843 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4844 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4845 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4846 
  4847 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4848 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4849 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4850 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4851 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4852 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4853 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4854 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4855 
  4856 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4857 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4858 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4859 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4860 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4861 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4862 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4863 
  4864 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4865 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4866 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4867 
  4868 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4869 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4870 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4871 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4872 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4873 limit is imposed.
  4874 
  4875 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4876 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4877 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4878 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4879 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4880 and scalability.
  4881 
  4882 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4883 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4884 
  4885 
  4886 *** Document preparation ***
  4887 
  4888 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4889 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4890 current context.
  4891 
  4892 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4893 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4894 
  4895 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4896 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4897 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4898 
  4899 
  4900 *** Pure ***
  4901 
  4902 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4903 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4904 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4905 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4906 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4907 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4908 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4909 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4910 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4911 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4912 
  4913 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4914 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4915 sketch:
  4916 
  4917     internal compilation:
  4918         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4919     writing SML code to a file:
  4920         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4921     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4922         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4923     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4924         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4925 
  4926     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4927         method ``eval''
  4928 
  4929 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4930 
  4931 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4932 
  4933     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4934     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4935     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4936     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4937 
  4938 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4939 
  4940     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4941       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4942 
  4943     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4944       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4945 
  4946     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4947       {(target)}+
  4948         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4949 
  4950     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4951       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4952         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4953 
  4954 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4955 
  4956 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4957 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4958 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4959 codegen".
  4960 
  4961 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4962 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4963 annotations).
  4964 
  4965 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4966 syntax.
  4967 
  4968 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4969 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4970 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4971 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4972 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4973 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4974 
  4975 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4976 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4977 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4978 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4979 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4980 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4981 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4982 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4983 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4984 equations, see section "definitions".
  4985 
  4986 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4987 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4988 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4989 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4990 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4991 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4992 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4993 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4994 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4995 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4996 
  4997 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4998 configuration options:
  4999 
  5000   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5001   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5002   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5003   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5004   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5005   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5006   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5007   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5008   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5009 
  5010 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5011 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5012 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5013 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5014 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5015 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5016 order.
  5017 
  5018 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5019 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5020 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5021 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5022 context encountered later on.
  5023 
  5024 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5025 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5026 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5027 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5028 
  5029 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5030 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5031 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5032 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5033 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5034 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5035 
  5036 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5037 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5038 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5039 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5040 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5041 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5042 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5043 more permissive.
  5044 
  5045 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5046 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5047 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5048 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5049 maintainability of proof texts.
  5050 
  5051 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5052 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5053 
  5054   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5055   then guess x and y by clarify
  5056 
  5057 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5058 proof tools being involved here.
  5059 
  5060 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5061 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5062 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5063 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5064 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5065 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5066 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5067 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5068 
  5069 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5070 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5071 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5072 
  5073   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5074   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5075   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5076   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5077 
  5078 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5079 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5080 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5081 
  5082 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5083 both named and unnamed ones.
  5084 
  5085 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5086 
  5087   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5088 
  5089 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5090 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5091 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5092 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5093 
  5094 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5095 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5096 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5097 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5098 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5099 
  5100 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5101 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5102 
  5103 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5104 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5105 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5106 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5107 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5108 originally first one.
  5109 
  5110 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5111 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5112 expected.
  5113 
  5114 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5115 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5116 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5117 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5118 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5119 
  5120   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5121     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5122     obtains x where "P x"
  5123 
  5124   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5125     assumes "A & B"
  5126     obtains A and B
  5127 
  5128   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5129     assumes "A | B"
  5130     obtains
  5131       A
  5132     | B
  5133 
  5134 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5135 explicitly:
  5136 
  5137   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5138     obtains "~ thesis"
  5139 
  5140   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5141     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5142 
  5143 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5144 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5145 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5146 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5147 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5148 case_names).
  5149 
  5150 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5151 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5152 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5153 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5154 
  5155 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5156 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5157 top-level lemma.
  5158 
  5159 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5160 introduction rule (default "that").
  5161 
  5162 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5163 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5164 to occur.
  5165 
  5166 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5167 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5168 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5169 representations independently of name spaces.
  5170 
  5171 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5172 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5173 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5176 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5177 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5178 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5179 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5180 current context.
  5181 
  5182 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5183 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5184 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5185 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5186 
  5187   axiomatization
  5188     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5189     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5190 
  5191   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5192   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5193 
  5194   abbreviation
  5195     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5196     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5197 
  5198 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5199 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5200 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5201 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5202 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5203 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5204 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5205 
  5206 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5207 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5208 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5209 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5210 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5211 
  5212 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5213 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5214 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5215 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5216 
  5217 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5218 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5219 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5220 
  5221   definition "K x _ = x"
  5222 
  5223   inductive conj for A B
  5224   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5225 
  5226 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5227 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5228 abbreviations on output.
  5229 
  5230 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5231 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5232 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5233 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5234 
  5235 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5236 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5237 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5238 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5239 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5240 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5241 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5242 
  5243 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5244 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5245 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5246 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5247 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5248 
  5249 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5250 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5251 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5252 
  5253 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5254 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5255 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5256 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5257 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5258 
  5259   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5260     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5261 
  5262 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5263 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5264 partial_order.
  5265 
  5266 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5267 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5268 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5269 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5270 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5271 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5272 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5273 examples.
  5274 
  5275 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5276 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5277 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5278 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5279 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5280 
  5281 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5282 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5283 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5284 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5285 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5286 
  5287   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5288   (induct set: foo bar)
  5289   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5290   (induct type: foo bar)
  5291 
  5292 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5293 new format.
  5294 
  5295 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5296 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5297 
  5298 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5299 considered a legacy feature.
  5300 
  5301 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5302 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5305 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5306 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5307 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5308   
  5309 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5310 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5311 manipulating the claset.
  5312 
  5313 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5314 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5315 least one premise.
  5316 
  5317 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5318 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5319 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5320 rule steps.
  5321 
  5322 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5323 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5324 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5325 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5326 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5327 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5328 
  5329 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5330 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5331 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5332 
  5333 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5334 the graph browser tool.
  5335 
  5336 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5337 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5338 
  5339 
  5340 *** HOL ***
  5341 
  5342 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5343 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5344 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5345 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5346 multi-threading.
  5347   
  5348 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5349 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5350 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5351 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5352 work with multi-threading.
  5353 
  5354 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5355 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5356 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5357 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5358 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5359 
  5360 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5361 
  5362 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5363 equality.
  5364 
  5365 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5366 the new 'class' package:
  5367 
  5368     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5369     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5370     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5371     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5372     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5373     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5374     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5375     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5376     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5377     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5378     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5379     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5380     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5381     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5382     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5383     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5384     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5385     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5386     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5387     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5388 
  5389 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5390 
  5391 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5392 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5393 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5394 names.
  5395 
  5396 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5397 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5398 
  5399 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5400 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5401 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5402 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5403 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5404 
  5405 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5406 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5407 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5408 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5409 
  5410 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5411 
  5412 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5413 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5414 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5415 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5417 
  5418 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5419 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5420 
  5421 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5422 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5423 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5424 
  5425 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5426 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5427 
  5428 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5429 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5430 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5431 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5432 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5433 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5434 in the current context.
  5435 
  5436 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5437 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5439 
  5440 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5441 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5442 
  5443 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5444 
  5445     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5446     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5447 
  5448     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5449       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5450     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5451     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5452 
  5453     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5454     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5455 
  5456   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5457 
  5458     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5459     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5460     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5461     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5462     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5463     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5464     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5465     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5466     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5467     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5468     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5469     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5470     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5471     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5472     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5473     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5474     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5475     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5476     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5477     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5478     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5479     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5480     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5481     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5482     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5483     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5484     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5485     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5486     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5487     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5488     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5489     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5490     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5491     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5492     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5493 
  5494     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5495     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5496     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5497     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5498     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5499     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5500     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5501     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5502     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5503     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5504     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5505     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5506     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5507     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5508     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5509     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5510     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5511 
  5512     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5513     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5514     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5515     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5516     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5517     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5518     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5519     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5520     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5521     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5522     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5523     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5524     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5525     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5526     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5527     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5528     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5529     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5530     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5531     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5532     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5533     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5534     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5535     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5536     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5537     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5538     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5539     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5540 
  5541     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5542     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5543     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5544     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5545     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5546     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5547 
  5548     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5549     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5550     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5551     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5552 
  5553     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5554     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5555 
  5556     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5557     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5558 
  5559 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5560 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5561 
  5562 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5563 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5564 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5565 "*.size".
  5566 
  5567 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5569 
  5570 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5571 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5572 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5573 
  5574 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5577 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5578 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5579 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5580 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5581 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5582 numerals on all operations.
  5583 
  5584 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5585 
  5586 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5587 
  5588 * Code generator library theories:
  5589   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5590     languages.
  5591   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5592     languages.
  5593   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5594     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5595   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5596   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5597     denominator).
  5598   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5599     representable by rational numbers.
  5600   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5601     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5602     includes Code_Integer.
  5603   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5604     target-language built-in integers.
  5605   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5606     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5607 
  5608 * New package for inductive predicates
  5609 
  5610   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5611 
  5612     inductive
  5613       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5614       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5615     where
  5616       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5617     | ...
  5618 
  5619   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5620 
  5621     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5622 
  5623     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5624     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5625 
  5626     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5627     intros
  5628       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5629       ...
  5630 
  5631   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5632   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5633 
  5634     inductive_set
  5635       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5636       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5637     where
  5638       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5639     | ...
  5640 
  5641   or
  5642 
  5643     inductive_set
  5644       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5645       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5646       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5647     where
  5648       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5649     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5650     | ...
  5651 
  5652   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5653 
  5654   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5655   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5656 
  5657   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5658 
  5659   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5660     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5661     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5662     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5663     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5664 
  5665   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5666     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5667     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5668     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5669     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5670     statements of the form
  5671 
  5672       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5673 
  5674     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5675     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5676 
  5677       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5678 
  5679   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5680 
  5681       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5682         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5683         ==> ... ==> P
  5684 
  5685     for predicates and
  5686 
  5687       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5688         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5689         ==> ... ==> P
  5690 
  5691     for sets rather than
  5692 
  5693       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5694         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5695         ==> ... ==> P
  5696 
  5697     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5698     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5699     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5700 
  5701   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5702     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5703     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5704 
  5705 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5706 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5707 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5708 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5709 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5710 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5711 
  5712 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5713 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5714 
  5715 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5716 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5717 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5718 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5719 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5720 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5721 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5722 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5723 variable.
  5724 
  5725 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5726 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5727 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5728 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5729   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5730   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5731 
  5732 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5733 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5734 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5735 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5736 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5737 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5738 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5739 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5740 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5741 
  5742 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5743 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5744 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5745 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5746 rat, etc.
  5747 
  5748 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5749 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5750 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5751 
  5752 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5753 
  5754 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5755 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5756 
  5757 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5758 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5759 
  5760 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5761 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5762 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5763 
  5764 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5765 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5767 
  5768 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5769 
  5770 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5771 
  5772 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5773 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5774 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5775 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5776 
  5777 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5778 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5779 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5780 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5783 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5784 algebraic operations.
  5785 
  5786 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5788 
  5789 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5791 
  5792 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5793 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5794 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5795 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5796 adapted.
  5797  
  5798 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5799 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5800 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5801 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5802 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5803 
  5804 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5805 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5806 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5807 
  5808 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5809 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5810 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5811 
  5812 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5815 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5816 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5817   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5818       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5819   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5820   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5821   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5822 
  5823 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5824 
  5825 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5826 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5827 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5828 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5829 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5830 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5831 
  5832 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5833 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5834 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5835 
  5836 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5837 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5838 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5842 
  5843 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5844 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5845 
  5846 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5847 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5848 
  5849 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5850 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5851 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5852 
  5853 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5854 True/False.
  5855 
  5856 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5857 
  5858 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5859 
  5860 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5861 ``rule'' method.
  5862 
  5863 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5864 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5865 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5866 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5867 
  5868 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5869 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5870 
  5871 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5872 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5873 
  5874 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5875 Library.
  5876 
  5877 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5878 
  5879 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5880 as greatest fixed-point.
  5881 
  5882 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5883 association lists.
  5884 
  5885 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5886 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5887 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5888 
  5889 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5890 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5891 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5892 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5893 behavior.
  5894 
  5895 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5896 
  5897 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5898 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5899 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5900 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5901 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5902 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5903 
  5904 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5905 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5906 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5907 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5908 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5909 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5910 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5911 
  5912 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5913 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5914 
  5915 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5916 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5917 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5918 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5919 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5920 
  5921 
  5922 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5923 
  5924 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5925 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5926 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5927 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5929 
  5930 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5931 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5932 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5933 
  5934 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5935 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5936 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5939 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5940 
  5941 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5942 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5943 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5947   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5948   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5949   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5950   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5951   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5952   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5953   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5954   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5955   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5956   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5957   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5958   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5959   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5960   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5961 
  5962 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5963 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5964 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5965 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5966 
  5967   approx        <-- capprox
  5968   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5969   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5970   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5971   monad         <-- cmonad
  5972   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5973   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5974   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5975   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5976 
  5977 
  5978 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5979 
  5980 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5981 
  5982 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5984 
  5985 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5986 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5987 
  5988 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5989 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5990 of algebraic structures.
  5991 
  5992 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5993 
  5994 
  5995 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5996 
  5997 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5998 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5999 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6000 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6001 
  6002 
  6003 *** ML ***
  6004 
  6005 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6006 (even on SML/NJ).
  6007 
  6008 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6009 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6010 compile-time.  For example:
  6011 
  6012 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6013 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6014 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6015 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6016 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6017 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6018 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6019 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6020 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6021 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6022 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6023 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6024 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6025 ML {* @{context} *}
  6026 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6027 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6028 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6029 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6030 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6031 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6032 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6033 
  6034 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6035 
  6036 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6037 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6038 
  6039 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6040 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6041 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6042 
  6043 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6044 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6045 
  6046 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6047 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6048 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6049 
  6050 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6051 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6052 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6053 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6054 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6055 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6056 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6057 declarations and definitions.
  6058 
  6059 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6060 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6061 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6062 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6063 
  6064 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6065 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6066 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6067 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6068 
  6069 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6070 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6071 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6072 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6073 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6074 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6075 
  6076 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6077 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6078 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6079 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6080 attributes, methods, etc.
  6081 
  6082 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6083 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6084 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6085 fold_map combinators.
  6086 
  6087 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6088 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6089 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6090 derivation.
  6091 
  6092 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6093 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6094 achieve the old behaviour.
  6095 
  6096 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6097 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6098 statements.
  6099 
  6100 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6101 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6102 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6103 
  6104 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6105 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6106 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6107 
  6108   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6109   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6110   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6111 
  6112 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6113 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6114 
  6115 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6116 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6117 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6118 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6119 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6120 
  6121 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6122 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6123 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6124 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6125 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6126 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6127 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6128 in a locale context).
  6129 
  6130 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6131 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6132 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6133 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6134 
  6135 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6136 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6137 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6138 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6139 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6140 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6141 
  6142 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6143 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6144 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6145 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6146 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6147 
  6148   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6149 
  6150 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6151 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6152 this:
  6153 
  6154   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6155 
  6156 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6157 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6158 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6159 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6160 
  6161 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6162 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6163 
  6164 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6165 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6166 
  6167 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6168 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6169 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6170 batch mode.
  6171 
  6172 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6173 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6174 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6175 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6176 
  6177 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6178 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6179 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6180 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6181 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6182 
  6183 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6184 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6185 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6186 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6187 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6188 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6189 
  6190 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6191 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6192 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6196 "Trueprop" etc.
  6197 
  6198 
  6199 *** System ***
  6200 
  6201 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6202 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6203 Isabelle installations.
  6204 
  6205 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6206 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6207 code.
  6208 
  6209 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6210 
  6211 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6212 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6213 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6214 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6215 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6216 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6217 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6218 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6219 Implementation manual.
  6220 
  6221 
  6222 
  6223 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6224 ----------------------------------
  6225 
  6226 *** General ***
  6227 
  6228 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6229 
  6230   theory <name>
  6231   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6232   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6233   begin
  6234 
  6235 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6236 
  6237   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6238 
  6239 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6240 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6241 non-Isa