NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Dec 06 22:10:45 2013 +0100 (2013-12-06)
changeset 54683 cf48ddc266e5
parent 54672 748778ac0ab8
child 54688 47e61b768814
permissions -rw-r--r--
clarified "isabelle display" and 'display_drafts': re-use file and program instance, open asynchronously via desktop environment;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
     8 
     9 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    10 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    11 
    12 
    13 *** HOL ***
    14 
    15 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    16 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    17 
    18 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    19     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    20 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    21 
    22 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    23     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    24     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    25 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    26 
    27 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    28   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    29   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    30   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    31     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    32   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    33     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    34   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    35 INCOMPATBILITY.
    36 
    37 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    38     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    39     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    40     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    41     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Fact name consolidation:
    45     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    46     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    47     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    48     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    49     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    51 
    52 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    53 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    54 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    55 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    56 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    57 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    58 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    59 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    60 
    61 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    62 
    63 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    64 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    65 
    66 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    67 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    68 
    69 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    70 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    71 or the brute way with
    72 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    73 
    74 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    75 
    76 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    77 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    78 
    79 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    80 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    81 
    82 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
    83 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
    84 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
    85 INCOMPATIBILITY
    86 
    87 * Nitpick:
    88   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
    89     infinite values.
    90 
    91 
    92 *** ML ***
    93 
    94 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
    95 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
    97 formal context.
    98 
    99 
   100 *** System ***
   101 
   102 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   103 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   104 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   105 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   106 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   107 
   108 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   109 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   110 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   111 
   112 
   113 
   114 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   115 -------------------------------------
   116 
   117 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   118 
   119 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   120 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   121 
   122 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   123 after edits surrounding the command location.
   124 
   125 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   126 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   127 e.g. out-of-memory).
   128 
   129 
   130 *** System ***
   131 
   132 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   133 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   134 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   135 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   136 
   137 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   138 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   139 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   140 
   141 
   142 
   143 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   144 -------------------------------------
   145 
   146 *** General ***
   147 
   148 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   149 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   150 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   153 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   156 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   157 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   158 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   159 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   160 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   161 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   162 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   163 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   164 syntax.
   165 
   166 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   167 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   170 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   171 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   172 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   173 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   174 
   175 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   179 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   180 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   181 
   182 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   183 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   184 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   185 
   186 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   187 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   188 
   189 
   190 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   191 
   192 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   193 Documentation panel.
   194 
   195 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   196 documentation.
   197 
   198 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   199 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   200 
   201 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   202 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   203 normal editing and checking process.
   204 
   205 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   206 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   207 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   208 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   209 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   210 
   211 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   212 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   213 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   214 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   215 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   216 
   217 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   218 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   219 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   220 
   221 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   222 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   223 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   224 to resolve conflict.
   225 
   226 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   227 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   228 
   229 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   230 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   231 such command executions while editing.
   232 
   233 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   234 document content.
   235 
   236 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   237 toplevel theorem statements.
   238 
   239 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   240 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   241 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   242 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   243 
   244 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   245 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   246 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   247 
   248 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   249 / Global Options / Appearance".
   250 
   251 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   252 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   253 
   254 
   255 *** Pure ***
   256 
   257 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   258 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   259 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   260 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   261 details.
   262 
   263 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   264 
   265 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   266 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   267 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   268 
   269 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 
   272 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   273 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   274 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   275 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   278 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   279 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   282 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   283 
   284 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   285 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   286 situations.
   287 
   288 
   289 *** HOL ***
   290 
   291 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   292 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294 
   295 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   296 
   297 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   298 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   299 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   300 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   301 
   302   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   303 
   304 * Code generator:
   305   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   306     'code_instance'.
   307   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   308     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   309 
   310 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   311 examples.
   312 
   313 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   314 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   315 to distinguish both when desired.
   316 
   317 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   318 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   319 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   320 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   321 
   322 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   323 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   324 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   325 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   326 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   327 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   330 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   331 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   332 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   333 
   334 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   335 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   336 
   337 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   338 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   339 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   340 
   341 * Lifting:
   342   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   343     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   344       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   345       transfer rules
   346     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   347       correspondence relation can be generated
   348     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   349       parametricity
   350     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   351   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   352   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   353     copies
   354   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   355     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   356     anonymous context)
   357   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   358     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   359   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   360     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   361   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   362     INCOMPATIBILITY
   363 
   364 * Transfer:
   365   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   366     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   367   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   368   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   369     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   370   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   371 
   372 * Reification and reflection:
   373   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   374     "Reification".
   375   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   376   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   380   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   381     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   382     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   383   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   384     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   385   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   386     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   387     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   388     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   389     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   390     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   391     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   392     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   393   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   394     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   395   - Fact renames:
   396       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   397       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   401 
   402 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   403 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   404 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   408 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   409 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   410 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   411 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   412 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   413 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   414 lemmas.
   415 
   416 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   417 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   418 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   421 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   422 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   423 
   424 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   425 top and bottom elements.
   426 
   427 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   428 
   429 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   430 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   431 
   432  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   433    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   434    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   435 
   436  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   437    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   438    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   439 
   440    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   441    arbitrary filter.
   442 
   443  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   444    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   445    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   446    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   447    on a compact set.
   448 
   449  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   450    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   451    linear_continuum_topology).
   452 
   453  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   454    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   455    on all sequences converging to x.
   456 
   457  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   458    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   459    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   460    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   461    left or right.
   462 
   463  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   464 
   465      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   466 
   467  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   468    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   469 
   470  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   471    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   472    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   473    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   474    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   475    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   476 
   477  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   478 
   479    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   480 
   481    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   482      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   483 
   484    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   485 
   486    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   487      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   488 
   489    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   490 
   491    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   492 
   493  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   494 
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Nitpick:
   498   - Added option "spy"
   499   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   500 
   501 * Sledgehammer:
   502   - Renamed option:
   503       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   504     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   506   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   507   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   508 
   509 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   510 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   511 
   512 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   513   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   514   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   515     generated code.
   516   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   517   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   518   - Fact renames:
   519     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   520     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   521     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   522 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   525 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   526 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   527 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   528 
   529 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   530 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   531 
   532 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   535 
   536     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   537     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   538 
   539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   542 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   543 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   544 
   545 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   546 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   547 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   548 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549 
   550 * HOL-BNF:
   551   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   552     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   553     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   554     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   555   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   556     coinduct).
   557   - Renamed keywords:
   558     data ~> datatype_new
   559     codata ~> codatatype
   560     bnf_def ~> bnf
   561   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   562     discs ~> disc
   563     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   564     map_id' ~> map_id
   565     sels ~> sel
   566     set_map' ~> set_map
   567     sets ~> set
   568 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 
   571 *** ML ***
   572 
   573 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   574 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   575 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   576 Examples.thy in particular.
   577 
   578 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   579 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   580 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   581 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   582 
   583 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   584 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   585 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   586 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   590 
   591     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   592     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   593 
   594 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   597 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   598 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   599 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   600 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   601 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   602 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   603 
   604 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   605 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   606 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   607 clasets separately from the context.
   608 
   609 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   610 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   611 
   612 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   613 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   614 
   615 
   616 *** System ***
   617 
   618 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   619 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   622 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   625 settings variable.
   626 
   627 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   628 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   629 always pdf.
   630 
   631 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   632 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   633 
   634 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   635 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   636 
   637 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   638 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   639 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   640 
   641 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   642 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   643 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   644 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   645 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   646 for HTML presentation of theories.
   647 
   648 
   649 
   650 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   651 -----------------------------------
   652 
   653 *** General ***
   654 
   655 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   656 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   657 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   658 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   659 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   660 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   661 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   662 
   663 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   664 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   665 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   666 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   667 
   668 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   669 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   670 
   671 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   672 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   673 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   674 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   675 dependencies properly.
   676 
   677 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   678 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   679 
   680 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   681 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   682 
   683 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   684 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   685 and "class ... context ...".
   686 
   687 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   688 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   689 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   690 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   691 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   692 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   693 
   694 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   695 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   696 
   697 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   698 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   699 
   700 
   701 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   702 
   703 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   704 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   705 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   706 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   707 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   708 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   709 
   710 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   711 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   712 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   713 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   714 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   715 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   716 
   717 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   718 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   719 browser on demand.
   720 
   721 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   722 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   723 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   724 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   725 
   726 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   727 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   728 
   729 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   730 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   731 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   732 potentially infinite message streams.
   733 
   734 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   735 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   736 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   737 schemes.
   738 
   739 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   740 symbols.
   741 
   742 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   743 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   744 
   745 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   746 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   747 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   748 
   749 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   750 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   751 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   752 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   753 
   754 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   755 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   756 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   757 
   758 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   759 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   760 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   761 Isabelle distribution.
   762 
   763 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   764 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   765 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   766 
   767 
   768 *** Pure ***
   769 
   770 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   771 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   772 
   773 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   774 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   775 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   778 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   779 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   780 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   781 with some care where this is really required.
   782 
   783 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   784 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   785 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   786 
   787   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   788 
   789 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   790 a Hasse diagram.
   791 
   792 
   793 *** HOL ***
   794 
   795 * Sledgehammer:
   796 
   797   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   798     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   799   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   800   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   801   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   802   - Renamed options:
   803       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   804       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   805       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   806       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   807 
   808 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   809 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   810 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   811 
   812 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * Lifting:
   816   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   817   - quot_del attribute
   818   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   819 
   820 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   821 expressions.
   822 
   823 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   824 pointfree expressions.
   825 
   826 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   827 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   828 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   829 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   833 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   834 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   835 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   836 accordingly.
   837 
   838 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   839 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   842 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   847 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   848 
   849 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   850 
   851 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   852 
   853   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   854   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   855 
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   859 
   860   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   861   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   862 
   863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   866 
   867   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   868     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   869     output f x converges to G.
   870 
   871   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   872     infinity (at_bot).
   873 
   874   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   875     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   876 
   877   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   878     at_top".
   879 
   880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   883 lattice type classes.
   884 
   885 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   886 
   887     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   888     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   889 
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   893 changes as follows.
   894 
   895   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   896 
   897       prefix ~> prefixeq
   898       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   899 
   900   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   901     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   902     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   903     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   904 
   905   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   906     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   907     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   908 
   909   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   910     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   911     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   912     Library/Prefix_Order.
   913 
   914   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   915     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   916 
   917       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   918       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   919       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   920       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   921       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   922       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   923       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   924       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   925       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   926       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   927       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   928       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   929       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   930       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   931       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   932       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   933 
   934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   935 
   936 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   937 
   938 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   939 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   940 
   941 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   942 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   943 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   944 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   945 
   946   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   947   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   948   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   949   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   950   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   951   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   952   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   953   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   954   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   955   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   956 
   957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   960 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   961 Data").
   962 
   963 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   964 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   965 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   966 code.
   967 
   968 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   969 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   970 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   974 
   975 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   976 
   977 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   978 
   979   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   980   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   981 
   982 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   983 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   984 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   985 
   986   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   987 
   988     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   989     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   990     cart_base i  removed
   991     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   992 
   993   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   994 
   995   Renamed lemmas:
   996 
   997     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   998     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   999     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1000     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1001     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1002     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1003     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1004     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1005     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1006     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1007 
  1008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * HOL/Probability:
  1011 
  1012   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1013 
  1014   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1015     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1016     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1017 
  1018   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1019     projective family).
  1020 
  1021 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1022 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1023 
  1024 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1025 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1026 datatypes.
  1027 
  1028 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1029 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1030 
  1031 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1032 trees for the code generator.
  1033 
  1034 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1035 Lifting/Transfer.
  1036 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 
  1042 *** Document preparation ***
  1043 
  1044 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1045 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1046 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1047 
  1048 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1049 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1050 
  1051 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1052 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1053 document/root.tex.
  1054 
  1055 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1056 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 
  1059 *** ML ***
  1060 
  1061 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1062 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1063 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1064 
  1065 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1066 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1067 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1068 
  1069 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1070 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1071 necessarily printing visible text.
  1072 
  1073 
  1074 *** System ***
  1075 
  1076 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1077 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1078 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1079 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1080 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1081 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1082 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1083 
  1084 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1085 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1086 
  1087   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1088 
  1089 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1090 
  1091 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1092 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1093 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1094 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1095 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1096 
  1097 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1098 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1099 
  1100 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1101 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1102 
  1103 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1107 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1108 version of Isabelle.
  1109 
  1110 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1111 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1112 
  1113 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1114 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1115 for home-made settings.
  1116 
  1117 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1118 
  1119 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1120 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1121 configuration.
  1122 
  1123 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1124 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1126 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1127 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1128 
  1129 
  1130 
  1131 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1132 ------------------------------
  1133 
  1134 *** General ***
  1135 
  1136 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1137 
  1138   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1139     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1140   - markup for bound variables
  1141   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1142   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1143   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1144     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1145 
  1146 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1147 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1148 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1149 
  1150 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1151 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1152 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1153 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1154 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1155 
  1156   context
  1157     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1158     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1159   begin
  1160 
  1161   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1162 
  1163   end
  1164 
  1165   thm my_trans
  1166 
  1167 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1168 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1169 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1170 
  1171 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1172 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1173 
  1174 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1175 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1176 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1177 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1178 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1179 
  1180 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1181 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1182 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1183 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1184 indices of schematic variables.
  1185 
  1186 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1187 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1188 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1189 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1190 etc. was exploited.
  1191 
  1192 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1193 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1194 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1195 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1196 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1197 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1198 
  1199 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1200 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1201 manual.
  1202 
  1203 
  1204 *** Pure ***
  1205 
  1206 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1207 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1208 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1209 
  1210 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1211 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1212 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1213 undocumented feature.)
  1214 
  1215 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1216 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1217 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1218 
  1219   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1220 
  1221   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1222     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1223 
  1224 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1225 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1226 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1227 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1228 
  1229 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1230 
  1231     num ~> num_token
  1232     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1233     xstr ~> str_token
  1234 
  1235 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1236 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1237 position information via constraints).
  1238 
  1239 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1240 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1241 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1242 
  1243 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1244 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1245 
  1246 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1247 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1248 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1251 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1252 
  1253 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1254 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1255 
  1256   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1257 
  1258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1259 
  1260 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1261 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1264 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1265 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1266 
  1267 
  1268 *** HOL ***
  1269 
  1270 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1271 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1272 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1273 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1274 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1275 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1276 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1277 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1278 possible.
  1279 
  1280 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1281 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1282 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1283 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1284 
  1285 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1286 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287 
  1288 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1289 
  1290 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1291 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1292 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1293 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1294 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1295 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1296 
  1297   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1298     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1299 
  1300   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1301     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1302     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1303 
  1304   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1305     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1306 
  1307   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1308     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1309     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1310 
  1311   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1312     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1313 
  1314 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1315 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1316 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1317 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1318 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1319 
  1320   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1321     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1322     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1323     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1324     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1325 
  1326     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1327     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1328 
  1329   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1330     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1331     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1332     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1333     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1334     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1335     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1336     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1337 
  1338   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1339     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1340     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1341     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1342 
  1343   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1344     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1345     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1346     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1347 
  1348   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1349     from type nat to type int.
  1350 
  1351 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1352 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1353 
  1354   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1355     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1356     type.  Example syntax:
  1357 
  1358     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1359       is List.insert
  1360 
  1361     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1362     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1363     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1364     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1365     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1366     by the package.
  1367 
  1368   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1369     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1370     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1371     code generation for each constant.
  1372 
  1373   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1374     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1375     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1376     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1377     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1378 
  1379   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1380     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1381     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1382 
  1383 * Quotient package:
  1384 
  1385   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1386     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1387 
  1388   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1389     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1390 
  1391   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1392     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1393     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1394 
  1395   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1396     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1397 
  1398 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1399 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1400 
  1401 * Quickcheck:
  1402 
  1403   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1404     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1405     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1406     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1407     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1408 
  1409     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1410     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1411     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1412 
  1413     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1414     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1415 
  1416     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1417     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1418     show genuine counterexamples.
  1419 
  1420   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1421     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1422 
  1423     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1424     constructors of that type.
  1425 
  1426   - Support for multisets.
  1427 
  1428   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1429 
  1430   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1431     conjectures in a locale context.
  1432 
  1433 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1434 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1435 
  1436 * Sledgehammer:
  1437   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1438     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1439   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1440   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1441     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1442   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1443   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1444   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1445   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1446 
  1447 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1448 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1449 
  1450 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1451 
  1452 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1455 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1456 
  1457   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1458 
  1459 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1460 a list and a nat.
  1461 
  1462 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1463 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1464 
  1465 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1466 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1467 default.
  1468 
  1469 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1470 
  1471   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1472 
  1473 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1474 
  1475 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1476 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1478 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1479 one_case.
  1480 
  1481 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1482 the result of the fact expression.
