NEWS
author blanchet
Fri Mar 14 01:28:13 2014 +0100 (2014-03-14)
changeset 56118 d3967fdc800a
parent 56076 e52fc7c37ed3
child 56148 d94d6a9178b5
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated NEWS and CONTRIBUTORS (BNF, SMT2, Sledgehammer)
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    44 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    45 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    46 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    47 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    48 to the system option "completion_limit").
    49 
    50 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    51 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    52 
    53 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    54 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    55 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    56 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    57 
    58 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    59 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    60 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Pure ***
    64 
    65 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    66 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    67 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    68 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    69 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    70 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    71 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    72 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    73 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    74 
    75 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    76 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    77 instantiated theorem.
    78 
    79 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    80 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    81 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    82 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    83 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    84 
    85   attribute_setup standard =
    86     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    87 
    88 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    89 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    90 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    91 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    92 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    93 
    94 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    95 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    96 differently).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** HOL ***
   100 
   101 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   102   can now deal with conjunctions.
   103   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   104   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   105   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   106 
   107 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * HOL-Word:
   110   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   111   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   112   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   113   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   114   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   115 
   116 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 
   119 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   120 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   123 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   126 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   127 
   128 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   129   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   130   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   131   Theory renamings:
   132     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   133     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   134     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   135     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   136     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   137     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   138     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   139     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   140     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   141     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   142     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   143     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   144     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   145     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   146     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   147     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   148     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   149     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   150     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   151     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   152     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   153     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   154   New theories:
   155     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   156     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   157     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   158     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   159     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   160   Discontinued theories:
   161     BNF/BNF.thy
   162     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   163   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * New (co)datatype package:
   166   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   167   * Renamed commands:
   168       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   169       primrec_new ~> primrec
   170       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   171     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   173     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   174     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   176     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Old datatype package:
   180   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   181     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   182     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   184     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   188   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   189   datatype package.
   190   Renamed constants:
   191     Option.set ~> set_option
   192     Option.map ~> map_option
   193     option_rel ~> rel_option
   194     option_rec ~> case_option
   195   Renamed theorems:
   196     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   197     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   198     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   199     option.recs ~> option.case
   200     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   201     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   202     map.simps ~> list.map
   203     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   204     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   205     the.simps ~> option.sel
   206   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   209     sum_map ~> map_sum
   210     map_pair ~> map_prod
   211     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   212     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   213     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   214     set_rel ~> rel_set
   215     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   216     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   217     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   218     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   219 
   220 * New theory:
   221     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   222 
   223 * Theory reorganizations:
   224   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   225 
   226 * SMT module:
   227   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   228     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   229     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   230     elsewhere.
   231 
   232 * Sledgehammer:
   233   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   234   - New option:
   235       smt_proofs
   236   - Renamed options:
   237       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   238       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   239     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Metis:
   242   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   243     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   246 
   247 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   250 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   251 
   252 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   253 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   254 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   255 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   256 
   257 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   261 with the given constants.
   262 
   263 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   264 
   265 Fact consolidations:
   266     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   267     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   268     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   269     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   270     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   271     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   272     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   273     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   274     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   275     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   276     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   277     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   278     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   279     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   280     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   281     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   282     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   283     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   284     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   285     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   286     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   287     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   288     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   289     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   290     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   291     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   292     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   293     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   294     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   295     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   296     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   297     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   298     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   299     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   300     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   301     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   302     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   303     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   304     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   305     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   306 
   307 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   308 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   309 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   310 
   311 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   312 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   313 
   314 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   315 
   316 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   317 
   318 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320 
   321 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   325 operations on records.
   326 
   327 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   331     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   335     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   336     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   340   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   341   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   342   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   343     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   344   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   345     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   346   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   347 INCOMPATBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   350     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   351     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   352     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   353     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Fact name consolidation:
   357     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   358     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   359     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   360     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   361     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   365 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   366 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   367 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   368 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   369 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   370 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   371 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   372 
   373 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   374 
   375 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   376 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   377 
   378 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   379 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   380 
   381 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   382 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   383 or the brute way with
   384 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   385 
   386 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   387 
   388 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   389 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   392 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   393 
   394 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   395 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   396 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY
   398 
   399 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   400 
   401 * Nitpick:
   402   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   403     infinite values.
   404   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   405     "Rep_Integ".
   406   - Removed "std" option.
   407   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   408     "hide_types".
   409 
   410 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   411   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   412   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   413     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   414     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   415     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   416     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   417     intervals.
   418 
   419 
   420 *** Scala ***
   421 
   422 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   423 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   424 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   425 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   426 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 
   429 *** ML ***
   430 
   431 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   432 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   433 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   434 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   435 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   436 of schematic variables.
   437 
   438 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   439 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   441 formal context.
   442 
   443 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   444 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   445 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   446 actually belongs to it).
   447 
   448 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   449 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   450 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   451 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   452 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   453 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   454 
   455 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations (to
   456 make it more close to the analogous Thy_Output.antiquotation).  See
   457 ML_Context.antiquotation and structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   461 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   462 
   463 
   464 *** System ***
   465 
   466 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   467 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   468 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   469 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   470 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   471 
   472 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   473 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   474 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   475 
   476 
   477 
   478 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   479 -------------------------------------
   480 
   481 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   482 
   483 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   484 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   485 
   486 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   487 after edits surrounding the command location.
   488 
   489 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   490 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   491 e.g. out-of-memory).
   492 
   493 
   494 *** System ***
   495 
   496 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   497 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   498 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   499 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   500 
   501 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   502 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   503 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   504 
   505 
   506 
   507 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   508 -------------------------------------
   509 
   510 *** General ***
   511 
   512 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   513 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   514 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   517 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   518 
   519 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   520 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   521 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   522 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   523 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   524 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   525 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   526 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   527 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   528 syntax.
   529 
   530 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   531 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   534 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   535 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   536 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   537 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   538 
   539 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   541 
   542 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   543 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   544 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   545 
   546 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   547 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   548 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   549 
   550 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   551 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   552 
   553 
   554 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   555 
   556 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   557 Documentation panel.
   558 
   559 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   560 documentation.
   561 
   562 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   563 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   564 
   565 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   566 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   567 normal editing and checking process.
   568 
   569 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   570 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   571 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   572 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   573 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   574 
   575 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   576 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   577 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   578 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   579 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   580 
   581 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   582 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   583 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   584 
   585 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   586 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   587 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   588 to resolve conflict.
   589 
   590 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   591 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   592 
   593 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   594 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   595 such command executions while editing.
   596 
   597 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   598 document content.
   599 
   600 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   601 toplevel theorem statements.
   602 
   603 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   604 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   605 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   606 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   607 
   608 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   609 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   610 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   611 
   612 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   613 / Global Options / Appearance".
   614 
   615 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   616 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   617 
   618 
   619 *** Pure ***
   620 
   621 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   622 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   623 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   624 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   625 details.
   626 
   627 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   628 
   629 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   630 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   631 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   632 
   633 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   637 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   638 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   639 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   642 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   643 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   644 
   645 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   646 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   647 
   648 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   649 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   650 situations.
   651 
   652 
   653 *** HOL ***
   654 
   655 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   656 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   658 
   659 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   660 
   661 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   662 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   663 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   664 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   665 
   666   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   667 
   668 * Code generator:
   669   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   670     'code_instance'.
   671   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   672     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   673 
   674 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   675 examples.
   676 
   677 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   678 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   679 to distinguish both when desired.
   680 
   681 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   682 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   683 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   684 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   687 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   688 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   689 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   690 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   691 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   694 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   695 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   696 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   697 
   698 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   699 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   700 
   701 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   702 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   703 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   704 
   705 * Lifting:
   706   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   707     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   708       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   709       transfer rules
   710     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   711       correspondence relation can be generated
   712     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   713       parametricity
   714     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   715   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   716   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   717     copies
   718   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   719     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   720     anonymous context)
   721   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   722     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   723   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   724     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   725   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   726     INCOMPATIBILITY
   727 
   728 * Transfer:
   729   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   730     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   731   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   732   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   733     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   734   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   735 
   736 * Reification and reflection:
   737   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   738     "Reification".
   739   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   740   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   744   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   745     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   746     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   747   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   748     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   749   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   750     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   751     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   752     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   753     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   754     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   755     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   756     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   757   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   758     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   759   - Fact renames:
   760       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   761       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   765 
   766 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   767 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   768 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   772 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   773 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   774 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   775 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   776 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   777 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   778 lemmas.
   779 
   780 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   781 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   782 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   785 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   786 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   787 
   788 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   789 top and bottom elements.
   790 
   791 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   792 
   793 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   794 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   795 
   796  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   797    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   798    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   799 
   800  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   801    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   802    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   803 
   804    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   805    arbitrary filter.
