NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Nov 27 23:10:19 2011 +0100 (2011-11-27)
changeset 45654 cf10bde35973
parent 45625 750c5a47400b
child 45703 c7a13ce60161
permissions -rw-r--r--
more antiquotations;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13 
    14 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    15 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    16 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    17 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    18 etc. was exploited.
    19 
    20 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    21 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    22 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    23 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    24 indices of schematic variables.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Pure ***
    28 
    29 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
    30 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    31 
    32 * Ancient code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
    33 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
    34 Use commands of the generic code generator instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    35 
    36 * Redundant attribute 'code_inline' has been discontinued. Use
    37 'code_unfold' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
    40 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    41 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
    42 
    43   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
    44 
    45   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
    46     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurence (!)"
    47 
    48 
    49 *** HOL ***
    50 
    51 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to type
    52 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
    53 
    54   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
    55   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
    56   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
    57   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
    58   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
    59   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
    60   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
    61   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
    62   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
    63   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
    64   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
    65   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
    66   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
    67   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
    68   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
    69   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
    70   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
    71   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
    72   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
    73   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
    74   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
    75   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
    76   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
    77   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
    78   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
    79   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
    80   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
    81   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
    82   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
    83 
    84 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declararation without modifying
    85 the result of the fact expression.
    86 
    87 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
    88 relations.
    89 
    90 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualifed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    93 
    94 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
    95 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
    96 
    97   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
    98   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
    99   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   100   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   101   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   102   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   103   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   104   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   105   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   106   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   107   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   108   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   109   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   110   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   111   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   112   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   113   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   114   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   115   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   116   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   117   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   118   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   119   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   120   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   121   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   122   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   123   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   124   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   125   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   126   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   127   zless_le ~> less_le
   128   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   129   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   130   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   131 
   132 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   133 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   134 
   135   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   136 
   137 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   138 a list and a nat.
   139 
   140 * Nitpick:
   141   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   142     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   143 
   144 * Sledgehammer:
   145   - Added "lam_trans" option.
   146 
   147 * Metis:
   148   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   149     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lam_lifting) ...)").
   150 
   151 
   152 *** FOL ***
   153 
   154 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   155 
   156 
   157 *** ML ***
   158 
   159 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   160 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   161 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   162 
   163 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   164 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   167 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   168 context as well.
   169 
   170 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   171 
   172   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   173   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   174   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   175   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   176   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   177   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   178   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   179   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   180   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   181   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   182   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   183   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   184 
   185 
   186 
   187 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   188 ------------------------------------
   189 
   190 *** General ***
   191 
   192 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   193 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   194 
   195   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   196     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   197     files for checking).
   198 
   199   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   200     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   201     positions.
   202 
   203   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   204     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   205     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   206 
   207   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   208     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   209     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   210 
   211   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   212     cores.
   213 
   214   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   215     versions (garbage collection).
   216 
   217 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   218 including some remaining limitations.
   219 
   220 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   221 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   222 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   223 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   224 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   226 
   227 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   228 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   229 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   230 
   231 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   232 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   233 usedir option -Q.
   234 
   235 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   236 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   237 
   238   long_names   ~> names_long
   239   short_names  ~> names_short
   240   unique_names ~> names_unique
   241 
   242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   243 
   244   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   245 
   246 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   247 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   248 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   249 
   250 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   251 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   252 
   253 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   254   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   255   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   256   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   257     "Classical Reasoner".
   258 
   259 
   260 *** HOL ***
   261 
   262 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   263 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   266 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   267 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   268 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   269 class complete_linorder.
   270 
   271 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   272 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   273 
   274 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   275 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   276 
   277   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   278   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   279   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   280   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   281   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   282   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   283   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   284   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   285   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   286   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   287   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   288 
   289 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   290 
   291   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   292   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   293   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   294   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   295   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   296   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   297   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   298   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   299   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   300   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   301   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   302   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   303   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   304   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   305   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   306   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   307 
   308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   314 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   315 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   316 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   319 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   320 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   324 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   325 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   326 
   327 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   328 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   329 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   332 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   333 
   334 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   335 
   336     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   337     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   338 
   339 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   340 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   343 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   346 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   347 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   348 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   351   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   352   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   353   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   354   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   355   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   356   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   357 
   358 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   359 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   362   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   363   real_less_def ~> less_le
   364   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   365   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   366   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   367   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   368   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   369   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   370   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   371   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   372   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   373   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   374   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   375   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   376   real_le_linear ~> linear
   377   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   378   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   379   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   380   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   381   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   382   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   383   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   384   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   385   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   386   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   387   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   388   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   389   expi_add ~> exp_add
   390   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   391   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   392   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   393   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   394   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   395   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   396   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   397   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   398   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   399   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   400   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   401   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   402   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   403   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   404   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   405   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   406   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   407   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   408   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   409   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   410   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   411   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   412   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   413   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   414   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   415   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   416   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   417   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   418   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   419   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   420   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   421   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   422   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   423   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   424   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   425   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   426   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   427   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   428   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   429   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   430   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   431   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   432   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   433   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   434   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   435   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   436   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   437   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   438   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   439   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   440   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   441   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   442   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   443 
   444 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   445 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   446 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   447 
   448 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   449 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   450 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   451 
   452 * Code generation:
   453 
   454   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   455     characters in the target language.
   456 
   457   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   458     instead.
   459 
   460   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   461 
   462   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   463     reactivated by the following theory command:
   464 
   465       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   466 
   467 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   470 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   471 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   472 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   473 syntax.
   474 
   475 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   476 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   477 
   478 * Nitpick:
   479   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   480   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   481   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   482     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Sledgehammer:
   485   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   486   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   487     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   488   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   489     this can be done within reasonable time.
   490   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   491     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   493     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   494   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   495     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Metis:
   498   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   500     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Command 'try':
   503   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   504     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   506     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   507 
   508 * Quickcheck:
   509   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   510     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   511   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   512     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   513   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   514     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   515     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   516     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   517   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   518     (formly in HOL/Library).
   519 
   520 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   521 use 'partial_function' instead.
   522 
   523 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   524 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   525 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   526 
   527 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   528 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   532 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   535 arithmetic.
   536 
   537 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   538 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   539 and lattice type classes.
   540 
   541 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   542 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   543 
   544 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   545 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   546 
   547 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   548 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   549 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   550 
   551   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   552   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   553   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   554   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   555 
   556 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   557 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   558 constants:
   559 
   560   type inat   ~> type enat
   561   Fin         ~> enat
   562   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   563   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   564   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   565 
   566 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   567 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   568 
   569 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   570 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   571 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   572 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   573 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   574 
   575 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   576 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   577 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   578 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   579 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   580 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   581 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   582 
   583   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   584   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   585   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   586   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   587 
   588 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   589 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   590 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   591 
   592   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   593   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   594   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   595   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   596   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   597   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   598   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   599   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   600   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   601   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   602   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   603   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   604   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   605   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   606   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   607   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   608   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   609   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   610   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   611   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   612   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   613   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   614   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   615   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   616   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   617   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   618   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   619   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   620   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   621   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   622   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   623   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   624   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   625   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   626   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   627   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   628   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   629   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   630   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   631   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   632   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   633   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   634   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   635   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   636   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   637   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   638   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   639   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   640   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   641   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   642   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   643 
   644 * Session HOL-Probability:
   645   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   646   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   647   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   648   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   649     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   654   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   655   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   656   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   657   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   658   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   659   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   660   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   661   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   662   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   663   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   664   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   665   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   666   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   667   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   668   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   669   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   670   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   671   UU_I ~> bottomI
   672   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   673   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   674   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   675   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   676   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   677   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   678 
   679 
   680 *** Document preparation ***
   681 
   682 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   683 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   684 same.
   685 
   686 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   687 result.
   688 
   689 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   690 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   691 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   692 
   693 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   694 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   695 
   696 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   697 like this:
   698 
   699   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   700   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   701 
   702 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   703 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   704 layouts.
   705 
   706 
   707 *** ML ***
   708 
   709 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   710 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   711 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   712 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   713 under external program control.
   714 
   715 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   716 data, which requires explicit setup.
   717 
   718 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   719 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   720 (better known as Proof General).
   721 
   722 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   723 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   724 
   725 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   726 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   727 
   728 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   729 (including quotes etc.).
   730 
   731 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   732 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   733 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   734 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   735 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   736 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   737 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   738 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   739 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   740 
   741 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   742 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   743 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   744 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   745 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   746 
   747 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   748 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   749 
   750 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   751 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   752 
   753 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   754 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   755 
   756 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   757 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   758 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   759 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   760 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   762 proper Proof.context.