  1483 
  1484 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1485 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1486 of some relation theorems:
  1487 
  1488   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1489   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1490   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1491   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1492   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1493   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1494 
  1495 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1496 
  1497 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1498 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1499 
  1500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1503 to match the constant's name:
  1504 
  1505   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1506   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1507   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1508   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1509   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1510   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1511   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1512   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1513   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1514   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1515   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1516   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1517   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1518   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1519   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1520   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1521   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1522   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1523   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1524   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1525   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1526   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1527   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1528   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1529 
  1530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1533 and corresponding theorem names:
  1534 
  1535   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1536 
  1537   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1538 
  1539   - Renamed theorems:
  1540 
  1541     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1542     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1543     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1544     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1545     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1546     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1547     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1548     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1549     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1550     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1551     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1552     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1553     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1554     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1555     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1556     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1557     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1558     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1559     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1560     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1561     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1562     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1563     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1564 
  1565     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1566 
  1567     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1568 
  1569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1572 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1573 
  1574   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1575   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1576   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1577   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1578   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1579   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1580   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1581   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1582   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1583   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1584   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1585   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1586   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1587   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1588   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1589   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1590   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1591   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1592   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1593   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1594   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1595 
  1596 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1597 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1602 
  1603   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1604   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1605   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1606   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1607   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1608   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1609   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1610   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1611   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1612   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1613   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1614   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1615   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1616   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1617   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1618   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1619   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1620   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1621 
  1622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1625 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1626 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1627 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1628 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1629 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1630 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1631 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1632 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1633 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1634 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1635 
  1636 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1637 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1638 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1639 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1640 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1641 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1642 
  1643 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1644 through option types.
  1645 
  1646 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1647 relations.
  1648 
  1649 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1652 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1653 
  1654   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1655   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1656   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1657   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1658   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1659   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1660   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1661   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1662   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1663   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1664   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1665   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1666   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1667   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1668   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1669   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1670   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1671   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1672   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1673   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1674   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1675   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1676   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1677   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1678   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1679   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1680   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1681   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1682   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1683   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1684   zless_le ~> less_le
  1685   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1686   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1687   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1688 
  1689 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1690 
  1691   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1692 
  1693 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1694 
  1695 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1696 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1697 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1698 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700 
  1701 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1702 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1703 
  1704 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1705 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1706 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1707 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1708 follows:
  1709 
  1710   Operations:
  1711   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1712   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1713   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1714   del -> rbt_del
  1715   delete -> rbt_delete
  1716   ins -> rbt_ins
  1717   insert -> rbt_insert
  1718   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1719   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1720   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1721   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1722   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1723   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1724   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1725   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1726   union -> rbt_union
  1727   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1728   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1729 
  1730   Lemmas:
  1731   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1732   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1733   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1734   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1735   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1736   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1737   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1738   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1739   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1740   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1741   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1742   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1743   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1744   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1745   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1746   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1747   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1748   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1749   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1750   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1751   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1752   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1753   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1754   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1755   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1756   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1757   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1758   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1759   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1760   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1761   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1762   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1763   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1764   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1765   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1766   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1767   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1768   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1769   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1770   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1771   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1772   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1773   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1774   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1775   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1776   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1777   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1778   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1779   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1780   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1781   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1782   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1783   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1784   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1785   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1786   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1787   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1788   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1789   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1790   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1791   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1792   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1793   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1794   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1795   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1796   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1797   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1798   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1799   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1800   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1801   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1802   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1803   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1804   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1805   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1806   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1807   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1808   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1809   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1810   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1811   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1812   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1813   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1814 
  1815 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1816 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1817 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819   Changed Operations:
  1820   float_abs -> abs
  1821   float_nprt -> nprt
  1822   float_pprt -> pprt
  1823   pow2 -> use powr
  1824   round_down -> float_round_down
  1825   round_up -> float_round_up
  1826   scale -> exponent
  1827 
  1828   Removed Operations:
  1829   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1830 
  1831   Renamed Lemmas:
  1832   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1833   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1834   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1835   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1836   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1837   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1838   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1839   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1840   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1841   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1842   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1843   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1844   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1845   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1846   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1847   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1848   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1849   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1850   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1851   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1852   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1853   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1854   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1855   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1856   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1857   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1858   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1859   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1860   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1861   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1862   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1863   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1864   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1865   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1866   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1867   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1868 
  1869   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1870   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1871   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1872   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1873   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1874   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1875   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1876   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1877   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1878   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1879 
  1880 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1881 association lists with distinct keys.
  1882 
  1883 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1884 annotated commands.
  1885 
  1886 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1887 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1888 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1889 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1892 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1893 instead.
  1894 
  1895   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1896   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1897   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1898   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1899   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1900   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1901   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1902   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1903   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1904   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1905   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1906   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1907   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1908   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1909   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1910   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1911   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1912   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1913   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1914   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1915   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1916   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1917   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1918   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1919   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1920   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1921   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1922   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1923   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1924   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1925   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1926   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1927   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1928   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1929   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1930   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1931   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1932   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1933   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1934   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1935   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1936 
  1937 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1938 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1939 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1940 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1941 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1942 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1943 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1944 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1945 
  1946 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1947 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1948 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1949 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1950 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1951 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1952 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1953 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1954 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1955 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1956 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1957 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959   Renamed constants:
  1960   measure -> emeasure
  1961   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1962   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1963   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1964   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1965 
  1966   Removed locales:
  1967   completeable_measure_space
  1968   finite_measure_space
  1969   finite_prob_space
  1970   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1971   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1972   finite_sigma_algebra
  1973   measure_space
  1974   pair_finite_prob_space
  1975   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1976   pair_finite_space
  1977   pair_sigma_algebra
  1978   product_sigma_algebra
  1979 
  1980   Removed constants:
  1981   conditional_space
  1982   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1983   image_space
  1984   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1985   pair_measure_generator
  1986   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1987   subvimage
  1988 
  1989   Replacement theorems:
  1990   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1991   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1992   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1993   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1994   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1995   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1996   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1997   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1998   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1999   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2000   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2001   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2002   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2003   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2004   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2005   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2006   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2007   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2008   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2009   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2010   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2011   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2012   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2013   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2014   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2015   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2016   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2017   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2018   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2019   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2020   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2021   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2022   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2023   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2024   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2025   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2026   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2027   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2028   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2029   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2030   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2031   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2032   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2033   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2034   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2035   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2036   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2037   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2038   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2039   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2040   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2041   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2042   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2043   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2044   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2045   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2046   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2047   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2048   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2049   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2050   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2051   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2052   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2053   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2054   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2055   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2056   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2057   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2058   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2059   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2060   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2061   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2062   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2063   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2064   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2065   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2066   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2067   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2068   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2069   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2070   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2071   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2072   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2073   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2074   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2075   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2076   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2077   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2078   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2079   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2080   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2081   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2082   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2083   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2084   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2085   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2086   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2087   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2088   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2089   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2090   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2091   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2092   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2093   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2094   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2095   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2096   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2097   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2098   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2099   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2100   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2101   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2102   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2103   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2104   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2105   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2106   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2107   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2108   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2109   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2110   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2111   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2112   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2113   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2114   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2115   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2116   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2117   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2118 
  2119 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2120 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2121 
  2122 
  2123 *** FOL ***
  2124 
  2125 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2126 
  2127 
  2128 *** ZF ***
  2129 
  2130 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2131 analysis.
  2132 
  2133 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2134 
  2135 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2136 
  2137 
  2138 *** ML ***
  2139 
  2140 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2141 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2142 
  2143 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2144 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2145 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2146 
  2147 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2148 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2149 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2150 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2151 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2152 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2153 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2154 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2155 
  2156 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2157 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2158 
  2159 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2160 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2161 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2162 
  2163 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2164 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2167 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2168 context as well.
  2169 
  2170 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2171 
  2172   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2173   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2174   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2175   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2176   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2177   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2178   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2179   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2180   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2181   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2182   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2183   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2184 
  2185 
  2186 *** System ***
  2187 
  2188 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2189 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2190 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2191 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2192 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2193 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2194 the generic user home was intended.
  2195 
  2196 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2197 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2198 
  2199 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2200 (not just JRE).
  2201 
  2202 
  2203 
  2204 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2205 ------------------------------------
  2206 
  2207 *** General ***
  2208 
  2209 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2210 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2211 
  2212   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2213     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2214     files for checking).
  2215 
  2216   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2217     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2218     positions.
  2219 
  2220   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2221     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2222     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2223 
  2224   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2225     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2226     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2227 
  2228   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2229     cores.
  2230 
  2231   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2232     versions (garbage collection).
  2233 
  2234 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2235 including some remaining limitations.
  2236 
  2237 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2238 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2239 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2240 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2241 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2245 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2246 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2247 
  2248 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2249 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2250 usedir option -Q.
  2251 
  2252 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2253 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2254 
  2255   long_names   ~> names_long
  2256   short_names  ~> names_short
  2257   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2258 
  2259 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2260 
  2261   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2262 
  2263 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2264 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2265 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2266 
  2267 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2268 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2269 
  2270 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2271   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2272   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2273   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2274     "Classical Reasoner".
  2275 
  2276 
  2277 *** HOL ***
  2278 
  2279 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2280 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2283 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2284 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2285 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2286 class complete_linorder.
  2287 
  2288 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2289 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2290 
  2291 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2292 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2293 
  2294   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2295   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2296   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2297   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2298   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2299   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2300   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2301   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2302   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2303   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2304   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2305 
  2306 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2307 
  2308   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2309   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2310   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2311   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2312   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2313   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2314   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2315   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2316   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2317   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2318   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2319   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2320   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2321   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2322   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2323   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2324 
  2325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2326 
  2327 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2331 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2332 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2333 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2336 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2337 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2341 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2342 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2343 
  2344 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2345 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2346 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2349 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2350 
  2351 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2352 
  2353     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2354     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2355 
  2356 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2357 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2360 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2363 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2364 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2365 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2368   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2369   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2370   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2371   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2372   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2373   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2374 
  2375 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2376 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2379   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2380   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2381   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2382   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2383   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2384   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2385   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2386   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2387   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2388   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2389   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2390   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2391   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2392   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2393   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2394   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2395   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2396   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2397   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2398   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2399   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2400   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2401   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2402   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2403   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2404   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2405   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2406   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2407   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2408   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2409   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2410   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2411   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2412   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2413   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2414   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2415   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2416   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2417   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2418   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2419   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2420   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2421   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2422   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2423   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2424   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2425   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2426   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2427   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2428   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2429   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2430   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2431   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2432   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2433   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2434   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2435   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2436   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2437   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2438   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2439   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2440   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2441   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2442   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2443   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2444   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2445   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2446   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2447   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2448   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2449   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2450   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2451   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2452   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2453   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2454   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2455   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2456   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2457   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2458   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2459   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2460 
  2461 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2462 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2463 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2464 
  2465 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2466 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2467 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2468 
  2469 * Code generation:
  2470 
  2471   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2472     characters in the target language.
  2473 
  2474   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2475     instead.
  2476 
  2477   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2478 
  2479   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2480     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2481 
  2482       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2483 
  2484 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2485 
  2486 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2487 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2488 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2489 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2490 syntax.
  2491 
  2492 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2493 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2494 
  2495 * Nitpick:
  2496   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2497   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2498   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2499     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Sledgehammer:
  2502   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2503   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2504     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2505   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2506     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2507   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2508     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2510     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2511   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2512     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * Metis:
  2515   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2517     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518 
  2519 * Command 'try':
  2520   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2521     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2523     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2524 
  2525 * Quickcheck:
  2526   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2527     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2528   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2529     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2530   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2531     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2532     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2533     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2534   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2535     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2536 
  2537 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2538 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2539 
  2540 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2541 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2542 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2543 
  2544 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2545 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2549 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2552 arithmetic.
  2553 
  2554 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2555 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2556 and lattice type classes.
  2557 
  2558 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2559 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2560 
  2561 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2562 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2563 
  2564 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2565 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2566 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2569   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2570   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2571   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2572 
  2573 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2574 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2575 constants:
  2576 
  2577   type inat   ~> type enat
  2578   Fin         ~> enat
  2579   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2580   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2581   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2582 
  2583 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2584 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2587 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2588 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2589 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2590 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2591 
  2592 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2593 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2594 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2595 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2596 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2597 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2598 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2599 
  2600   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2601   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2602   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2603   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2604 
  2605 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2606 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2607 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2610   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2611   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2612   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2613   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2614   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2615   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2616   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2617   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2618   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2619   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2620   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2621   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2622   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2623   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2624   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2625   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2626   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2627   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2628   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2629   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2630   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2631   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2632   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2633   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2634   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2635   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2636   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2637   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2638   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2639   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2640   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2641   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2642   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2643   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2644   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2645   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2646   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2647   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2648   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2649   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2650   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2651   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2652   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2653   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2654   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2655   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2656   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2657   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2658   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2659   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2660 
  2661 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2662   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2663   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2664   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2665   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2666     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2667 
  2668 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2671   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2672   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2673   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2674   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2675   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2676   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2677   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2678   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2679   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2680   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2681   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2682   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2683   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2684   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2685   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2686   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2687   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2688   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2689   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2690   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2691   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2692   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2693   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2694   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2695 
  2696 
  2697 *** Document preparation ***
  2698 
  2699 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2700 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2701 same.
  2702 
  2703 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2704 result.
  2705 
  2706 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2707 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2708 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2709 
  2710 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2711 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2712 
  2713 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2714 like this:
  2715 
  2716   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2717   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2718 
  2719 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2720 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2721 layouts.
  2722 
  2723 
  2724 *** ML ***
  2725 
  2726 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2727 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2728 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2729 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2730 under external program control.
  2731 
  2732 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2733 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2734 
  2735 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2736 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2737 (better known as Proof General).
  2738 
  2739 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2740 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2741 
  2742 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2743 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2744 
  2745 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2746 (including quotes etc.).
  2747 
  2748 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2749 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2750 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2751 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2752 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2753 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2754 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2755 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2756 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2757 
  2758 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2759 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2760 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2761 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2762 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2763 
  2764 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2765 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2766 
  2767 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2768 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2769 
  2770 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2771 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2772 
  2773 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2774 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2775 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2776 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2777 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2778 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2779 proper Proof.context.
  2780 
  2781 
  2782 *** System ***
  2783 
  2784 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2785 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2786 
  2787 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2788 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2789 
  2790 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2791 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2792 
  2793   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2794   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2795   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2796   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2797   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2798 
  2799 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2800 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2803 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2804 example:
  2805 
  2806   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2807 
  2808 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2809 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2810 
  2811 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2812 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2813 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2814 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2815 
  2816 
  2817 
  2818 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2819 ----------------------------------
  2820 
  2821 *** General ***
  2822 
  2823 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2824 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2825 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2826 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2827 like this:
  2828 
  2829   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2830 
  2831 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2832 
  2833 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2834 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2835 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2836 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2837 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2838 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2839 
  2840 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2841 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2842 the following package declarations:
  2843 
  2844   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2845   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2846 
  2847 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2848 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2849 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2850 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2851 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2852 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2853 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2854 
  2855 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2856 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2857 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2858 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2859 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2860 
  2861 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2862 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2863 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2864 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2865 
  2866 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2867 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2868 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2869 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2870 
  2871   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2872 
  2873   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2874   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2875   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2876   show_types                    show_types
  2877   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2878   show_consts                   show_consts
  2879   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2880 
  2881   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2882   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2883   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2884 
  2885   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2886   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2887 
  2888   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2889 
  2890   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2891   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2892   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2893   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2894   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2895 
  2896 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2897 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2898 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2899 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2900 
  2901 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2905   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2906 
  2907 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2908 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2909 float_token.
  2910 
  2911 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2912 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914 
  2915 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2916 DejaVu Sans.
  2917 
  2918 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2919 
  2920 
  2921 *** Pure ***
  2922 
  2923 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2924 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2925 time.
  2926 
  2927 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2928 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2931 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2934 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2935 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2936 command already provided this functionality.
  2937 
  2938 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2939 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2940 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2941 without interpretations.
  2942 
  2943 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2944 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2945 
  2946 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2947 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2948 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2949 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2950 
  2951 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2952 'definition' instead.
  2953 
  2954 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2955 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2956 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2957 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2958 
  2959 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2960 constructors.
  2961 
  2962 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2963 the local file system.
  2964 
  2965 
  2966 *** HOL ***
  2967 
  2968 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2969 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2970 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2971 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2972 
  2973   declare [[coercion f]]
  2974 
  2975 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2976 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2977 
  2978   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2979 
  2980 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2981 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2982 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2983 other theories like this:
  2984 
  2985   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2986 
  2987 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2988 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2989 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2990 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2991 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2992 for examples.
  2993 
  2994 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2995 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2998 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2999 
  3000 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3001 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3002 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3003 
  3004 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3005 functorial structure of types.
  3006 
  3007 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3008 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3009 
  3010 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3011 languages.
  3012 
  3013 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3014 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3018 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3021 combinators any longer.
  3022 
  3023 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3024 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3025 
  3026 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3027 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3028 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3029 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3030 
  3031   record 'a foo = ...
  3032   ...
  3033   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3034 
  3035 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3036 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3040 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3041 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3042 
  3043 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3044 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3045 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3046 
  3047 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3048 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3051 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3052 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3053 independently.
  3054 
  3055 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3056 counter example search.
  3057 
  3058 * Sledgehammer:
  3059   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3060     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3061     sledgehammer").
  3062   - Renamed commands:
  3063     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3064     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3065     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3066     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067   - Renamed options:
  3068     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3069     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3070     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3071     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3072     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Nitpick:
  3075   - Renamed options:
  3076     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3077     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3078     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3080   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3081   - Added "whack" option.
  3082   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3083   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3084   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3085   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3086     higher cardinalities.
  3087   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3088 
  3089 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3090 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3091 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3092 
  3093     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3094 
  3095 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3096 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3097 
  3098 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3099 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3100 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3101 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3102 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3103 "smt_solver".
  3104 
  3105 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3106 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3107 
  3108 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3109 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3110 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3111 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3114   - Renamed:
  3115     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3116     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3117     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118   - Added:
  3119     smt_verbose
  3120     smt_random_seed
  3121     smt_datatypes
  3122     smt_infer_triggers
  3123     smt_monomorph_limit
  3124     cvc3_options
  3125     remote_cvc3_options
  3126     remote_z3_options
  3127     yices_options
  3128 
  3129 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3130 header.
  3131 
  3132 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3133 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3134 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3135 
  3136   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3137 
  3138 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3141 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3146 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3149 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3150 
  3151 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3152 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3155 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3156 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3164 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3167 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3168 for congruent(2)).
  3169 
  3170 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3171 
  3172   types
  3173     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3174     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3175 
  3176   constants
  3177     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3178     True ~> HOL.True
  3179     False ~> HOL.False
  3180     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3181     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3182     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3183     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3184     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3185     The ~> HOL.The
  3186     All ~> HOL.All
  3187     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3188     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3189     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3190     If ~> HOL.If
  3191     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3192     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3193     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3194     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3195     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3196     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3197     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3198     op : ~> Set.member
  3199     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3200 
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3204 
  3205     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3206     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3207     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3208     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3209     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3210     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3211     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3212     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3213 
  3214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 * More stylized fact names:
  3217 
  3218   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3219   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3220   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3221   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3222 
  3223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3226 
  3227   constants
  3228     null ~> List.null
  3229 
  3230   facts
  3231     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3232     null_empty ~> null_def
  3233 
  3234 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3235 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3236 generation.
  3237 
  3238 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3239 Haskell code.
  3240 
  3241 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3242 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3243 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3246 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3249 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3250 
  3251 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3252 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3253 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3256 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3263 referred to by its qualified name.
  3264 
  3265   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3266   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3267   product ~>  Enum.product
  3268 
  3269 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3270 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3274 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3275 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3279 sort_key.
  3280 
  3281 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3285 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3286 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3287 
  3288   types
  3289     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3290               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3291               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3292         (depends on your needs)
  3293 
  3294   constants
  3295      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3296      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3297      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3298 
  3299 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3300 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3301 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3302 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3305 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3306 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3307 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3308 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3314 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3315 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3316 
  3317 
  3318 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3319 
  3320 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3321 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3322 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3323 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3324 compatibility.
  3325 
  3326 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3327 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3328 
  3329 
  3330 *** HOLCF ***
  3331 
  3332 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3333 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3334 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3338 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3339 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3342   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3343   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3344 
  3345 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3346 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3347 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3350 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3351 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3352 domain definition now works:
  3353 
  3354   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3355 
  3356 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3357 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3358 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3359 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3360 
  3361   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3362     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3363 
  3364   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3365 
  3366 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3367 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3368 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3371 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3374 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3375 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3376 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3377 
  3378 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3379 
  3380 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3388 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3389 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3390 
  3391 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3392 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3393 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3394 
  3395 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3396 still supported as an input translation.
  3397 
  3398 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3399 
  3400   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3401   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3402   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3403   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3404   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3405   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3406   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3407 
  3408 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3409 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3412   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3413   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3414   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3415   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3416   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3417 
  3418 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3419 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3420 
  3421 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3422 
  3423   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3424   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3425   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3426   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3427 
  3428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3431 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3434 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3437   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3438   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3439   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3440   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3441   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3442   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3443   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3444   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3445   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3446   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3447   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3448   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3449   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3450   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3451   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3452   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3453   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3454   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3455   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3456 
  3457 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3460   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3461   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3462   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3463   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3464   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3465   box_less             ~> box_below
  3466   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3467   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3468   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3469   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3470   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3471   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3472   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3473   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3474   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3475   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3476   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3477   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3478   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3479   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3480   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3481   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3482   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3483   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3484   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3485   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3486   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3487   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3488   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3489   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3490   up_less              ~> up_below
  3491   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3492   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3493   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3494   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3495   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3496   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3497   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3498   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3499   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3500   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3501   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3502   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3503   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3504 
  3505 
  3506 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3507 
  3508 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3509 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 
  3512 *** ML ***
  3513 
  3514 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3515 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3516 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3517 
  3518 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3519 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3520 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3521 
  3522 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3523 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3524 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3525 
  3526 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3527 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3528 
  3529 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3530 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3531 
  3532 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3533 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3534 
  3535 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3536 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3537 
  3538 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3539 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3540 almost all situations.
  3541 
  3542 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3543 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3544 Isabelle/ML.
  3545 
  3546 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3547 meaning.
  3548 
  3549 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3550 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3551 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3552 
  3553 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3554 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3555 
  3556 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3557 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3558 
  3559 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3560 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3561 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3562 
  3563 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3564 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3565 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3566 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3567 configuration options.
  3568 
  3569 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3570 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3571 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3572 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3573 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3574 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3575 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3576 
  3577 
  3578 
  3579 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3580 ---------------------------------
  3581 
  3582 *** General ***
  3583 
  3584 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3585 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3586 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3587 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3588 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3589 their full internal name.
  3590 
  3591 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3592 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3593 Some hints on upgrading:
  3594 
  3595   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3596     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3597     which are independent of this issue.
  3598 
  3599   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3600     provides the following special forms:
  3601 
  3602       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3603       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3604       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3605 
  3606     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3607     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3608     extra variables".
  3609 
  3610     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3611     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3612     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3613     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3614     "logic".
  3615 
  3616   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3617     antiquotations:
  3618 
  3619       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3620       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3621       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3622       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3623 
  3624   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3625     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3626     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3627     antiquotations.
  3628 
  3629 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3630 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3631 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3632 diagnose syntax problems.
  3633 
  3634 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3635 
  3636 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3637 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3638 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3639 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3640 
  3641 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3642 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3643 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3644 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3647 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3648 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3649 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3650 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3653 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3654 
  3655 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3656 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3657 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3658 
  3659   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3660 
  3661 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3662 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3663 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3664 
  3665 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3666 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3670 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 *** Pure ***
  3674 
  3675 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3676 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3677 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3678 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3679 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3680 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3681 inspect proof terms.
  3682 
  3683 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3684 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3685 are added internally.  For example:
  3686 
  3687   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3688 
  3689 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3690 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3695 'class' instead.
  3696 
  3697 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3698 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3702 invariants.
  3703 
  3704 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3705 user space functionality any longer.
  3706 
  3707 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3708 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3712 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3713 
  3714 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3715 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3716 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3717 
  3718 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3719 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3720 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3721 
  3722 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3723 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 
  3726 *** HOL ***
  3727 
  3728 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3729 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3730 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3731 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3732 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3733 
  3734 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3735 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3736 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3737 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3738 
  3739   fun
  3740     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3741   where
  3742     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3743 
  3744   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3745     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3746 
  3747   quotient_definition
  3748     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3749 
  3750 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3751 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3752 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3753 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3754 
  3755 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3756 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3757 
  3758 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3759 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3760 
  3761 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3765 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3766 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3767 
  3768 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3769 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3778 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3781 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3782 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3785   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3786   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3787   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3788   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3789   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3790   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3791   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3792   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3793   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3794   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3795   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3796   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3797   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3798   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3799   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3800   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3801   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3802   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3803   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3804   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3805   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3806   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3807   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3808   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3809   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3810   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3811   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3812   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3813   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3814 
  3815 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3816 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3817 
  3818 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3819 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3820 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3821 
  3822 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3823 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3824 
  3825 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3826 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3829 
  3830 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3831 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3834 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3839 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3840 
  3841 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3842 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3843 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3844 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845 
  3846 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3847   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3848   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3849   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3853 lattices):
  3854 
  3855     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3856     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3857 
  3858     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3859 
  3860     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3861     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3862     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3863     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3864     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3865     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3866     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3867     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3868     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3869     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3870     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3871     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3872     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3873 
  3874     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3875     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3876     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3877     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3878     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3879     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3880     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3881     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3882     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3883     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3884     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3885     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3886     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3887     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3888     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3889     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3890     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3891     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3892 
  3893   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3894   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3895 
  3896     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3897     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3898     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3899     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3900     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3901 
  3902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 * Refined field classes:
  3905   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3906     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3907     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3908   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3912   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3913   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3914   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3915     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3916   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3917     equal_neg_zero.
  3918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3921 sets to lattices:
  3922 
  3923   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3924   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3925   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3926   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3927   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3928   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3929   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3930   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3931   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3932   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3933 
  3934 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3935 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3936 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3937 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3938 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3939 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3942 multiset order:
  3943 
  3944   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3945     <= and <;
  3946   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3947     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3948     multiset_order;
  3949   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3950     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3951     generation;
  3952   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3953     if needed.
  3954 
  3955 Renamed:
  3956 
  3957   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3958   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3959   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3960 
  3961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3964 
  3965 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3966 
  3967 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3968 
  3969 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3970 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3971 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973   Constants:
  3974   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3975   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3976   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3977   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3978   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3979   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3980   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3981   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3982   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3983   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3984   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3985   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3986   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3987 
  3988   Lemmas:
  3989   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3990   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3991   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3992   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3993   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3994   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3995   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3996   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3997   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3998   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3999   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4000   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4001   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4002 
  4003 * Sledgehammer:
  4004   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4005     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4006     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4007     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4008     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4009     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4010     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4012   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4013     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4014   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4015     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4016     is still experimental.)
  4017   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4018     full-typed mode.
  4019   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4020 
  4021 * Nitpick:
  4022   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4023   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4024   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4025     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4026   - Added support for quotient types.
  4027   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4028     constructs.
  4029   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4030     "termination" proofs).
  4031   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4032   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4033   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4034   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4035     record getters.
  4036   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4037   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4038   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4039   - Added "atoms" option.
  4040   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4041     problems.
  4042   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4043     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4044     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4046     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4050   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4051   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4052   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4053   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4054   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4055   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4056   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4057   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4058   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 
  4061 *** HOLCF ***
  4062 
  4063 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4064 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4065 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4068 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4069 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4070 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4073 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4074 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4075 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4076 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4079 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4080 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4083 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4086   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4087 
  4088 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4089 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4092   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4093   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4094   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4095   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4096 
  4097 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4098 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4101   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4102   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4103 
  4104 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4105 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4109 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4114 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4115 
  4116 
  4117 *** ML ***
  4118 
  4119 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4120 
  4121     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4122     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4123 
  4124     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4125     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4126     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4127     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4128 
  4129     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4130     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4131     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4132 
  4133 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4134 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4135 
  4136 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4137 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4138 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4139 
  4140 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4141 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4142 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4143 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4144 
  4145 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4146 the context or even global references.
  4147 
  4148 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4149 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4150 
  4151 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4152 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4153 
  4154   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4155   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4156   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4157   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4158   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4159   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4160   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4161   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4162   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4163   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4164 
  4165 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4166 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4167 
  4168 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4169 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4170 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4171 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4172 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4173 
  4174 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4175 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4176 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4177 Theory_Data version.
  4178 
  4179 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4180 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4181 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4182 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4183 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4184 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4185 explicitly in rare situations.
  4186 
  4187 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4188 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4192 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4195 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4196 quite rare).
  4197 
  4198 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4199 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4202 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4203 terms.
  4204 
  4205 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4206 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4207 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4208 
  4209 
  4210 *** System ***
  4211 
  4212 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4213 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4214 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4215 
  4216 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4217 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4218 respectively.
  4219 
  4220 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4221 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4222 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4223 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4224 
  4225   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4226 
  4227 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4228 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4229 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4230 component.
  4231 
  4232 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4233 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4234 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4235 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4236 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4237 the user for manual installation.
  4238 
  4239 
  4240 
  4241 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4242 -------------------------------------
  4243 
  4244 *** General ***
  4245 
  4246 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4247 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4248 
  4249 
  4250 *** Pure ***
  4251 
  4252 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4253 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4254 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4255 
  4256 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4257 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4258 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4259 
  4260 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4261 interpretation.
  4262 
  4263 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4264 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 *** Document preparation ***
  4268 
  4269 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4270 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4271 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4272 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4273 
  4274 
  4275 *** HOL ***
  4276 
  4277 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4278 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4279 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4280 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4281 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4282 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4283 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4284 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4285 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4286 
  4287 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4288 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4289 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4290 
  4291 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4292 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4293 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4294 
  4295 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4296 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4297 
  4298 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4299 
  4300 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4301 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4302 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4303 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4304 
  4305 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4306 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4307 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4308 "mirabelle" utility.
  4309 
  4310 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4311 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4312 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4313 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4314 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4315 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4316 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4317 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4318 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4319 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4320 
  4321 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4322 procedure only.
  4323 
  4324 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4325 
  4326 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4327 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4328 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4329 that fail later.
  4330 
  4331 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4332 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4333 
  4334 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4335 the same method as the approximation method.
  4336 
  4337 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4338 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4339 series expansion.
  4340 
  4341 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4342 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4343 
  4344 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4345 reals.
  4346 
  4347 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4348 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4349 
  4350 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4351 fixpoint theorem.
  4352 
  4353 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4354   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4355     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4356   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4357     accordingly
  4358   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4359     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4360   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4361     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4362 
  4363 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4364 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4365 lattice.
  4366 
  4367 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4368 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4369 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4370 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4371 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4372 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4376   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4377     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4378   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4379     le_inf_iff
  4380   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4381     sup_aci)
  4382   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4383   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4384   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4385     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4386     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4387     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4388     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4389     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4390     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4391     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4392     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4393     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4394     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4395   - authentic syntax for
  4396     Set.Pow
  4397     Set.image
  4398   - mere abbreviations:
  4399     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4400     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4401     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4402     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4403     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4404     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4405     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4406     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4407   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4408 
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4410 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4411 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4412 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4413 
  4414 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4415 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4416 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4419 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4422 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4423 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4424 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4427 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4428 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4429 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4430 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4431 
  4432 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4433 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4435 
  4436 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4437 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4440 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4441 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4442 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4443 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4444 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4445 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4449     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4450     code_post       replaces    code post
  4451     etc.
  4452   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Renamed methods:
  4455     sizechange -> size_change
  4456     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4457   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4458 
  4459 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4460 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4461 
  4462 * Renamed theorems:
  4463     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4464     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4465     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4466     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4467     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4468   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4472 
  4473 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4475 
  4476 
  4477 *** HOLCF ***
  4478 
  4479 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4480 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4481 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4482 
  4483 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4484 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4485 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4486 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4487 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4488 
  4489 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4490 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4491 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4492 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4493 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4494 
  4495 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4496 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4497 constructor are pre-configured.
  4498 
  4499 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4500 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4501 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4502 
  4503 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4504 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4505 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4506 as well.)
  4507 
  4508 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4509 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4510 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4511 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4512 examples.
  4513 
  4514 
  4515 *** ML ***
  4516 
  4517 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4518 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4519 
  4520 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4521 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4522 position, logical grouping etc.
  4523 
  4524 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4525 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4526 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4527 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4528 
  4529 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4530 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4531 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4532 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4533 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4534 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4535 
  4536 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4537 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4538 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4539 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4540 experiments with references.
  4541 
  4542 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4543 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4544 
  4545 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4546 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4547 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4548 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4549 
  4550 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4551 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4552 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4553 
  4554 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4555 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4556 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4562 
  4563 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4564 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4565 
  4566 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4567 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4568 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4569 
  4570 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4571 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4572 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4573 
  4574 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4575 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4576 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4580 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4581 instead of global theory.
  4582 
  4583 
  4584 *** System ***
  4585 
  4586 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4587 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4588 usedir option -q.
  4589 
  4590 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4591 also the system manual.
  4592 
  4593 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4594 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4595 
  4596 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4597 this is always enabled.
  4598 
  4599 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4600 
  4601 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4602 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4603 currently supported on Linux only.
  4604 
  4605 
  4606 
  4607 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4608 --------------------------------
  4609 
  4610 *** General ***
  4611 
  4612 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4613 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4614 
  4615   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4616     "isatool."
  4617 
  4618   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4619     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4620 
  4621   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4622     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4623 
  4624 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4625 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4626 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4627 
  4628 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4629 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4630 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4631 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4632 via "isabelle emacs".
  4633 
  4634 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4635 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4636 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4637 
  4638 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4639 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4640 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4641 
  4642 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4643 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4644 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4645 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4646 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4647 
  4648 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4649 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4650 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4651 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4652 
  4653 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4654 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4655 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4656 
  4657 
  4658 *** Pure ***
  4659 
  4660 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4661 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4662 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4663 
  4664 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4665 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4666 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4667 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4668 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4669 
  4670 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4671 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4672 useful in locale declarations.
  4673 
  4674 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4675 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4676 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4677 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4678 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4679 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4680 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4681 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4682 no longer generated.
  4683 
  4684 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4685 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4686 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4687 
  4688 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4689 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4690 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4691 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4692 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4693 
  4694 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4696 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4697 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4698 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4699 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4700 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4701 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4702 
  4703 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4704 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4705 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4706 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4707 
  4708 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4711 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4712 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4713 
  4714 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4715 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4718 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4719 in HOL, write
  4720 
  4721     class foo = ...
  4722 
  4723 instead of
  4724 
  4725     class foo = type + ...
  4726 
  4727 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4728 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4731 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4732 
  4733 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4734 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4735 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4736 
  4737 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4738 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4739 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4740 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4741 directly in regular applications.
  4742 
  4743 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4744 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4745 
  4746 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4747 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4748 
  4749 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4750 theory context.
  4751 
  4752 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4753 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4756 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4757 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4758 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4759 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4760 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4761 
  4762   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4763 
  4764 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4765 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4766 normalization.
  4767 
  4768 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4769 addressing etc.
  4770 
  4771 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4772 
  4773   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4774   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4775 
  4776 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4777 
  4778   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4779      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4780      parts of the code generator framework).
  4781 
  4782   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4783      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4784      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4785 
  4786 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4789 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4792 patterns, e.g.
  4793 
  4794     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4795 
  4796 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4797 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4798 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4799 hyphen:
  4800 
  4801     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4802 
  4803 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4804 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4805 
  4806 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4807 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4808 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4809 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4810 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4811 higher-order unification.
  4812 
  4813 
  4814 *** Document preparation ***
  4815 
  4816 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4817 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4818 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4819 
  4820 
  4821 *** HOL ***
  4822 
  4823 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4824 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4825 
  4826 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4827 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4828 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4829 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4830 Main, as before.
  4831 
  4832 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4833 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4834 
  4835 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4836 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4837 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4838 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4839 
  4840 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4841 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4842 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4843 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4844 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4845 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4846 
  4847 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4848 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4849 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4850 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4851 
  4852 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4853 menu.
  4854 
  4855 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4856 (contains the empty clause).
  4857 
  4858 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4859 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4860 
  4861 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4862 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4863 
  4864 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4865 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4866 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4869 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4870 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4871 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4872 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4873 
  4874 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4875 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4876 
  4877 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4878 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4879 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4880 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4881 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4882 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4883 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4884 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4885 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4886 
  4887 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4888 
  4889 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4890 
  4891 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4892 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4895 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4896 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4897 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4898 
  4899 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4900 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4901 
  4902     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4903     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4904     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4905     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4906     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4907     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4908     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4909     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4910 
  4911 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4912 theory Set.
  4913 
  4914 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4915 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4916 
  4917 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4918 
  4919 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4920 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4921 
  4922 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4923 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4924 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4925 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4926 allowed. For examples see
  4927 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4928 
  4929 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4930 
  4931 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4935 structure:
  4936 
  4937     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4938     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4939     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4940     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4941     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4942     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4943     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4944     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4945     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4946     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4947     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4948     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4949     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4950     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4951     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4952     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4953     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4954     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4955     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4956     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4957     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4958     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4959     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4960     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4961     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4962     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4963     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4964     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4965     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4966     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4967     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4968     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4969     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4970 
  4971     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4972     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4973     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4974     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4975     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4976     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4977     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4978     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4979     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4980     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4981 
  4982     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4983     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4984     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4985     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4986     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4987     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4988 
  4989 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4990 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4991 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4992 
  4993 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4994 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4995 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4996 
  4997 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4998 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4999 
  5000 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5001 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5002 
  5003 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5004 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5005 proofs, e.g.
  5006 
  5007   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5008 
  5009 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5010 
  5011 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5012 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5013 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5016 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5018 
  5019 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5020 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5021 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5026 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5027 preorder_class.*.
  5028 
  5029 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5030 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5031 
  5032 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5033 
  5034   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5035 
  5036 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5037 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5038 fold_image.
  5039 
  5040 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5041 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5042 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5043 the former will disappear at some point.
  5044 
  5045 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5046 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5047 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5048 
  5049 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5050 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5051 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5052 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5053 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5054 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5055 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5056 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5057 
  5058 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5059 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5060 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5061 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5062 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5063 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5064 
  5065     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5066     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5067     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5068     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5069     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5070     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5071     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5072 
  5073 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5074 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5075 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5076 
  5077 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5078 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5079 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5080 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5081 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5082 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5083 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5084 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5085 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5086 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5087 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5088 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5089 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5090 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5091 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5092 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5093 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5094 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5095 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5096 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5097 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5098 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5099 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5100 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5101 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5102 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5103 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5104 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5105 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5106 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5107 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5108 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5109 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5110 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5111 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5112 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5113 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5114 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5115 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5116 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5117 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5118 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5119 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5120 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5121 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5122 
  5123 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5126 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5127 
  5128 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5129 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5130 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5131 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5132 
  5133 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5134 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5135 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5136 theory RealVector.
  5137 
  5138 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5139 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5140 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5141 and inner products are included.
  5142 
  5143 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5144 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5145 supported.
  5146 
  5147 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5148 first diagonalization argument.
  5149 
  5150 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5151 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5152 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5153 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5154 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5155 
  5156     hide (open) const gcd
  5157     abbreviation gcd where
  5158       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5159     notation (output)
  5160       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5161 
  5162 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5163 
  5164 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5165 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5166 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5169 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5170 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5171 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5172 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5173 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5174 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5175 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5176 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5177 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5178 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5179 cases.
  5180 
  5181 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5182 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5183 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5184 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5185 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5186 
  5187     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5188     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5189     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5190     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5191     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5192 
  5193 
  5194 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5195 
  5196 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5197 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5198 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5199 
  5200 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5201 
  5202 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5203 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5204 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5205 
  5206 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5207 
  5208 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5209 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5210 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5211 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5212 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5213 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5214 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5215 
  5216 
  5217 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5218 
  5219 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5220 
  5221 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5222 theory targets.
  5223 
  5224 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5225 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5226 'inductive' etc.
  5227 
  5228 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5229 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5230 
  5231 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5232 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5233 
  5234 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5235 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5236 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5237 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5238 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5239 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5240 the algorithm W:
  5241 
  5242  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5243  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5244          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5245 
  5246 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5247 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5248 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5249 
  5250 
  5251 *** HOLCF ***
  5252 
  5253 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5254 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5255 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5256 
  5257 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5258 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5259 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5260 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5261 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5262 
  5263 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5264 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5265 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5266 
  5267 
  5268 *** ZF ***
  5269 
  5270 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5271 
  5272 
  5273 *** ML ***
  5274 
  5275 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5276 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5277 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5278 5.2.1!
  5279 
  5280 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5281 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5282 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5283 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5284 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5285 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5286 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5287 
  5288 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5289 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5290 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5291 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5292 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5293 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5294 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5295 
  5296 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5297 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5298 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5299 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5300 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5301 
  5302 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5303 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5304 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5305 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5306 Method.add_method.
  5307 
  5308 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5309 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5310 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5311 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5312 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5313 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5314 
  5315 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5316 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5317 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5318 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5319 examples.
  5320 
  5321 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5322 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5323 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5324 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5325 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5326 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5327 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5328 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5329 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5330 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5331 
  5332 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5333 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5334 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5335 
  5336 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5337 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5338 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5339 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5340 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5341 resort for legacy applications.
  5342 
  5343 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5344 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5345 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5346 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5347 explicit runtime argument.
  5348 
  5349 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5350 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5351 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5352 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5353 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5356 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5357 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5358 theory state.
  5359 
  5360 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5361 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5362 
  5363   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5364   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5365   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5366   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5367   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5368   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5369   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5370   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5371   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5372   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5373 
  5374 
  5375 *** System ***
  5376 
  5377 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5378 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5379 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5380 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5381 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5382 
  5383 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5384 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5385 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5386 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5387 
  5388 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5389 
  5390 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5391 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5392 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5393 prover operations.
  5394 
  5395 
  5396 
  5397 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5398 -------------------------------
  5399 
  5400 *** General ***
  5401 
  5402 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5403 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5404 
  5405 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5406 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5407 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5408 provides a proper context already.
  5409 
  5410 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5411 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5412 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5413 
  5414 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5415 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5416 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5417 swap theory imports.
  5418 
  5419 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5420 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5421 
  5422 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5423 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5424 white space without escapes.
  5425 
  5426 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5427 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5428 "foo_bar".
  5429 
  5430 
  5431 *** Pure ***
  5432 
  5433 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5434 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5435 
  5436 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5437 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5438 
  5439 (1) unused_thms
  5440      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5441 
  5442 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5443      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5444      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5445 
  5446 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5447      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5448      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5449      their ancestors.
  5450 
  5451 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5452 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5453 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5454 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5455 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5456 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5457 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5458 
  5459 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5460 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5461 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5462 
  5463 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5464 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5465 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5466 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5467 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5468 
  5469 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5470 
  5471 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5472 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5473 update of theories within ML code.
  5474 
  5475 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5476 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5477 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5478 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5479 
  5480 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5481 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5482 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5484 
  5485 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5486 
  5487 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5488 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5489 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5490 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5491 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5492 
  5493 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5494 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5495 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5496 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5497 situations.
  5498 
  5499 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5500 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5501 proof text.
  5502 
  5503 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5505 
  5506 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5507 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5508 predicates.
  5509 
  5510 
  5511 *** Document preparation ***
  5512 
  5513 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5514 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5515 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5516 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5517 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5518 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5519 
  5520 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5521 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5522 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5523 
  5524 
  5525 *** HOL ***
  5526 
  5527 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5528 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5529 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5530 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5531 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5532 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5533 
  5534 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5535 with multithreading.
  5536 
  5537 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5538 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5539 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5540 
  5541 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5542 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5543 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5544 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545 
  5546 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5547 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5548 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5549 and makes them available separately.  See
  5550 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5551 
  5552 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5553 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5554 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5555 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5556 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5557 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5558 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5559 the declared rules.
  5560 
  5561 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5562 
  5563   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5564 
  5565 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5566 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5567 
  5568 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5569 
  5570   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5571 
  5572   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5573     definitions on => and bool.
  5574 
  5575   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5576     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5577     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5578 
  5579       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5580       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5581       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5582       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5583       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5584       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5585       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5586       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5587 
  5588   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5589     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5590     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5591 
  5592   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5593     The proof pattern
  5594 
  5595       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5596       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5597 
  5598     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5599     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5600 
  5601       have "EX S. P S"
  5602       proof
  5603         show "P S" <...>
  5604       qed
  5605 
  5606   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5607     The proof pattern
  5608 
  5609       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5610       also have "S = T" <...>
  5611       finally have "P T" .
  5612 
  5613     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5614     must be replaced by something like
  5615 
  5616       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5617       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5618       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5619 
  5620   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5621     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5622 
  5623       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5624 
  5625     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5626     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5627     type of the form
  5628 
  5629       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5630 
  5631     rather than
  5632 
  5633       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5634 
  5635 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5636 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5637 
  5638 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5641 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5645 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5648 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5651 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5652 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5653 
  5654 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5655 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5656 
  5657   less_trans
  5658   less_linear
  5659   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5660   le_less_trans
  5661   less_le_trans
  5662   less_not_sym
  5663   less_asym
  5664 
  5665 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5666 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5667 and different variable names.
  5668 
  5669 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5670 
  5671 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5672 finite maps.
  5673 
  5674 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5675 
  5676 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5677 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5678 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5679 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5680 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5681 accordingly.
  5682 
  5683 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5684 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5685 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5686 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5687 
  5688 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5689 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5690 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5691 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5692 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5696 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5699 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5700 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5701 
  5702 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5704 
  5705 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5706 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5707 
  5708 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5709 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5710 
  5711 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5712 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5715 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5717 
  5718 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5719 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5720 
  5721 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5722 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5723 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5724 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5725 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5726 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5727 
  5728 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5729 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5730 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5731 
  5732 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5733 
  5734 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5735 
  5736 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5737 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5738 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5739 
  5740 
  5741 *** ZF ***
  5742 
  5743 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5744 same session:
  5745 
  5746   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5747   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5748   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5749   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5750   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5751   List      -> List_ZF
  5752   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5753 
  5754 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5755 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5756 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 *** ML ***
  5760 
  5761 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5762 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5763 
  5764 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5765 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5766 
  5767 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5768 
  5769 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5770 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5771 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5772 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5773 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5774 
  5775 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5776 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5777 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5778 
  5779 
  5780 *** System ***
  5781 
  5782 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5783 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5784 
  5785 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5786 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5787 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5788 
  5789 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5790 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5791 
  5792 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5793 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5794 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5795 
  5796 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5797 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5798 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5799 
  5800 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5801 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5802 
  5803 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5804 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5805 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5806 script.
  5807 
  5808 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5809 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5810 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5811 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5812 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5813 
  5814 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5815 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5816 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5817 
  5818 
  5819 
  5820 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5821 -----------------------------------
  5822 
  5823 *** General ***
  5824 
  5825 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5826 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5827 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5828 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5829 
  5830 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5831 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5832 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5833 
  5834 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5835 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5836 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5837 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5840 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5841 quotes.
  5842 
  5843 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5844 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5845 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5846 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5847 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5848 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5849 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5850 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5851 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5852 
  5853 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5854 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5855 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5856 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5857 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5858 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5859 
  5860 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5861 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5862 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5863 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5864 
  5865 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5866 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5867 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5868 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5869 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5870 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5871 
  5872 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5873 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5874 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5875 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5876 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5877 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5878 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5879 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5880 
  5881 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5882 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5883 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5884 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5885 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5886 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5887 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5888 
  5889 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5890 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5891 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5892 
  5893 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5894 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5895 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5896 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5897 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5898 limit is imposed.
  5899 
  5900 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5901 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5902 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5903 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5904 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5905 and scalability.
  5906 
  5907 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5908 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5909 
  5910 
  5911 *** Document preparation ***
  5912 
  5913 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5914 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5915 current context.
  5916 
  5917 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5918 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5919 
  5920 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5921 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5922 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5923 
  5924 
  5925 *** Pure ***
  5926 
  5927 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5928 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5929 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5930 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5931 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5932 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5933 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5934 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5935 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5936 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5937 
  5938 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5939 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5940 sketch:
  5941 
  5942     internal compilation:
  5943         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5944     writing SML code to a file:
  5945         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5946     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5947         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5948     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5949         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5950 
  5951     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5952         method ``eval''
  5953 
  5954 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5955 
  5956 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5957 
  5958     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5959     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5960     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5961     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5962 
  5963 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5964 
  5965     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5966       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5967 
  5968     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5969       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5970 
  5971     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5972       {(target)}+
  5973         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5974 
  5975     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5976       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5977         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5978 
  5979 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5980 
  5981 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5982 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5983 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5984 codegen".
  5985 
  5986 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5987 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5988 annotations).
  5989 
  5990 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5991 syntax.
  5992 
  5993 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5994 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5995 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5996 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5997 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5998 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5999 
  6000 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6001 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6002 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6003 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6004 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6005 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6006 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6007 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6008 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6009 equations, see section "definitions".
  6010 
  6011 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6012 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6013 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6014 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6015 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6016 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6017 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6018 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6019 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6020 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6021 
  6022 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6023 configuration options:
  6024 
  6025   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6026   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6027   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6028   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6029   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6030   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6031   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6032   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6033   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6034 
  6035 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6036 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6037 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6038 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6039 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6040 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6041 order.
  6042 
  6043 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6044 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6045 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6046 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6047 context encountered later on.
  6048 
  6049 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6050 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6051 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6052 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6053 
  6054 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6055 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6056 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6057 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6058 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6059 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6060 
  6061 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6062 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6063 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6064 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6065 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6066 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6067 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6068 more permissive.
  6069 
  6070 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6071 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6072 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6073 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6074 maintainability of proof texts.
  6075 
  6076 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6077 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6078 
  6079   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6080   then guess x and y by clarify
  6081 
  6082 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6083 proof tools being involved here.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6086 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6087 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6088 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6089 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6090 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6091 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6092 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6093 
  6094 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6095 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6096 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6097 
  6098   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6099   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6100   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6101   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6102 
  6103 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6104 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6105 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6106 
  6107 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6108 both named and unnamed ones.
  6109 
  6110 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6111 
  6112   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6113 
  6114 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6115 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6116 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6117 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6118 
  6119 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6120 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6121 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6122 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6123 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6124 
  6125 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6126 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6127 
  6128 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6129 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6130 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6131 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6132 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6133 originally first one.
  6134 
  6135 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6136 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6137 expected.
  6138 
  6139 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6140 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6141 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6142 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6143 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6144 
  6145   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6146     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6147     obtains x where "P x"
  6148 
  6149   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6150     assumes "A & B"
  6151     obtains A and B
  6152 
  6153   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6154     assumes "A | B"
  6155     obtains
  6156       A
  6157     | B
  6158 
  6159 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6160 explicitly:
  6161 
  6162   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6163     obtains "~ thesis"
  6164 
  6165   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6166     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6167 
  6168 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6169 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6170 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6171 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6172 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6173 case_names).
  6174 
  6175 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6176 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6177 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6178 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6179 
  6180 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6181 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6182 top-level lemma.
  6183 
  6184 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6185 introduction rule (default "that").
  6186 
  6187 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6188 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6189 to occur.
  6190 
  6191 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6192 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6193 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6194 representations independently of name spaces.
  6195 
  6196 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6197 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6198 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6201 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6202 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6203 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6204 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6205 current context.
  6206 
  6207 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6208 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6209 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6210 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6211 
  6212   axiomatization
  6213     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6214     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6215 
  6216   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6217   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6218 
  6219   abbreviation
  6220     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6221     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6222 
  6223 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6224 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6225 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6226 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6227 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6228 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6229 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6230 
  6231 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6232 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6233 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6234 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6235 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6236 
  6237 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6238 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6239 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6240 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6241 
  6242 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6243 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6244 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6245 
  6246   definition "K x _ = x"
  6247 
  6248   inductive conj for A B
  6249   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6250 
  6251 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6252 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6253 abbreviations on output.
  6254 
  6255 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6256 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6257 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6258 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6259 
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