   806 
   807  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   808    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   809    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   810    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   811    on a compact set.
   812 
   813  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   814    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   815    linear_continuum_topology).
   816 
   817  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   818    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   819    on all sequences converging to x.
   820 
   821  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   822    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   823    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   824    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   825    left or right.
   826 
   827  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   828 
   829      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   830 
   831  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   832    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   833 
   834  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   835    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   836    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   837    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   838    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   839    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   840 
   841  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   842 
   843    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   844 
   845    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   846      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   847 
   848    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   849 
   850    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   851      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   852 
   853    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   854 
   855    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   856 
   857  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   858 
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Nitpick:
   862   - Added option "spy".
   863   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   864 
   865 * Sledgehammer:
   866   - Renamed option:
   867       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   868     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   870   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   871   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   872 
   873 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   874 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   875 
   876 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   877   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   878   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   879     generated code.
   880   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   881   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   882   - Fact renames:
   883     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   884     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   885     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   886 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   889 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   890 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   891 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   892 
   893 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   894 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   895 
   896 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   899 
   900     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   901     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   902 
   903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   906 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   907 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   908 
   909 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   910 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   911 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   912 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * HOL-BNF:
   915   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   916     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   917     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   918     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   919   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   920     coinduct).
   921   - Renamed keywords:
   922     data ~> datatype_new
   923     codata ~> codatatype
   924     bnf_def ~> bnf
   925   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   926     discs ~> disc
   927     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   928     map_id' ~> map_id
   929     sels ~> sel
   930     set_map' ~> set_map
   931     sets ~> set
   932 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934 
   935 *** ML ***
   936 
   937 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   938 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   939 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   940 Examples.thy in particular.
   941 
   942 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   943 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   944 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   945 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   946 
   947 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   948 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   949 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   950 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   954 
   955     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   956     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   957 
   958 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   961 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   962 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   963 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   964 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   965 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   966 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   967 
   968 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   969 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   970 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   971 clasets separately from the context.
   972 
   973 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   974 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   975 
   976 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   977 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   978 
   979 
   980 *** System ***
   981 
   982 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   983 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984 
   985 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   986 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   989 settings variable.
   990 
   991 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   992 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   993 always pdf.
   994 
   995 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   996 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   997 
   998 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   999 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1000 
  1001 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1002 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1003 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1004 
  1005 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1006 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1007 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1008 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1009 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1010 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1011 
  1012 
  1013 
  1014 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1015 -----------------------------------
  1016 
  1017 *** General ***
  1018 
  1019 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1020 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1021 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1022 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1023 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1024 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1025 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1026 
  1027 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1028 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1029 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1030 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1031 
  1032 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1033 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1034 
  1035 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1036 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1037 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1038 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1039 dependencies properly.
  1040 
  1041 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1042 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1043 
  1044 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1045 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1046 
  1047 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1048 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1049 and "class ... context ...".
  1050 
  1051 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1052 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1053 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1054 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1055 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1056 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1057 
  1058 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1059 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1060 
  1061 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1062 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1063 
  1064 
  1065 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1066 
  1067 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1068 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1069 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1070 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1071 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1072 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1073 
  1074 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1075 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1076 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1077 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1078 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1079 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1080 
  1081 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1082 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1083 browser on demand.
  1084 
  1085 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1086 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1087 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1088 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1089 
  1090 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1091 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1092 
  1093 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1094 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1095 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1096 potentially infinite message streams.
  1097 
  1098 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1099 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1100 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1101 schemes.
  1102 
  1103 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1104 symbols.
  1105 
  1106 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1107 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1108 
  1109 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1110 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1111 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1112 
  1113 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1114 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1115 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1116 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1117 
  1118 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1119 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1120 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1121 
  1122 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1123 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1124 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1125 Isabelle distribution.
  1126 
  1127 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1128 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1129 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1130 
  1131 
  1132 *** Pure ***
  1133 
  1134 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1135 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1136 
  1137 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1138 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1139 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1142 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1143 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1144 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1145 with some care where this is really required.
  1146 
  1147 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1148 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1149 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1150 
  1151   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1152 
  1153 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1154 a Hasse diagram.
  1155 
  1156 
  1157 *** HOL ***
  1158 
  1159 * Sledgehammer:
  1160 
  1161   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1162     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1163   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1164   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1165   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1166   - Renamed options:
  1167       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1168       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1169       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1170       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1171 
  1172 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1173 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1174 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1175 
  1176 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1178 
  1179 * Lifting:
  1180   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1181   - quot_del attribute
  1182   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1183 
  1184 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1185 expressions.
  1186 
  1187 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1188 pointfree expressions.
  1189 
  1190 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1191 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1192 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1193 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1197 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1198 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1199 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1200 accordingly.
  1201 
  1202 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1203 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1206 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1207 
  1208 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1211 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1212 
  1213 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1214 
  1215 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1216 
  1217   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1218   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1219 
  1220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1221 
  1222 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1223 
  1224   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1225   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1226 
  1227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228 
  1229 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1230 
  1231   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1232     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1233     output f x converges to G.
  1234 
  1235   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1236     infinity (at_bot).
  1237 
  1238   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1239     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1240 
  1241   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1242     at_top".
  1243 
  1244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1247 lattice type classes.
  1248 
  1249 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1250 
  1251     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1252     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1253 
  1254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1257 changes as follows.
  1258 
  1259   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1260 
  1261       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1262       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1263 
  1264   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1265     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1266     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1267     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1268 
  1269   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1270     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1271     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1272 
  1273   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1274     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1275     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1276     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1277 
  1278   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1279     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1280 
  1281       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1282       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1283       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1284       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1285       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1286       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1287       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1288       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1289       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1290       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1291       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1292       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1293       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1294       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1295       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1296       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1297 
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1301 
  1302 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1303 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1304 
  1305 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1306 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1307 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1308 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1309 
  1310   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1311   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1312   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1313   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1314   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1315   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1316   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1317   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1318   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1319   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1320 
  1321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1324 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1325 Data").
  1326 
  1327 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1328 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1329 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1330 code.
  1331 
  1332 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1333 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1334 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1338 
  1339 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1340 
  1341 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1342 
  1343   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1344   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1345 
  1346 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1347 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1348 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1349 
  1350   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1351 
  1352     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1353     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1354     cart_base i  removed
  1355     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1356 
  1357   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1358 
  1359   Renamed lemmas:
  1360 
  1361     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1362     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1363     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1364     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1365     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1366     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1367     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1368     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1369     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1370     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1371 
  1372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1373 
  1374 * HOL/Probability:
  1375 
  1376   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1377 
  1378   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1379     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1380     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1381 
  1382   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1383     projective family).
  1384 
  1385 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1386 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1387 
  1388 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1389 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1390 datatypes.
  1391 
  1392 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1393 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1394 
  1395 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1396 trees for the code generator.
  1397 
  1398 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1399 Lifting/Transfer.
  1400 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1404 
  1405 
  1406 *** Document preparation ***
  1407 
  1408 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1409 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1410 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1411 
  1412 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1413 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1414 
  1415 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1416 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1417 document/root.tex.
  1418 
  1419 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1420 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422 
  1423 *** ML ***
  1424 
  1425 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1426 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1427 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1428 
  1429 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1430 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1431 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1432 
  1433 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1434 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1435 necessarily printing visible text.
  1436 
  1437 
  1438 *** System ***
  1439 
  1440 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1441 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1442 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1443 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1444 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1445 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1446 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1447 
  1448 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1449 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1450 
  1451   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1452 
  1453 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1454 
  1455 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1456 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1457 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1458 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1459 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1460 
  1461 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1462 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1463 
  1464 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1465 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1466 
  1467 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1471 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1472 version of Isabelle.
  1473 
  1474 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1475 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1476 
  1477 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1478 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1479 for home-made settings.
  1480 
  1481 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1482 
  1483 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1484 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1485 configuration.
  1486 
  1487 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1488 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1490 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1491 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1492 
  1493 
  1494 
  1495 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1496 ------------------------------
  1497 
  1498 *** General ***
  1499 
  1500 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1501 
  1502   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1503     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1504   - markup for bound variables
  1505   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1506   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1507   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1508     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1509 
  1510 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1511 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1512 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1513 
  1514 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1515 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1516 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1517 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1518 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1519 
  1520   context
  1521     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1522     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1523   begin
  1524 
  1525   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1526 
  1527   end
  1528 
  1529   thm my_trans
  1530 
  1531 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1532 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1533 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1534 
  1535 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1536 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1537 
  1538 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1539 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1540 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1541 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1542 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1543 
  1544 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1545 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1546 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1547 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1548 indices of schematic variables.
  1549 
  1550 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1551 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1552 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1553 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1554 etc. was exploited.
  1555 
  1556 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1557 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1558 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1559 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1560 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1561 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1562 
  1563 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1564 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1565 manual.
  1566 
  1567 
  1568 *** Pure ***
  1569 
  1570 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1571 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1572 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1573 
  1574 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1575 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1576 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1577 undocumented feature.)
  1578 
  1579 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1580 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1581 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1582 
  1583   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1584 
  1585   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1586     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1587 
  1588 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1589 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1590 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1591 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1592 
  1593 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1594 
  1595     num ~> num_token
  1596     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1597     xstr ~> str_token
  1598 
  1599 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1600 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1601 position information via constraints).
  1602 
  1603 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1604 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1605 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1608 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1609 
  1610 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1611 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1612 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1615 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1618 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1619 
  1620   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1621 
  1622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1625 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1628 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1629 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1630 
  1631 
  1632 *** HOL ***
  1633 
  1634 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1635 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1636 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1637 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1638 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1639 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1640 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1641 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1642 possible.
  1643 
  1644 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1645 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1646 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1647 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1648 
  1649 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1650 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1653 
  1654 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1655 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1656 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1657 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1658 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1659 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1660 
  1661   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1662     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1663 
  1664   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1665     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1666     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1667 
  1668   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1669     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1670 
  1671   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1672     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1673     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1674 
  1675   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1676     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1677 
  1678 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1679 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1680 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1681 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1682 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1683 
  1684   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1685     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1686     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1687     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1688     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1689 
  1690     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1691     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1692 
  1693   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1694     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1695     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1696     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1697     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1698     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1699     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1700     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1701 
  1702   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1703     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1704     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1705     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1706 
  1707   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1708     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1709     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1710     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1711 
  1712   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1713     from type nat to type int.
  1714 
  1715 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1716 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1717 
  1718   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1719     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1720     type.  Example syntax:
  1721 
  1722     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1723       is List.insert
  1724 
  1725     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1726     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1727     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1728     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1729     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1730     by the package.
  1731 
  1732   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1733     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1734     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1735     code generation for each constant.
  1736 
  1737   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1738     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1739     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1740     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1741     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1742 
  1743   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1744     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1745     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1746 
  1747 * Quotient package:
  1748 
  1749   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1750     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1751 
  1752   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1753     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1754 
  1755   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1756     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1757     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1760     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1763 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1764 
  1765 * Quickcheck:
  1766 
  1767   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1768     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1769     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1770     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1771     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1772 
  1773     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1774     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1775     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1776 
  1777     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1778     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1779 
  1780     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1781     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1782     show genuine counterexamples.
  1783 
  1784   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1785     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1786 
  1787     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1788     constructors of that type.
  1789 
  1790   - Support for multisets.
  1791 
  1792   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1793 
  1794   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1795     conjectures in a locale context.
  1796 
  1797 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1798 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1799 
  1800 * Sledgehammer:
  1801   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1802     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1803   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1804   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1805     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1806   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1807   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1808   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1809   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1810 
  1811 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1812 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1813 
  1814 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1815 
  1816 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1819 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1820 
  1821   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1822 
  1823 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1824 a list and a nat.
  1825 
  1826 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1827 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1828 
  1829 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1830 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1831 default.
  1832 
  1833 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1834 
  1835   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1836 
  1837 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1838 
  1839 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1840 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1841 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1842 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1843 one_case.
  1844 
  1845 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1846 the result of the fact expression.
  1847 
  1848 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1849 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1850 of some relation theorems:
  1851 
  1852   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1853   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1854   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1855   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1856   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1857   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1858 
  1859 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1860 
  1861 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1862 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1863 
  1864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1867 to match the constant's name:
  1868 
  1869   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1870   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1871   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1872   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1873   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1874   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1875   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1876   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1877   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1878   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1879   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1880   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1881   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1882   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1883   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1884   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1885   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1886   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1887   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1888   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1889   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1890   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1891   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1892   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1893 
  1894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1897 and corresponding theorem names:
  1898 
  1899   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1900 
  1901   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1902 
  1903   - Renamed theorems:
  1904 
  1905     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1906     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1907     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1908     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1909     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1910     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1911     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1912     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1913     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1914     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1915     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1916     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1917     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1918     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1919     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1920     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1921     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1922     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1923     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1924     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1925     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1926     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1927     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1928 
  1929     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1930 
  1931     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1932 
  1933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1936 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1937 
  1938   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1939   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1940   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1941   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1942   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1943   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1944   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1945   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1946   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1947   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1948   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1949   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1950   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1951   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1952   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1953   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1954   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1955   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1956   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1957   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1958   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1959 
  1960 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1961 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1964 
  1965 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1966 
  1967   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1968   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1969   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1970   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1971   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1972   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1973   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1974   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1975   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1976   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1977   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1978   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1979   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1980   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1981   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1982   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1983   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1984   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1985 
  1986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1989 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1990 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1991 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1992 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1993 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1994 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1995 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1996 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1997 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1998 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1999 
  2000 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2001 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2002 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2003 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2004 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2005 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2006 
  2007 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2008 through option types.
  2009 
  2010 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2011 relations.
  2012 
  2013 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2016 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2017 
  2018   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2019   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2020   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2021   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2022   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2023   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2024   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2025   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2026   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2027   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2028   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2029   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2030   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2031   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2032   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2033   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2034   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2035   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2036   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2037   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2038   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2039   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2040   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2041   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2042   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2043   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2044   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2045   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2046   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2047   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2048   zless_le ~> less_le
  2049   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2050   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2051   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2052 
  2053 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2054 
  2055   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2056 
  2057 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2058 
  2059 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2060 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2061 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2062 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2066 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2067 
  2068 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2069 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2070 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2071 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2072 follows:
  2073 
  2074   Operations:
  2075   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2076   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2077   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2078   del -> rbt_del
  2079   delete -> rbt_delete
  2080   ins -> rbt_ins
  2081   insert -> rbt_insert
  2082   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2083   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2084   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2085   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2086   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2087   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2088   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2089   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2090   union -> rbt_union
  2091   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2092   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2093 
  2094   Lemmas:
  2095   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2096   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2097   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2098   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2099   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2100   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2101   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2102   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2103   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2104   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2105   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2106   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2107   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2108   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2109   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2110   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2111   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2112   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2113   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2114   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2115   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2116   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2117   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2118   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2119   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2120   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2121   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2122   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2123   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2124   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2125   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2126   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2127   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2128   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2129   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2130   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2131   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2132   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2133   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2134   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2135   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2136   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2137   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2138   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2139   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2140   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2141   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2142   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2143   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2144   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2145   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2146   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2147   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2148   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2149   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2150   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2151   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2152   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2153   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2154   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2155   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2156   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2157   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2158   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2159   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2160   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2161   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2162   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2163   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2164   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2165   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2166   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2167   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2168   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2169   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2170   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2171   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2172   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2173   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2174   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2175   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2176   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2177   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2178 
  2179 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2180 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2181 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183   Changed Operations:
  2184   float_abs -> abs
  2185   float_nprt -> nprt
  2186   float_pprt -> pprt
  2187   pow2 -> use powr
  2188   round_down -> float_round_down
  2189   round_up -> float_round_up
  2190   scale -> exponent
  2191 
  2192   Removed Operations:
  2193   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2194 
  2195   Renamed Lemmas:
  2196   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2197   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2198   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2199   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2200   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2201   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2202   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2203   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2204   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2205   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2206   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2207   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2208   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2209   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2210   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2211   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2212   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2213   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2214   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2215   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2216   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2217   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2218   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2219   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2220   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2221   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2222   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2223   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2224   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2225   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2226   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2227   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2228   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2229   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2230   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2231   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2232 
  2233   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2234   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2235   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2236   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2237   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2238   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2239   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2240   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2241   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2242   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2243 
  2244 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2245 association lists with distinct keys.
  2246 
  2247 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2248 annotated commands.
  2249 
  2250 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2251 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2252 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2253 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2256 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2257 instead.
  2258 
  2259   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2260   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2261   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2262   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2263   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2264   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2265   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2266   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2267   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2268   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2269   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2270   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2271   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2272   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2273   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2274   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2275   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2276   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2277   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2278   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2279   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2280   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2281   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2282   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2283   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2284   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2285   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2286   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2287   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2288   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2289   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2290   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2291   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2292   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2293   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2294   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2295   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2296   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2297   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2298   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2299   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2300 
  2301 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2302 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2303 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2304 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2305 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2306 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2307 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2308 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2309 
  2310 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2311 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2312 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2313 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2314 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2315 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2316 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2317 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2318 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2319 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2320 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2321 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323   Renamed constants:
  2324   measure -> emeasure
  2325   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2326   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2327   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2328   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2329 
  2330   Removed locales:
  2331   completeable_measure_space
  2332   finite_measure_space
  2333   finite_prob_space
  2334   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2335   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2336   finite_sigma_algebra
  2337   measure_space
  2338   pair_finite_prob_space
  2339   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2340   pair_finite_space
  2341   pair_sigma_algebra
  2342   product_sigma_algebra
  2343 
  2344   Removed constants:
  2345   conditional_space
  2346   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2347   image_space
  2348   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2349   pair_measure_generator
  2350   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2351   subvimage
  2352 
  2353   Replacement theorems:
  2354   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2355   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2356   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2357   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2358   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2359   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2360   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2361   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2362   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2363   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2364   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2365   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2366   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2367   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2368   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2369   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2370   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2371   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2372   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2373   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2374   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2375   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2376   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2377   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2378   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2379   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2380   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2381   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2382   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2383   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2384   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2385   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2386   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2387   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2388   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2389   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2390   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2391   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2392   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2393   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2394   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2395   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2396   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2397   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2398   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2399   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2400   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2401   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2402   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2403   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2404   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2405   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2406   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2407   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2408   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2409   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2410   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2411   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2412   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2413   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2414   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2415   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2416   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2417   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2418   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2419   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2420   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2421   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2422   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2423   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2424   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2425   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2426   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2427   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2428   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2429   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2430   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2431   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2432   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2433   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2434   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2435   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2436   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2437   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2438   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2439   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2440   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2441   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2442   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2443   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2444   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2445   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2446   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2447   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2448   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2449   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2450   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2451   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2452   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2453   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2454   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2455   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2456   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2457   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2458   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2459   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2460   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2461   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2462   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2463   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2464   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2465   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2466   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2467   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2468   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2469   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2470   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2471   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2472   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2473   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2474   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2475   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2476   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2477   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2478   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2479   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2480   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2481   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2482 
  2483 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2484 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2485 
  2486 
  2487 *** FOL ***
  2488 
  2489 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2490 
  2491 
  2492 *** ZF ***
  2493 
  2494 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2495 analysis.
  2496 
  2497 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2498 
  2499 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 
  2502 *** ML ***
  2503 
  2504 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2505 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2506 
  2507 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2508 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2509 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2510 
  2511 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2512 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2513 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2514 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2515 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2516 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2517 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2518 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2519 
  2520 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2521 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2522 
  2523 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2524 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2525 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2526 
  2527 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2528 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2531 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2532 context as well.
  2533 
  2534 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2535 
  2536   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2537   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2538   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2539   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2540   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2541   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2542   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2543   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2544   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2545   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2546   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2547   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2548 
  2549 
  2550 *** System ***
  2551 
  2552 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2553 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2554 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2555 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2556 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2557 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2558 the generic user home was intended.
  2559 
  2560 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2561 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2562 
  2563 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2564 (not just JRE).
  2565 
  2566 
  2567 
  2568 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2569 ------------------------------------
  2570 
  2571 *** General ***
  2572 
  2573 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2574 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2575 
  2576   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2577     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2578     files for checking).
  2579 
  2580   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2581     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2582     positions.
  2583 
  2584   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2585     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2586     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2587 
  2588   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2589     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2590     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2591 
  2592   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2593     cores.
  2594 
  2595   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2596     versions (garbage collection).
  2597 
  2598 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2599 including some remaining limitations.
  2600 
  2601 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2602 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2603 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2604 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2605 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2609 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2610 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2611 
  2612 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2613 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2614 usedir option -Q.
  2615 
  2616 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2617 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2618 
  2619   long_names   ~> names_long
  2620   short_names  ~> names_short
  2621   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2622 
  2623 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2624 
  2625   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2626 
  2627 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2628 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2629 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2630 
  2631 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2632 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2633 
  2634 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2635   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2636   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2637   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2638     "Classical Reasoner".
  2639 
  2640 
  2641 *** HOL ***
  2642 
  2643 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2644 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2647 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2648 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2649 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2650 class complete_linorder.
  2651 
  2652 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2653 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2654 
  2655 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2656 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2657 
  2658   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2659   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2660   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2661   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2662   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2663   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2664   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2665   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2666   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2667   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2668   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2669 
  2670 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2671 
  2672   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2673   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2674   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2675   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2676   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2677   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2678   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2679   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2680   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2681   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2682   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2683   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2684   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2685   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2686   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2687   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2688 
  2689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2695 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2696 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2697 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2700 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2701 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2705 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2706 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2707 
  2708 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2709 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2710 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2713 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2714 
  2715 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2716 
  2717     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2718     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2719 
  2720 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2721 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2724 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2727 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2728 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2729 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2732   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2733   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2734   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2735   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2736   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2737   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2738 
  2739 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2740 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2743   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2744   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2745   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2746   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2747   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2748   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2749   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2750   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2751   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2752   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2753   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2754   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2755   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2756   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2757   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2758   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2759   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2760   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2761   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2762   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2763   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2764   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2765   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2766   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2767   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2768   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2769   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2770   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2771   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2772   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2773   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2774   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2775   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2776   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2777   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2778   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2779   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2780   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2781   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2782   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2783   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2784   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2785   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2786   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2787   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2788   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2789   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2790   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2791   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2792   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2793   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2794   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2795   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2796   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2797   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2798   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2799   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2800   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2801   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2802   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2803   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2804   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2805   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2806   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2807   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2808   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2809   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2810   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2811   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2812   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2813   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2814   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2815   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2816   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2817   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2818   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2819   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2820   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2821   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2822   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2823   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2824 
  2825 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2826 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2827 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2828 
  2829 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2830 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2831 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2832 
  2833 * Code generation:
  2834 
  2835   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2836     characters in the target language.
  2837 
  2838   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2839     instead.
  2840 
  2841   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2842 
  2843   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2844     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2845 
  2846       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2847 
  2848 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2851 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2852 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2853 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2854 syntax.
  2855 
  2856 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2857 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2858 
  2859 * Nitpick:
  2860   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2861   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2862   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2863     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 * Sledgehammer:
  2866   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2867   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2868     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2869   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2870     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2871   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2874     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2875   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2876     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Metis:
  2879   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883 * Command 'try':
  2884   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2885     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2887     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2888 
  2889 * Quickcheck:
  2890   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2891     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2892   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2893     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2894   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2895     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2896     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2897     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2898   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2899     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2900 
  2901 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2902 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2903 
  2904 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2905 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2906 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2907 
  2908 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2909 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2913 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914 
  2915 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2916 arithmetic.
  2917 
  2918 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2919 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2920 and lattice type classes.
  2921 
  2922 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2923 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2924 
  2925 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2926 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2927 
  2928 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2929 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2930 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2933   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2934   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2935   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2936 
  2937 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2938 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2939 constants:
  2940 
  2941   type inat   ~> type enat
  2942   Fin         ~> enat
  2943   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2944   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2945   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2946 
  2947 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2948 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949 
  2950 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2951 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2952 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2953 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2954 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2955 
  2956 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2957 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2958 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2959 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2960 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2961 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2962 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2963 
  2964   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2965   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2966   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2967   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2968 
  2969 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2970 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2971 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2974   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2975   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2976   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2977   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2978   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2979   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2980   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2981   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2982   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2983   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2984   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2985   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2986   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2987   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2988   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2989   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2990   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2991   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2992   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2993   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2994   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2995   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2996   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2997   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2998   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2999   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3000   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3001   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3002   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3003   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3004   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3005   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3006   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3007   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3008   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3009   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3010   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3011   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3012   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3013   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3014   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3015   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3016   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3017   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3018   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3019   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3020   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3021   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3022   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3023   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3024 
  3025 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3026   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3027   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3028   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3029   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3030     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3035   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3036   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3037   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3038   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3039   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3040   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3041   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3042   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3043   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3044   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3045   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3046   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3047   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3048   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3049   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3050   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3051   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3052   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3053   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3054   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3055   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3056   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3057   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3058   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3059 
  3060 
  3061 *** Document preparation ***
  3062 
  3063 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3064 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3065 same.
  3066 
  3067 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3068 result.
  3069 
  3070 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3071 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3072 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3073 
  3074 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3075 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3076 
  3077 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3078 like this:
  3079 
  3080   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3081   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3082 
  3083 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3084 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3085 layouts.
  3086 
  3087 
  3088 *** ML ***
  3089 
  3090 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3091 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3092 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3093 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3094 under external program control.
  3095 
  3096 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3097 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3098 
  3099 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3100 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3101 (better known as Proof General).
  3102 
  3103 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3104 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3105 
  3106 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3107 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3108 
  3109 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3110 (including quotes etc.).
  3111 
  3112 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3113 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3114 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3115 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3116 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3117 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3118 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3119 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3120 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3121 
  3122 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3123 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3124 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3125 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3126 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3127 
  3128 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3129 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3130 
  3131 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3132 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3133 
  3134 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3135 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3136 
  3137 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3138 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3139 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3140 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3141 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3142 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3143 proper Proof.context.
  3144 
  3145 
  3146 *** System ***
  3147 
  3148 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3149 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3150 
  3151 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3152 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3153 
  3154 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3155 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3156 
  3157   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3158   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3159   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3160   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3161   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3162 
  3163 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3164 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3167 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3168 example:
  3169 
  3170   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3171 
  3172 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3173 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3174 
  3175 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3176 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3177 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3178 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3179 
  3180 
  3181 
  3182 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3183 ----------------------------------
  3184 
  3185 *** General ***
  3186 
  3187 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3188 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3189 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3190 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3191 like this:
  3192 
  3193   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3194 
  3195 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3196 
  3197 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3198 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3199 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3200 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3201 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3202 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3203 
  3204 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3205 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3206 the following package declarations:
  3207 
  3208   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3209   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3210 
  3211 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3212 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3213 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3214 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3215 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3216 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3217 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3218 
  3219 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3220 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3221 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3222 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3223 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3224 
  3225 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3226 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3227 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3228 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3229 
  3230 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3231 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3232 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3233 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3234 
  3235   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3236 
  3237   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3238   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3239   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3240   show_types                    show_types
  3241   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3242   show_consts                   show_consts
  3243   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3244 
  3245   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3246   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3247   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3248 
  3249   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3250   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3251 
  3252   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3253 
  3254   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3255   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3256   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3257   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3258   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3259 
  3260 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3261 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3262 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3263 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3264 
  3265 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3269   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3270 
  3271 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3272 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3273 float_token.
  3274 
  3275 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3276 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3280 DejaVu Sans.
  3281 
  3282 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3283 
  3284 
  3285 *** Pure ***
  3286 
  3287 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3288 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3289 time.
  3290 
  3291 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3292 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3295 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3298 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3299 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3300 command already provided this functionality.
  3301 
  3302 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3303 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3304 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3305 without interpretations.
  3306 
  3307 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3308 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3309 
  3310 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3311 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3312 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3313 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3314 
  3315 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3316 'definition' instead.
  3317 
  3318 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3319 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3320 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3321 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3322 
  3323 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3324 constructors.
  3325 
  3326 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3327 the local file system.
  3328 
  3329 
  3330 *** HOL ***
  3331 
  3332 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3333 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3334 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3335 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3336 
  3337   declare [[coercion f]]
  3338 
  3339 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3340 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3341 
  3342   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3343 
  3344 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3345 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3346 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3347 other theories like this:
  3348 
  3349   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3350 
  3351 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3352 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3353 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3354 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3355 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3356 for examples.
  3357 
  3358 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3359 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3362 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3363 
  3364 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3365 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3366 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3367 
  3368 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3369 functorial structure of types.
  3370 
  3371 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3372 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3373 
  3374 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3375 languages.
  3376 
  3377 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3378 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3382 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3385 combinators any longer.
  3386 
  3387 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3388 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3389 
  3390 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3391 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3392 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3393 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3394 
  3395   record 'a foo = ...
  3396   ...
  3397   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3398 
  3399 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3400 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3404 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3405 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3406 
  3407 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3408 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3409 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3410 
  3411 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3412 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3415 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3416 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3417 independently.
  3418 
  3419 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3420 counter example search.
  3421 
  3422 * Sledgehammer:
  3423   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3424     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3425     sledgehammer").
  3426   - Renamed commands:
  3427     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3428     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3429     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3430     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431   - Renamed options:
  3432     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3433     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3434     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3435     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3436     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Nitpick:
  3439   - Renamed options:
  3440     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3441     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3444   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3445   - Added "whack" option.
  3446   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3447   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3448   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3449   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3450     higher cardinalities.
  3451   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3452 
  3453 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3454 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3455 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3456 
  3457     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3458 
  3459 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3460 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3461 
  3462 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3463 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3464 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3465 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3466 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3467 "smt_solver".
  3468 
  3469 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3470 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3471 
  3472 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3473 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3474 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3475 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3478   - Renamed:
  3479     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3480     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3481     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482   - Added:
  3483     smt_verbose
  3484     smt_random_seed
  3485     smt_datatypes
  3486     smt_infer_triggers
  3487     smt_monomorph_limit
  3488     cvc3_options
  3489     remote_cvc3_options
  3490     remote_z3_options
  3491     yices_options
  3492 
  3493 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3494 header.
  3495 
  3496 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3497 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3498 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3499 
  3500   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3501 
  3502 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3505 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3510 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3513 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3514 
  3515 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3516 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3519 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3520 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3528 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3531 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3532 for congruent(2)).
  3533 
  3534 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3535 
  3536   types
  3537     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3538     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3539 
  3540   constants
  3541     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3542     True ~> HOL.True
  3543     False ~> HOL.False
  3544     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3545     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3546     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3547     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3548     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3549     The ~> HOL.The
  3550     All ~> HOL.All
  3551     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3552     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3553     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3554     If ~> HOL.If
  3555     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3556     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3557     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3558     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3559     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3560     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3561     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3562     op : ~> Set.member
  3563     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3564 
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3568 
  3569     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3570     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3571     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3572     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3573     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3574     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3575     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3576     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3577 
  3578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * More stylized fact names:
  3581 
  3582   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3583   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3584   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3585   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3586 
  3587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3590 
  3591   constants
  3592     null ~> List.null
  3593 
  3594   facts
  3595     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3596     null_empty ~> null_def
  3597 
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3599 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3600 generation.
  3601 
  3602 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3603 Haskell code.
  3604 
  3605 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3606 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3607 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3610 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3613 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3614 
  3615 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3616 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3617 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3620 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3626 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3627 referred to by its qualified name.
  3628 
  3629   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3630   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3631   product ~>  Enum.product
  3632 
  3633 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3634 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3638 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3639 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3643 sort_key.
  3644 
  3645 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3647 
  3648 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3649 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3650 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3651 
  3652   types
  3653     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3654               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3655               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3656         (depends on your needs)
  3657 
  3658   constants
  3659      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3660      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3661      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3662 
  3663 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3664 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3665 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3666 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3669 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3670 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3671 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3672 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3678 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3679 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3680 
  3681 
  3682 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3683 
  3684 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3685 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3686 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3687 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3688 compatibility.
  3689 
  3690 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3691 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3692 
  3693 
  3694 *** HOLCF ***
  3695 
  3696 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3697 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3698 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3702 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3703 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3706   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3707   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3708 
  3709 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3710 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3711 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3714 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3715 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3716 domain definition now works:
  3717 
  3718   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3719 
  3720 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3721 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3722 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3723 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3724 
  3725   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3726     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3727 
  3728   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3729 
  3730 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3731 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3732 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3735 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3738 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3739 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3740 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3741 
  3742 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3743 
  3744 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3747 
  3748 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3752 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3753 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3754 
  3755 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3756 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3757 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3760 still supported as an input translation.
  3761 
  3762 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3763 
  3764   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3765   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3766   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3767   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3768   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3769   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3770   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3771 
  3772 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3773 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3776   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3777   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3778   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3779   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3780   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3781 
  3782 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3783 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3786 
  3787   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3788   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3789   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3790   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3791 
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3795 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3798 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3801   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3802   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3803   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3804   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3805   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3806   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3807   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3808   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3809   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3810   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3811   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3812   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3813   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3814   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3815   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3816   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3817   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3818   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3819   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3820 
  3821 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822 
  3823   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3824   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3825   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3826   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3827   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3828   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3829   box_less             ~> box_below
  3830   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3831   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3832   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3833   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3834   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3835   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3836   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3837   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3838   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3839   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3840   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3841   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3842   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3843   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3844   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3845   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3846   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3847   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3848   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3849   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3850   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3851   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3852   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3853   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3854   up_less              ~> up_below
  3855   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3856   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3857   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3858   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3859   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3860   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3861   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3862   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3863   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3864   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3865   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3866   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3867   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3868 
  3869 
  3870 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3871 
  3872 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3873 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 
  3876 *** ML ***
  3877 
  3878 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3879 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3880 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3881 
  3882 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3883 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3884 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3885 
  3886 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3887 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3888 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3889 
  3890 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3891 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3892 
  3893 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3894 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3895 
  3896 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3897 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3898 
  3899 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3900 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3901 
  3902 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3903 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3904 almost all situations.
  3905 
  3906 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3907 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3908 Isabelle/ML.
  3909 
  3910 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3911 meaning.
  3912 
  3913 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3914 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3915 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3916 
  3917 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3918 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3919 
  3920 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3921 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3922 
  3923 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3925 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3926 
  3927 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3928 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3929 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3930 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3931 configuration options.
  3932 
  3933 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3934 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3935 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3936 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3937 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3938 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3939 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3940 
  3941 
  3942 
  3943 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3944 ---------------------------------
  3945 
  3946 *** General ***
  3947 
  3948 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3949 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3950 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3951 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3952 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3953 their full internal name.
  3954 
  3955 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3956 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3957 Some hints on upgrading:
  3958 
  3959   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3960     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3961     which are independent of this issue.
  3962 
  3963   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3964     provides the following special forms:
  3965 
  3966       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3967       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3968       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3969 
  3970     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3971     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3972     extra variables".
  3973 
  3974     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3975     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3976     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3977     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3978     "logic".
  3979 
  3980   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3981     antiquotations:
  3982 
  3983       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3984       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3985       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3986       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3987 
  3988   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3989     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3990     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3991     antiquotations.
  3992 
  3993 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3994 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3995 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3996 diagnose syntax problems.
  3997 
  3998 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3999 
  4000 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4001 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4002 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4003 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4004 
  4005 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4006 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4007 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4008 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4011 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4012 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4013 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4014 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4017 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4018 
  4019 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4020 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4021 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4022 
  4023   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4024 
  4025 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4026 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4027 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4028 
  4029 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4030 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4034 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4035 
  4036 
  4037 *** Pure ***
  4038 
  4039 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4040 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4041 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4042 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4043 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4044 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4045 inspect proof terms.
  4046 
  4047 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4048 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4049 are added internally.  For example:
  4050 
  4051   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4052 
  4053 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4054 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4059 'class' instead.
  4060 
  4061 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4062 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4066 invariants.
  4067 
  4068 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4069 user space functionality any longer.
  4070 
  4071 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4072 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4076 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4077 
  4078 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4079 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4080 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4081 
  4082 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4083 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4084 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4085 
  4086 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4087 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088 
  4089 
  4090 *** HOL ***
  4091 
  4092 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4093 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4094 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4095 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4096 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4097 
  4098 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4099 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4100 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4101 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4102 
  4103   fun
  4104     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4105   where
  4106     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4107 
  4108   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4109     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4110 
  4111   quotient_definition
  4112     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4113 
  4114 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4115 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4116 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4117 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4118 
  4119 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4120 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4121 
  4122 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4123 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4124 
  4125 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4129 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4130 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4131 
  4132 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4133 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4142 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4143 
  4144 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4145 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4146 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4149   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4150   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4151   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4152   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4153   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4154   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4155   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4156   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4157   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4158   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4159   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4160   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4161   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4162   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4163   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4164   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4165   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4166   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4167   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4168   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4169   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4170   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4171   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4172   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4173   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4174   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4175   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4176   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4177   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4178 
  4179 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4180 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4181 
  4182 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4183 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4184 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4185 
  4186 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4187 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4188 
  4189 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4190 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191 
  4192 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4193 
  4194 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4195 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4196 
  4197 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4198 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4203 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4204 
  4205 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4206 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4207 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4208 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4211   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4212   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4213   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4217 lattices):
  4218 
  4219     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4220     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4221 
  4222     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4223 
  4224     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4225     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4226     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4227     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4228     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4229     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4230     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4231     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4232     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4233     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4234     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4235     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4236     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4237 
  4238     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4239     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4240     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4241     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4242     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4243     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4244     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4245     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4246     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4247     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4248     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4249     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4250     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4251     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4252     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4253     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4254     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4255     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4256 
  4257   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4258   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4259 
  4260     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4261     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4262     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4263     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4264     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4265 
  4266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268 * Refined field classes:
  4269   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4270     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4271     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4272   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4276   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4277   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4278   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4279     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4280   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4281     equal_neg_zero.
  4282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4285 sets to lattices:
  4286 
  4287   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4288   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4289   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4290   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4291   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4292   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4293   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4294   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4295   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4296   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4297 
  4298 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4299 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4300 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4301 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4302 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4303 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4306 multiset order:
  4307 
  4308   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4309     <= and <;
  4310   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4311     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4312     multiset_order;
  4313   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4314     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4315     generation;
  4316   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4317     if needed.
  4318 
  4319 Renamed:
  4320 
  4321   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4322   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4323   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4324 
  4325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4328 
  4329 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4330 
  4331 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4332 
  4333 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4334 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4335 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337   Constants:
  4338   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4339   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4340   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4341   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4342   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4343   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4344   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4345   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4346   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4347   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4348   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4349   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4350   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4351 
  4352   Lemmas:
  4353   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4354   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4355   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4356   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4357   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4358   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4359   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4360   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4361   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4362   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4363   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4364   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4365   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4366 
  4367 * Sledgehammer:
  4368   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4369     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4370     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4371     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4372     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4373     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4376   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4377     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4378   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4379     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4380     is still experimental.)
  4381   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4382     full-typed mode.
  4383   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4384 
  4385 * Nitpick:
  4386   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4387   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4388   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4389     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4390   - Added support for quotient types.
  4391   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4392     constructs.
  4393   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4394     "termination" proofs).
  4395   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4396   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4397   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4398   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4399     record getters.
  4400   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4401   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4402   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4403   - Added "atoms" option.
  4404   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4405     problems.
  4406   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4407     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4408     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4410     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4414   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4415   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4416   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4417   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4418   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4419   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4420   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4421   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4422   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 
  4425 *** HOLCF ***
  4426 
  4427 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4428 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4429 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4432 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4433 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4434 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4435 
  4436 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4437 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4438 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4439 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4440 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4443 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4444 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4447 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4448 
  4449   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4450   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4451 
  4452 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4453 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4456   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4457   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4458   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4459   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4460 
  4461 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4462 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4463 
  4464   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4465   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4466   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4467 
  4468 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4469 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4471 
  4472 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4473 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4478 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 *** ML ***
  4482 
  4483 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4484 
  4485     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4486     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4487 
  4488     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4489     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4490     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4491     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4492 
  4493     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4494     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4495     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4496 
  4497 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4498 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4499 
  4500 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4501 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4502 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4503 
  4504 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4505 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4506 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4507 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4508 
  4509 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4510 the context or even global references.
  4511 
  4512 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4513 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4514 
  4515 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4516 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4517 
  4518   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4519   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4520   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4521   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4522   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4523   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4524   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4525   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4526   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4527   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4528 
  4529 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4530 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4531 
  4532 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4533 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4534 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4535 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4536 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4537 
  4538 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4539 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4540 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4541 Theory_Data version.
  4542 
  4543 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4544 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4545 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4546 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4547 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4548 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4549 explicitly in rare situations.
  4550 
  4551 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4552 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 
  4555 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4556 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4559 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4560 quite rare).
  4561 
  4562 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4563 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4564 
  4565 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4566 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4567 terms.
  4568 
  4569 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4570 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4571 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4572 
  4573 
  4574 *** System ***
  4575 
  4576 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4577 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4578 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4579 
  4580 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4581 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4582 respectively.
  4583 
  4584 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4585 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4586 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4587 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4588 
  4589   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4590 
  4591 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4592 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4593 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4594 component.
  4595 
  4596 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4597 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4598 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4599 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4600 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4601 the user for manual installation.
  4602 
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4606 -------------------------------------
  4607 
  4608 *** General ***
  4609 
  4610 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4611 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4612 
  4613 
  4614 *** Pure ***
  4615 
  4616 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4617 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4618 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4619 
  4620 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4621 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4622 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4623 
  4624 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4625 interpretation.
  4626 
  4627 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4628 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4629 
  4630 
  4631 *** Document preparation ***
  4632 
  4633 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4634 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4635 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4636 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4637 
  4638 
  4639 *** HOL ***
  4640 
  4641 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4642 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4643 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4644 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4645 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4646 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4647 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4648 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4649 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4650 
  4651 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4652 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4653 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4654 
  4655 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4656 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4657 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4658 
  4659 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4660 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4661 
  4662 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4663 
  4664 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4665 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4666 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4667 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4668 
  4669 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4670 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4671 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4672 "mirabelle" utility.
  4673 
  4674 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4675 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4676 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4677 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4678 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4679 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4680 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4681 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4682 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4683 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4684 
  4685 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4686 procedure only.
  4687 
  4688 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4689 
  4690 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4691 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4692 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4693 that fail later.
  4694 
  4695 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4696 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4697 
  4698 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4699 the same method as the approximation method.
  4700 
  4701 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4702 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4703 series expansion.
  4704 
  4705 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4706 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4707 
  4708 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4709 reals.
  4710 
  4711 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4712 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4713 
  4714 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4715 fixpoint theorem.
  4716 
  4717 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4718   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4719     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4720   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4721     accordingly
  4722   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4723     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4724   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4725     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4726 
  4727 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4728 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4729 lattice.
  4730 
  4731 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4732 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4733 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4734 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4735 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4736 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4740   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4741     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4742   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4743     le_inf_iff
  4744   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4745     sup_aci)
  4746   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4747   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4748   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4749     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4750     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4751     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4752     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4753     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4754     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4755     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4756     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4757     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4758     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4759   - authentic syntax for
  4760     Set.Pow
  4761     Set.image
  4762   - mere abbreviations:
  4763     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4764     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4765     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4766     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4767     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4768     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4769     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4770     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4771   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4772 
  4773 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4774 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4775 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4776 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4777 
  4778 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4779 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4780 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781 
  4782 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4783 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4786 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4787 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4788 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4791 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4792 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4793 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4794 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4795 
  4796 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4797 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4801 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4804 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4805 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4806 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4807 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4808 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4809 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4813     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4814     code_post       replaces    code post
  4815     etc.
  4816   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * Renamed methods:
  4819     sizechange -> size_change
  4820     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4821   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4824 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4825 
  4826 * Renamed theorems:
  4827     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4828     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4829     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4830     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4831     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4832   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** HOLCF ***
  4842 
  4843 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4844 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4845 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4846 
  4847 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4848 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4849 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4850 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4851 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4852 
  4853 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4854 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4855 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4856 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4857 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4858 
  4859 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4860 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4861 constructor are pre-configured.
  4862 
  4863 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4864 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4865 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4866 
  4867 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4868 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4869 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4870 as well.)
  4871 
  4872 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4873 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4874 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4875 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4876 examples.
  4877 
  4878 
  4879 *** ML ***
  4880 
  4881 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4882 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4883 
  4884 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4885 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4886 position, logical grouping etc.
  4887 
  4888 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4889 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4890 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4891 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4892 
  4893 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4894 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4895 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4896 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4897 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4898 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4899 
  4900 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4901 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4902 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4903 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4904 experiments with references.
  4905 
  4906 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4907 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4908 
  4909 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4910 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4911 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4912 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4913 
  4914 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4915 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4916 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4917 
  4918 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4919 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4920 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4921 
  4922 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 
  4927 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4928 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4929 
  4930 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4931 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4932 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4933 
  4934 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4935 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4936 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4939 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4940 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4944 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4945 instead of global theory.
  4946 
  4947 
  4948 *** System ***
  4949 
  4950 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4951 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4952 usedir option -q.
  4953 
  4954 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4955 also the system manual.
  4956 
  4957 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4958 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4959 
  4960 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4961 this is always enabled.
  4962 
  4963 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4964 
  4965 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4966 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4967 currently supported on Linux only.
  4968 
  4969 
  4970 
  4971 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4972 --------------------------------
  4973 
  4974 *** General ***
  4975 
  4976 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4977 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4978 
  4979   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4980     "isatool."
  4981 
  4982   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4983     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4984 
  4985   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4986     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4987 
  4988 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4989 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4990 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4991 
  4992 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4993 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4994 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4995 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4996 via "isabelle emacs".
  4997 
  4998 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4999 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5000 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5001 
  5002 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5003 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5004 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5005 
  5006 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5007 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5008 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5009 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5010 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5011 
  5012 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5013 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5014 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5015 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5016 
  5017 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5018 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5019 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5020 
  5021 
  5022 *** Pure ***
  5023 
  5024 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5025 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5026 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5027 
  5028 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5029 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5030 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5031 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5032 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5033 
  5034 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5035 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5036 useful in locale declarations.
  5037 
  5038 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5039 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5040 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5041 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5042 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5043 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5044 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5045 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5046 no longer generated.
  5047 
  5048 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5049 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5050 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5051 
  5052 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5053 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5054 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5055 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5056 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5057 
  5058 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5060 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5061 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5062 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5063 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5064 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5065 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5066 
  5067 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5068 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5069 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5070 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5071 
  5072 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5073 
  5074 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5075 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5076 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5077 
  5078 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5079 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5080 
  5081 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5082 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5083 in HOL, write
  5084 
  5085     class foo = ...
  5086 
  5087 instead of
  5088 
  5089     class foo = type + ...
  5090 
  5091 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5092 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5093 
  5094 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5095 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5096 
  5097 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5098 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5099 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5100 
  5101 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5102 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5103 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5104 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5105 directly in regular applications.
  5106 
  5107 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5108 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5109 
  5110 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5111 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5112 
  5113 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5114 theory context.
  5115 
  5116 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5117 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5118 
  5119 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5120 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5121 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5122 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5123 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5124 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5125 
  5126   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5127 
  5128 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5129 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5130 normalization.
  5131 
  5132 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5133 addressing etc.
  5134 
  5135 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5136 
  5137   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5138   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5139 
  5140 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5141 
  5142   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5143      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5144      parts of the code generator framework).
  5145 
  5146   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5147      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5148      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5149 
  5150 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5153 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5154 
  5155 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5156 patterns, e.g.
  5157 
  5158     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5159 
  5160 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5161 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5162 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5163 hyphen:
  5164 
  5165     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5166 
  5167 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5168 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5169 
  5170 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5171 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5172 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5173 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5174 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5175 higher-order unification.
  5176 
  5177 
  5178 *** Document preparation ***
  5179 
  5180 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5181 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5182 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5183 
  5184 
  5185 *** HOL ***
  5186 
  5187 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5188 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5189 
  5190 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5191 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5192 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5193 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5194 Main, as before.
  5195 
  5196 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5197 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5198 
  5199 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5200 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5201 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5202 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5203 
  5204 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5205 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5206 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5207 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5208 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5209 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5210 
  5211 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5212 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5213 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5214 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5215 
  5216 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5217 menu.
  5218 
  5219 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5220 (contains the empty clause).
  5221 
  5222 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5223 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5224 
  5225 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5226 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5227 
  5228 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5229 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5230 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5233 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5234 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5235 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5236 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5237 
  5238 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5239 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5240 
  5241 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5242 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5243 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5244 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5245 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5246 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5247 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5248 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5249 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5250 
  5251 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5252 
  5253 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5254 
  5255 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5256 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5257 
  5258 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5259 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5260 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5261 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5262 
  5263 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5264 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5265 
  5266     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5267     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5268     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5269     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5270     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5271     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5272     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5273     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5274 
  5275 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5276 theory Set.
  5277 
  5278 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5279 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5280 
  5281 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5282 
  5283 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5284 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5285 
  5286 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5287 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5288 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5289 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5290 allowed. For examples see
  5291 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5292 
  5293 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5294 
  5295 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5297 
  5298 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5299 structure:
  5300 
  5301     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5302     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5303     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5304     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5305     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5306     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5307     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5308     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5309     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5310     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5311     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5312     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5313     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5314     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5315     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5316     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5317     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5318     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5319     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5320     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5321     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5322     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5323     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5324     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5325     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5326     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5327     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5328     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5329     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5330     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5331     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5332     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5333     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5334 
  5335     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5336     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5337     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5338     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5339     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5340     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5341     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5342     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5343     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5344     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5345 
  5346     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5347     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5348     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5349     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5350     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5351     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5352 
  5353 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5354 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5355 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5356 
  5357 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5358 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5359 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5360 
  5361 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5362 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5365 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5366 
  5367 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5368 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5369 proofs, e.g.
  5370 
  5371   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5372 
  5373 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5374 
  5375 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5376 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5377 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5380 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5382 
  5383 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5384 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5385 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5387 
  5388 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5389 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5390 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5391 preorder_class.*.
  5392 
  5393 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5394 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5395 
  5396 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5397 
  5398   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5399 
  5400 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5401 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5402 fold_image.
  5403 
  5404 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5405 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5406 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5407 the former will disappear at some point.
  5408 
  5409 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5410 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5411 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5412 
  5413 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5414 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5415 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5416 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5417 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5418 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5419 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5420 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5421 
  5422 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5423 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5424 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5425 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5426 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5427 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5428 
  5429     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5430     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5431     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5432     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5433     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5434     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5435     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5436 
  5437 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5438 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5439 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5440 
  5441 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5442 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5443 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5444 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5445 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5446 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5447 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5448 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5449 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5450 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5451 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5452 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5453 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5454 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5455 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5456 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5457 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5458 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5459 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5460 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5461 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5462 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5463 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5464 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5465 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5466 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5467 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5468 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5469 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5470 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5471 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5472 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5473 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5474 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5475 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5476 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5477 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5478 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5479 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5480 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5481 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5482 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5483 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5484 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5485 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5486 
  5487 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5488 
  5489 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5490 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5491 
  5492 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5493 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5494 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5495 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5496 
  5497 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5498 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5499 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5500 theory RealVector.
  5501 
  5502 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5503 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5504 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5505 and inner products are included.
  5506 
  5507 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5508 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5509 supported.
  5510 
  5511 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5512 first diagonalization argument.
  5513 
  5514 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5515 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5516 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5517 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5518 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5519 
  5520     hide (open) const gcd
  5521     abbreviation gcd where
  5522       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5523     notation (output)
  5524       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5525 
  5526 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5527 
  5528 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5529 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5530 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5531 
  5532 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5533 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5534 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5535 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5536 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5537 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5538 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5539 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5540 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5541 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5542 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5543 cases.
  5544 
  5545 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5546 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5547 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5548 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5549 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5550 
  5551     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5552     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5553     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5554     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5555     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5556 
  5557 
  5558 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5559 
  5560 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5561 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5562 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5563 
  5564 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5565 
  5566 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5567 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5568 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5569 
  5570 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5571 
  5572 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5573 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5574 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5575 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5576 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5577 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5578 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5579 
  5580 
  5581 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5582 
  5583 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5584 
  5585 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5586 theory targets.
  5587 
  5588 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5589 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5590 'inductive' etc.
  5591 
  5592 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5593 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5594 
  5595 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5596 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5597 
  5598 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5599 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5600 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5601 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5602 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5603 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5604 the algorithm W:
  5605 
  5606  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5607  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5608          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5609 
  5610 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5611 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5612 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5613 
  5614 
  5615 *** HOLCF ***
  5616 
  5617 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5618 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5619 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5620 
  5621 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5622 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5623 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5624 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5625 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5628 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5629 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5630 
  5631 
  5632 *** ZF ***
  5633 
  5634 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5635 
  5636 
  5637 *** ML ***
  5638 
  5639 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5640 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5641 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5642 5.2.1!
  5643 
  5644 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5645 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5646 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5647 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5648 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5649 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5650 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5651 
  5652 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5653 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5654 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5655 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5656 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5657 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5658 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5659 
  5660 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5661 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5662 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5663 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5664 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5665 
  5666 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5667 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5668 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5669 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5670 Method.add_method.
  5671 
  5672 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5673 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5674 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5675 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5676 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5677 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5678 
  5679 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5680 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5681 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5682 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5683 examples.
  5684 
  5685 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5686 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5687 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5688 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5689 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5690 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5691 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5692 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5693 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5694 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5695 
  5696 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5697 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5698 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5699 
  5700 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5701 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5702 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5703 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5704 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5705 resort for legacy applications.
  5706 
  5707 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5708 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5709 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5710 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5711 explicit runtime argument.
  5712 
  5713 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5714 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5715 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5716 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5717 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5718 
  5719 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5720 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5721 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5722 theory state.
  5723 
  5724 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5725 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5726 
  5727   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5728   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5729   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5730   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5731   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5732   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5733   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5734   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5735   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5736   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5737 
  5738 
  5739 *** System ***
  5740 
  5741 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5742 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5743 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5744 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5745 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5746 
  5747 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5748 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5749 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5750 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5751 
  5752 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5753 
  5754 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5755 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5756 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5757 prover operations.
  5758 
  5759 
  5760 
  5761 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5762 -------------------------------
  5763 
  5764 *** General ***
  5765 
  5766 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5767 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5768 
  5769 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5770 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5771 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5772 provides a proper context already.
  5773 
  5774 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5775 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5776 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5777 
  5778 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5779 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5780 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5781 swap theory imports.
  5782 
  5783 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5784 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5785 
  5786 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5787 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5788 white space without escapes.
  5789 
  5790 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5791 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5792 "foo_bar".
  5793 
  5794 
  5795 *** Pure ***
  5796 
  5797 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5798 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5799 
  5800 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5801 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5802 
  5803 (1) unused_thms
  5804      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5805 
  5806 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5807      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5808      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5809 
  5810 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5811      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5812      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5813      their ancestors.
  5814 
  5815 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5816 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5817 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5818 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5819 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5820 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5821 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5822 
  5823 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5824 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5825 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5826 
  5827 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5828 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5829 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5830 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5831 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5832 
  5833 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5834 
  5835 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5836 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5837 update of theories within ML code.
  5838 
  5839 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5840 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5841 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5842 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5843 
  5844 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5845 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5846 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5850 
  5851 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5852 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5853 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5854 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5855 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5856 
  5857 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5858 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5859 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5860 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5861 situations.
  5862 
  5863 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5864 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5865 proof text.
  5866 
  5867 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5868 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5869 
  5870 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5871 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5872 predicates.
  5873 
  5874 
  5875 *** Document preparation ***
  5876 
  5877 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5878 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5879 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5880 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5881 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5882 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5883 
  5884 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5885 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5886 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5887 
  5888 
  5889 *** HOL ***
  5890 
  5891 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5892 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5893 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5894 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5895 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5896 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5897 
  5898 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5899 with multithreading.
  5900 
  5901 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5902 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5903 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5904 
  5905 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5906 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5907 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5908 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5911 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5912 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5913 and makes them available separately.  See
  5914 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5915 
  5916 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5917 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5918 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5919 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5920 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5921 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5922 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5923 the declared rules.
  5924 
  5925 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5926 
  5927   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5928 
  5929 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5930 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5931 
  5932 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5933 
  5934   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5935 
  5936   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5937     definitions on => and bool.
  5938 
  5939   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5940     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5941     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5942 
  5943       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5944       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5945       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5946       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5947       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5948       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5949       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5950       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5951 
  5952   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5953     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5954     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5955 
  5956   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5957     The proof pattern
  5958 
  5959       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5960       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5961 
  5962     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5963     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5964 
  5965       have "EX S. P S"
  5966       proof
  5967         show "P S" <...>
  5968       qed
  5969 
  5970   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5971     The proof pattern
  5972 
  5973       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5974       also have "S = T" <...>
  5975       finally have "P T" .
  5976 
  5977     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5978     must be replaced by something like
  5979 
  5980       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5981       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5982       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5983 
  5984   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5985     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5986 
  5987       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5988 
  5989     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5990     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5991     type of the form
  5992 
  5993       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5994 
  5995     rather than
  5996 
  5997       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5998 
  5999 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6000 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6001 
  6002 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6003 
  6004 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6005 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6007 
  6008 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6009 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6010 
  6011 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6012 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6015 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6016 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6017 
  6018 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6019 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6020 
  6021   less_trans
  6022   less_linear
  6023   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6024   le_less_trans
  6025   less_le_trans
  6026   less_not_sym
  6027   less_asym
  6028 
  6029 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6030 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6031 and different variable names.
  6032 
  6033 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6034 
  6035 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6036 finite maps.
  6037 
  6038 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6039 
  6040 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6041 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6042 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6043 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6044 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6045 accordingly.
  6046 
  6047 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6048 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6049 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6050 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6051 
  6052 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6053 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6054 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6055 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6056 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6060 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6063 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6064 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6065 
  6066 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6068 
  6069 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6070 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6071 
  6072 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6073 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6076 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6077 
  6078 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6079 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6083 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6084 
  6085 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6086 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6087 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6088 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6089 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6090 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6091 
  6092 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6093 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6094 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6095 
  6096 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6097 
  6098 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6099 
  6100 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6101 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6102 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6103 
  6104 
  6105 *** ZF ***
  6106 
  6107 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6108 same session:
  6109 
  6110   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6111   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6112   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6113   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6114   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6115   List      -> List_ZF
  6116   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6117 
  6118 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6119 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6120 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6121 
  6122 
  6123 *** ML ***
  6124 
  6125 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6126 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6127 
  6128 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6129 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6130 
  6131 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6132 
  6133 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6134 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6135 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6136 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6137 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6138 
  6139 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6140 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6141 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6142 
  6143 
  6144 *** System ***
  6145 
  6146 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6147 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6148 
  6149 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6150 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6151 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6152 
  6153 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6154 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6155 
  6156 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6157 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6158 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6159 
  6160 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6161 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6162 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6163 
  6164 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6165 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6166 
  6167 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6168 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6169 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6170 script.
  6171 
  6172 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6173 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6174 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6175 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6176 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6177 
  6178 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6179 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6180 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6181 
  6182 
  6183 
  6184 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6185 -----------------------------------
  6186 
  6187 *** General ***
  6188 
  6189 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6190 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6191 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6192 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6193 
  6194 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6195 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6196 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6197 
  6198 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6199 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6200 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6201 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6204 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6205 quotes.
  6206 
  6207 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6208 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6209 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6210 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6211 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6212 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6213 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6214 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6215 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6216 
  6217 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6218 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6219 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6220 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6221 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6222 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6223 
  6224 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6225 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6226 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6227 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6228 
  6229 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6230 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6231 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6232 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6233 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6234 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6235 
  6236 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6237 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6238 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6239 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6240 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6241 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6242 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6243 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6244 
  6245 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6246 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6247 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6248 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6249 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6250 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6251 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6252 
  6253 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6254 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6255 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6256 
  6257 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6258 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6259 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6260 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6261 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6262 limit is imposed.
  6263 
  6264 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6265 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6266 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6267 that h