   763 
   764 
   765 *** System ***
   766 
   767 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   768 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   769 
   770 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   771 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   772 
   773 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   774 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   775 
   776   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   777   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   778   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   779   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   780   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   781 
   782 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   783 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   786 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   787 example:
   788 
   789   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   790 
   791 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   792 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   793 
   794 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   795 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   796 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   797 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   798 
   799 
   800 
   801 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   802 ----------------------------------
   803 
   804 *** General ***
   805 
   806 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   807 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   808 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   809 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   810 like this:
   811 
   812   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   813 
   814 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   815 
   816 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   817 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   818 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   819 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   820 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   821 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   822 
   823 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   824 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   825 the following package declarations:
   826 
   827   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   828   \usepackage{textcomp}
   829 
   830 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   831 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   832 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   833 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   834 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   835 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   836 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   837 
   838 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   839 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   840 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   841 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   842 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   843 
   844 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   845 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   846 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   847 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   848 
   849 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   850 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   851 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   852 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   853 
   854   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   855 
   856   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   857   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   858   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   859   show_types                    show_types
   860   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   861   show_consts                   show_consts
   862   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   863 
   864   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   865   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   866   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   867 
   868   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   869   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   870 
   871   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   872 
   873   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   874   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   875   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   876   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   877   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   878 
   879 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   880 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   881 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   882 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   883 
   884 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   888   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   889 
   890 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   891 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   892 float_token.
   893 
   894 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   895 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   899 DejaVu Sans.
   900 
   901 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   902 
   903 
   904 *** Pure ***
   905 
   906 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   907 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   908 time.
   909 
   910 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   911 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   914 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   917 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   918 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   919 command already provided this functionality.
   920 
   921 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   922 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   923 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   924 without interpretations.
   925 
   926 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   927 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   928 
   929 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   930 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   931 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   932 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   933 
   934 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   935 'definition' instead.
   936 
   937 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   938 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   939 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   940 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   941 
   942 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   943 constructors.
   944 
   945 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   946 the local file system.
   947 
   948 
   949 *** HOL ***
   950 
   951 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   952 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   953 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   954 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   955 
   956   declare [[coercion f]]
   957 
   958 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   959 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   960 
   961   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   962 
   963 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   964 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   965 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   966 other theories like this:
   967 
   968   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   969 
   970 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   971 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   972 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   973 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   974 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   975 for examples.
   976 
   977 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   978 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   981 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   982 
   983 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   984 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   985 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   986 
   987 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   988 functorial structure of types.
   989 
   990 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   991 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   992 
   993 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   994 languages.
   995 
   996 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   997 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   999 
  1000 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1001 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1004 combinators any longer.
  1005 
  1006 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1007 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1008 
  1009 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1010 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1011 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1012 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1013 
  1014   record 'a foo = ...
  1015   ...
  1016   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1017 
  1018 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1019 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1023 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1024 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1025 
  1026 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1027 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1028 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1029 
  1030 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1031 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1032 
  1033 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1034 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1035 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1036 independently.
  1037 
  1038 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1039 counter example search.
  1040 
  1041 * Sledgehammer:
  1042   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1043     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1044     sledgehammer").
  1045   - Renamed commands:
  1046     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1047     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1048     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1049     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050   - Renamed options:
  1051     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1052     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1053     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1054     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1055     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1056 
  1057 * Nitpick:
  1058   - Renamed options:
  1059     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1060     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1061     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1062   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1063   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1064   - Added "whack" option.
  1065   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1066   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1067   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1068   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1069     higher cardinalities.
  1070   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1071 
  1072 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1073 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1074 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1075 
  1076     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1077 
  1078 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1079 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1080 
  1081 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1082 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1083 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1084 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1085 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1086 "smt_solver".
  1087 
  1088 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1089 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1090 
  1091 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1092 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1093 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1094 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1097   - Renamed:
  1098     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1099     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1100     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101   - Added:
  1102     smt_verbose
  1103     smt_random_seed
  1104     smt_datatypes
  1105     smt_infer_triggers
  1106     smt_monomorph_limit
  1107     cvc3_options
  1108     remote_cvc3_options
  1109     remote_z3_options
  1110     yices_options
  1111 
  1112 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1113 header.
  1114 
  1115 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1116 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1117 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1118 
  1119   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1120 
  1121 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1124 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1125 
  1126 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1129 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1132 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1133 
  1134 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1135 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1138 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1139 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1147 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1150 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1151 for congruent(2)).
  1152 
  1153 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1154 
  1155   types
  1156     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1157     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1158 
  1159   constants
  1160     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1161     True ~> HOL.True
  1162     False ~> HOL.False
  1163     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1164     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1165     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1166     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1167     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1168     The ~> HOL.The
  1169     All ~> HOL.All
  1170     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1171     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1172     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1173     If ~> HOL.If
  1174     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1175     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1176     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1177     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1178     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1179     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1180     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1181     op : ~> Set.member
  1182     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1183 
  1184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1187 
  1188     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1189     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1190     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1191     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1192     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1193     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1194     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1195     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1196 
  1197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 * More stylized fact names:
  1200 
  1201   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1202   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1203   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1204   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1205 
  1206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1207 
  1208 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1209 
  1210   constants
  1211     null ~> List.null
  1212 
  1213   facts
  1214     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1215     null_empty ~> null_def
  1216 
  1217 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1218 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1219 generation.
  1220 
  1221 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1222 Haskell code.
  1223 
  1224 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1225 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1226 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1229 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1230 
  1231 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1232 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1233 
  1234 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1235 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1236 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1239 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1240 
  1241 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1243 
  1244 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1245 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1246 referred to by its qualified name.
  1247 
  1248   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1249   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1250   product ~>  Enum.product
  1251 
  1252 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1253 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1257 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1258 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1260 
  1261 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1262 sort_key.
  1263 
  1264 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1268 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1269 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1270 
  1271   types
  1272     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1273               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1274               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1275         (depends on your needs)
  1276 
  1277   constants
  1278      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1279      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1280      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1281 
  1282 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1283 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1284 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1285 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1286 
  1287 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1288 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1289 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1290 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1291 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1295 
  1296 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1297 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1298 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1299 
  1300 
  1301 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1302 
  1303 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1304 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1305 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1306 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1307 compatibility.
  1308 
  1309 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1310 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1311 
  1312 
  1313 *** HOLCF ***
  1314 
  1315 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1316 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1317 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1321 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1322 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1325   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1326   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1327 
  1328 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1329 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1330 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1333 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1334 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1335 domain definition now works:
  1336 
  1337   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1338 
  1339 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1340 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1341 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1342 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1343 
  1344   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1345     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1346 
  1347   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1348 
  1349 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1350 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1351 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1352 
  1353 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1354 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1355 
  1356 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1357 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1358 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1359 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1360 
  1361 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1362 
  1363 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1369 
  1370 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1371 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1372 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1373 
  1374 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1375 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1376 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1377 
  1378 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1379 still supported as an input translation.
  1380 
  1381 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1382 
  1383   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1384   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1385   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1386   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1387   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1388   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1389   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1390 
  1391 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1392 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1393 
  1394   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1395   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1396   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1397   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1398   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1399   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1400 
  1401 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1402 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1405 
  1406   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1407   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1408   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1409   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1410 
  1411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1414 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1417 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1420   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1421   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1422   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1423   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1424   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1425   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1426   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1427   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1428   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1429   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1430   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1431   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1432   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1433   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1434   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1435   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1436   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1437   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1438   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1439 
  1440 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1443   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1444   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1445   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1446   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1447   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1448   box_less             ~> box_below
  1449   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1450   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1451   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1452   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1453   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1454   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1455   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1456   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1457   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1458   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1459   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1460   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1461   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1462   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1463   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1464   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1465   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1466   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1467   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1468   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1469   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1470   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1471   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1472   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1473   up_less              ~> up_below
  1474   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1475   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1476   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1477   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1478   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1479   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1480   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1481   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1482   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1483   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1484   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1485   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1486   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1487 
  1488 
  1489 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1490 
  1491 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1492 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 
  1495 *** ML ***
  1496 
  1497 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1498 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1499 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1500 
  1501 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1502 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1503 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1504 
  1505 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1506 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1507 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1508 
  1509 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1510 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1511 
  1512 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1513 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1514 
  1515 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1516 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1517 
  1518 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1519 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1520 
  1521 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1522 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1523 almost all situations.
  1524 
  1525 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1526 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1527 Isabelle/ML.
  1528 
  1529 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1530 meaning.
  1531 
  1532 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1533 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1534 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1535 
  1536 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1537 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1538 
  1539 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1540 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1541 
  1542 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1543 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1544 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1545 
  1546 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1547 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1548 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1549 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1550 configuration options.
  1551 
  1552 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1553 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1554 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1555 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1556 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1557 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1558 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1559 
  1560 
  1561 
  1562 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1563 ---------------------------------
  1564 
  1565 *** General ***
  1566 
  1567 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1568 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1569 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1570 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1571 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1572 their full internal name.
  1573 
  1574 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1575 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1576 Some hints on upgrading:
  1577 
  1578   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1579     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1580     which are independent of this issue.
  1581 
  1582   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1583     provides the following special forms:
  1584 
  1585       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1586       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1587       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1588 
  1589     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1590     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1591     extra variables".
  1592 
  1593     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1594     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1595     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1596     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1597     "logic".
  1598 
  1599   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1600     antiquotations:
  1601 
  1602       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1603       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1604       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1605       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1606 
  1607   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1608     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1609     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1610     antiquotations.
  1611 
  1612 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1613 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1614 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1615 diagnose syntax problems.
  1616 
  1617 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1618 
  1619 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1620 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1621 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1622 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1623 
  1624 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1625 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1626 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1627 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1630 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1631 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1632 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1633 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1636 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1637 
  1638 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1639 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1640 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1641 
  1642   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1643 
  1644 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1645 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1646 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1647 
  1648 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1649 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1653 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1654 
  1655 
  1656 *** Pure ***
  1657 
  1658 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1659 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1660 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1661 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1662 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1663 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1664 inspect proof terms.
  1665 
  1666 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1667 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1668 are added internally.  For example:
  1669 
  1670   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1671 
  1672 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1673 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1678 'class' instead.
  1679 
  1680 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1681 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1685 invariants.
  1686 
  1687 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1688 user space functionality any longer.
  1689 
  1690 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1691 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1695 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1696 
  1697 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1698 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1699 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1700 
  1701 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1702 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1703 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1704 
  1705 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1706 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 
  1709 *** HOL ***
  1710 
  1711 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1712 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1713 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1714 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1715 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1716 
  1717 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1718 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1719 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1720 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1721 
  1722   fun
  1723     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1724   where
  1725     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1726 
  1727   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1728     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1729 
  1730   quotient_definition
  1731     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1732 
  1733 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1734 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1735 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1736 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1737 
  1738 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1739 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1740 
  1741 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1742 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1743 
  1744 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1748 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1749 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1750 
  1751 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1752 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753 
  1754 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1761 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1764 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1765 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1766 
  1767   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1768   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1769   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1770   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1771   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1772   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1773   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1774   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1775   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1776   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1777   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1778   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1779   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1780   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1781   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1782   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1783   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1784   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1785   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1786   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1787   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1788   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1789   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1790   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1791   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1792   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1793   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1794   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1795   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1796   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1797 
  1798 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1799 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1800 
  1801 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1802 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1803 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1804 
  1805 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1806 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1807 
  1808 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1809 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1810 
  1811 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1812 
  1813 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1814 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1817 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1820 
  1821 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1822 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1823 
  1824 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1825 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1826 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1827 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1830   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1831   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1832   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1836 lattices):
  1837 
  1838     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1839     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1840 
  1841     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1842 
  1843     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1844     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1845     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1846     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1847     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1848     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1849     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1850     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1851     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1852     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1853     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1854     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1855     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1856 
  1857     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1858     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1859     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1860     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1861     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1862     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1863     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1864     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1865     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1866     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1867     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1868     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1869     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1870     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1871     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1872     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1873     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1874     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1875 
  1876   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1877   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1878 
  1879     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1880     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1881     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1882     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1883     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1884 
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Refined field classes:
  1888   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1889     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1890     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1891   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1895   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1896   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1897   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1898     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1899   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1900     equal_neg_zero.
  1901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1902 
  1903 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1904 sets to lattices:
  1905 
  1906   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1907   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1908   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1909   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1910   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1911   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1912   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1913   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1914   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1915   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1916 
  1917 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1918 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1919 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1920 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1921 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1922 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1925 multiset order:
  1926 
  1927   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1928     <= and <;
  1929   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1930     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1931     multiset_order;
  1932   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1933     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1934     generation;
  1935   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1936     if needed.
  1937 
  1938 Renamed:
  1939 
  1940   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1941   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1942   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1943 
  1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1947 
  1948 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1949 
  1950 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1951 
  1952 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1953 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1954 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956   Constants:
  1957   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1958   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1959   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1960   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1961   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1962   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1963   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1964   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1965   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1966   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1967   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1968   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1969   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1970 
  1971   Lemmas:
  1972   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1973   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1974   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1975   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1976   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1977   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1978   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1979   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1980   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1981   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1982   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1983   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1984   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1985 
  1986 * Sledgehammer:
  1987   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1988     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1989     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1990     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1991     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1992     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1993     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1995   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1996     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1997   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1998     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1999     is still experimental.)
  2000   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2001     full-typed mode.
  2002   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2003 
  2004 * Nitpick:
  2005   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2006   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2007   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2008     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2009   - Added support for quotient types.
  2010   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2011     constructs.
  2012   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2013     "termination" proofs).
  2014   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2015   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2016   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2017   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2018     record getters.
  2019   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2020   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2021   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2022   - Added "atoms" option.
  2023   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2024     problems.
  2025   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2026     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2027     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2029     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2030   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2033   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2034   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2035   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2036   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2037   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2038   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2039   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2040   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2041   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 
  2044 *** HOLCF ***
  2045 
  2046 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2047 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2048 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2051 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2052 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2053 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2056 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2057 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2058 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2059 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2060 
  2061 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2062 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2063 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2066 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067 
  2068   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2069   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2070 
  2071 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2072 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2075   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2076   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2077   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2078   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2079 
  2080 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2081 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2082 
  2083   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2084   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2085   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2086 
  2087 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2088 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2092 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2097 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 
  2100 *** ML ***
  2101 
  2102 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2103 
  2104     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2105     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2106 
  2107     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2108     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2109     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2110     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2111 
  2112     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2113     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2114     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2115 
  2116 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2117 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2118 
  2119 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2120 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2121 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2122 
  2123 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2124 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2125 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2126 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2127 
  2128 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2129 the context or even global references.
  2130 
  2131 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2132 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2133 
  2134 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2135 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2136 
  2137   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2138   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2139   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2140   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2141   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2142   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2143   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2144   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2145   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2146   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2147 
  2148 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2149 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2150 
  2151 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2152 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2153 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2154 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2155 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2156 
  2157 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2158 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2159 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2160 Theory_Data version.
  2161 
  2162 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2163 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2164 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2165 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2166 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2167 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2168 explicitly in rare situations.
  2169 
  2170 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2171 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2175 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2178 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2179 quite rare).
  2180 
  2181 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2182 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2185 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2186 terms.
  2187 
  2188 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2189 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2190 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2191 
  2192 
  2193 *** System ***
  2194 
  2195 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2196 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2197 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2198 
  2199 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2200 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2201 respectively.
  2202 
  2203 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2204 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2205 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2206 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2207 
  2208   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2209 
  2210 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2211 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2212 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2213 component.
  2214 
  2215 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2216 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2217 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2218 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2219 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2220 the user for manual installation.
  2221 
  2222 
  2223 
  2224 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2225 -------------------------------------
  2226 
  2227 *** General ***
  2228 
  2229 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2230 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2231 
  2232 
  2233 *** Pure ***
  2234 
  2235 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2236 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2237 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2238 
  2239 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2240 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2241 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2242 
  2243 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2244 interpretation.
  2245 
  2246 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2247 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 
  2250 *** Document preparation ***
  2251 
  2252 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2253 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2254 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2255 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2256 
  2257 
  2258 *** HOL ***
  2259 
  2260 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2261 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2262 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2263 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2264 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2265 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2266 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2267 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2268 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2269 
  2270 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2271 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2272 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2273 
  2274 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2275 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2276 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2277 
  2278 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2279 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2280 
  2281 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2282 
  2283 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2284 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2285 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2286 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2287 
  2288 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2289 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2290 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2291 "mirabelle" utility.
  2292 
  2293 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2294 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2295 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2296 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2297 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2298 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2299 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2300 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2301 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2302 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2303 
  2304 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2305 procedure only.
  2306 
  2307 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2308 
  2309 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2310 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2311 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2312 that fail later.
  2313 
  2314 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2315 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2316 
  2317 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2318 the same method as the approximation method.
  2319 
  2320 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2321 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2322 series expansion.
  2323 
  2324 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2325 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2326 
  2327 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2328 reals.
  2329 
  2330 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2331 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2332 
  2333 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2334 fixpoint theorem.
  2335 
  2336 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2337   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2338     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2339   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2340     accordingly
  2341   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2342     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2343   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2344     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2345 
  2346 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2347 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2348 lattice.
  2349 
  2350 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2351 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2352 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2353 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2354 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2355 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357 
  2358 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2359   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2360     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2361   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2362     le_inf_iff
  2363   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2364     sup_aci)
  2365   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2366   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2367   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2368     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2369     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2370     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2371     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2372     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2373     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2374     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2375     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2376     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2377     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2378   - authentic syntax for
  2379     Set.Pow
  2380     Set.image
  2381   - mere abbreviations:
  2382     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2383     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2384     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2385     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2386     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2387     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2388     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2389     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2390   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2391 
  2392 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2393 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2394 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2395 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2396 
  2397 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2398 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2399 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400 
  2401 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2402 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2405 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2406 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2407 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2410 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2411 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2412 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2413 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2414 
  2415 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2416 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2420 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2423 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2424 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2425 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2426 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2427 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2428 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2432     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2433     code_post       replaces    code post
  2434     etc.
  2435   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * Renamed methods:
  2438     sizechange -> size_change
  2439     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2440   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2443 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2444 
  2445 * Renamed theorems:
  2446     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2447     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2448     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2449     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2450     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2451   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 
  2460 *** HOLCF ***
  2461 
  2462 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2463 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2464 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2465 
  2466 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2467 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2468 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2469 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2470 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2471 
  2472 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2473 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2474 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2475 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2476 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2477 
  2478 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2479 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2480 constructor are pre-configured.
  2481 
  2482 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2483 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2484 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2485 
  2486 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2487 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2488 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2489 as well.)
  2490 
  2491 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2492 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2493 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2494 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2495 examples.
  2496 
  2497 
  2498 *** ML ***
  2499 
  2500 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2501 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2502 
  2503 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2504 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2505 position, logical grouping etc.
  2506 
  2507 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2508 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2509 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2510 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2511 
  2512 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2513 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2514 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2515 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2516 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2517 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2518 
  2519 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2520 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2521 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2522 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2523 experiments with references.
  2524 
  2525 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2526 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2527 
  2528 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2529 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2530 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2531 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2532 
  2533 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2534 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2535 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2536 
  2537 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2538 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2539 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542 
  2543 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2545 
  2546 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2547 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2548 
  2549 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2550 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2551 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2552 
  2553 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2554 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2555 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2558 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2559 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2563 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2564 instead of global theory.
  2565 
  2566 
  2567 *** System ***
  2568 
  2569 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2570 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2571 usedir option -q.
  2572 
  2573 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2574 also the system manual.
  2575 
  2576 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2577 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2578 
  2579 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2580 this is always enabled.
  2581 
  2582 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2583 
  2584 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2585 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2586 currently supported on Linux only.
  2587 
  2588 
  2589 
  2590 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2591 --------------------------------
  2592 
  2593 *** General ***
  2594 
  2595 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2596 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2597 
  2598   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2599     "isatool."
  2600 
  2601   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2602     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2603 
  2604   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2605     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2606 
  2607 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2608 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2609 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2610 
  2611 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2612 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2613 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2614 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2615 via "isabelle emacs".
  2616 
  2617 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2618 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2619 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2620 
  2621 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2622 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2623 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2624 
  2625 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2626 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2627 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2628 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2629 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2630 
  2631 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2632 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2633 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2634 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2635 
  2636 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2637 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2638 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2639 
  2640 
  2641 *** Pure ***
  2642 
  2643 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2644 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2645 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2646 
  2647 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2648 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2649 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2650 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2651 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2652 
  2653 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2654 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2655 useful in locale declarations.
  2656 
  2657 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2658 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2659 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2660 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2661 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2662 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2663 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2664 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2665 no longer generated.
  2666 
  2667 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2668 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2669 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2670 
  2671 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2672 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2673 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2674 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2675 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2676 
  2677 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2679 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2680 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2681 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2682 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2683 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2684 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2685 
  2686 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2687 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2688 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2689 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2690 
  2691 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2692 
  2693 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2694 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2695 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2696 
  2697 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2698 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2701 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2702 in HOL, write
  2703 
  2704     class foo = ...
  2705 
  2706 instead of
  2707 
  2708     class foo = type + ...
  2709 
  2710 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2711 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2714 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2715 
  2716 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2717 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2718 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2719 
  2720 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2721 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2722 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2723 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2724 directly in regular applications.
  2725 
  2726 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2727 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2728 
  2729 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2730 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2731 
  2732 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2733 theory context.
  2734 
  2735 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2736 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2737 
  2738 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2739 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2740 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2741 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2742 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2743 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2744 
  2745   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2746 
  2747 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2748 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2749 normalization.
  2750 
  2751 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2752 addressing etc.
  2753 
  2754 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2755 
  2756   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2757   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2758 
  2759 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2760 
  2761   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2762      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2763      parts of the code generator framework).
  2764 
  2765   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2766      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2767      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2768 
  2769 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2772 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2775 patterns, e.g.
  2776 
  2777     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2778 
  2779 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2780 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2781 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2782 hyphen:
  2783 
  2784     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2785 
  2786 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2787 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2788 
  2789 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2790 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2791 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2792 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2793 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2794 higher-order unification.
  2795 
  2796 
  2797 *** Document preparation ***
  2798 
  2799 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2800 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2801 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2802 
  2803 
  2804 *** HOL ***
  2805 
  2806 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2807 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2808 
  2809 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2810 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2811 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2812 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2813 Main, as before.
  2814 
  2815 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2816 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2817 
  2818 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2819 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2820 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2821 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2822 
  2823 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2824 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2825 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2826 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2827 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2828 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2829 
  2830 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2831 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2832 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2833 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2834 
  2835 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2836 menu.
  2837 
  2838 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2839 (contains the empty clause).
  2840 
  2841 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2842 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2843 
  2844 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2845 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2846 
  2847 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2848 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2849 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2852 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2853 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2854 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2855 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2856 
  2857 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2858 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2859 
  2860 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2861 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2862 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2863 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2864 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2865 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2866 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2867 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2868 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2869 
  2870 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2871 
  2872 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2873 
  2874 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2875 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2878 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2879 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2880 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2881 
  2882 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2883 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2884 
  2885     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2886     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2887     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2888     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2889     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2890     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2891     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2892     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2893 
  2894 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2895 theory Set.
  2896 
  2897 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2898 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2899 
  2900 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2901 
  2902 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2903 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2904 
  2905 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2906 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2907 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2908 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2909 allowed. For examples see
  2910 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2911 
  2912 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2913 
  2914 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2918 structure:
  2919 
  2920     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2921     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2922     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2923     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2924     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2925     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2926     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2927     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2928     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2929     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2930     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2931     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2932     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2933     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2934     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2935     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2936     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2937     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2938     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2939     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2940     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2941     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2942     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2943     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2944     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2945     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2946     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2947     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2948     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2949     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2950     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2951     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2952     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2953 
  2954     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2955     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2956     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2957     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2958     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2959     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2960     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2961     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2962     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2963     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2964 
  2965     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2966     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2967     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2968     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2969     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2970     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2971 
  2972 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2973 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2974 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2975 
  2976 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2977 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2978 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2979 
  2980 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2981 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2984 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2985 
  2986 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2987 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2988 proofs, e.g.
  2989 
  2990   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2991 
  2992 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2993 
  2994 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2995 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2996 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997 
  2998 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2999 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3003 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3004 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3009 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3010 preorder_class.*.
  3011 
  3012 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3013 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3014 
  3015 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3016 
  3017   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3018 
  3019 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3020 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3021 fold_image.
  3022 
  3023 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3024 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3025 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3026 the former will disappear at some point.
  3027 
  3028 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3029 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3030 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3031 
  3032 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3033 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3034 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3035 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3036 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3037 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3038 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3039 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3040 
  3041 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3042 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3043 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3044 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3045 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3046 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3047 
  3048     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3049     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3050     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3051     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3052     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3053     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3054     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3055 
  3056 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3057 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3058 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3059 
  3060 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3061 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3062 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3063 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3064 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3065 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3066 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3067 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3068 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3069 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3070 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3071 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3072 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3073 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3074 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3075 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3076 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3077 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3078 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3079 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3080 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3081 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3082 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3083 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3084 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3085 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3086 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3087 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3088 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3089 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3090 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3091 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3092 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3093 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3094 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3095 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3096 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3097 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3098 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3099 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3100 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3101 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3102 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3103 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3104 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3105 
  3106 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3109 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3110 
  3111 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3112 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3113 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3114 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3115 
  3116 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3117 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3118 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3119 theory RealVector.
  3120 
  3121 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3122 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3123 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3124 and inner products are included.
  3125 
  3126 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3127 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3128 supported.
  3129 
  3130 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3131 first diagonalization argument.
  3132 
  3133 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3134 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3135 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3136 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3137 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3138 
  3139     hide (open) const gcd
  3140     abbreviation gcd where
  3141       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3142     notation (output)
  3143       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3144 
  3145 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3148 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3149 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3152 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3153 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3154 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3155 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3156 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3157 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3158 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3159 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3160 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3161 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3162 cases.
  3163 
  3164 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3165 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3166 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3167 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3168 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3169 
  3170     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3171     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3172     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3173     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3174     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3175 
  3176 
  3177 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3178 
  3179 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3180 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3181 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3182 
  3183 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3184 
  3185 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3186 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3187 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3188 
  3189 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3190 
  3191 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3192 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3193 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3194 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3195 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3196 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3197 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3198 
  3199 
  3200 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3201 
  3202 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3203 
  3204 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3205 theory targets.
  3206 
  3207 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3208 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3209 'inductive' etc.
  3210 
  3211 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3212 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3213 
  3214 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3215 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3216 
  3217 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3218 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3219 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3220 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3221 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3222 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3223 the algorithm W:
  3224 
  3225  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3226  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3227          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3228 
  3229 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3230 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3231 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3232 
  3233 
  3234 *** HOLCF ***
  3235 
  3236 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3237 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3238 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3239 
  3240 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3241 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3242 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3243 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3244 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3247 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3248 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 
  3251 *** ZF ***
  3252 
  3253 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3254 
  3255 
  3256 *** ML ***
  3257 
  3258 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3259 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3260 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3261 5.2.1!
  3262 
  3263 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3264 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3265 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3266 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3267 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3268 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3269 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3270 
  3271 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3272 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3273 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3274 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3275 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3276 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3277 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3278 
  3279 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3280 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3281 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3282 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3283 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3284 
  3285 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3286 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3287 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3288 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3289 Method.add_method.
  3290 
  3291 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3292 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3293 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3294 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3295 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3296 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3297 
  3298 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3299 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3300 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3301 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3302 examples.
  3303 
  3304 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3305 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3306 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3307 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3308 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3309 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3310 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3311 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3312 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3313 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3314 
  3315 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3316 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3317 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3318 
  3319 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3320 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3321 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3322 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3323 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3324 resort for legacy applications.
  3325 
  3326 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3327 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3328 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3329 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3330 explicit runtime argument.
  3331 
  3332 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3333 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3334 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3335 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3336 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3339 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3340 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3341 theory state.
  3342 
  3343 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3344 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3345 
  3346   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3347   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3348   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3349   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3350   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3351   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3352   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3353   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3354   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3355   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3356 
  3357 
  3358 *** System ***
  3359 
  3360 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3361 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3362 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3363 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3364 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3365 
  3366 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3367 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3368 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3369 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3370 
  3371 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3372 
  3373 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3374 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3375 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3376 prover operations.
  3377 
  3378 
  3379 
  3380 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3381 -------------------------------
  3382 
  3383 *** General ***
  3384 
  3385 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3386 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3387 
  3388 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3389 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3390 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3391 provides a proper context already.
  3392 
  3393 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3394 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3395 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3396 
  3397 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3398 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3399 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3400 swap theory imports.
  3401 
  3402 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3403 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3404 
  3405 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3406 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3407 white space without escapes.
  3408 
  3409 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3410 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3411 "foo_bar".
  3412 
  3413 
  3414 *** Pure ***
  3415 
  3416 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3417 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3418 
  3419 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3420 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3421 
  3422 (1) unused_thms
  3423      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3424 
  3425 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3426      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3427      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3428 
  3429 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3430      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3431      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3432      their ancestors.
  3433 
  3434 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3435 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3436 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3437 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3438 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3439 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3440 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3441 
  3442 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3443 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3444 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3445 
  3446 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3447 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3448 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3449 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3450 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3451 
  3452 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3453 
  3454 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3455 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3456 update of theories within ML code.
  3457 
  3458 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3459 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3460 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3461 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3462 
  3463 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3464 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3465 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3469 
  3470 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3471 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3472 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3473 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3474 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3475 
  3476 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3477 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3478 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3479 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3480 situations.
  3481 
  3482 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3483 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3484 proof text.
  3485 
  3486 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3487 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3488 
  3489 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3490 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3491 predicates.
  3492 
  3493 
  3494 *** Document preparation ***
  3495 
  3496 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3497 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3498 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3499 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3500 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3501 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3502 
  3503 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3504 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3505 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3506 
  3507 
  3508 *** HOL ***
  3509 
  3510 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3511 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3512 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3513 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3514 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3515 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3516 
  3517 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3518 with multithreading.
  3519 
  3520 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3521 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3522 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3523 
  3524 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3525 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3526 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3527 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3530 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3531 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3532 and makes them available separately.  See
  3533 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3534 
  3535 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3536 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3537 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3538 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3539 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3540 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3541 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3542 the declared rules.
  3543 
  3544 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3545 
  3546   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3547 
  3548 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3549 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3550 
  3551 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3552 
  3553   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3554 
  3555   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3556     definitions on => and bool.
  3557 
  3558   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3559     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3560     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3561 
  3562       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3563       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3564       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3565       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3566       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3567       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3568       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3569       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3570 
  3571   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3572     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3573     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3574 
  3575   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3576     The proof pattern
  3577 
  3578       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3579       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3580 
  3581     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3582     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3583 
  3584       have "EX S. P S"
  3585       proof
  3586         show "P S" <...>
  3587       qed
  3588 
  3589   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3590     The proof pattern
  3591 
  3592       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3593       also have "S = T" <...>
  3594       finally have "P T" .
  3595 
  3596     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3597     must be replaced by something like
  3598 
  3599       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3600       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3601       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3602 
  3603   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3604     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3605 
  3606       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3607 
  3608     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3609     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3610     type of the form
  3611 
  3612       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3613 
  3614     rather than
  3615 
  3616       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3617 
  3618 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3619 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3620 
  3621 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3624 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3628 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3631 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3634 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3635 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3638 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3639 
  3640   less_trans
  3641   less_linear
  3642   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3643   le_less_trans
  3644   less_le_trans
  3645   less_not_sym
  3646   less_asym
  3647 
  3648 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3649 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3650 and different variable names.
  3651 
  3652 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3653 
  3654 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3655 finite maps.
  3656 
  3657 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3658 
  3659 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3660 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3661 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3662 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3663 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3664 accordingly.
  3665 
  3666 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3667 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3668 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3669 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3670 
  3671 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3672 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3673 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3674 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3675 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3679 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3682 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3683 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3684 
  3685 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3689 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3690 
  3691 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3692 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3695 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3698 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3702 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3705 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3706 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3707 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3708 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3709 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3712 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3713 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3714 
  3715 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3716 
  3717 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3718 
  3719 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3720 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3721 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3722 
  3723 
  3724 *** ZF ***
  3725 
  3726 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3727 same session:
  3728 
  3729   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3730   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3731   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3732   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3733   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3734   List      -> List_ZF
  3735   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3736 
  3737 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3738 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3739 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3740 
  3741 
  3742 *** ML ***
  3743 
  3744 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3745 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3746 
  3747 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3748 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3749 
  3750 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3751 
  3752 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3753 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3754 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3755 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3756 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3759 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3760 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3761 
  3762 
  3763 *** System ***
  3764 
  3765 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3766 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3767 
  3768 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3769 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3770 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3771 
  3772 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3773 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3774 
  3775 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3776 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3777 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3778 
  3779 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3780 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3781 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3782 
  3783 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3784 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3785 
  3786 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3787 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3788 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3789 script.
  3790 
  3791 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3792 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3793 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3794 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3795 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3796 
  3797 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3798 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3799 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3800 
  3801 
  3802 
  3803 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3804 -----------------------------------
  3805 
  3806 *** General ***
  3807 
  3808 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3809 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3810 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3811 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3812 
  3813 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3814 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3815 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3818 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3819 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3820 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3823 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3824 quotes.
  3825 
  3826 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3827 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3828 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3829 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3830 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3831 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3832 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3833 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3834 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3835 
  3836 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3837 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3838 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3839 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3840 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3841 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3842 
  3843 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3844 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3845 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3846 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3847 
  3848 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3849 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3850 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3851 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3852 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3853 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3854 
  3855 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3856 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3857 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3858 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3859 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3860 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3861 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3862 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3863 
  3864 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3865 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3866 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3867 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3868 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3869 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3870 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3871 
  3872 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3873 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3874 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3875 
  3876 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3877 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3878 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3879 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3880 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3881 limit is imposed.
  3882 
  3883 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3884 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3885 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3886 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3887 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3888 and scalability.
  3889 
  3890 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3891 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3892 
  3893 
  3894 *** Document preparation ***
  3895 
  3896 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3897 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3898 current context.
  3899 
  3900 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3901 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3902 
  3903 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3904 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3905 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3906 
  3907 
  3908 *** Pure ***
  3909 
  3910 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3911 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3912 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3913 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3914 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3915 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3916 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3917 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3918 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3919 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3920 
  3921 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3922 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3923 sketch:
  3924 
  3925     internal compilation:
  3926         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3927     writing SML code to a file:
  3928         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3929     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3930         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3931     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3932         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3933 
  3934     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3935         method ``eval''
  3936 
  3937 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3938 
  3939 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3940 
  3941     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3942     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3943     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3944     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3945 
  3946 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3947 
  3948     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3949       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3950 
  3951     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3952       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3953 
  3954     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3955       {(target)}+
  3956         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3957 
  3958     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3959       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3960         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3961 
  3962 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3963 
  3964 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3965 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3966 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3967 codegen".
  3968 
  3969 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3970 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3971 annotations).
  3972 
  3973 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3974 syntax.
  3975 
  3976 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3977 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3978 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3979 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3980 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3981 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3982 
  3983 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3984 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3985 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3986 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3987 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3988 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3989 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3990 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3991 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3992 equations, see section "definitions".
  3993 
  3994 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3995 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3996 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3997 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3998 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3999 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4000 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4001 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4002 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4003 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4004 
  4005 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4006 configuration options:
  4007 
  4008   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4009   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4010   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4011   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4012   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4013   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4014   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4015   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4016   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4017 
  4018 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4019 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4020 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4021 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4022 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4023 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4024 order.
  4025 
  4026 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4027 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4028 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4029 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4030 context encountered later on.
  4031 
  4032 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4033 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4034 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4035 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4036 
  4037 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4038 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4039 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4040 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4041 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4042 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4043 
  4044 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4045 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4046 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4047 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4048 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4049 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4050 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4051 more permissive.
  4052 
  4053 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4054 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4055 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4056 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4057 maintainability of proof texts.
  4058 
  4059 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4060 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4061 
  4062   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4063   then guess x and y by clarify
  4064 
  4065 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4066 proof tools being involved here.
  4067 
  4068 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4069 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4070 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4071 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4072 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4073 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4074 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4075 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4076 
  4077 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4078 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4079 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4080 
  4081   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4082   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4083   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4084   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4085 
  4086 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4087 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4088 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4089 
  4090 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4091 both named and unnamed ones.
  4092 
  4093 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4094 
  4095   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4096 
  4097 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4098 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4099 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4100 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4101 
  4102 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4103 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4104 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4105 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4106 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4107 
  4108 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4109 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4110 
  4111 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4112 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4113 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4114 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4115 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4116 originally first one.
  4117 
  4118 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4119 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4120 expected.
  4121 
  4122 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4123 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4124 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4125 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4126 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4127 
  4128   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4129     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4130     obtains x where "P x"
  4131 
  4132   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4133     assumes "A & B"
  4134     obtains A and B
  4135 
  4136   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4137     assumes "A | B"
  4138     obtains
  4139       A
  4140     | B
  4141 
  4142 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4143 explicitly:
  4144 
  4145   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4146     obtains "~ thesis"
  4147 
  4148   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4149     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4150 
  4151 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4152 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4153 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4154 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4155 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4156 case_names).
  4157 
  4158 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4159 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4160 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4161 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4162 
  4163 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4164 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4165 top-level lemma.
  4166 
  4167 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4168 introduction rule (default "that").
  4169 
  4170 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4171 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4172 to occur.
  4173 
  4174 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4175 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4176 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4177 representations independently of name spaces.
  4178 
  4179 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4180 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4181 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4184 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4185 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4186 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4187 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4188 current context.
  4189 
  4190 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4191 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4192 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4193 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4194 
  4195   axiomatization
  4196     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4197     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4198 
  4199   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4200   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4201 
  4202   abbreviation
  4203     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4204     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4205 
  4206 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4207 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4208 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4209 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4210 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4211 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4212 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4213 
  4214 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4215 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4216 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4217 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4218 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4219 
  4220 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4221 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4222 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4223 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4224 
  4225 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4226 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4227 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4228 
  4229   definition "K x _ = x"
  4230 
  4231   inductive conj for A B
  4232   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4233 
  4234 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4235 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4236 abbreviations on output.
  4237 
  4238 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4239 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4240 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4241 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4242 
  4243 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4244 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4245 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4246 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4247 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4248 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4249 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4250 
  4251 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4252 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4253 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4254 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4255 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4256 
  4257 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4258 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4259 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4260 
  4261 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4262 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4263 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4264 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4265 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4266 
  4267   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4268     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4269 
  4270 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4271 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4272 partial_order.
  4273 
  4274 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4275 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4276 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4277 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4278 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4279 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4280 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4281 examples.
  4282 
  4283 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4284 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4285 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4286 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4287 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4288 
  4289 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4290 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4291 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4292 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4293 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4294 
  4295   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4296   (induct set: foo bar)
  4297   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4298   (induct type: foo bar)
  4299 
  4300 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4301 new format.
  4302 
  4303 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4304 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4305 
  4306 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4307 considered a legacy feature.
  4308 
  4309 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4310 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4311 
  4312 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4313 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4314 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4315 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4316   
  4317 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4318 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4319 manipulating the claset.
  4320 
  4321 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4322 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4323 least one premise.
  4324 
  4325 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4326 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4327 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4328 rule steps.
  4329 
  4330 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4331 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4332 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4333 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4334 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4335 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4336 
  4337 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4338 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4339 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4340 
  4341 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4342 the graph browser tool.
  4343 
  4344 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4345 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4346 
  4347 
  4348 *** HOL ***
  4349 
  4350 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4351 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4352 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4353 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4354 multi-threading.
  4355   
  4356 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4357 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4358 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4359 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4360 work with multi-threading.
  4361 
  4362 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4363 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4364 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4365 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4366 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4367 
  4368 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4369 
  4370 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4371 equality.
  4372 
  4373 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4374 the new 'class' package:
  4375 
  4376     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4377     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4378     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4379     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4380     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4381     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4382     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4383     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4384     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4385     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4386     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4387     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4388     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4389     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4390     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4391     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4392     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4393     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4394     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4395     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4396 
  4397 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4398 
  4399 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4400 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4401 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4402 names.
  4403 
  4404 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4405 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4406 
  4407 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4408 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4409 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4410 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4411 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4412 
  4413 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4414 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4415 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4416 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4417 
  4418 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4419 
  4420 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4421 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4422 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4423 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4427 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428 
  4429 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4430 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4431 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4434 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4435 
  4436 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4437 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4438 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4439 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4440 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4441 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4442 in the current context.
  4443 
  4444 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4445 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4449 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4450 
  4451 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4452 
  4453     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4454     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4455 
  4456     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4457       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4458     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4459     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4460 
  4461     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4462     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4463 
  4464   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4465 
  4466     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4467     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4468     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4469     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4470     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4471     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4472     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4473     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4474     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4475     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4476     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4477     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4478     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4479     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4480     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4481     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4482     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4483     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4484     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4485     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4486     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4487     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4488     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4489     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4490     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4491     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4492     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4493     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4494     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4495     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4496     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4497     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4498     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4499     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4500     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4501 
  4502     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4503     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4504     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4505     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4506     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4507     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4508     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4509     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4510     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4511     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4512     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4513     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4514     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4515     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4516     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4517     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4518     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4519 
  4520     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4521     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4522     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4523     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4524     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4525     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4526     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4527     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4528     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4529     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4530     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4531     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4532     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4533     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4534     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4535     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4536     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4537     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4538     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4539     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4540     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4541     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4542     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4543     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4544     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4545     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4546     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4547     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4548 
  4549     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4550     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4551     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4552     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4553     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4554     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4555 
  4556     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4557     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4558     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4559     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4560 
  4561     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4562     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4563 
  4564     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4565     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4566 
  4567 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4568 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4569 
  4570 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4571 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4572 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4573 "*.size".
  4574 
  4575 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4579 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4580 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4585 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4586 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4587 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4588 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4589 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4590 numerals on all operations.
  4591 
  4592 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4593 
  4594 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4595 
  4596 * Code generator library theories:
  4597   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4598     languages.
  4599   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4600     languages.
  4601   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4602     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4603   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4604   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4605     denominator).
  4606   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4607     representable by rational numbers.
  4608   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4609     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4610     includes Code_Integer.
  4611   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4612     target-language built-in integers.
  4613   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4614     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4615 
  4616 * New package for inductive predicates
  4617 
  4618   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4619 
  4620     inductive
  4621       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4622       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4623     where
  4624       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4625     | ...
  4626 
  4627   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4628 
  4629     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4630 
  4631     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4632     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4633 
  4634     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4635     intros
  4636       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4637       ...
  4638 
  4639   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4640   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4641 
  4642     inductive_set
  4643       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4644       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4645     where
  4646       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4647     | ...
  4648 
  4649   or
  4650 
  4651     inductive_set
  4652       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4653       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4654       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4655     where
  4656       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4657     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4658     | ...
  4659 
  4660   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4661 
  4662   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4663   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4664 
  4665   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4666 
  4667   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4668     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4669     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4670     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4671     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4672 
  4673   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4674     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4675     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4676     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4677     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4678     statements of the form
  4679 
  4680       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4681 
  4682     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4683     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4684 
  4685       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4686 
  4687   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4688 
  4689       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4690         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4691         ==> ... ==> P
  4692 
  4693     for predicates and
  4694 
  4695       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4696         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4697         ==> ... ==> P
  4698 
  4699     for sets rather than
  4700 
  4701       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4702         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4703         ==> ... ==> P
  4704 
  4705     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4706     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4707     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4708 
  4709   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4710     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4711     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4712 
  4713 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4714 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4715 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4716 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4717 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4718 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4719 
  4720 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4721 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4722 
  4723 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4724 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4725 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4726 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4727 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4728 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4729 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4730 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4731 variable.
  4732 
  4733 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4734 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4735 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4736 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4737   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4738   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4739 
  4740 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4741 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4742 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4743 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4744 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4745 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4746 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4747 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4748 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4749 
  4750 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4751 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4752 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4753 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4754 rat, etc.
  4755 
  4756 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4757 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4758 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4759 
  4760 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4761 
  4762 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4763 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4764 
  4765 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4766 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4767 
  4768 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4769 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4770 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4773 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4777 
  4778 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4779 
  4780 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4781 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4782 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4783 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4784 
  4785 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4786 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4787 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4788 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4791 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4792 algebraic operations.
  4793 
  4794 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4796 
  4797 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4801 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4802 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4803 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4804 adapted.
  4805  
  4806 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4807 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4808 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4809 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4810 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4811 
  4812 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4813 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4814 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4815 
  4816 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4817 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4818 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4819 
  4820 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4823 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4824 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4825   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4826       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4827   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4828   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4829   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4830 
  4831 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4832 
  4833 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4834 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4835 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4836 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4837 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4838 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4839 
  4840 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4841 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4842 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4843 
  4844 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4845 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4846 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4850 
  4851 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4852 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4855 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4856 
  4857 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4858 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4859 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4860 
  4861 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4862 True/False.
  4863 
  4864 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4865 
  4866 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4867 
  4868 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4869 ``rule'' method.
  4870 
  4871 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4872 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4873 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4874 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4875 
  4876 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4877 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4878 
  4879 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4880 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4881 
  4882 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4883 Library.
  4884 
  4885 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4886 
  4887 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4888 as greatest fixed-point.
  4889 
  4890 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4891 association lists.
  4892 
  4893 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4894 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4895 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4896 
  4897 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4898 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4899 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4901 behavior.
  4902 
  4903 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4904 
  4905 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4906 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4907 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4908 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4909 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4910 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4911 
  4912 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4913 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4914 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4915 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4916 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4917 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4918 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4919 
  4920 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4921 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4922 
  4923 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4924 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4925 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4926 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4927 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4928 
  4929 
  4930 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4931 
  4932 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4933 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4934 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4935 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4939 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4940 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4941 
  4942 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4943 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4944 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4947 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4948 
  4949 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4950 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4951 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4955   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4956   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4957   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4958   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4959   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4960   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4961   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4962   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4963   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4964   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4965   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4966   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4967   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4968   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4969 
  4970 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4971 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4972 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4973 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4974 
  4975   approx        <-- capprox
  4976   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4977   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4978   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4979   monad         <-- cmonad
  4980   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4981   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4982   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4983   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4987 
  4988 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4989 
  4990 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4992 
  4993 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4994 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4997 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4998 of algebraic structures.
  4999 
  5000 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5001 
  5002 
  5003 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5004 
  5005 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5006 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5007 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5008 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5009 
  5010 
  5011 *** ML ***
  5012 
  5013 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5014 (even on SML/NJ).
  5015 
  5016 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5017 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5018 compile-time.  For example:
  5019 
  5020 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5021 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5022 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5023 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5024 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5025 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5026 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5027 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5028 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5029 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5030 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5031 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5032 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5033 ML {* @{context} *}
  5034 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5035 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5036 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5037 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5038 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5039 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5040 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5041 
  5042 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5043 
  5044 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5045 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5046 
  5047 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5048 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5049 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5050 
  5051 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5052 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5053 
  5054 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5055 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5056 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5057 
  5058 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5059 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5060 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5061 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5062 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5063 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5064 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5065 declarations and definitions.
  5066 
  5067 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5068 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5069 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5070 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5071 
  5072 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5073 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5074 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5075 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5076 
  5077 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5078 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5079 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5080 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5081 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5082 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5083 
  5084 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5085 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5086 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5087 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5088 attributes, methods, etc.
  5089 
  5090 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5091 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5092 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5093 fold_map combinators.
  5094 
  5095 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5096 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5097 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5098 derivation.
  5099 
  5100 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5101 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5102 achieve the old behaviour.
  5103 
  5104 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5105 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5106 statements.
  5107 
  5108 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5109 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5110 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5111 
  5112 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5113 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5114 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5115 
  5116   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5117   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5118   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5119 
  5120 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5121 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5122 
  5123 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5124 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5125 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5126 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5127 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5128 
  5129 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5130 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5131 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5132 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5133 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5134 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5135 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5136 in a locale context).
  5137 
  5138 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5139 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5140 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5141 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5142 
  5143 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5144 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5145 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5146 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5147 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5148 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5149 
  5150 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5151 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5152 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5153 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5154 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5155 
  5156   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5157 
  5158 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5159 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5160 this:
  5161 
  5162   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5163 
  5164 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5165 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5166 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5167 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5168 
  5169 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5170 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5171 
  5172 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5173 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5174 
  5175 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5176 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5177 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5178 batch mode.
  5179 
  5180 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5181 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5182 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5183 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5186 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5187 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5188 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5189 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5190 
  5191 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5192 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5193 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5194 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5195 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5196 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5197 
  5198 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5199 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5200 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5202 
  5203 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5204 "Trueprop" etc.
  5205 
  5206 
  5207 *** System ***
  5208 
  5209 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5210 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5211 Isabelle installations.
  5212 
  5213 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5214 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5215 code.
  5216 
  5217 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5218 
  5219 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5220 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5221 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5222 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5223 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5224 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5225 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5226 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5227 Implementation manual.
  5228 
  5229 
  5230 
  5231 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5232 ----------------------------------
  5233 
  5234 *** General ***
  5235 
  5236 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5237 
  5238   theory <name>
  5239   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5240   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5241   begin
  5242 
  5243 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5244 
  5245   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5246 
  5247 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5248 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5249 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5252 relative and absolute paths.
  5253 
  5254 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5255 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5256 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5257 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5258 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5259 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5260 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5261 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5262 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5263 
  5264   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5265 
  5266 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5267 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5268 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5269 
  5270 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5271 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 
  5273 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5274 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5275 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5276 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5277 
  5278   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5279   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5280 
  5281 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5282 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5283 faster.
  5284 
  5285 
  5286 *** Document preparation ***
  5287 
  5288 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5289 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5290 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5291 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5292 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5293 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5294 
  5295 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5296 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5297 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5298 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5299 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5300 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5301 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5302 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5303 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5304 \isadroptag.
  5305 
  5306 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5307 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5308 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5309 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5310 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5311 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5312 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5313 specified above.
  5314 
  5315 * Several new antiquotations:
  5316 
  5317   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5318 
  5319   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5320 
  5321   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5322   argument is a known logical constant;
  5323 
  5324   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5325   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5326 
  5327   @{ML text}
  5328 
  5329 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5330 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5331 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5332 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5333 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5334 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5335 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5336 
  5337 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5338 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5339 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5340 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5341 
  5342 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5343 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5344 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5345 
  5346 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5347 a proof context.
  5348 
  5349 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5350 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5351 
  5352 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5353 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5354 
  5355 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5356 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5357 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5358 
  5359 
  5360 *** Pure ***
  5361 
  5362 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5363 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5364 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5365 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5366 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5367 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5368 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5369 
  5370 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5371 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5372 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5373 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5374 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5375 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5376 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5377 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5378 
  5379 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5380 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5381 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5382 
  5383 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5384 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5385 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5386 
  5387 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5388 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5389 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5390 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5394 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5395 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5396 axclasses vs. locales.
  5397 
  5398 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5399 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5400 
  5401 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5402 marks in schematic variable names.
  5403 
  5404 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5405 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5406 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5407 
  5408   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5409     by simp
  5410 
  5411 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5412 
  5413 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5414 annotations as "(00...)".
  5415 
  5416 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5417 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5418 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5419 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5420 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5421 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5422 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5423 
  5424 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5425 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5426 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5427 specifications.
  5428 
  5429 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5430 locally fixed variables as well.
  5431 
  5432 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5433 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5434 Limit.
  5435 
  5436 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5437 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5438 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5439 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5440 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5441 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5442 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5443 
  5444 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5445 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5446 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5447 
  5448 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5449 
  5450 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5451 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5452 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5453 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5454 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5455 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5456 
  5457 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5458 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5459 
  5460 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5461 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5462 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5463 
  5464 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5465 
  5466 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5467 theory development.
  5468 
  5469 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5470 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5471 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5472 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5473 
  5474 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5475 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5476 quoted when used as identifier.
  5477 
  5478 
  5479 *** Locales ***
  5480 
  5481 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5482 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5483 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5484 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5485 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5486 commands is a follows:
  5487 
  5488   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5489   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5490   (3) interpret expr inst
  5491 
  5492 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5493 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5494 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5495 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5496 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5497 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5498 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5499 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5500 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5501 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5502 
  5503 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5504 'interpret' instead.
  5505 
  5506 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5507 parameters.
  5508 
  5509 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5510 redeclaration.
  5511 
  5512 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5513 
  5514 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5515 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5516 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5517 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5518 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5519 
  5520 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5521 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5522 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5523 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5524 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5525 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5526 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5527 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5528 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5529 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5530 
  5531 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5532 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5533 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5534 
  5535 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5536 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5537 
  5538 
  5539 *** Provers ***
  5540 
  5541 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5542 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5543 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5544 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5545 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5546 
  5547 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5548 and quasi orders.
  5549 
  5550 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5551 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5552 
  5553 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5554 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5555 
  5556 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5557 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5558 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 
  5561 *** HOL ***
  5562 
  5563 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5564 
  5565   syntax (epsilon)
  5566     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5567 
  5568 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5569 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5570 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5571 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5572 
  5573 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5574 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5575 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5576 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5577 
  5578 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5579 instead of ":".
  5580 
  5581 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5582 
  5583   Old       New
  5584   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5585   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5586   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5587   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5588   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5589 
  5590 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5591 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5592 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5593 
  5594   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5595   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5596 
  5597 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5598 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5599 interface.
  5600 
  5601 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5602 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5603 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5604 be a tuple pattern.
  5605 
  5606 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5607 
  5608   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5609   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5610   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5611   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5612 
  5613 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5614 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5615 
  5616 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5617 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5618 (insert F x)'.
  5619 
  5620 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5621 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5622 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5623 
  5624 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5625 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5626 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5627 
  5628 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5629 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5630 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5631 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5632 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5633 
  5634 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5635 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5636 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5637 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5638 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5639 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5640 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5641 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5642 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5643 
  5644 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5645 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5646 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5647 quite long.
  5648 
  5649 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5650 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5651 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5652 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5653 
  5654 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5655 type-variables in the term.
  5656 
  5657 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5658 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5659 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5660 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5661 goals than previously.
  5662 
  5663 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5664 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5665 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5666 just like y <= x.
  5667 
  5668 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5669 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5670 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5671 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5672 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5673 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5674 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5675 
  5676 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5677 
  5678 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5679 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5680 
  5681 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5682 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5683 inequalities.
  5684 
  5685 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5686 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5687 
  5688   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5689   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5690   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5691   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5692   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5693   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5694   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5695   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5696   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5697   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5698   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5699 
  5700 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5701      
  5702      zero_le_square
  5703      not_square_less_zero 
  5704 
  5705   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5706   
  5707      realpow_zero_zero
  5708      realpow_two
  5709      realpow_less
  5710      zero_le_power
  5711      realpow_two_le
  5712      abs_realpow_two
  5713      realpow_two_abs     
  5714 
  5715 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5716 
  5717 * Theory List:
  5718 
  5719 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5720 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5721 
  5722   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5723   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5724   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5725   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5726 
  5727 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5728 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5729 
  5730 
  5731 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5732 
  5733 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5734 integers in the reals.
  5735 
  5736 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5737 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5738 
  5739   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5740   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5741   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5742   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5743   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5744 
  5745 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5746 
  5747 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5748 
  5749 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5750 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5751 
  5752   hypreal = real star
  5753   hypnat = nat star
  5754   hcomplex = complex star
  5755 
  5756 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5757 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5758 
  5759   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5760 
  5761   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5762   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5763   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5764   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5765   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5766 
  5767   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5768   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5769   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5770   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5771   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5772 
  5773 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5774 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5775 
  5776   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5777   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5778   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5779   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5780   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5781   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5782   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5783   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5784   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5785   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5786   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5787   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5788   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5789   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5790   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5791   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5792   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5793   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5794   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5795   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5796   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5797   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5798   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5799   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5800 
  5801 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5802 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5803 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5804 
  5805   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5806   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5807   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5808   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5809   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5810   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5811   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5812   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5813   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5814   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5815     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5816   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5817   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5818   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5819   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5820   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5821   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5822   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5823   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5824   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5825   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5826   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5827   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5828   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5829   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5830   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5831   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5832   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5833   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5834   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5835   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5836   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5837   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5838   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5839   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5840   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5841   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5842   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5843   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5844   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5845   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5846   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5847   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5848   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5849   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5850   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5851   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5852   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5853   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5854   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5855   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5856   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5857   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5858   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5859 
  5860   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5861   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5862   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5863   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5864   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5865   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5866   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5867   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5868   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5869   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5870   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5871 
  5872   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5873   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5874   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5875   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5876   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5877   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5878   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5879   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5880   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5881   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5882   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5883   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5884   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5885   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5886   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5887   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5888   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5889   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5890   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5891   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5892   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5893 
  5894 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5895 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5896 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5897 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5898 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5899 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5900 
  5901 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5902 
  5903 
  5904 *** HOLCF ***
  5905 
  5906 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5907 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5908 type-inference.
  5909 
  5910 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5911 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5912 instead of exponential time).
  5913 
  5914 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5915 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5916 
  5917   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5918 
  5919 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5920 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5921 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5922 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5923 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5924 syntax and examples.
  5925 
  5926 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5927 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5928 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5929 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5930 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5931 
  5932 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5933 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5934 
  5935   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5936   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5937   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5938   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5939   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5940   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5941 
  5942 
  5943 *** ZF ***
  5944 
  5945 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5946 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5947 of a homomorphism).
  5948 
  5949 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5950 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5951 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5952 
  5953 
  5954 *** Cube ***
  5955 
  5956 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5957 theories.
  5958 
  5959 
  5960 *** ML ***
  5961 
  5962 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5963 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5964 
  5965 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5966 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5967 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5968 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5969 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5970 
  5971 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5972 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5973 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5974 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5975 
  5976 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5977 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5978 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5979 
  5980     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5981     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5982     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5983     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5984     seq fs = List.app fs
  5985     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5986     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5987 
  5988 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5989 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5990 
  5991   x |> f                f #> g
  5992   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5993 
  5994 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5995 
  5996   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5997   infix 2 ?;
  5998   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5999   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  6000 
  6001 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  6002 infix operators.
  6003 
  6004 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  6005 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  6006 example:
  6007 
  6008   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  6009     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  6010 
  6011   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  6012     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  6013 
  6014   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  6015     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  6016 
  6017   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  6018     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  6019 
  6020 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  6021 available:
  6022 
  6023   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  6024   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  6025   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  6026   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  6027 
  6028 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  6029 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  6030 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  6031 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  6032 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  6033 
  6034   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  6035   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  6036   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  6037 
  6038 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  6039 
  6040   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  6041   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  6042 
  6043 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  6044 Naive rewrites:
  6045 
  6046   make_keylist = AList.make
  6047   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  6048 
  6049 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  6050   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  6051 
  6052     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  6053     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  6054 
  6055 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  6056   Naive rewrites:
  6057 
  6058     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  6059     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  6060 
  6061 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  6062 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  6063 lists.
  6064 
  6065 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  6066 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  6067 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  6068 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  6069 
  6070 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  6071 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  6072 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  6073 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  6074 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  6075 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  6076 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  6077 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  6078 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  6079 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  6080 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  6081 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  6082 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  6083 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  6084 Output.raw have no effect.
  6085 
  6086 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  6087 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  6088 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  6089 
  6090 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  6091 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  6092 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  6093 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  6094 
  6095 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  6096 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  6097 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  6098 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  6099 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  6100 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  6101 Library.sort_strings on result).
  6102 
  6103 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  6104 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  6105 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  6106 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6107 
  6108 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  6109 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  6110 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  6111 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  6112 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  6113 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  6114 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  6115 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  6116 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  6117 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  6118 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  6119 
  6120 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  6121 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  6122 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  6123 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  6124 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  6125 with earlier declarations.
  6126 
  6127 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  6128 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  6129 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6130 
  6131 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  6132 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  6133 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  6134 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  6135 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  6136 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  6137 
  6138   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  6139     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  6140 
  6141   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  6142     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  6143 
  6144   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  6145     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  6146     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  6147     Theory.merge, etc.)
  6148 
  6149 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  6150 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  6151 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  6152 
  6153 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  6154 
  6155 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  6156 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  6157 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  6158 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  6159 
  6160 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  6161 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  6162 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  6163 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  6164 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  6165 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  6166 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  6167 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6168 
  6169 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  6170 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  6171 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6172 
  6173 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  6174 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  6175 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  6176 
  6177 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  6178 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  6179 
  6180   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6181   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6182   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6183   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6184 
  6185 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  6186 
  6187 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  6188 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  6189 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  6190 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  6191 (both increase the runtime).
  6192 
  6193 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  6194 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  6195 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  6196 
  6197 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  6198 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  6199 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  6200 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  6201 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  6202 for further details.
  6203 
  6204 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  6205 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  6206 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  6207 scripts for the time being.
  6208 
  6209 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  6210 generated HTML files.  For example:
  6211 
  6212   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  6213   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  6214 
  6215 
  6216 *** System ***
  6217 
  6218 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  6219 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  6220 
  6221 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  6222 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  6223 
  6224 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  6225 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  6226 
  6227 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  6228 distribution being used.
  6229 
  6230 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  6231 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  6232 theories.
  6233 
  6234 
  6235 
  6236 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  6237 --------------------------------
  6238 
  6239 *** General ***
  6240 
  6241 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  6242   Replaces linorder.ML.
  6243 
  6244 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  6245   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  6246   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  6247   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  6248   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  6249   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder