NEWS
author blanchet
Thu Oct 18 15:05:17 2012 +0200 (2012-10-18)
changeset 49918 cf441f4a358b
parent 49869 bd370af308f0
child 49948 744934b818c7
child 49962 a8cc904a6820
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed Isar-proof related options + changed semantics of Isar shrinking
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10     . parallel terminal proofs ('by');
    11     . improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    12     . improved tooltips with nested tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    13     . more efficient painting, improved reactivity;
    14     . more robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial
    15       comments, malformed symbols);
    16     . smarter handling of tracing messages (via tracing_limit);
    17     . more plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala;
    18     . uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows;
    19 
    20 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    21 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    22 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    23 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    24 
    25 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    26 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    27 
    28 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    29 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    30 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    31 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    32 dependencies properly.
    33 
    34 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    35 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    36 
    37 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    38 in old "ref" manual.
    39 
    40 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    41 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    42 and "class ... context ...".
    43 
    44 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    45 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Pure ***
    49 
    50 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    51 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    52 
    53 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    54 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    55 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    56 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57 
    58 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    59 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    60 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    61 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    62 with some care where this is really required.
    63 
    64 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    65 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    66 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    67 
    68   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    69 
    70 
    71 *** HOL ***
    72 
    73 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
    74 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
    75 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
    76 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
    77 accordingly.
    78 
    79 
    80 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
    81 
    82   - Renamed constants
    83       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
    84 
    85   - Renamed facts
    86       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
    87 
    88 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    89 
    90 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
    93 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    94 
    95 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    96 to lattice type classes.
    97 
    98 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
    99 
   100 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   101 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   102 
   103   - Renamed constants:
   104 
   105       prefix ~> prefixeq
   106       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   107 
   108     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   111     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   112     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   113     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   116     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   117 
   118   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   119     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   120     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   121     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   124     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   125 
   126       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   127       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   128       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   129       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   130       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   131       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   132       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   133       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   134       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   135       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   136       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   137       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   138       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   139       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   140       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   141       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   142 
   143     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   146 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   147 non-free datatypes.
   148 
   149 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   150 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   151 
   152 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   153 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   154 
   155 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   156 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   157 
   158 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   159 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   160 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   161 
   162 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   163 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   164 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   167 expressions.
   168 
   169 * Quickcheck:
   170 
   171   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   172     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   173     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   174 
   175 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   176 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   177 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   178 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   179 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Sledgehammer:
   182 
   183   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   184     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   185   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   186   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   187   - Renamed options:
   188       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   189       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrinkage
   190       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   191       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   192 
   193 
   194 *** Document preparation ***
   195 
   196 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   197 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   198 
   199 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   200 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   201 document/root.tex.
   202 
   203 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   204 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 
   207 *** ML ***
   208 
   209 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   210 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   211 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   212 
   213 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   214 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   215 necessarily printing visible text.
   216 
   217 
   218 *** System ***
   219 
   220 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   221 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   222 for home-made configurations.
   223 
   224 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   225 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   226 
   227 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   228 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   229 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   230 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   231 
   232 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   233 
   234 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   235 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   236 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   237 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   238 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   239 
   240 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   241 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   242 
   243   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   244 
   245 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   246 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   247 
   248 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   249 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   250 "isabelle usedir".
   251 
   252 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   253 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   254 version of Isabelle.
   255 
   256 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   257 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   258 configuration.
   259 
   260 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   261 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   262 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   263 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   264 bundled as Isabelle component.
   265 
   266 
   267 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   268 ------------------------------
   269 
   270 *** General ***
   271 
   272 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   273 
   274   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   275     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   276   - markup for bound variables
   277   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   278   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   279   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   280     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   281 
   282 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   283 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   284 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   285 
   286 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   287 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   288 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   289 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   290 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   291 
   292   context
   293     fixes x y z :: 'a
   294     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   295   begin
   296 
   297   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   298 
   299   end
   300 
   301   thm my_trans
   302 
   303 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   304 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   305 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   306 
   307 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   308 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   309 
   310 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   311 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   312 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   313 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   314 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   315 
   316 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   317 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   318 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   319 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   320 indices of schematic variables.
   321 
   322 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   323 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   324 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   325 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   326 etc. was exploited.
   327 
   328 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   329 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   330 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   331 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   332 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   333 of the material of that old tutorial.
   334 
   335 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   336 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   337 manual.
   338 
   339 
   340 *** Pure ***
   341 
   342 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   343 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   344 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   345 
   346 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   347 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   348 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   349 undocumented feature.)
   350 
   351 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   352 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   353 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   354 
   355   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   356 
   357   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   358     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   359 
   360 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   361 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   362 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   363 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   364 
   365 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   366 
   367     num ~> num_token
   368     xnum ~> xnum_token
   369     xstr ~> str_token
   370 
   371 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   372 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   373 position information via constraints).
   374 
   375 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   376 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   377 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   380 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   381 
   382 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   383 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   384 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   387 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   390 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   391 
   392   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   393 
   394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   397 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   400 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   401 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   402 
   403 
   404 *** HOL ***
   405 
   406 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   407 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   408 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   409 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   410 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   411 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   412 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   413 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   414 possible.
   415 
   416 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   417 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   418 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   419 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   420 
   421 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   422 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   425 
   426 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   427 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   428 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   429 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   430 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   431 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   432 
   433   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   434     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   435 
   436   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   437     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   438     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   439 
   440   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   441     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   442 
   443   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   444     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   445     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   446 
   447   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   448     Redefine using other integer operations.
   449 
   450 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   451 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   452 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   453 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   454 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   455 
   456   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   457     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   458     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   459     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   460     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   461 
   462     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   463     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   464 
   465   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   466     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   467     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   468     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   469     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   470     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   471     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   472     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   473 
   474   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   475     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   476     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   477     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   478 
   479   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   480     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   481     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   482     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   483 
   484   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   485     from type nat to type int.
   486 
   487 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   488 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   489 
   490   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   491     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   492     type.  Example syntax:
   493 
   494     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   495       is List.insert
   496 
   497     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   498     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   499     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   500     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   501     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   502     by the package.
   503 
   504   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   505     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   506     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   507     code generation for each constant.
   508 
   509   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   510     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   511     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   512     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   513     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   514 
   515   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   516     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   517     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   518 
   519 * Quotient package:
   520 
   521   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   522     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   523 
   524   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   525     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   526 
   527   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   528     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   529     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   532     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   535 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   536 
   537 * Quickcheck:
   538 
   539   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   540     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   541     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   542     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   543     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   544 
   545     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   546     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   547     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   548 
   549     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   550     continues searching for genuine ones.
   551 
   552     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   553     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   554     show genuine counterexamples.
   555 
   556   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   557     value generators for a given type and operations.
   558 
   559     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   560     constructors of that type.
   561 
   562   - Support for multisets.
   563 
   564   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   565 
   566   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   567     conjectures in a locale context.
   568 
   569 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   570 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   571 
   572 * Sledgehammer:
   573   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   574     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   575   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   576   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   577     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   578   - Sped up the minimizer.
   579   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   580   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   581   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   582 
   583 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   584 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   585 
   586 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   587 
   588 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   591 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   592 
   593   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   594 
   595 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   596 a list and a nat.
   597 
   598 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   599 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   600 
   601 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   602 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   603 default.
   604 
   605 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   606 
   607   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   608 
   609 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   610 
   611 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   612 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   614 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   615 one_case.
   616 
   617 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   618 the result of the fact expression.
   619 
   620 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   621 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   622 of some relation theorems:
   623 
   624   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   625   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   626   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   627   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   628   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   629   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   630 
   631 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   632 
   633 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   634 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   635 
   636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   639 to match the constant's name:
   640 
   641   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   642   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   643   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   644   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   645   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   646   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   647   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   648   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   649   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   650   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   651   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   652   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   653   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   654   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   655   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   656   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   657   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   658   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   659   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   660   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   661   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   662   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   663   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   664   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   665 
   666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   669 and corresponding theorem names:
   670 
   671   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   672 
   673   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   674 
   675   - Renamed theorems:
   676 
   677     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   678     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   679     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   680     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   681     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   682     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   683     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   684     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   685     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   686     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   687     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   688     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   689     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   690     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   691     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   692     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   693     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   694     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   695     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   696     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   697     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   698     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   699     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   700 
   701     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   702 
   703     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   704 
   705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   706 
   707 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   709 
   710   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   711   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   712   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   713   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   714   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   715   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   716   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   717   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   718   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   719   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   720   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   721   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   722   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   723   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   724   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   725   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   726   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   727   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   728   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   729   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   730   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   731 
   732 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   733 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   738 
   739   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   740   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   741   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   742   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   743   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   744   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   745   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   746   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   747   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   748   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   749   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   750   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   751   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   752   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   753   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   754   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   755   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   756   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   757 
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   761 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   762 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   763 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   764 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   765 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   766 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   767 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   768 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   769 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   770 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   771 
   772 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   773 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   774 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   775 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   776 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   777 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   778 
   779 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   780 through option types.
   781 
   782 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   783 relations.
   784 
   785 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   788 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   789 
   790   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   791   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   792   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   793   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   794   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   795   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   796   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   797   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   798   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   799   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   800   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   801   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   802   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   803   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   804   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   805   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   806   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   807   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   808   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   809   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   810   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   811   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   812   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   813   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   814   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   815   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   816   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   817   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   818   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   819   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   820   zless_le ~> less_le
   821   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   822   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   823   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   824 
   825 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   826 
   827   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   828 
   829 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   830 
   831 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   832 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   833 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   834 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   838 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   839 
   840 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   841 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   842 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   843 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   844 follows:
   845 
   846   Operations:
   847   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   848   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   849   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   850   del -> rbt_del
   851   delete -> rbt_delete
   852   ins -> rbt_ins
   853   insert -> rbt_insert
   854   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   855   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   856   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   857   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   858   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   859   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   860   tree_less -> rbt_less
   861   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   862   union -> rbt_union
   863   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   864   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   865 
   866   Lemmas:
   867   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   868   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   869   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   870   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   871   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   872   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   873   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   874   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   875   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   876   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   877   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   878   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   879   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   880   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   881   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   882   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   883   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   884   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   885   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   886   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   887   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   888   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   889   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   890   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   891   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   892   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   893   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   894   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   895   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   896   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   897   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   898   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   899   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   900   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   901   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   902   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   903   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   904   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   905   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   906   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   907   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   908   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   909   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   910   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   911   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   912   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   913   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   914   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   915   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   916   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   917   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   918   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   919   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   920   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   921   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   922   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   923   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   924   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   925   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   926   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   927   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   928   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   929   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   930   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   931   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   932   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   933   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   934   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   935   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   936   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   937   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   938   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   939   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   940   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   941   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   942   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   943   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   944   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   945   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   946   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   947   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   948   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   949   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   950 
   951 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   952 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   953 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955   Changed Operations:
   956   float_abs -> abs
   957   float_nprt -> nprt
   958   float_pprt -> pprt
   959   pow2 -> use powr
   960   round_down -> float_round_down
   961   round_up -> float_round_up
   962   scale -> exponent
   963 
   964   Removed Operations:
   965   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   966 
   967   Renamed Lemmas:
   968   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   969   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   970   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   971   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   972   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   973   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   974   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   975   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   976   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   977   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   978   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   979   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   980   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   981   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   982   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   983   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   984   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   985   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   986   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   987   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   988   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   989   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   990   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   991   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   992   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   993   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   994   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   995   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   996   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   997   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   998   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   999   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1000   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1001   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1002   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1003   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1004 
  1005   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1006   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1007   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1008   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1009   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1010   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1011   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1012   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1013   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1014   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1015 
  1016 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1017 association lists with distinct keys.
  1018 
  1019 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1020 annotated commands.
  1021 
  1022 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1023 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1024 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1025 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1028 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1029 instead.
  1030 
  1031   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1032   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1033   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1034   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1035   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1036   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1037   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1038   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1039   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1040   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1041   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1042   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1043   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1044   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1045   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1046   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1047   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1048   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1049   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1050   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1051   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1052   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1053   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1054   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1055   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1056   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1057   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1058   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1059   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1060   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1061   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1062   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1063   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1064   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1065   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1066   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1067   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1068   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1069   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1070   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1071   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1072 
  1073 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1074 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1075 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1076 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1077 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1078 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1079 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1080 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1081 
  1082 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1083 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1084 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1085 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1086 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1087 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1088 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1089 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1090 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1091 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1092 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1093 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095   Renamed constants:
  1096   measure -> emeasure
  1097   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1098   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1099   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1100   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1101 
  1102   Removed locales:
  1103   completeable_measure_space
  1104   finite_measure_space
  1105   finite_prob_space
  1106   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1107   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1108   finite_sigma_algebra
  1109   measure_space
  1110   pair_finite_prob_space
  1111   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1112   pair_finite_space
  1113   pair_sigma_algebra
  1114   product_sigma_algebra
  1115 
  1116   Removed constants:
  1117   conditional_space
  1118   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1119   image_space
  1120   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1121   pair_measure_generator
  1122   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1123   subvimage
  1124 
  1125   Replacement theorems:
  1126   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1127   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1128   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1129   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1130   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1131   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1132   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1133   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1134   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1135   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1136   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1137   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1138   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1139   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1140   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1141   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1142   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1143   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1144   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1145   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1146   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1147   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1148   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1149   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1150   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1151   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1152   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1153   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1154   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1155   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1156   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1157   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1158   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1159   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1160   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1161   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1162   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1163   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1164   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1165   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1166   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1167   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1168   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1169   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1170   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1171   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1172   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1173   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1174   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1175   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1176   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1177   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1178   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1179   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1180   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1181   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1182   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1183   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1184   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1185   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1186   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1187   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1188   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1189   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1190   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1191   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1192   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1193   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1194   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1195   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1196   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1197   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1198   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1199   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1200   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1201   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1202   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1203   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1204   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1205   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1206   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1207   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1208   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1209   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1210   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1211   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1212   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1213   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1214   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1215   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1216   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1217   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1218   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1219   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1220   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1221   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1222   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1223   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1224   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1225   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1226   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1227   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1228   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1229   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1230   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1231   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1232   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1233   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1234   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1235   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1236   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1237   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1238   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1239   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1240   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1241   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1242   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1243   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1244   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1245   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1246   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1247   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1248   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1249   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1250   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1251   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1252   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1253   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1254 
  1255 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1256 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1257 
  1258 
  1259 *** FOL ***
  1260 
  1261 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1262 
  1263 
  1264 *** ZF ***
  1265 
  1266 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1267 analysis.
  1268 
  1269 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1270 
  1271 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1272 
  1273 
  1274 *** ML ***
  1275 
  1276 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1277 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1278 
  1279 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1280 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1281 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1282 
  1283 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1284 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1285 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1286 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1287 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1288 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1289 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1290 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1291 
  1292 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1293 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1294 
  1295 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1296 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1297 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1298 
  1299 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1300 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1303 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1304 context as well.
  1305 
  1306 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1307 
  1308   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1309   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1310   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1311   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1312   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1313   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1314   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1315   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1316   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1317   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1318   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1319   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1320 
  1321 
  1322 *** System ***
  1323 
  1324 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1325 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1326 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1327 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1328 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1329 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1330 the generic user home was intended.
  1331 
  1332 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1333 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1334 
  1335 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1336 (not just JRE).
  1337 
  1338 
  1339 
  1340 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1341 ------------------------------------
  1342 
  1343 *** General ***
  1344 
  1345 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1346 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1347 
  1348   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1349     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1350     files for checking).
  1351 
  1352   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1353     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1354     positions.
  1355 
  1356   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1357     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1358     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1359 
  1360   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1361     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1362     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1363 
  1364   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1365     cores.
  1366 
  1367   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1368     versions (garbage collection).
  1369 
  1370 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1371 including some remaining limitations.
  1372 
  1373 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1374 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1375 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1376 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1377 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1379 
  1380 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1381 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1382 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1383 
  1384 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1385 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1386 usedir option -Q.
  1387 
  1388 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1389 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1390 
  1391   long_names   ~> names_long
  1392   short_names  ~> names_short
  1393   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1394 
  1395 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1396 
  1397   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1398 
  1399 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1400 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1401 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1402 
  1403 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1404 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1405 
  1406 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1407   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1408   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1409   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1410     "Classical Reasoner".
  1411 
  1412 
  1413 *** HOL ***
  1414 
  1415 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1416 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1419 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1420 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1421 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1422 class complete_linorder.
  1423 
  1424 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1425 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1426 
  1427 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1428 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1429 
  1430   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1431   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1432   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1433   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1434   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1435   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1436   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1437   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1438   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1439   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1440   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1441 
  1442 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1443 
  1444   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1445   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1446   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1447   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1448   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1449   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1450   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1451   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1452   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1453   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1454   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1455   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1456   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1457   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1458   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1459   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1460 
  1461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1467 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1468 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1469 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1472 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1473 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1477 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1478 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1479 
  1480 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1481 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1482 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1485 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1486 
  1487 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1488 
  1489     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1490     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1491 
  1492 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1493 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1496 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1499 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1500 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1501 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 
  1503   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1504   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1505   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1506   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1507   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1508   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1509   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1510 
  1511 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1512 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1515   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1516   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1517   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1518   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1519   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1520   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1521   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1522   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1523   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1524   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1525   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1526   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1527   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1528   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1529   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1530   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1531   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1532   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1533   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1534   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1535   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1536   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1537   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1538   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1539   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1540   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1541   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1542   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1543   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1544   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1545   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1546   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1547   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1548   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1549   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1550   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1551   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1552   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1553   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1554   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1555   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1556   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1557   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1558   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1559   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1560   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1561   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1562   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1563   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1564   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1565   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1566   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1567   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1568   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1569   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1570   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1571   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1572   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1573   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1574   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1575   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1576   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1577   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1578   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1579   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1580   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1581   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1582   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1583   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1584   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1585   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1586   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1587   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1588   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1589   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1590   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1591   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1592   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1593   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1594   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1595   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1596 
  1597 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1598 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1599 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1600 
  1601 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1602 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1603 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1604 
  1605 * Code generation:
  1606 
  1607   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1608     characters in the target language.
  1609 
  1610   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1611     instead.
  1612 
  1613   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1614 
  1615   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1616     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1617 
  1618       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1619 
  1620 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621 
  1622 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1623 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1624 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1625 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1626 syntax.
  1627 
  1628 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1629 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1630 
  1631 * Nitpick:
  1632   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1633   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1634   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1635     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Sledgehammer:
  1638   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1639   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1640     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1641   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1642     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1643   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1644     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1646     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1647   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1648     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649 
  1650 * Metis:
  1651   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1653     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Command 'try':
  1656   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1657     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1658   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1659     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1660 
  1661 * Quickcheck:
  1662   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1663     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1664   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1665     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1666   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1667     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1668     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1669     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1670   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1671     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1672 
  1673 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1674 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1675 
  1676 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1677 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1678 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1679 
  1680 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1681 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1685 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1686 
  1687 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1688 arithmetic.
  1689 
  1690 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1691 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1692 and lattice type classes.
  1693 
  1694 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1695 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1696 
  1697 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1698 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1699 
  1700 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1701 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1702 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1705   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1706   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1707   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1708 
  1709 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1710 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1711 constants:
  1712 
  1713   type inat   ~> type enat
  1714   Fin         ~> enat
  1715   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1716   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1717   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1718 
  1719 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1720 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1721 
  1722 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1723 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1724 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1725 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1726 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1727 
  1728 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1729 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1730 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1731 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1732 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1733 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1734 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1735 
  1736   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1737   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1738   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1739   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1740 
  1741 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1742 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1743 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1746   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1747   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1748   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1749   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1750   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1751   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1752   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1753   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1754   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1755   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1756   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1757   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1758   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1759   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1760   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1761   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1762   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1763   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1764   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1765   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1766   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1767   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1768   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1769   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1770   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1771   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1772   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1773   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1774   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1775   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1776   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1777   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1778   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1779   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1780   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1781   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1782   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1783   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1784   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1785   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1786   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1787   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1788   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1789   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1790   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1791   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1792   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1793   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1794   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1795   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1796 
  1797 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1798   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1799   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1800   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1801   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1802     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803 
  1804 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1805 
  1806   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1807   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1808   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1809   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1810   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1811   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1812   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1813   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1814   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1815   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1816   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1817   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1818   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1819   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1820   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1821   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1822   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1823   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1824   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1825   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1826   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1827   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1828   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1829   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1830   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1831 
  1832 
  1833 *** Document preparation ***
  1834 
  1835 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1836 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1837 same.
  1838 
  1839 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1840 result.
  1841 
  1842 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1843 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1844 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1845 
  1846 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1847 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1848 
  1849 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1850 like this:
  1851 
  1852   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1853   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1854 
  1855 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1856 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1857 layouts.
  1858 
  1859 
  1860 *** ML ***
  1861 
  1862 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1863 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1864 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1865 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1866 under external program control.
  1867 
  1868 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1869 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1870 
  1871 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1872 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1873 (better known as Proof General).
  1874 
  1875 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1876 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1877 
  1878 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1879 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1880 
  1881 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1882 (including quotes etc.).
  1883 
  1884 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1885 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1886 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1887 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1888 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1889 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1890 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1891 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1892 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1893 
  1894 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1895 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1896 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1897 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1898 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1899 
  1900 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1901 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1902 
  1903 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1904 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1905 
  1906 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1907 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1908 
  1909 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1910 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1911 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1912 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1913 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1915 proper Proof.context.
  1916 
  1917 
  1918 *** System ***
  1919 
  1920 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1921 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1922 
  1923 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1924 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1925 
  1926 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1927 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1928 
  1929   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1930   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1931   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1932   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1933   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1934 
  1935 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1936 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1937 
  1938 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1939 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1940 example:
  1941 
  1942   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1943 
  1944 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1945 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1946 
  1947 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1948 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1949 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1950 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1951 
  1952 
  1953 
  1954 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1955 ----------------------------------
  1956 
  1957 *** General ***
  1958 
  1959 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1960 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1961 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1962 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1963 like this:
  1964 
  1965   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1966 
  1967 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1968 
  1969 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1970 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1971 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1972 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1973 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1974 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1975 
  1976 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1977 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1978 the following package declarations:
  1979 
  1980   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1981   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1982 
  1983 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1984 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1985 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1986 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1987 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1988 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1989 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1990 
  1991 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1992 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1993 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1994 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1995 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1996 
  1997 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1998 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1999 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2000 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2001 
  2002 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2003 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2004 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2005 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2006 
  2007   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2008 
  2009   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2010   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2011   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2012   show_types                    show_types
  2013   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2014   show_consts                   show_consts
  2015   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2016 
  2017   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2018   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2019   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2020 
  2021   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2022   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2023 
  2024   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2025 
  2026   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2027   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2028   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2029   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2030   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2031 
  2032 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2033 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2034 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2035 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2036 
  2037 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2041   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2042 
  2043 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2044 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2045 float_token.
  2046 
  2047 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2048 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2052 DejaVu Sans.
  2053 
  2054 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2055 
  2056 
  2057 *** Pure ***
  2058 
  2059 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2060 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2061 time.
  2062 
  2063 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2064 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2067 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2070 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2071 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2072 command already provided this functionality.
  2073 
  2074 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2075 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2076 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2077 without interpretations.
  2078 
  2079 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2080 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2081 
  2082 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2083 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2084 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2085 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2086 
  2087 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2088 'definition' instead.
  2089 
  2090 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2091 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2092 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2093 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2094 
  2095 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2096 constructors.
  2097 
  2098 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2099 the local file system.
  2100 
  2101 
  2102 *** HOL ***
  2103 
  2104 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2105 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2106 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2107 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2108 
  2109   declare [[coercion f]]
  2110 
  2111 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2112 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2113 
  2114   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2115 
  2116 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2117 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2118 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2119 other theories like this:
  2120 
  2121   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2122 
  2123 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2124 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2125 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2126 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2127 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2128 for examples.
  2129 
  2130 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2131 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2134 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2135 
  2136 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2137 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2138 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2139 
  2140 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2141 functorial structure of types.
  2142 
  2143 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2144 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2145 
  2146 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2147 languages.
  2148 
  2149 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2150 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2154 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2157 combinators any longer.
  2158 
  2159 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2160 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2161 
  2162 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2163 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2164 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2165 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2166 
  2167   record 'a foo = ...
  2168   ...
  2169   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2170 
  2171 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2172 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2176 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2177 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2178 
  2179 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2180 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2181 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2182 
  2183 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2184 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2187 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2188 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2189 independently.
  2190 
  2191 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2192 counter example search.
  2193 
  2194 * Sledgehammer:
  2195   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2196     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2197     sledgehammer").
  2198   - Renamed commands:
  2199     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2200     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2201     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2202     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203   - Renamed options:
  2204     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2205     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2206     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2207     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2208     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 * Nitpick:
  2211   - Renamed options:
  2212     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2213     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2214     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2216   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2217   - Added "whack" option.
  2218   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2219   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2220   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2221   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2222     higher cardinalities.
  2223   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2224 
  2225 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2226 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2227 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2228 
  2229     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2230 
  2231 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2232 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2233 
  2234 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2235 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2236 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2237 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2238 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2239 "smt_solver".
  2240 
  2241 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2242 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2243 
  2244 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2245 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2246 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2247 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2250   - Renamed:
  2251     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2252     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254   - Added:
  2255     smt_verbose
  2256     smt_random_seed
  2257     smt_datatypes
  2258     smt_infer_triggers
  2259     smt_monomorph_limit
  2260     cvc3_options
  2261     remote_cvc3_options
  2262     remote_z3_options
  2263     yices_options
  2264 
  2265 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2266 header.
  2267 
  2268 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2269 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2270 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2271 
  2272   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2273 
  2274 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2277 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2282 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2285 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2286 
  2287 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2288 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2291 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2292 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2298 
  2299 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2300 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2303 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2304 for congruent(2)).
  2305 
  2306 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2307 
  2308   types
  2309     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2310     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2311 
  2312   constants
  2313     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2314     True ~> HOL.True
  2315     False ~> HOL.False
  2316     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2317     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2318     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2319     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2320     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2321     The ~> HOL.The
  2322     All ~> HOL.All
  2323     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2324     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2325     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2326     If ~> HOL.If
  2327     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2328     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2329     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2330     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2331     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2332     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2333     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2334     op : ~> Set.member
  2335     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2336 
  2337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2340 
  2341     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2342     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2343     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2344     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2345     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2346     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2347     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2348     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2349 
  2350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2351 
  2352 * More stylized fact names:
  2353 
  2354   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2355   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2356   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2357   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2358 
  2359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2362 
  2363   constants
  2364     null ~> List.null
  2365 
  2366   facts
  2367     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2368     null_empty ~> null_def
  2369 
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2371 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2372 generation.
  2373 
  2374 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2375 Haskell code.
  2376 
  2377 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2378 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2379 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2382 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2385 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2386 
  2387 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2388 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2389 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2392 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2398 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2399 referred to by its qualified name.
  2400 
  2401   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2402   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2403   product ~>  Enum.product
  2404 
  2405 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2406 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2410 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2411 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2415 sort_key.
  2416 
  2417 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2419 
  2420 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2421 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2422 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2423 
  2424   types
  2425     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2426               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2427               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2428         (depends on your needs)
  2429 
  2430   constants
  2431      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2432      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2433      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2434 
  2435 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2436 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2437 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2438 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2441 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2442 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2443 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2444 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2450 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2451 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2452 
  2453 
  2454 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2455 
  2456 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2457 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2458 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2459 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2460 compatibility.
  2461 
  2462 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2463 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2464 
  2465 
  2466 *** HOLCF ***
  2467 
  2468 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2469 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2470 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472 
  2473 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2474 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2475 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2478   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2479   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2480 
  2481 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2482 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2483 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2486 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2487 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2488 domain definition now works:
  2489 
  2490   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2491 
  2492 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2493 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2494 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2495 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2496 
  2497   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2498     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2499 
  2500   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2501 
  2502 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2503 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2504 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2507 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2510 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2511 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2512 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2513 
  2514 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2515 
  2516 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2524 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2525 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2526 
  2527 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2528 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2529 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2532 still supported as an input translation.
  2533 
  2534 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2535 
  2536   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2537   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2538   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2539   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2540   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2541   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2542   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2543 
  2544 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2545 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546 
  2547   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2548   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2549   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2550   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2551   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2552   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2553 
  2554 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2555 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2558 
  2559   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2560   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2561   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2562   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2563 
  2564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2567 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2570 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2573   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2574   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2575   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2576   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2577   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2578   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2579   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2580   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2581   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2582   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2583   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2584   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2585   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2586   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2587   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2588   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2589   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2590   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2591   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2592 
  2593 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2596   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2597   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2598   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2599   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2600   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2601   box_less             ~> box_below
  2602   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2603   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2604   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2605   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2606   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2607   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2608   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2609   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2610   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2611   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2612   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2613   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2614   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2615   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2616   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2617   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2618   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2619   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2620   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2621   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2622   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2623   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2624   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2625   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2626   up_less              ~> up_below
  2627   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2628   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2629   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2630   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2631   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2632   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2633   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2634   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2635   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2636   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2637   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2638   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2639   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2640 
  2641 
  2642 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2643 
  2644 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2645 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 
  2648 *** ML ***
  2649 
  2650 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2651 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2652 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2653 
  2654 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2655 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2656 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2657 
  2658 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2659 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2660 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2661 
  2662 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2663 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2664 
  2665 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2666 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2667 
  2668 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2669 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2670 
  2671 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2672 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2673 
  2674 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2675 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2676 almost all situations.
  2677 
  2678 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2679 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2680 Isabelle/ML.
  2681 
  2682 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2683 meaning.
  2684 
  2685 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2686 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2687 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2688 
  2689 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2690 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2691 
  2692 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2693 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2694 
  2695 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2696 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2697 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2698 
  2699 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2700 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2701 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2702 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2703 configuration options.
  2704 
  2705 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2706 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2707 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2708 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2709 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2710 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2711 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2712 
  2713 
  2714 
  2715 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2716 ---------------------------------
  2717 
  2718 *** General ***
  2719 
  2720 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2721 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2722 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2723 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2724 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2725 their full internal name.
  2726 
  2727 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2728 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2729 Some hints on upgrading:
  2730 
  2731   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2732     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2733     which are independent of this issue.
  2734 
  2735   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2736     provides the following special forms:
  2737 
  2738       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2739       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2740       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2741 
  2742     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2743     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2744     extra variables".
  2745 
  2746     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2747     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2748     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2749     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2750     "logic".
  2751 
  2752   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2753     antiquotations:
  2754 
  2755       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2756       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2757       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2758       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2759 
  2760   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2761     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2762     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2763     antiquotations.
  2764 
  2765 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2766 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2767 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2768 diagnose syntax problems.
  2769 
  2770 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2771 
  2772 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2773 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2774 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2775 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2776 
  2777 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2778 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2779 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2780 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2783 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2784 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2785 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2786 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2787 
  2788 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2789 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2790 
  2791 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2792 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2793 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2794 
  2795   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2796 
  2797 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2798 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2799 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2800 
  2801 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2802 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2806 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2807 
  2808 
  2809 *** Pure ***
  2810 
  2811 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2812 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2813 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2814 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2815 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2816 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2817 inspect proof terms.
  2818 
  2819 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2820 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2821 are added internally.  For example:
  2822 
  2823   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2824 
  2825 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2826 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2831 'class' instead.
  2832 
  2833 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2834 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2838 invariants.
  2839 
  2840 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2841 user space functionality any longer.
  2842 
  2843 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2844 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2848 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2849 
  2850 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2851 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2852 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2853 
  2854 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2855 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2856 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2857 
  2858 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2859 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 
  2862 *** HOL ***
  2863 
  2864 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2865 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2866 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2867 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2868 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2869 
  2870 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2871 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2872 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2873 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2874 
  2875   fun
  2876     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2877   where
  2878     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2879 
  2880   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2881     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2882 
  2883   quotient_definition
  2884     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2885 
  2886 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2887 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2888 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2889 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2890 
  2891 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2892 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2893 
  2894 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2895 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2896 
  2897 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899 
  2900 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2901 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2902 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2903 
  2904 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2905 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909 
  2910 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2914 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2917 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2918 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2919 
  2920   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2921   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2922   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2923   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2924   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2925   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2926   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2927   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2928   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2929   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2930   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2931   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2932   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2933   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2934   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2935   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2936   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2937   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2938   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2939   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2940   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2941   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2942   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2943   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2944   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2945   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2946   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2947   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2948   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2949   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2950 
  2951 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2952 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2953 
  2954 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2955 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2956 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2957 
  2958 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2959 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2960 
  2961 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2962 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2965 
  2966 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2967 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2970 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2975 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2976 
  2977 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2978 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2979 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2980 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2981 
  2982 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2983   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2984   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2985   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2989 lattices):
  2990 
  2991     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2992     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2993 
  2994     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2995 
  2996     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2997     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2998     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2999     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3000     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3001     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3002     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3003     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3004     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3005     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3006     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3007     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3008     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3009 
  3010     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3011     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3012     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3013     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3014     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3015     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3016     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3017     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3018     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3019     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3020     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3021     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3022     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3023     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3024     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3025     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3026     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3027     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3028 
  3029   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3030   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3031 
  3032     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3033     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3034     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3035     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3036     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3037 
  3038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040 * Refined field classes:
  3041   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3042     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3043     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3044   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3048   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3049   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3050   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3051     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3052   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3053     equal_neg_zero.
  3054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3057 sets to lattices:
  3058 
  3059   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3060   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3061   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3062   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3063   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3064   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3065   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3066   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3067   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3068   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3069 
  3070 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3071 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3072 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3073 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3074 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3075 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3078 multiset order:
  3079 
  3080   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3081     <= and <;
  3082   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3083     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3084     multiset_order;
  3085   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3086     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3087     generation;
  3088   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3089     if needed.
  3090 
  3091 Renamed:
  3092 
  3093   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3094   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3095   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3096 
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3100 
  3101 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3102 
  3103 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3104 
  3105 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3106 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3107 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109   Constants:
  3110   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3111   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3112   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3113   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3114   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3115   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3116   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3117   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3118   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3119   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3120   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3121   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3122   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3123 
  3124   Lemmas:
  3125   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3126   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3127   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3128   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3129   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3130   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3131   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3132   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3133   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3134   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3135   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3136   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3137   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3138 
  3139 * Sledgehammer:
  3140   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3141     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3142     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3143     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3144     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3145     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3146     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3148   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3149     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3150   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3151     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3152     is still experimental.)
  3153   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3154     full-typed mode.
  3155   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3156 
  3157 * Nitpick:
  3158   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3159   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3160   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3161     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3162   - Added support for quotient types.
  3163   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3164     constructs.
  3165   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3166     "termination" proofs).
  3167   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3168   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3169   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3170   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3171     record getters.
  3172   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3173   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3174   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3175   - Added "atoms" option.
  3176   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3177     problems.
  3178   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3179     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3180     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3182     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3186   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3187   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3188   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3189   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3190   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3191   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3192   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3193   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3194   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 
  3197 *** HOLCF ***
  3198 
  3199 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3200 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3201 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3204 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3205 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3206 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3209 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3210 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3211 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3212 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3215 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3216 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3219 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3220 
  3221   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3222   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3223 
  3224 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3225 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3228   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3229   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3230   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3231   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3232 
  3233 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3234 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3237   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3238   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3239 
  3240 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3241 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3245 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3250 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 
  3253 *** ML ***
  3254 
  3255 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3256 
  3257     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3258     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3259 
  3260     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3261     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3262     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3263     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3264 
  3265     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3266     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3267     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3268 
  3269 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3270 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3271 
  3272 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3273 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3274 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3275 
  3276 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3277 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3278 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3279 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3280 
  3281 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3282 the context or even global references.
  3283 
  3284 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3285 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3286 
  3287 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3288 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3289 
  3290   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3291   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3292   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3293   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3294   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3295   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3296   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3297   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3298   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3299   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3300 
  3301 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3302 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3303 
  3304 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3305 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3306 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3307 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3308 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3309 
  3310 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3311 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3312 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3313 Theory_Data version.
  3314 
  3315 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3316 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3317 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3318 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3319 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3320 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3321 explicitly in rare situations.
  3322 
  3323 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3324 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3328 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3331 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3332 quite rare).
  3333 
  3334 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3335 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3338 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3339 terms.
  3340 
  3341 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3342 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3343 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3344 
  3345 
  3346 *** System ***
  3347 
  3348 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3349 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3350 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3351 
  3352 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3353 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3354 respectively.
  3355 
  3356 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3357 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3358 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3359 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3360 
  3361   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3362 
  3363 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3364 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3365 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3366 component.
  3367 
  3368 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3369 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3370 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3371 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3372 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3373 the user for manual installation.
  3374 
  3375 
  3376 
  3377 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3378 -------------------------------------
  3379 
  3380 *** General ***
  3381 
  3382 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3383 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3384 
  3385 
  3386 *** Pure ***
  3387 
  3388 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3389 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3390 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3391 
  3392 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3393 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3394 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3395 
  3396 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3397 interpretation.
  3398 
  3399 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3400 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 
  3403 *** Document preparation ***
  3404 
  3405 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3406 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3407 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3408 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3409 
  3410 
  3411 *** HOL ***
  3412 
  3413 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3414 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3415 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3416 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3417 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3418 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3419 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3420 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3421 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3422 
  3423 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3424 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3425 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3426 
  3427 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3428 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3429 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3430 
  3431 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3432 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3433 
  3434 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3435 
  3436 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3437 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3438 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3439 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3440 
  3441 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3442 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3443 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3444 "mirabelle" utility.
  3445 
  3446 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3447 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3448 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3449 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3450 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3451 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3452 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3453 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3454 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3455 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3456 
  3457 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3458 procedure only.
  3459 
  3460 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3461 
  3462 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3463 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3464 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3465 that fail later.
  3466 
  3467 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3468 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3469 
  3470 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3471 the same method as the approximation method.
  3472 
  3473 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3474 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3475 series expansion.
  3476 
  3477 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3478 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3479 
  3480 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3481 reals.
  3482 
  3483 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3484 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3485 
  3486 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3487 fixpoint theorem.
  3488 
  3489 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3490   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3491     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3492   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3493     accordingly
  3494   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3495     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3496   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3497     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3498 
  3499 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3500 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3501 lattice.
  3502 
  3503 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3504 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3505 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3506 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3507 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3508 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3512   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3513     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3514   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3515     le_inf_iff
  3516   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3517     sup_aci)
  3518   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3519   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3520   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3521     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3522     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3523     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3524     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3525     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3526     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3527     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3528     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3529     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3530     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3531   - authentic syntax for
  3532     Set.Pow
  3533     Set.image
  3534   - mere abbreviations:
  3535     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3536     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3537     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3538     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3539     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3540     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3541     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3542     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3543   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3544 
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3546 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3547 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3548 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3549 
  3550 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3551 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3552 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3555 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3558 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3559 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3560 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3563 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3564 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3565 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3566 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3567 
  3568 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3569 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3573 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3576 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3577 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3578 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3579 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3580 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3581 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3585     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3586     code_post       replaces    code post
  3587     etc.
  3588   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3589 
  3590 * Renamed methods:
  3591     sizechange -> size_change
  3592     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3593   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3596 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3597 
  3598 * Renamed theorems:
  3599     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3600     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3601     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3602     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3603     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3604   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 
  3613 *** HOLCF ***
  3614 
  3615 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3616 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3617 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3618 
  3619 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3620 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3621 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3622 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3623 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3624 
  3625 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3626 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3627 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3628 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3629 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3630 
  3631 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3632 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3633 constructor are pre-configured.
  3634 
  3635 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3636 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3637 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3638 
  3639 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3640 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3641 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3642 as well.)
  3643 
  3644 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3645 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3646 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3647 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3648 examples.
  3649 
  3650 
  3651 *** ML ***
  3652 
  3653 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3654 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3655 
  3656 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3657 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3658 position, logical grouping etc.
  3659 
  3660 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3661 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3662 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3663 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3664 
  3665 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3666 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3667 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3668 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3669 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3670 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3671 
  3672 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3673 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3674 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3675 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3676 experiments with references.
  3677 
  3678 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3679 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3680 
  3681 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3682 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3683 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3684 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3685 
  3686 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3687 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3688 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3689 
  3690 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3691 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3692 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3700 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3701 
  3702 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3703 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3704 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3705 
  3706 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3707 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3708 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3711 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3712 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3716 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3717 instead of global theory.
  3718 
  3719 
  3720 *** System ***
  3721 
  3722 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3723 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3724 usedir option -q.
  3725 
  3726 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3727 also the system manual.
  3728 
  3729 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3730 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3731 
  3732 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3733 this is always enabled.
  3734 
  3735 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3736 
  3737 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3738 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3739 currently supported on Linux only.
  3740 
  3741 
  3742 
  3743 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3744 --------------------------------
  3745 
  3746 *** General ***
  3747 
  3748 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3749 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3750 
  3751   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3752     "isatool."
  3753 
  3754   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3755     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3756 
  3757   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3758     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3759 
  3760 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3761 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3762 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3763 
  3764 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3765 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3766 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3767 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3768 via "isabelle emacs".
  3769 
  3770 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3771 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3772 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3773 
  3774 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3775 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3776 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3777 
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3779 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3780 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3781 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3782 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3783 
  3784 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3785 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3786 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3787 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3788 
  3789 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3790 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3791 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3792 
  3793 
  3794 *** Pure ***
  3795 
  3796 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3797 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3798 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3799 
  3800 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3801 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3802 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3803 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3804 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3805 
  3806 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3807 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3808 useful in locale declarations.
  3809 
  3810 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3811 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3812 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3813 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3814 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3815 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3816 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3817 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3818 no longer generated.
  3819 
  3820 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3821 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3822 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3823 
  3824 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3825 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3826 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3827 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3828 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3829 
  3830 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3832 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3833 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3834 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3835 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3836 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3837 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3838 
  3839 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3840 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3841 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3842 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3843 
  3844 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845 
  3846 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3847 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3848 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3849 
  3850 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3851 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3854 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3855 in HOL, write
  3856 
  3857     class foo = ...
  3858 
  3859 instead of
  3860 
  3861     class foo = type + ...
  3862 
  3863 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3864 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3867 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3868 
  3869 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3870 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3871 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3872 
  3873 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3874 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3875 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3876 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3877 directly in regular applications.
  3878 
  3879 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3880 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3881 
  3882 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3883 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3884 
  3885 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3886 theory context.
  3887 
  3888 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3889 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890 
  3891 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3892 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3893 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3894 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3895 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3896 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3897 
  3898   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3899 
  3900 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3901 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3902 normalization.
  3903 
  3904 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3905 addressing etc.
  3906 
  3907 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3908 
  3909   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3910   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3911 
  3912 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3913 
  3914   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3915      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3916      parts of the code generator framework).
  3917 
  3918   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3919      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3920      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3921 
  3922 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3923 
  3924 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3925 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3928 patterns, e.g.
  3929 
  3930     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3931 
  3932 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3933 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3934 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3935 hyphen:
  3936 
  3937     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3938 
  3939 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3940 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3941 
  3942 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3943 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3944 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3945 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3946 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3947 higher-order unification.
  3948 
  3949 
  3950 *** Document preparation ***
  3951 
  3952 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3953 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3954 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3955 
  3956 
  3957 *** HOL ***
  3958 
  3959 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3960 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3961 
  3962 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3963 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3964 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3965 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3966 Main, as before.
  3967 
  3968 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3969 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3970 
  3971 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3972 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3973 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3974 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3975 
  3976 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3977 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3978 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3979 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3980 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3981 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3982 
  3983 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3984 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3985 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3986 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3987 
  3988 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3989 menu.
  3990 
  3991 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3992 (contains the empty clause).
  3993 
  3994 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3995 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3996 
  3997 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3998 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3999 
  4000 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4001 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4002 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4005 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4006 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4007 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4008 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4009 
  4010 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4011 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4012 
  4013 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4014 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4015 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4016 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4017 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4018 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4019 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4020 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4021 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4022 
  4023 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4024 
  4025 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4026 
  4027 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4028 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4031 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4032 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4033 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4034 
  4035 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4036 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4037 
  4038     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4039     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4040     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4041     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4042     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4043     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4044     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4045     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4046 
  4047 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4048 theory Set.
  4049 
  4050 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4051 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4052 
  4053 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4054 
  4055 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4056 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4057 
  4058 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4059 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4060 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4061 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4062 allowed. For examples see
  4063 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4064 
  4065 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4066 
  4067 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4071 structure:
  4072 
  4073     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4074     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4075     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4076     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4077     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4078     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4079     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4080     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4081     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4082     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4083     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4084     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4085     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4086     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4087     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4088     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4089     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4090     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4091     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4092     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4093     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4094     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4095     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4096     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4097     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4098     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4099     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4100     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4101     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4102     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4103     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4104     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4105     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4106 
  4107     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4108     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4109     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4110     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4111     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4112     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4113     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4114     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4115     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4116     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4117 
  4118     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4119     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4120     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4121     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4122     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4123     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4124 
  4125 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4126 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4127 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4128 
  4129 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4130 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4131 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4132 
  4133 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4134 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4135 
  4136 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4137 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4138 
  4139 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4140 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4141 proofs, e.g.
  4142 
  4143   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4144 
  4145 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4146 
  4147 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4148 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4149 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4152 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4154 
  4155 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4156 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4157 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4159 
  4160 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4161 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4162 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4163 preorder_class.*.
  4164 
  4165 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4166 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4167 
  4168 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4169 
  4170   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4171 
  4172 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4173 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4174 fold_image.
  4175 
  4176 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4177 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4178 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4179 the former will disappear at some point.
  4180 
  4181 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4182 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4183 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4184 
  4185 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4186 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4187 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4188 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4189 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4190 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4191 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4192 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4193 
  4194 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4195 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4196 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4197 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4198 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4199 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4200 
  4201     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4202     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4203     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4204     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4205     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4206     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4207     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4208 
  4209 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4210 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4211 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4212 
  4213 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4214 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4215 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4216 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4217 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4218 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4219 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4220 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4221 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4222 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4223 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4224 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4225 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4226 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4227 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4228 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4229 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4230 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4231 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4232 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4233 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4234 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4235 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4236 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4237 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4238 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4239 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4240 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4241 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4242 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4243 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4244 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4245 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4246 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4247 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4248 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4249 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4250 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4251 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4252 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4253 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4254 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4255 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4256 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4257 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4258 
  4259 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260 
  4261 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4262 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4263 
  4264 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4265 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4266 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4267 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4268 
  4269 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4270 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4271 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4272 theory RealVector.
  4273 
  4274 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4275 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4276 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4277 and inner products are included.
  4278 
  4279 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4280 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4281 supported.
  4282 
  4283 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4284 first diagonalization argument.
  4285 
  4286 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4287 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4288 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4289 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4290 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4291 
  4292     hide (open) const gcd
  4293     abbreviation gcd where
  4294       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4295     notation (output)
  4296       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4297 
  4298 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4299 
  4300 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4301 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4302 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4305 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4306 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4307 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4308 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4309 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4310 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4311 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4312 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4313 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4314 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4315 cases.
  4316 
  4317 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4318 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4319 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4320 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4321 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4322 
  4323     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4324     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4325     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4326     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4327     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4328 
  4329 
  4330 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4331 
  4332 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4333 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4334 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4335 
  4336 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4337 
  4338 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4339 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4340 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4341 
  4342 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4343 
  4344 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4345 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4346 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4347 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4348 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4349 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4350 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4351 
  4352 
  4353 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4354 
  4355 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4356 
  4357 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4358 theory targets.
  4359 
  4360 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4361 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4362 'inductive' etc.
  4363 
  4364 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4365 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4366 
  4367 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4368 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4369 
  4370 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4371 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4372 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4373 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4374 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4375 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4376 the algorithm W:
  4377 
  4378  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4379  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4380          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4381 
  4382 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4383 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4384 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4385 
  4386 
  4387 *** HOLCF ***
  4388 
  4389 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4390 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4391 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4392 
  4393 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4394 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4395 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4396 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4397 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4400 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4401 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4402 
  4403 
  4404 *** ZF ***
  4405 
  4406 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4407 
  4408 
  4409 *** ML ***
  4410 
  4411 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4412 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4413 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4414 5.2.1!
  4415 
  4416 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4417 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4418 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4419 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4420 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4421 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4422 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4423 
  4424 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4425 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4426 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4427 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4428 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4429 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4430 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4431 
  4432 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4433 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4434 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4435 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4436 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4437 
  4438 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4439 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4440 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4441 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4442 Method.add_method.
  4443 
  4444 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4445 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4446 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4447 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4448 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4449 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4450 
  4451 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4452 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4453 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4454 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4455 examples.
  4456 
  4457 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4458 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4459 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4460 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4461 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4462 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4463 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4464 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4465 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4466 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4467 
  4468 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4469 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4470 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4471 
  4472 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4473 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4474 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4475 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4476 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4477 resort for legacy applications.
  4478 
  4479 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4480 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4481 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4482 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4483 explicit runtime argument.
  4484 
  4485 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4486 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4487 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4488 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4489 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4492 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4493 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4494 theory state.
  4495 
  4496 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4497 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4498 
  4499   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4500   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4501   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4502   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4503   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4504   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4505   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4506   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4507   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4508   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4509 
  4510 
  4511 *** System ***
  4512 
  4513 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4514 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4515 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4516 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4517 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4518 
  4519 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4520 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4521 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4522 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4523 
  4524 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4525 
  4526 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4527 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4528 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4529 prover operations.
  4530 
  4531 
  4532 
  4533 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4534 -------------------------------
  4535 
  4536 *** General ***
  4537 
  4538 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4539 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4540 
  4541 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4542 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4543 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4544 provides a proper context already.
  4545 
  4546 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4547 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4548 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4549 
  4550 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4551 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4552 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4553 swap theory imports.
  4554 
  4555 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4557 
  4558 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4559 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4560 white space without escapes.
  4561 
  4562 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4563 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4564 "foo_bar".
  4565 
  4566 
  4567 *** Pure ***
  4568 
  4569 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4570 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4571 
  4572 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4573 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4574 
  4575 (1) unused_thms
  4576      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4577 
  4578 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4579      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4580      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4581 
  4582 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4583      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4584      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4585      their ancestors.
  4586 
  4587 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4588 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4589 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4590 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4591 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4592 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4593 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4594 
  4595 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4596 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4597 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4598 
  4599 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4600 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4601 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4602 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4603 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4604 
  4605 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4606 
  4607 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4608 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4609 update of theories within ML code.
  4610 
  4611 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4612 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4613 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4614 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4615 
  4616 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4617 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4618 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4622 
  4623 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4624 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4625 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4626 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4627 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4628 
  4629 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4630 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4631 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4632 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4633 situations.
  4634 
  4635 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4636 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4637 proof text.
  4638 
  4639 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4640 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4641 
  4642 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4643 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4644 predicates.
  4645 
  4646 
  4647 *** Document preparation ***
  4648 
  4649 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4650 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4651 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4652 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4653 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4654 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4655 
  4656 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4657 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4658 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 *** HOL ***
  4662 
  4663 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4664 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4665 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4666 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4667 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4668 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4669 
  4670 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4671 with multithreading.
  4672 
  4673 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4674 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4675 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4676 
  4677 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4678 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4679 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4680 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4683 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4684 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4685 and makes them available separately.  See
  4686 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4687 
  4688 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4689 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4690 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4691 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4692 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4693 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4694 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4695 the declared rules.
  4696 
  4697 This setup also deals with rules like
  4698 
  4699   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4700 
  4701 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4702 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4703 
  4704 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4705 
  4706   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4707 
  4708   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4709     definitions on => and bool.
  4710 
  4711   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4712     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4713     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4714 
  4715       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4716       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4717       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4718       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4719       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4720       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4721       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4722       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4723 
  4724   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4725     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4726     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4727 
  4728   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4729     The proof pattern
  4730 
  4731       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4732       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4733 
  4734     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4735     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4736 
  4737       have "EX S. P S"
  4738       proof
  4739         show "P S" <...>
  4740       qed
  4741 
  4742   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4743     The proof pattern
  4744 
  4745       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4746       also have "S = T" <...>
  4747       finally have "P T" .
  4748 
  4749     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4750     must be replaced by something like
  4751 
  4752       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4753       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4754       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4755 
  4756   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4757     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4758 
  4759       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4760 
  4761     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4762     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4763     type of the form
  4764 
  4765       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4766 
  4767     rather than
  4768 
  4769       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4770 
  4771 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4772 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4773 
  4774 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4777 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4781 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4784 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4785 
  4786 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4787 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4788 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4791 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4792 
  4793   less_trans
  4794   less_linear
  4795   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4796   le_less_trans
  4797   less_le_trans
  4798   less_not_sym
  4799   less_asym
  4800 
  4801 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4802 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4803 and different variable names.
  4804 
  4805 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4806 
  4807 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4808 finite maps.
  4809 
  4810 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4811 
  4812 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4813 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4814 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4815 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4816 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4817 accordingly.
  4818 
  4819 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4820 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4821 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4822 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4823 
  4824 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4825 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4826 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4827 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4828 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4832 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4835 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4836 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4837 
  4838 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4842 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4843 
  4844 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4845 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4848 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4851 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4855 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4858 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4859 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4860 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4861 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4862 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4863 
  4864 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4865 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4866 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4867 
  4868 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4869 
  4870 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4871 
  4872 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4873 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4874 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4875 
  4876 
  4877 *** ZF ***
  4878 
  4879 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4880 same session:
  4881 
  4882   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4883   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4884   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4885   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4886   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4887   List      -> List_ZF
  4888   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4889 
  4890 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4891 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4892 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4893 
  4894 
  4895 *** ML ***
  4896 
  4897 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4898 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4899 
  4900 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4901 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4902 
  4903 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4904 
  4905 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4906 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4907 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4908 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4909 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4912 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4913 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4914 
  4915 
  4916 *** System ***
  4917 
  4918 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4919 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4920 
  4921 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4922 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4923 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4924 
  4925 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4926 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4927 
  4928 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4929 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4930 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4931 
  4932 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4933 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4934 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4935 
  4936 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4937 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4938 
  4939 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4940 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4941 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4942 script.
  4943 
  4944 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4945 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4946 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4947 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4948 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4949 
  4950 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4951 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4952 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4953 
  4954 
  4955 
  4956 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4957 -----------------------------------
  4958 
  4959 *** General ***
  4960 
  4961 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4962 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4963 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4964 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4965 
  4966 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4967 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4968 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4969 
  4970 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4971 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4972 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4973 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4974 
  4975 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4976 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4977 quotes.
  4978 
  4979 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4980 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4981 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4982 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4983 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4984 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4985 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4986 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4987 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4988 
  4989 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4990 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4991 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4992 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4993 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4994 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4995 
  4996 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4997 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4998 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4999 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5000 
  5001 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5002 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5003 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5004 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5005 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5006 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5007 
  5008 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5009 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5010 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5011 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5012 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5013 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5014 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5015 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5016 
  5017 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5018 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5019 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5020 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5021 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5022 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5023 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5024 
  5025 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5026 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5027 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5028 
  5029 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5030 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5031 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5032 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5033 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5034 limit is imposed.
  5035 
  5036 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5037 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5038 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5039 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5040 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5041 and scalability.
  5042 
  5043 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5044 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5045 
  5046 
  5047 *** Document preparation ***
  5048 
  5049 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5050 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5051 current context.
  5052 
  5053 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5054 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5055 
  5056 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5057 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5058 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5059 
  5060 
  5061 *** Pure ***
  5062 
  5063 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5064 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5065 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5066 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5067 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5068 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5069 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5070 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5071 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5072 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5073 
  5074 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5075 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5076 sketch:
  5077 
  5078     internal compilation:
  5079         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5080     writing SML code to a file:
  5081         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5082     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5083         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5084     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5085         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5086 
  5087     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5088         method ``eval''
  5089 
  5090 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5091 
  5092 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5093 
  5094     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5095     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5096     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5097     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5098 
  5099 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5100 
  5101     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5102       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5103 
  5104     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5105       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5106 
  5107     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5108       {(target)}+
  5109         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5110 
  5111     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5112       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5113         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5114 
  5115 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5116 
  5117 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5118 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5119 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5120 codegen".
  5121 
  5122 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5123 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5124 annotations).
  5125 
  5126 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5127 syntax.
  5128 
  5129 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5130 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5131 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5132 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5133 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5134 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5135 
  5136 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5137 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5138 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5139 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5140 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5141 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5142 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5143 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5144 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5145 equations, see section "definitions".
  5146 
  5147 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5148 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5149 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5150 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5151 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5152 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5153 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5154 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5155 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5156 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5157 
  5158 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5159 configuration options:
  5160 
  5161   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5162   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5163   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5164   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5165   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5166   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5167   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5168   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5169   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5170 
  5171 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5172 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5173 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5174 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5175 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5176 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5177 order.
  5178 
  5179 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5180 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5181 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5182 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5183 context encountered later on.
  5184 
  5185 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5186 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5187 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5188 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5189 
  5190 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5191 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5192 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5193 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5194 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5195 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5196 
  5197 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5198 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5199 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5200 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5201 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5202 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5203 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5204 more permissive.
  5205 
  5206 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5207 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5208 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5209 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5210 maintainability of proof texts.
  5211 
  5212 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5213 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5214 
  5215   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5216   then guess x and y by clarify
  5217 
  5218 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5219 proof tools being involved here.
  5220 
  5221 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5222 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5223 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5224 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5225 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5226 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5227 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5228 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5229 
  5230 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5231 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5232 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5233 
  5234   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5235   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5236   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5237   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5238 
  5239 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5240 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5241 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5242 
  5243 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5244 both named and unnamed ones.
  5245 
  5246 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5247 
  5248   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5249 
  5250 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5251 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5252 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5253 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5254 
  5255 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5256 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5257 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5258 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5259 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5260 
  5261 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5262 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5263 
  5264 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5265 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5266 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5267 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5268 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5269 originally first one.
  5270 
  5271 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5272 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5273 expected.
  5274 
  5275 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5276 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5277 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5278 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5279 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5280 
  5281   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5282     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5283     obtains x where "P x"
  5284 
  5285   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5286     assumes "A & B"
  5287     obtains A and B
  5288 
  5289   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5290     assumes "A | B"
  5291     obtains
  5292       A
  5293     | B
  5294 
  5295 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5296 explicitly:
  5297 
  5298   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5299     obtains "~ thesis"
  5300 
  5301   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5302     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5303 
  5304 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5305 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5306 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5307 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5308 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5309 case_names).
  5310 
  5311 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5312 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5313 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5314 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5315 
  5316 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5317 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5318 top-level lemma.
  5319 
  5320 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5321 introduction rule (default "that").
  5322 
  5323 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5324 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5325 to occur.
  5326 
  5327 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5328 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5329 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5330 representations independently of name spaces.
  5331 
  5332 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5333 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5334 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5335 
  5336 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5337 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5338 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5339 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5340 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5341 current context.
  5342 
  5343 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5344 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5345 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5346 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5347 
  5348   axiomatization
  5349     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5350     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5351 
  5352   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5353   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5354 
  5355   abbreviation
  5356     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5357     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5358 
  5359 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5360 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5361 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5362 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5363 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5364 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5365 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5366 
  5367 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5368 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5369 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5370 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5371 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5372 
  5373 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5374 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5375 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5376 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5377 
  5378 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5379 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5380 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5381 
  5382   definition "K x _ = x"
  5383 
  5384   inductive conj for A B
  5385   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5386 
  5387 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5388 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5389 abbreviations on output.
  5390 
  5391 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5392 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5393 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5394 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5395 
  5396 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5397 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5398 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5399 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5400 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5401 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5402 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5403 
  5404 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5405 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5406 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5407 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5408 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5409 
  5410 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5411 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5412 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5413 
  5414 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5415 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5416 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5417 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5418 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5419 
  5420   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5421     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5422 
  5423 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5424 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5425 partial_order.
  5426 
  5427 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5428 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5429 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5430 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5431 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5432 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5433 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5434 examples.
  5435 
  5436 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5437 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5438 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5439 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5440 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5441 
  5442 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5443 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5444 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5445 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5446 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5447 
  5448   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5449   (induct set: foo bar)
  5450   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5451   (induct type: foo bar)
  5452 
  5453 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5454 new format.
  5455 
  5456 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5457 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5458 
  5459 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5460 considered a legacy feature.
  5461 
  5462 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5463 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464 
  5465 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5466 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5467 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5468 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5469 
  5470 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5471 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5472 manipulating the claset.
  5473 
  5474 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5475 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5476 least one premise.
  5477 
  5478 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5479 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5480 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5481 rule steps.
  5482 
  5483 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5484 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5485 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5486 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5487 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5488 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5489 
  5490 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5491 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5492 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5493 
  5494 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5495 the graph browser tool.
  5496 
  5497 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5498 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5499 
  5500 
  5501 *** HOL ***
  5502 
  5503 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5504 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5505 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5506 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5507 multi-threading.
  5508 
  5509 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5510 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5511 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5512 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5513 work with multi-threading.
  5514 
  5515 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5516 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5517 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5518 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5519 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5520 
  5521 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5522 
  5523 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5524 equality.
  5525 
  5526 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5527 the new 'class' package:
  5528 
  5529     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5530     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5531     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5532     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5533     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5534     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5535     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5536     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5537     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5538     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5539     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5540     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5541     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5542     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5543     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5544     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5545     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5546     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5547     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5548     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5549 
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5551 
  5552 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5553 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5554 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5555 names.
  5556 
  5557 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5558 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5559 
  5560 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5561 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5562 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5563 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5564 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5565 
  5566 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5567 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5568 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5569 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5570 
  5571 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5572 
  5573 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5574 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5575 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5576 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5580 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5583 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5584 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5587 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5588 
  5589 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5590 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5591 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5592 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5593 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5594 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5595 in the current context.
  5596 
  5597 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5598 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5602 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5603 
  5604 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5605 
  5606     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5607     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5608 
  5609     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5610       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5611     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5612     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5613 
  5614     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5615     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5616 
  5617   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5618 
  5619     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5620     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5621     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5622     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5623     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5624     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5625     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5626     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5627     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5628     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5629     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5630     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5631     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5632     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5633     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5634     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5635     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5636     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5637     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5638     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5639     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5640     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5641     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5642     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5643     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5644     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5645     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5646     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5647     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5648     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5649     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5650     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5651     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5652     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5653     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5654 
  5655     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5656     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5657     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5658     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5659     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5660     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5661     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5662     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5663     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5664     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5665     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5666     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5667     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5668     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5669     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5670     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5671     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5672 
  5673     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5674     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5675     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5676     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5677     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5678     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5679     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5680     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5681     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5682     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5683     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5684     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5685     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5686     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5687     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5688     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5689     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5690     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5691     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5692     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5693     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5694     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5695     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5696     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5697     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5698     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5699     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5700     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5701 
  5702     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5703     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5704     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5705     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5706     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5707     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5708 
  5709     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5710     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5711     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5712     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5713 
  5714     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5715     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5716 
  5717     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5718     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5719 
  5720 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5721 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5722 
  5723 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5724 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5725 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5726 "*.size".
  5727 
  5728 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5732 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5733 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5738 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5739 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5740 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5741 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5742 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5743 numerals on all operations.
  5744 
  5745 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5746 
  5747 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5748 
  5749 * Code generator library theories:
  5750   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5751     languages.
  5752   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5753     languages.
  5754   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5755     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5756   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5757   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5758     denominator).
  5759   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5760     representable by rational numbers.
  5761   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5762     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5763     includes Code_Integer.
  5764   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5765     target-language built-in integers.
  5766   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5767     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5768 
  5769 * New package for inductive predicates
  5770 
  5771   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5772 
  5773     inductive
  5774       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5775       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5776     where
  5777       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5778     | ...
  5779 
  5780   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5781 
  5782     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5783 
  5784     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5785     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5786 
  5787     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5788     intros
  5789       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5790       ...
  5791 
  5792   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5793   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5794 
  5795     inductive_set
  5796       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5797       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5798     where
  5799       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5800     | ...
  5801 
  5802   or
  5803 
  5804     inductive_set
  5805       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5806       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5807       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5808     where
  5809       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5810     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5811     | ...
  5812 
  5813   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5814 
  5815   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5816   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5817 
  5818   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5819 
  5820   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5821     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5822     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5823     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5824     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5825 
  5826   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5827     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5828     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5829     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5830     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5831     statements of the form
  5832 
  5833       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5834 
  5835     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5836     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5837 
  5838       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5839 
  5840   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5841 
  5842       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5843         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5844         ==> ... ==> P
  5845 
  5846     for predicates and
  5847 
  5848       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5849         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5850         ==> ... ==> P
  5851 
  5852     for sets rather than
  5853 
  5854       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5855         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5856         ==> ... ==> P
  5857 
  5858     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5859     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5860     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5861 
  5862   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5863     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5864     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5865 
  5866 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5867 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5868 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5869 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5870 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5871 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5872 
  5873 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5874 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5875 
  5876 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5877 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5878 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5879 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5880 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5881 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5882 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5883 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5884 variable.
  5885 
  5886 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5887 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5888 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5889 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5890   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5891   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5892 
  5893 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5894 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5895 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5896 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5897 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5898 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5899 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5900 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5901 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5902 
  5903 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5904 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5905 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5906 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5907 rat, etc.
  5908 
  5909 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5910 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5911 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5912 
  5913 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5914 
  5915 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5916 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5917 
  5918 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5919 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5920 
  5921 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5922 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5923 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5924 
  5925 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5926 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5930 
  5931 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5932 
  5933 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5934 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5935 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5936 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5937 
  5938 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5939 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5940 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5941 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5944 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5945 algebraic operations.
  5946 
  5947 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5954 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5955 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5956 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5957 adapted.
  5958 
  5959 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5960 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5961 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5962 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5963 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5964 
  5965 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5966 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5967 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5968 
  5969 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5970 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5971 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5972 
  5973 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5974 
  5975 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5976 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5977 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5978   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5979       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5980   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5981   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5982   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5983 
  5984 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5985 
  5986 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5987 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5988 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5989 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5990 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5991 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5992 
  5993 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5994 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5995 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5996 
  5997 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5998 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5999 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6003 
  6004 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6005 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6008 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6009 
  6010 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6011 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6012 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6013 
  6014 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6015 True/False.
  6016 
  6017 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6018 
  6019 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6020 
  6021 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6022 ``rule'' method.
  6023 
  6024 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6025 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6026 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6027 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6028 
  6029 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6030 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6031 
  6032 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6033 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6034 
  6035 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6036 Library.
  6037 
  6038 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6039 
  6040 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6041 as greatest fixed-point.
  6042 
  6043 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6044 association lists.
  6045 
  6046 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6047 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6048 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6049 
  6050 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6051 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6052 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6053 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6054 behavior.
  6055 
  6056 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6057 
  6058 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6059 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6060 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6061 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6062 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6063 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6064 
  6065 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6066 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6067 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6068 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6069 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6070 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6071 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6072 
  6073 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6074 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6075 
  6076 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6077 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6078 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6079 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6080 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6081 
  6082 
  6083 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6084 
  6085 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6086 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6087 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6088 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6092 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6093 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6094 
  6095 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6096 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6097 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6098 
  6099 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6100 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6101 
  6102 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6103 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6104 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6106 
  6107   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6108   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6109   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6110   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6111   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6112   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6113   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6114   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6115   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6116   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6117   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6118   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6119   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6120   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6121   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6122 
  6123 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6124 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6125 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6126 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6127 
  6128   approx        <-- capprox
  6129   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6130   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6131   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6132   monad         <-- cmonad
  6133   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6134   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6135   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6136   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6137 
  6138 
  6139 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6140 
  6141 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6142 
  6143 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6147 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6148 
  6149 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6150 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6151 of algebraic structures.
  6152 
  6153 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6154 
  6155 
  6156 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6157 
  6158 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6159 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6160 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6161 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6162 
  6163 
  6164 *** ML ***
  6165 
  6166 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6167 (even on SML/NJ).
  6168 
  6169 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6170 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6171 compile-time.  For example:
  6172 
  6173 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6174 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6175 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6176 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6177 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6178 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6179 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6180 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6181 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6182 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6183 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6184 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6185 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6186 ML {* @{context} *}
  6187 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6188 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6189 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6190 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6191 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6192 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6193 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6194 
  6195 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6196 
  6197 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6198 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6199 
  6200 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6201 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6202 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6203 
  6204 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6205 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6206 
  6207 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6208 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6209 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6210 
  6211 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6212 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6213 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6214 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6215 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6216 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6217 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6218 declarations and definitions.
  6219 
  6220 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6221 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6222 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6223 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6224 
  6225 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6226 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6227 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6228 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6229 
  6230 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6231 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6232 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6233 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6234 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6235 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6236 
  6237 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6238 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6239 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted