NEWS
author hoelzl
Wed Mar 19 15:35:07 2014 +0100 (2014-03-19)
changeset 56214 d503c51e869a
parent 56212 3253aaf73a01
child 56218 1c3f1f2431f9
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    44 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    45 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    46 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    47 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    48 to the system option "completion_limit").
    49 
    50 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    51 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    52 
    53 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    54 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    55 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    56 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    57 
    58 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    59 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    60 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Pure ***
    64 
    65 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    66 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    67 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    68 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    69 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    70 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    71 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    72 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    73 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    74 
    75 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    76 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    77 instantiated theorem.
    78 
    79 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    80 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    81 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    82 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    83 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    84 
    85   attribute_setup standard =
    86     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    87 
    88 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    89 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    90 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    91 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    92 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    93 
    94 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    95 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    96 differently).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** HOL ***
   100 
   101 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   102 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   105 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   111   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   112   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   113   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   114   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   115   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   118   can now deal with conjunctions.
   119   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   120   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   121   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   122 
   123 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * HOL-Word:
   126   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   127   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   128   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   129   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   130   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   131 
   132 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   136 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   139 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   142 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   145   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   146   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   147   Theory renamings:
   148     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   149     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   150     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   151     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   152     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   153     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   154     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   155     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   156     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   157     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   158     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   159     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   160     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   161     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   162     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   163     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   164     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   165     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   166     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   167     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   168     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   169     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   170   New theories:
   171     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   172     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   173     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   174     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   175     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   176   Discontinued theories:
   177     BNF/BNF.thy
   178     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   179   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * New (co)datatype package:
   182   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   183   * Renamed commands:
   184       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   185       primrec_new ~> primrec
   186       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   187     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   189     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   190     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   192     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   194 
   195 * Old datatype package:
   196   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   197     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   198     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   200     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   204   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   205   datatype package.
   206   Renamed constants:
   207     Option.set ~> set_option
   208     Option.map ~> map_option
   209     option_rel ~> rel_option
   210     option_rec ~> case_option
   211   Renamed theorems:
   212     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   213     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   214     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   215     option.recs ~> option.case
   216     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   217     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   218     map.simps ~> list.map
   219     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   220     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   221     the.simps ~> option.sel
   222   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   225     sum_map ~> map_sum
   226     map_pair ~> map_prod
   227     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   228     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   229     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   230     set_rel ~> rel_set
   231     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   232     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   233     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   234     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   235 
   236 * New theory:
   237     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   238 
   239 * Theory reorganizations:
   240   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   241 
   242 * SMT module:
   243   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   244     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   245     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   246     elsewhere.
   247 
   248 * Sledgehammer:
   249   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   250   - New option:
   251       smt_proofs
   252   - Renamed options:
   253       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   254       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Metis:
   258   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   259     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   262 
   263 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   266 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   267 
   268 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   269 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   270 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   271 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   272 
   273 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   277 with the given constants.
   278 
   279 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   280 
   281 Fact consolidations:
   282     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   283     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   284     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   285     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   286     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   287     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   288     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   289     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   290     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   291     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   292     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   293     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   294     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   295     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   296     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   297     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   298     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   299     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   300     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   301     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   302     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   303     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   304     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   305     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   306     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   307     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   308     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   309     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   310     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   311     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   312     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   313     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   314     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   315     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   316     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   317     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   318     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   319     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   320     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   321     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   322 
   323 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   324 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   325 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   326 
   327 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   328 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   329 
   330 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   331 
   332 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   333 
   334 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   339 
   340 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   341 operations on records.
   342 
   343 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   347     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   351     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   352     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354 
   355 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   356   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   357   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   358   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   359     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   360   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   361     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   362   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   363 INCOMPATBILITY.
   364 
   365 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   366     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   367     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   368     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   369     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Fact name consolidation:
   373     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   374     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   375     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   376     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   377     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   381 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   382 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   383 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   384 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   385 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   386 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   387 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   390 
   391 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   392 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   393 
   394 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   395 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   396 
   397 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   398 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   399 or the brute way with
   400 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   401 
   402 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   403 
   404 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   405 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   408 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   409 
   410 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   411 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   412 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   413 INCOMPATIBILITY
   414 
   415 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   416   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   417   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   418   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   419   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   420   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   421   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   422   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   423   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   424   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   425   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   426   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   427 
   428   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   429 
   430   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   431     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   432     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   433     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   434     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   438   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   439 
   440   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   441 
   442   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   443 
   444   - removed constant isDiff
   445 
   446   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   447     syntax.
   448 
   449   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   450 
   451   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   452 
   453   - Other renamings:
   454     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   455     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   456     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   457     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   458     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   459     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   461 
   462 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   463 
   464 * Nitpick:
   465   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   466     infinite values.
   467   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   468     "Rep_Integ".
   469   - Removed "std" option.
   470   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   471     "hide_types".
   472 
   473 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   474   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   475   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   476     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   477     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   478     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   479     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   480     intervals.
   481 
   482 
   483 *** Scala ***
   484 
   485 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   486 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   487 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   488 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   489 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 
   492 *** ML ***
   493 
   494 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   495 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   496 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   497 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   498 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   499 of schematic variables.
   500 
   501 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   502 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   504 formal context.
   505 
   506 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   507 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   508 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   509 actually belongs to it).
   510 
   511 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   512 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   513 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   514 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   515 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   516 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   517 
   518 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   519 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   522 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   523 
   524 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   525 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   526 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   527 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   528 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   529 
   530 
   531 *** System ***
   532 
   533 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   534 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   535 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   536 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   537 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   538 
   539 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   540 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   541 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   542 
   543 
   544 
   545 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   546 -------------------------------------
   547 
   548 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   549 
   550 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   551 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   552 
   553 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   554 after edits surrounding the command location.
   555 
   556 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   557 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   558 e.g. out-of-memory).
   559 
   560 
   561 *** System ***
   562 
   563 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   564 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   565 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   566 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   567 
   568 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   569 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   570 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   571 
   572 
   573 
   574 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   575 -------------------------------------
   576 
   577 *** General ***
   578 
   579 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   580 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   581 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   584 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   587 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   588 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   589 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   590 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   591 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   592 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   593 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   594 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   595 syntax.
   596 
   597 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   598 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   599 
   600 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   601 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   602 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   603 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   604 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   605 
   606 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   608 
   609 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   610 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   611 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   612 
   613 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   614 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   615 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   616 
   617 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   618 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   619 
   620 
   621 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   622 
   623 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   624 Documentation panel.
   625 
   626 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   627 documentation.
   628 
   629 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   630 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   631 
   632 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   633 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   634 normal editing and checking process.
   635 
   636 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   637 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   638 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   639 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   640 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   641 
   642 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   643 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   644 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   645 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   646 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   647 
   648 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   649 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   650 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   651 
   652 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   653 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   654 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   655 to resolve conflict.
   656 
   657 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   658 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   659 
   660 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   661 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   662 such command executions while editing.
   663 
   664 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   665 document content.
   666 
   667 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   668 toplevel theorem statements.
   669 
   670 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   671 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   672 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   673 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   674 
   675 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   676 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   677 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   678 
   679 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   680 / Global Options / Appearance".
   681 
   682 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   683 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   684 
   685 
   686 *** Pure ***
   687 
   688 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   689 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   690 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   691 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   692 details.
   693 
   694 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   695 
   696 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   697 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   698 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   699 
   700 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   704 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   705 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   706 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   709 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   710 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   713 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   714 
   715 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   716 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   717 situations.
   718 
   719 
   720 *** HOL ***
   721 
   722 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   723 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   725 
   726 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   727 
   728 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   729 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   730 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   731 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   732 
   733   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   734 
   735 * Code generator:
   736   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   737     'code_instance'.
   738   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   739     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   740 
   741 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   742 examples.
   743 
   744 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   745 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   746 to distinguish both when desired.
   747 
   748 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   749 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   750 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   751 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   754 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   755 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   756 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   757 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   758 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   761 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   762 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   763 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   764 
   765 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   766 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   767 
   768 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   769 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   770 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   771 
   772 * Lifting:
   773   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   774     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   775       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   776       transfer rules
   777     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   778       correspondence relation can be generated
   779     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   780       parametricity
   781     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   782   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   783   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   784     copies
   785   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   786     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   787     anonymous context)
   788   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   789     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   790   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   791     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   792   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   793     INCOMPATIBILITY
   794 
   795 * Transfer:
   796   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   797     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   798   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   799   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   800     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   801   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   802 
   803 * Reification and reflection:
   804   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   805     "Reification".
   806   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   807   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   811   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   812     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   813     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   814   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   815     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   816   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   817     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   818     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   819     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   820     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   821     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   822     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   823     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   824   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   825     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   826   - Fact renames:
   827       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   828       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830 
   831 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   832 
   833 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   834 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   835 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   837 
   838 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   839 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   840 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   841 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   842 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   843 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   844 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   845 lemmas.
   846 
   847 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   848 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   849 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   852 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   853 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   854 
   855 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   856 top and bottom elements.
   857 
   858 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   859 
   860 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   861 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   862 
   863  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   864    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   865    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   866 
   867  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   868    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   869    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   870 
   871    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   872    arbitrary filter.
   873 
   874  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   875    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   876    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   877    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   878    on a compact set.
   879 
   880  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   881    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   882    linear_continuum_topology).
   883 
   884  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   885    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   886    on all sequences converging to x.
   887 
   888  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   889    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   890    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   891    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   892    left or right.
   893 
   894  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   895 
   896      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   897 
   898  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   899    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   900 
   901  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   902    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   903    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   904    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   905    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   906    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   907 
   908  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   909 
   910    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   911 
   912    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   913      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   914 
   915    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   916 
   917    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   918      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   919 
   920    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   921 
   922    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   923 
   924  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   925 
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Nitpick:
   929   - Added option "spy".
   930   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   931 
   932 * Sledgehammer:
   933   - Renamed option:
   934       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   935     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   937   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   938   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   939 
   940 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   941 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   942 
   943 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   944   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   945   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   946     generated code.
   947   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   948   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   949   - Fact renames:
   950     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   951     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   952     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   953 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   956 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   957 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   958 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   959 
   960 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   961 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   962 
   963 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 
   965 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   966 
   967     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   968     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   969 
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   973 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   974 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   975 
   976 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   977 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   978 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   979 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980 
   981 * HOL-BNF:
   982   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   983     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   984     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   985     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   986   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   987     coinduct).
   988   - Renamed keywords:
   989     data ~> datatype_new
   990     codata ~> codatatype
   991     bnf_def ~> bnf
   992   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   993     discs ~> disc
   994     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   995     map_id' ~> map_id
   996     sels ~> sel
   997     set_map' ~> set_map
   998     sets ~> set
   999 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 
  1002 *** ML ***
  1003 
  1004 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1005 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1006 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1007 Examples.thy in particular.
  1008 
  1009 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1010 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1011 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1012 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1013 
  1014 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1015 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1016 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1017 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1021 
  1022     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1023     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1024 
  1025 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1028 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1029 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1030 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1031 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1032 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1033 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1034 
  1035 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1036 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1037 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1038 clasets separately from the context.
  1039 
  1040 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1041 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1042 
  1043 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1044 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1045 
  1046 
  1047 *** System ***
  1048 
  1049 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1050 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1053 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1056 settings variable.
  1057 
  1058 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1059 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1060 always pdf.
  1061 
  1062 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1063 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1064 
  1065 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1066 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1067 
  1068 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1069 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1070 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1071 
  1072 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1073 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1074 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1075 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1076 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1077 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1078 
  1079 
  1080 
  1081 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1082 -----------------------------------
  1083 
  1084 *** General ***
  1085 
  1086 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1087 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1088 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1089 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1090 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1091 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1092 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1093 
  1094 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1095 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1096 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1097 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1098 
  1099 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1100 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1101 
  1102 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1103 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1104 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1105 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1106 dependencies properly.
  1107 
  1108 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1109 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1110 
  1111 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1112 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1113 
  1114 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1115 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1116 and "class ... context ...".
  1117 
  1118 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1119 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1120 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1121 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1122 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1123 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1124 
  1125 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1126 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1127 
  1128 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1129 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1130 
  1131 
  1132 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1133 
  1134 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1135 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1136 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1137 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1138 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1139 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1140 
  1141 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1142 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1143 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1144 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1145 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1146 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1147 
  1148 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1149 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1150 browser on demand.
  1151 
  1152 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1153 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1154 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1155 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1156 
  1157 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1158 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1159 
  1160 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1161 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1162 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1163 potentially infinite message streams.
  1164 
  1165 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1166 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1167 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1168 schemes.
  1169 
  1170 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1171 symbols.
  1172 
  1173 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1174 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1175 
  1176 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1177 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1178 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1179 
  1180 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1181 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1182 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1183 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1184 
  1185 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1186 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1187 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1188 
  1189 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1190 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1191 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1192 Isabelle distribution.
  1193 
  1194 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1195 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1196 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1197 
  1198 
  1199 *** Pure ***
  1200 
  1201 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1202 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1203 
  1204 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1205 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1206 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1207 
  1208 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1209 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1210 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1211 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1212 with some care where this is really required.
  1213 
  1214 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1215 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1216 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1217 
  1218   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1219 
  1220 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1221 a Hasse diagram.
  1222 
  1223 
  1224 *** HOL ***
  1225 
  1226 * Sledgehammer:
  1227 
  1228   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1229     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1230   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1231   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1232   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1233   - Renamed options:
  1234       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1235       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1236       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1237       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1238 
  1239 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1240 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1241 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1242 
  1243 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * Lifting:
  1247   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1248   - quot_del attribute
  1249   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1250 
  1251 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1252 expressions.
  1253 
  1254 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1255 pointfree expressions.
  1256 
  1257 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1258 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1259 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1260 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1264 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1265 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1266 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1267 accordingly.
  1268 
  1269 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1270 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1273 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1278 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1279 
  1280 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1281 
  1282 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1283 
  1284   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1285   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1286 
  1287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1290 
  1291   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1292   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1293 
  1294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1295 
  1296 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1297 
  1298   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1299     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1300     output f x converges to G.
  1301 
  1302   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1303     infinity (at_bot).
  1304 
  1305   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1306     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1307 
  1308   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1309     at_top".
  1310 
  1311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1314 lattice type classes.
  1315 
  1316 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1317 
  1318     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1319     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1320 
  1321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1324 changes as follows.
  1325 
  1326   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1327 
  1328       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1329       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1330 
  1331   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1332     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1333     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1334     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1335 
  1336   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1337     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1338     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1339 
  1340   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1341     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1342     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1343     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1344 
  1345   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1346     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1347 
  1348       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1349       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1350       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1351       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1352       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1353       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1354       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1355       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1356       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1357       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1358       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1359       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1360       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1361       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1362       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1363       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1364 
  1365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1368 
  1369 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1370 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1371 
  1372 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1373 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1374 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1375 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1376 
  1377   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1378   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1379   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1380   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1381   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1382   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1383   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1384   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1385   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1386   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1387 
  1388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1389 
  1390 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1391 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1392 Data").
  1393 
  1394 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1395 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1396 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1397 code.
  1398 
  1399 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1400 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1401 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1405 
  1406 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1407 
  1408 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1409 
  1410   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1411   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1412 
  1413 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1414 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1415 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1416 
  1417   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1418 
  1419     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1420     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1421     cart_base i  removed
  1422     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1423 
  1424   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1425 
  1426   Renamed lemmas:
  1427 
  1428     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1429     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1430     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1431     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1432     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1433     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1434     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1435     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1436     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1437     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1438 
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * HOL/Probability:
  1442 
  1443   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1444 
  1445   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1446     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1447     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1448 
  1449   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1450     projective family).
  1451 
  1452 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1453 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1454 
  1455 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1456 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1457 datatypes.
  1458 
  1459 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1460 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1461 
  1462 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1463 trees for the code generator.
  1464 
  1465 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1466 Lifting/Transfer.
  1467 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472 
  1473 *** Document preparation ***
  1474 
  1475 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1476 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1477 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1478 
  1479 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1480 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1481 
  1482 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1483 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1484 document/root.tex.
  1485 
  1486 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1487 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 
  1490 *** ML ***
  1491 
  1492 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1493 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1494 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1495 
  1496 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1497 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1498 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1499 
  1500 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1501 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1502 necessarily printing visible text.
  1503 
  1504 
  1505 *** System ***
  1506 
  1507 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1508 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1509 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1510 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1511 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1512 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1513 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1514 
  1515 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1516 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1517 
  1518   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1519 
  1520 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1521 
  1522 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1523 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1524 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1525 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1526 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1527 
  1528 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1529 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1530 
  1531 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1532 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1533 
  1534 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1538 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1539 version of Isabelle.
  1540 
  1541 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1542 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1543 
  1544 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1545 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1546 for home-made settings.
  1547 
  1548 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1549 
  1550 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1551 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1552 configuration.
  1553 
  1554 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1555 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1556 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1557 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1558 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1559 
  1560 
  1561 
  1562 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1563 ------------------------------
  1564 
  1565 *** General ***
  1566 
  1567 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1568 
  1569   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1570     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1571   - markup for bound variables
  1572   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1573   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1574   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1575     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1576 
  1577 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1578 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1579 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1580 
  1581 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1582 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1583 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1584 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1585 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1586 
  1587   context
  1588     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1589     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1590   begin
  1591 
  1592   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1593 
  1594   end
  1595 
  1596   thm my_trans
  1597 
  1598 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1599 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1600 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1601 
  1602 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1603 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1604 
  1605 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1606 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1607 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1608 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1609 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1610 
  1611 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1612 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1613 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1614 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1615 indices of schematic variables.
  1616 
  1617 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1618 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1619 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1620 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1621 etc. was exploited.
  1622 
  1623 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1624 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1625 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1626 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1627 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1628 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1629 
  1630 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1631 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1632 manual.
  1633 
  1634 
  1635 *** Pure ***
  1636 
  1637 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1638 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1639 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1640 
  1641 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1642 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1643 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1644 undocumented feature.)
  1645 
  1646 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1647 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1648 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1649 
  1650   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1651 
  1652   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1653     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1654 
  1655 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1656 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1657 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1658 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1659 
  1660 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1661 
  1662     num ~> num_token
  1663     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1664     xstr ~> str_token
  1665 
  1666 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1667 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1668 position information via constraints).
  1669 
  1670 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1671 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1672 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1675 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1676 
  1677 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1678 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1679 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1682 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1685 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1686 
  1687   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1688 
  1689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1690 
  1691 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1692 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1695 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1696 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1697 
  1698 
  1699 *** HOL ***
  1700 
  1701 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1702 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1703 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1704 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1705 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1706 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1707 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1708 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1709 possible.
  1710 
  1711 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1712 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1713 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1714 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1715 
  1716 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1717 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718 
  1719 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1720 
  1721 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1722 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1723 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1724 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1725 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1726 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1727 
  1728   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1729     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1730 
  1731   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1732     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1733     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1734 
  1735   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1736     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1737 
  1738   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1739     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1740     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1741 
  1742   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1743     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1744 
  1745 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1746 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1747 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1748 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1749 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1750 
  1751   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1752     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1753     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1754     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1755     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1756 
  1757     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1758     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1759 
  1760   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1761     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1762     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1763     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1764     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1765     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1766     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1767     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1768 
  1769   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1770     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1771     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1772     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1773 
  1774   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1775     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1776     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1777     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1778 
  1779   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1780     from type nat to type int.
  1781 
  1782 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1783 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1784 
  1785   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1786     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1787     type.  Example syntax:
  1788 
  1789     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1790       is List.insert
  1791 
  1792     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1793     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1794     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1795     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1796     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1797     by the package.
  1798 
  1799   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1800     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1801     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1802     code generation for each constant.
  1803 
  1804   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1805     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1806     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1807     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1808     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1809 
  1810   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1811     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1812     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1813 
  1814 * Quotient package:
  1815 
  1816   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1817     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1818 
  1819   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1820     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1821 
  1822   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1823     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1824     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1825 
  1826   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1827     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1830 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1831 
  1832 * Quickcheck:
  1833 
  1834   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1835     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1836     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1837     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1838     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1839 
  1840     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1841     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1842     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1843 
  1844     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1845     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1846 
  1847     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1848     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1849     show genuine counterexamples.
  1850 
  1851   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1852     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1853 
  1854     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1855     constructors of that type.
  1856 
  1857   - Support for multisets.
  1858 
  1859   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1860 
  1861   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1862     conjectures in a locale context.
  1863 
  1864 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1865 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1866 
  1867 * Sledgehammer:
  1868   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1869     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1870   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1871   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1872     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1873   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1874   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1875   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1876   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1877 
  1878 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1879 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1880 
  1881 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1882 
  1883 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1884 
  1885 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1886 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1887 
  1888   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1889 
  1890 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1891 a list and a nat.
  1892 
  1893 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1894 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1895 
  1896 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1897 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1898 default.
  1899 
  1900 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1901 
  1902   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1903 
  1904 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1905 
  1906 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1907 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1908 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1909 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1910 one_case.
  1911 
  1912 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1913 the result of the fact expression.
  1914 
  1915 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1916 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1917 of some relation theorems:
  1918 
  1919   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1920   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1921   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1922   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1923   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1924   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1925 
  1926 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1927 
  1928 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1929 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1930 
  1931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1932 
  1933 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1934 to match the constant's name:
  1935 
  1936   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1937   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1938   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1939   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1940   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1941   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1942   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1943   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1944   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1945   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1946   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1947   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1948   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1949   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1950   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1951   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1952   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1953   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1954   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1955   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1956   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1957   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1958   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1959   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1960 
  1961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1964 and corresponding theorem names:
  1965 
  1966   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1967 
  1968   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1969 
  1970   - Renamed theorems:
  1971 
  1972     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1973     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1974     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1975     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1976     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1977     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1978     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1979     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1980     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1981     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1982     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1983     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1984     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1985     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1986     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1987     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1988     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1989     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1990     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1991     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1992     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1993     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1994     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1995 
  1996     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1997 
  1998     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1999 
  2000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2003 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2004 
  2005   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2006   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2007   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2008   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2009   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2010   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2011   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2012   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2013   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2014   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2015   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2016   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2017   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2018   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2019   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2020   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2021   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2022   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2023   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2024   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2025   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2026 
  2027 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2028 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2033 
  2034   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2035   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2036   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2037   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2038   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2039   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2040   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2041   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2042   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2043   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2044   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2045   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2046   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2047   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2048   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2049   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2050   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2051   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2052 
  2053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2056 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2057 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2058 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2059 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2060 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2061 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2062 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2063 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2064 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2065 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2066 
  2067 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2068 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2069 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2070 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2071 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2072 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2073 
  2074 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2075 through option types.
  2076 
  2077 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2078 relations.
  2079 
  2080 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2081 
  2082 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2083 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2084 
  2085   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2086   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2087   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2088   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2089   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2090   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2091   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2092   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2093   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2094   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2095   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2096   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2097   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2098   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2099   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2100   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2101   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2102   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2103   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2104   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2105   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2106   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2107   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2108   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2109   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2110   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2111   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2112   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2113   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2114   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2115   zless_le ~> less_le
  2116   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2117   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2118   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2119 
  2120 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2121 
  2122   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2123 
  2124 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2125 
  2126 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2127 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2128 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2129 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2133 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2134 
  2135 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2136 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2137 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2138 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2139 follows:
  2140 
  2141   Operations:
  2142   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2143   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2144   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2145   del -> rbt_del
  2146   delete -> rbt_delete
  2147   ins -> rbt_ins
  2148   insert -> rbt_insert
  2149   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2150   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2151   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2152   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2153   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2154   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2155   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2156   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2157   union -> rbt_union
  2158   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2159   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2160 
  2161   Lemmas:
  2162   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2163   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2164   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2165   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2166   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2167   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2168   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2169   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2170   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2171   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2172   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2173   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2174   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2175   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2176   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2177   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2178   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2179   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2180   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2181   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2182   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2183   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2184   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2185   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2186   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2187   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2188   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2189   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2190   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2191   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2192   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2193   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2194   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2195   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2196   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2197   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2198   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2199   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2200   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2201   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2202   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2203   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2204   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2205   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2206   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2207   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2208   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2209   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2210   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2211   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2212   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2213   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2214   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2215   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2216   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2217   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2218   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2219   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2220   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2221   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2222   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2223   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2224   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2225   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2226   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2227   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2228   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2229   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2230   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2231   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2232   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2233   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2234   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2235   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2236   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2237   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2238   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2239   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2240   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2241   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2242   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2243   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2244   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2245 
  2246 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2247 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2248 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250   Changed Operations:
  2251   float_abs -> abs
  2252   float_nprt -> nprt
  2253   float_pprt -> pprt
  2254   pow2 -> use powr
  2255   round_down -> float_round_down
  2256   round_up -> float_round_up
  2257   scale -> exponent
  2258 
  2259   Removed Operations:
  2260   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2261 
  2262   Renamed Lemmas:
  2263   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2264   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2265   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2266   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2267   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2268   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2269   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2270   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2271   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2272   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2273   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2274   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2275   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2276   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2277   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2278   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2279   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2280   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2281   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2282   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2283   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2284   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2285   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2286   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2287   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2288   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2289   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2290   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2291   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2292   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2293   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2294   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2295   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2296   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2297   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2298   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2299 
  2300   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2301   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2302   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2303   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2304   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2305   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2306   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2307   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2308   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2309   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2310 
  2311 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2312 association lists with distinct keys.
  2313 
  2314 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2315 annotated commands.
  2316 
  2317 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2318 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2319 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2320 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2323 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2324 instead.
  2325 
  2326   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2327   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2328   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2329   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2330   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2331   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2332   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2333   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2334   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2335   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2336   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2337   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2338   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2339   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2340   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2341   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2342   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2343   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2344   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2345   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2346   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2347   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2348   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2349   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2350   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2351   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2352   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2353   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2354   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2355   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2356   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2357   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2358   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2359   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2360   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2361   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2362   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2363   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2364   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2365   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2366   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2367 
  2368 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2369 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2370 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2371 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2372 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2373 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2374 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2375 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2376 
  2377 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2378 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2379 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2380 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2381 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2382 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2383 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2384 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2385 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2386 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2387 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2388 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390   Renamed constants:
  2391   measure -> emeasure
  2392   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2393   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2394   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2395   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2396 
  2397   Removed locales:
  2398   completeable_measure_space
  2399   finite_measure_space
  2400   finite_prob_space
  2401   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2402   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2403   finite_sigma_algebra
  2404   measure_space
  2405   pair_finite_prob_space
  2406   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2407   pair_finite_space
  2408   pair_sigma_algebra
  2409   product_sigma_algebra
  2410 
  2411   Removed constants:
  2412   conditional_space
  2413   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2414   image_space
  2415   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2416   pair_measure_generator
  2417   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2418   subvimage
  2419 
  2420   Replacement theorems:
  2421   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2422   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2423   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2424   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2425   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2426   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2427   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2428   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2429   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2430   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2431   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2432   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2433   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2434   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2435   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2436   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2437   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2438   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2439   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2440   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2441   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2442   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2443   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2444   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2445   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2446   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2447   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2448   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2449   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2450   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2451   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2452   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2453   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2454   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2455   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2456   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2457   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2458   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2459   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2460   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2461   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2462   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2463   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2464   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2465   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2466   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2467   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2468   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2469   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2470   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2471   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2472   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2473   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2474   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2475   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2476   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2477   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2478   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2479   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2480   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2481   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2482   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2483   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2484   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2485   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2486   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2487   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2488   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2489   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2490   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2491   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2492   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2493   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2494   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2495   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2496   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2497   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2498   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2499   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2500   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2501   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2502   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2503   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2504   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2505   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2506   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2507   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2508   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2509   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2510   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2511   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2512   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2513   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2514   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2515   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2516   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2517   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2518   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2519   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2520   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2521   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2522   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2523   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2524   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2525   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2526   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2527   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2528   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2529   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2530   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2531   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2532   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2533   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2534   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2535   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2536   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2537   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2538   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2539   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2540   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2541   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2542   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2543   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2544   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2545   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2546   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2547   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2548   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2549 
  2550 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2551 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2552 
  2553 
  2554 *** FOL ***
  2555 
  2556 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2557 
  2558 
  2559 *** ZF ***
  2560 
  2561 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2562 analysis.
  2563 
  2564 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2565 
  2566 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568 
  2569 *** ML ***
  2570 
  2571 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2572 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2573 
  2574 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2575 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2576 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2577 
  2578 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2579 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2580 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2581 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2582 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2583 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2585 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2586 
  2587 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2588 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2589 
  2590 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2591 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2592 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2593 
  2594 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2595 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2598 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2599 context as well.
  2600 
  2601 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2602 
  2603   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2604   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2605   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2606   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2607   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2608   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2609   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2610   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2611   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2612   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2613   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2614   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2615 
  2616 
  2617 *** System ***
  2618 
  2619 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2620 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2621 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2622 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2623 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2624 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2625 the generic user home was intended.
  2626 
  2627 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2628 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2629 
  2630 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2631 (not just JRE).
  2632 
  2633 
  2634 
  2635 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2636 ------------------------------------
  2637 
  2638 *** General ***
  2639 
  2640 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2641 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2642 
  2643   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2644     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2645     files for checking).
  2646 
  2647   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2648     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2649     positions.
  2650 
  2651   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2652     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2653     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2654 
  2655   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2656     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2657     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2658 
  2659   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2660     cores.
  2661 
  2662   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2663     versions (garbage collection).
  2664 
  2665 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2666 including some remaining limitations.
  2667 
  2668 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2669 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2670 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2671 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2672 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2676 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2677 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2678 
  2679 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2680 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2681 usedir option -Q.
  2682 
  2683 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2684 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2685 
  2686   long_names   ~> names_long
  2687   short_names  ~> names_short
  2688   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2689 
  2690 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2691 
  2692   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2693 
  2694 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2695 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2696 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2697 
  2698 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2699 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2700 
  2701 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2702   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2703   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2704   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2705     "Classical Reasoner".
  2706 
  2707 
  2708 *** HOL ***
  2709 
  2710 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2711 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2714 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2715 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2716 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2717 class complete_linorder.
  2718 
  2719 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2720 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2721 
  2722 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2723 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2724 
  2725   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2726   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2727   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2728   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2729   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2730   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2731   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2732   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2733   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2734   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2735   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2736 
  2737 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2738 
  2739   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2740   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2741   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2742   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2743   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2744   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2745   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2746   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2747   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2748   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2749   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2750   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2751   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2752   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2753   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2754   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2755 
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2762 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2763 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2764 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2767 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2768 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2772 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2773 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2774 
  2775 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2776 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2777 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2780 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2781 
  2782 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2783 
  2784     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2785     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2786 
  2787 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2788 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2791 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2794 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2795 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2796 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2799   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2800   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2801   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2802   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2803   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2804   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2805 
  2806 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2807 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2810   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2811   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2812   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2813   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2814   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2815   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2816   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2817   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2818   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2819   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2820   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2821   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2822   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2823   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2824   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2825   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2826   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2827   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2828   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2829   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2830   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2831   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2832   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2833   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2834   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2835   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2836   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2837   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2838   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2839   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2840   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2841   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2842   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2843   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2844   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2845   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2846   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2847   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2848   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2849   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2850   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2851   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2852   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2853   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2854   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2855   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2856   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2857   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2858   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2859   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2860   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2861   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2862   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2863   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2864   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2865   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2866   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2867   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2868   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2869   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2870   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2871   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2872   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2873   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2874   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2875   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2876   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2877   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2878   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2879   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2880   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2881   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2882   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2883   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2884   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2885   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2886   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2887   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2888   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2889   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2890   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2891 
  2892 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2893 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2894 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2895 
  2896 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2897 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2898 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2899 
  2900 * Code generation:
  2901 
  2902   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2903     characters in the target language.
  2904 
  2905   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2906     instead.
  2907 
  2908   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2909 
  2910   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2911     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2912 
  2913       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2914 
  2915 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2918 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2919 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2920 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2921 syntax.
  2922 
  2923 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2924 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2925 
  2926 * Nitpick:
  2927   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2928   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2929   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2930     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Sledgehammer:
  2933   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2934   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2935     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2936   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2937     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2938   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2939     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2941     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2942   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2943     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Metis:
  2946   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2948     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949 
  2950 * Command 'try':
  2951   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2952     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2954     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2955 
  2956 * Quickcheck:
  2957   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2958     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2959   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2960     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2961   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2962     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2963     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2964     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2965   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2966     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2967 
  2968 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2969 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2970 
  2971 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2972 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2973 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2974 
  2975 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2976 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978 
  2979 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2980 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2981 
  2982 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2983 arithmetic.
  2984 
  2985 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2986 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2987 and lattice type classes.
  2988 
  2989 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2990 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2991 
  2992 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2993 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2994 
  2995 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2996 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2997 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3000   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3001   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3002   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3003 
  3004 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3005 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3006 constants:
  3007 
  3008   type inat   ~> type enat
  3009   Fin         ~> enat
  3010   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3011   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3012   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3013 
  3014 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3015 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3018 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3019 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3020 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3021 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3022 
  3023 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3024 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3025 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3026 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3027 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3028 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3029 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3030 
  3031   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3032   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3033   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3034   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3035 
  3036 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3037 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3038 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3041   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3042   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3043   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3044   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3045   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3046   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3047   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3048   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3049   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3050   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3051   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3052   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3053   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3054   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3055   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3056   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3057   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3058   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3059   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3060   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3061   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3062   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3063   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3064   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3065   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3066   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3067   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3068   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3069   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3070   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3071   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3072   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3073   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3074   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3075   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3076   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3077   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3078   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3079   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3080   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3081   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3082   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3083   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3084   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3085   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3086   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3087   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3088   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3089   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3090   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3091 
  3092 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3093   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3094   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3095   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3096   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3097     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3102   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3103   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3104   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3105   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3106   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3107   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3108   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3109   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3110   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3111   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3112   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3113   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3114   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3115   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3116   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3117   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3118   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3119   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3120   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3121   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3122   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3123   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3124   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3125   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3126 
  3127 
  3128 *** Document preparation ***
  3129 
  3130 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3131 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3132 same.
  3133 
  3134 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3135 result.
  3136 
  3137 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3138 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3139 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3140 
  3141 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3142 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3143 
  3144 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3145 like this:
  3146 
  3147   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3148   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3149 
  3150 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3151 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3152 layouts.
  3153 
  3154 
  3155 *** ML ***
  3156 
  3157 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3158 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3159 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3160 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3161 under external program control.
  3162 
  3163 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3164 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3165 
  3166 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3167 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3168 (better known as Proof General).
  3169 
  3170 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3171 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3172 
  3173 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3174 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3175 
  3176 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3177 (including quotes etc.).
  3178 
  3179 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3180 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3181 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3182 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3183 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3184 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3185 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3186 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3187 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3188 
  3189 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3190 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3191 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3192 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3193 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3194 
  3195 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3196 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3197 
  3198 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3199 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3200 
  3201 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3202 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3203 
  3204 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3205 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3206 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3207 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3208 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3209 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3210 proper Proof.context.
  3211 
  3212 
  3213 *** System ***
  3214 
  3215 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3216 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3217 
  3218 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3219 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3220 
  3221 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3222 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3223 
  3224   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3225   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3226   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3227   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3228   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3229 
  3230 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3231 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3234 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3235 example:
  3236 
  3237   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3238 
  3239 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3240 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3241 
  3242 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3243 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3244 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3245 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3246 
  3247 
  3248 
  3249 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3250 ----------------------------------
  3251 
  3252 *** General ***
  3253 
  3254 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3255 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3256 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3257 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3258 like this:
  3259 
  3260   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3261 
  3262 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3263 
  3264 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3265 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3266 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3267 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3268 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3269 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3270 
  3271 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3272 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3273 the following package declarations:
  3274 
  3275   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3276   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3277 
  3278 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3279 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3280 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3281 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3282 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3283 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3284 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3285 
  3286 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3287 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3288 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3289 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3290 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3291 
  3292 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3293 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3294 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3295 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3296 
  3297 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3298 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3299 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3300 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3301 
  3302   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3303 
  3304   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3305   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3306   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3307   show_types                    show_types
  3308   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3309   show_consts                   show_consts
  3310   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3311 
  3312   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3313   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3314   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3315 
  3316   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3317   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3318 
  3319   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3320 
  3321   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3322   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3323   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3324   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3325   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3326 
  3327 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3328 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3329 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3330 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3331 
  3332 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3336   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3337 
  3338 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3339 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3340 float_token.
  3341 
  3342 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3343 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3347 DejaVu Sans.
  3348 
  3349 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3350 
  3351 
  3352 *** Pure ***
  3353 
  3354 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3355 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3356 time.
  3357 
  3358 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3359 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3362 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3365 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3366 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3367 command already provided this functionality.
  3368 
  3369 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3370 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3371 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3372 without interpretations.
  3373 
  3374 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3375 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3376 
  3377 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3378 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3379 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3380 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3381 
  3382 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3383 'definition' instead.
  3384 
  3385 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3386 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3387 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3388 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3389 
  3390 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3391 constructors.
  3392 
  3393 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3394 the local file system.
  3395 
  3396 
  3397 *** HOL ***
  3398 
  3399 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3400 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3401 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3402 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3403 
  3404   declare [[coercion f]]
  3405 
  3406 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3407 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3408 
  3409   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3410 
  3411 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3412 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3413 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3414 other theories like this:
  3415 
  3416   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3417 
  3418 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3419 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3420 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3421 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3422 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3423 for examples.
  3424 
  3425 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3426 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3429 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3430 
  3431 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3432 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3433 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3434 
  3435 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3436 functorial structure of types.
  3437 
  3438 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3439 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3440 
  3441 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3442 languages.
  3443 
  3444 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3445 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3449 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3452 combinators any longer.
  3453 
  3454 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3455 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3456 
  3457 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3458 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3459 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3460 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3461 
  3462   record 'a foo = ...
  3463   ...
  3464   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3465 
  3466 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3467 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469 
  3470 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3471 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3472 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3473 
  3474 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3475 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3476 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3477 
  3478 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3479 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480 
  3481 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3482 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3483 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3484 independently.
  3485 
  3486 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3487 counter example search.
  3488 
  3489 * Sledgehammer:
  3490   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3491     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3492     sledgehammer").
  3493   - Renamed commands:
  3494     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3495     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3496     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3497     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498   - Renamed options:
  3499     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3500     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3501     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3502     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3503     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Nitpick:
  3506   - Renamed options:
  3507     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3508     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3509     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3511   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3512   - Added "whack" option.
  3513   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3514   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3515   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3516   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3517     higher cardinalities.
  3518   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3519 
  3520 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3521 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3522 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3523 
  3524     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3525 
  3526 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3527 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3528 
  3529 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3530 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3531 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3532 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3533 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3534 "smt_solver".
  3535 
  3536 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3537 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3538 
  3539 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3540 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3541 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3542 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3545   - Renamed:
  3546     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3547     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3548     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549   - Added:
  3550     smt_verbose
  3551     smt_random_seed
  3552     smt_datatypes
  3553     smt_infer_triggers
  3554     smt_monomorph_limit
  3555     cvc3_options
  3556     remote_cvc3_options
  3557     remote_z3_options
  3558     yices_options
  3559 
  3560 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3561 header.
  3562 
  3563 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3564 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3566 
  3567   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3568 
  3569 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3572 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3575 
  3576 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3577 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3580 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3581 
  3582 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3583 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3586 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3587 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3595 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3598 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3599 for congruent(2)).
  3600 
  3601 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3602 
  3603   types
  3604     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3605     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3606 
  3607   constants
  3608     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3609     True ~> HOL.True
  3610     False ~> HOL.False
  3611     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3612     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3613     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3614     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3615     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3616     The ~> HOL.The
  3617     All ~> HOL.All
  3618     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3619     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3620     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3621     If ~> HOL.If
  3622     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3623     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3624     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3625     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3626     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3627     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3628     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3629     op : ~> Set.member
  3630     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3631 
  3632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3635 
  3636     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3637     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3638     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3639     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3640     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3641     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3642     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3643     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3644 
  3645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * More stylized fact names:
  3648 
  3649   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3650   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3651   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3652   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3653 
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3657 
  3658   constants
  3659     null ~> List.null
  3660 
  3661   facts
  3662     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3663     null_empty ~> null_def
  3664 
  3665 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3666 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3667 generation.
  3668 
  3669 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3670 Haskell code.
  3671 
  3672 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3673 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3674 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3677 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3678 
  3679 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3680 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3681 
  3682 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3683 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3684 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3687 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3693 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3694 referred to by its qualified name.
  3695 
  3696   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3697   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3698   product ~>  Enum.product
  3699 
  3700 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3701 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3705 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3706 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3710 sort_key.
  3711 
  3712 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3716 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3717 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3718 
  3719   types
  3720     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3721               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3722               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3723         (depends on your needs)
  3724 
  3725   constants
  3726      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3727      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3728      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3729 
  3730 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3731 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3732 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3733 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3734 
  3735 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3736 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3737 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3738 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3739 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3740 
  3741 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3745 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3746 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3747 
  3748 
  3749 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3750 
  3751 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3752 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3753 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3754 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3755 compatibility.
  3756 
  3757 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3758 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3759 
  3760 
  3761 *** HOLCF ***
  3762 
  3763 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3764 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3765 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3769 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3770 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3773   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3774   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3775 
  3776 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3777 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3778 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3781 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3782 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3783 domain definition now works:
  3784 
  3785   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3786 
  3787 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3788 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3789 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3790 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3791 
  3792   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3793     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3794 
  3795   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3796 
  3797 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3798 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3799 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3802 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3805 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3806 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3807 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3808 
  3809 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3810 
  3811 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3814 
  3815 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817 
  3818 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3819 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3820 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3821 
  3822 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3823 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3824 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3827 still supported as an input translation.
  3828 
  3829 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3830 
  3831   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3832   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3833   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3834   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3835   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3836   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3837   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3838 
  3839 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3840 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3843   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3844   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3845   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3846   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3847   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3848 
  3849 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3850 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3853 
  3854   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3855   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3856   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3857   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3858 
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3862 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3865 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3868   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3869   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3870   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3871   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3872   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3873   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3874   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3875   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3876   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3877   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3878   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3879   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3880   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3881   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3882   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3883   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3884   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3885   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3886   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3887 
  3888 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3891   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3892   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3893   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3894   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3895   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3896   box_less             ~> box_below
  3897   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3898   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3899   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3900   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3901   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3902   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3903   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3904   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3905   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3906   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3907   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3908   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3909   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3910   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3911   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3912   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3913   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3914   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3915   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3916   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3917   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3918   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3919   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3920   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3921   up_less              ~> up_below
  3922   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3923   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3924   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3925   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3926   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3927   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3928   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3929   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3930   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3931   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3932   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3933   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3934   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3935 
  3936 
  3937 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3938 
  3939 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3940 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 
  3943 *** ML ***
  3944 
  3945 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3946 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3947 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3948 
  3949 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3950 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3951 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3952 
  3953 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3954 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3955 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3956 
  3957 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3958 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3959 
  3960 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3961 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3962 
  3963 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3964 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3965 
  3966 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3967 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3968 
  3969 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3970 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3971 almost all situations.
  3972 
  3973 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3974 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3975 Isabelle/ML.
  3976 
  3977 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3978 meaning.
  3979 
  3980 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3981 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3982 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3983 
  3984 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3985 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3986 
  3987 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3988 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3989 
  3990 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3991 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3992 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3993 
  3994 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3995 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3996 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3997 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3998 configuration options.
  3999 
  4000 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4001 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4002 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4003 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4004 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4005 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4006 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4007 
  4008 
  4009 
  4010 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4011 ---------------------------------
  4012 
  4013 *** General ***
  4014 
  4015 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4016 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4017 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4018 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4019 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4020 their full internal name.
  4021 
  4022 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4023 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4024 Some hints on upgrading:
  4025 
  4026   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4027     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4028     which are independent of this issue.
  4029 
  4030   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4031     provides the following special forms:
  4032 
  4033       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4034       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4035       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4036 
  4037     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4038     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4039     extra variables".
  4040 
  4041     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4042     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4043     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4044     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4045     "logic".
  4046 
  4047   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4048     antiquotations:
  4049 
  4050       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4051       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4052       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4053       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4054 
  4055   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4056     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4057     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4058     antiquotations.
  4059 
  4060 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4061 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4062 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4063 diagnose syntax problems.
  4064 
  4065 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4066 
  4067 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4068 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4069 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4070 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4071 
  4072 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4073 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4074 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4075 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4078 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4079 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4080 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4081 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4084 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4085 
  4086 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4087 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4088 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4089 
  4090   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4091 
  4092 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4093 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4094 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4095 
  4096 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4097 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4101 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4102 
  4103 
  4104 *** Pure ***
  4105 
  4106 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4107 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4108 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4109 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4110 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4111 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4112 inspect proof terms.
  4113 
  4114 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4115 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4116 are added internally.  For example:
  4117 
  4118   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4119 
  4120 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4121 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4126 'class' instead.
  4127 
  4128 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4129 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4133 invariants.
  4134 
  4135 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4136 user space functionality any longer.
  4137 
  4138 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4139 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4143 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4144 
  4145 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4146 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4147 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4148 
  4149 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4150 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4151 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4152 
  4153 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4154 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156 
  4157 *** HOL ***
  4158 
  4159 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4160 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4161 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4162 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4163 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4164 
  4165 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4166 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4167 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4168 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4169 
  4170   fun
  4171     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4172   where
  4173     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4174 
  4175   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4176     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4177 
  4178   quotient_definition
  4179     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4180 
  4181 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4182 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4183 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4184 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4185 
  4186 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4187 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4188 
  4189 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4190 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4191 
  4192 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4196 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4197 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4198 
  4199 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4200 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4207 
  4208 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4209 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4212 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4213 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4216   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4217   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4218   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4219   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4220   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4221   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4222   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4223   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4224   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4225   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4226   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4227   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4228   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4229   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4230   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4231   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4232   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4233   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4234   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4235   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4236   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4237   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4238   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4239   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4240   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4241   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4242   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4243   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4244   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4245 
  4246 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4247 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4248 
  4249 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4250 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4251 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4252 
  4253 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4254 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4255 
  4256 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4257 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4260 
  4261 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4262 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4265 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4266 
  4267 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4270 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4271 
  4272 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4273 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4274 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4275 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4276 
  4277 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4278   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4279   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4280   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4284 lattices):
  4285 
  4286     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4287     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4288 
  4289     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4290 
  4291     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4292     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4293     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4294     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4295     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4296     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4297     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4298     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4299     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4300     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4301     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4302     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4303     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4304 
  4305     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4306     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4307     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4308     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4309     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4310     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4311     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4312     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4313     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4314     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4315     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4316     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4317     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4318     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4319     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4320     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4321     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4322     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4323 
  4324   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4325   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4326 
  4327     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4328     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4329     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4330     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4331     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4332 
  4333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4334 
  4335 * Refined field classes:
  4336   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4337     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4338     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4339   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4343   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4344   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4345   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4346     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4347   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4348     equal_neg_zero.
  4349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4352 sets to lattices:
  4353 
  4354   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4355   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4356   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4357   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4358   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4359   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4360   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4361   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4362   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4363   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4364 
  4365 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4366 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4367 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4368 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4369 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4370 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4373 multiset order:
  4374 
  4375   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4376     <= and <;
  4377   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4378     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4379     multiset_order;
  4380   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4381     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4382     generation;
  4383   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4384     if needed.
  4385 
  4386 Renamed:
  4387 
  4388   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4389   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4390   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4391 
  4392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4395 
  4396 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4397 
  4398 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4399 
  4400 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4401 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4402 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404   Constants:
  4405   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4406   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4407   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4408   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4409   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4410   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4411   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4412   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4413   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4414   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4415   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4416   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4417   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4418 
  4419   Lemmas:
  4420   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4421   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4422   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4423   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4424   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4425   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4426   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4427   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4428   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4429   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4430   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4431   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4432   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4433 
  4434 * Sledgehammer:
  4435   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4436     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4437     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4438     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4439     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4440     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4441     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4443   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4444     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4445   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4446     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4447     is still experimental.)
  4448   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4449     full-typed mode.
  4450   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4451 
  4452 * Nitpick:
  4453   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4454   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4455   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4456     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4457   - Added support for quotient types.
  4458   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4459     constructs.
  4460   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4461     "termination" proofs).
  4462   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4463   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4464   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4465   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4466     record getters.
  4467   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4468   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4469   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4470   - Added "atoms" option.
  4471   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4472     problems.
  4473   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4474     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4475     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4477     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4481   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4482   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4483   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4484   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4485   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4486   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4487   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4488   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4489   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 
  4492 *** HOLCF ***
  4493 
  4494 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4495 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4496 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4497 
  4498 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4499 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4500 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4501 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4504 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4505 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4506 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4507 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4510 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4511 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4514 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4517   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4518 
  4519 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4520 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4523   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4524   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4525   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4526   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4527 
  4528 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4529 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4530 
  4531   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4532   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4533   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4534 
  4535 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4536 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4540 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4541 
  4542 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4543 
  4544 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4545 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547 
  4548 *** ML ***
  4549 
  4550 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4551 
  4552     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4553     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4554 
  4555     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4556     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4557     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4558     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4559 
  4560     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4561     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4562     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4563 
  4564 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4565 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4566 
  4567 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4568 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4569 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4570 
  4571 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4572 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4573 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4574 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4575 
  4576 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4577 the context or even global references.
  4578 
  4579 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4580 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4581 
  4582 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4583 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4584 
  4585   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4586   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4587   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4588   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4589   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4590   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4591   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4592   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4593   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4594   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4595 
  4596 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4597 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4598 
  4599 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4600 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4601 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4602 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4603 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4604 
  4605 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4606 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4607 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4608 Theory_Data version.
  4609 
  4610 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4611 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4612 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4613 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4614 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4615 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4616 explicitly in rare situations.
  4617 
  4618 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4619 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4623 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 
  4625 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4626 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4627 quite rare).
  4628 
  4629 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4630 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4633 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4634 terms.
  4635 
  4636 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4637 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4638 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4639 
  4640 
  4641 *** System ***
  4642 
  4643 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4644 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4645 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4646 
  4647 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4648 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4649 respectively.
  4650 
  4651 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4652 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4653 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4654 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4655 
  4656   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4657 
  4658 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4659 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4660 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4661 component.
  4662 
  4663 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4664 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4665 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4666 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4667 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4668 the user for manual installation.
  4669 
  4670 
  4671 
  4672 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4673 -------------------------------------
  4674 
  4675 *** General ***
  4676 
  4677 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4678 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4679 
  4680 
  4681 *** Pure ***
  4682 
  4683 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4684 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4685 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4686 
  4687 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4688 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4689 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4690 
  4691 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4692 interpretation.
  4693 
  4694 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4695 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 
  4698 *** Document preparation ***
  4699 
  4700 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4701 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4702 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4703 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4704 
  4705 
  4706 *** HOL ***
  4707 
  4708 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4709 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4710 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4711 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4712 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4713 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4714 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4715 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4716 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4717 
  4718 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4719 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4720 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4721 
  4722 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4723 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4724 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4725 
  4726 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4727 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4728 
  4729 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4730 
  4731 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4732 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4733 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4734 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4735 
  4736 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4737 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4738 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4739 "mirabelle" utility.
  4740 
  4741 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4742 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4743 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4744 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4745 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4746 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4747 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4748 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4749 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4750 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4751 
  4752 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4753 procedure only.
  4754 
  4755 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4756 
  4757 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4758 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4759 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4760 that fail later.
  4761 
  4762 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4763 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4764 
  4765 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4766 the same method as the approximation method.
  4767 
  4768 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4769 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4770 series expansion.
  4771 
  4772 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4773 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4774 
  4775 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4776 reals.
  4777 
  4778 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4779 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4780 
  4781 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4782 fixpoint theorem.
  4783 
  4784 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4785   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4786     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4787   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4788     accordingly
  4789   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4790     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4791   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4792     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4793 
  4794 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4795 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4796 lattice.
  4797 
  4798 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4799 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4800 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4801 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4802 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4803 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4807   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4808     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4809   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4810     le_inf_iff
  4811   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4812     sup_aci)
  4813   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4814   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4815   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4816     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4817     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4818     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4819     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4820     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4821     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4822     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4823     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4824     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4825     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4826   - authentic syntax for
  4827     Set.Pow
  4828     Set.image
  4829   - mere abbreviations:
  4830     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4831     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4832     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4833     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4834     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4835     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4836     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4837     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4838   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4839 
  4840 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4841 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4842 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4843 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4844 
  4845 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4846 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4847 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4850 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4853 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4854 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4855 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4858 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4859 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4860 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4861 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4862 
  4863 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4864 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4868 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4869 
  4870 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4871 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4872 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4873 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4874 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4875 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4876 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 
  4879 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4880     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4881     code_post       replaces    code post
  4882     etc.
  4883   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * Renamed methods:
  4886     sizechange -> size_change
  4887     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4888   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4891 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4892 
  4893 * Renamed theorems:
  4894     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4895     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4896     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4897     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4898     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4899   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 
  4908 *** HOLCF ***
  4909 
  4910 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4911 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4912 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4913 
  4914 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4915 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4916 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4917 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4918 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4919 
  4920 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4921 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4922 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4923 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4924 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4925 
  4926 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4927 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4928 constructor are pre-configured.
  4929 
  4930 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4931 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4932 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4933 
  4934 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4935 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4936 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4937 as well.)
  4938 
  4939 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4940 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4941 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4942 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4943 examples.
  4944 
  4945 
  4946 *** ML ***
  4947 
  4948 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4949 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4950 
  4951 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4952 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4953 position, logical grouping etc.
  4954 
  4955 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4956 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4957 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4958 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4959 
  4960 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4961 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4962 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4963 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4964 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4965 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4966 
  4967 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4968 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4969 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4970 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4971 experiments with references.
  4972 
  4973 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4974 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4975 
  4976 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4977 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4978 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4979 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4980 
  4981 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4982 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4983 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4984 
  4985 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4986 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4987 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 
  4989 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 
  4991 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4995 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4996 
  4997 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4998 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4999 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5000 
  5001 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5002 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5003 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5006 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5007 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5011 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5012 instead of global theory.
  5013 
  5014 
  5015 *** System ***
  5016 
  5017 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5018 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5019 usedir option -q.
  5020 
  5021 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5022 also the system manual.
  5023 
  5024 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5025 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5026 
  5027 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5028 this is always enabled.
  5029 
  5030 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5031 
  5032 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5033 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5034 currently supported on Linux only.
  5035 
  5036 
  5037 
  5038 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5039 --------------------------------
  5040 
  5041 *** General ***
  5042 
  5043 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5044 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5045 
  5046   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5047     "isatool."
  5048 
  5049   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5050     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5051 
  5052   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5053     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5054 
  5055 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5056 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5057 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5058 
  5059 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5060 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5061 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5062 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5063 via "isabelle emacs".
  5064 
  5065 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5066 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5067 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5068 
  5069 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5070 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5071 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5072 
  5073 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5074 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5075 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5076 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5077 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5078 
  5079 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5080 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5081 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5082 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5083 
  5084 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5085 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5086 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5087 
  5088 
  5089 *** Pure ***
  5090 
  5091 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5092 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5093 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5094 
  5095 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5096 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5097 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5098 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5099 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5100 
  5101 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5102 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5103 useful in locale declarations.
  5104 
  5105 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5106 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5107 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5108 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5109 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5110 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5111 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5112 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5113 no longer generated.
  5114 
  5115 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5116 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5117 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5118 
  5119 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5120 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5121 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5122 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5123 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5124 
  5125 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5127 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5128 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5129 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5130 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5131 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5132 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5133 
  5134 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5135 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5136 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5137 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5138 
  5139 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5142 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5143 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5144 
  5145 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5146 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5147 
  5148 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5149 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5150 in HOL, write
  5151 
  5152     class foo = ...
  5153 
  5154 instead of
  5155 
  5156     class foo = type + ...
  5157 
  5158 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5159 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5162 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5163 
  5164 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5165 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5166 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5167 
  5168 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5169 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5170 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5171 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5172 directly in regular applications.
  5173 
  5174 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5175 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5176 
  5177 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5178 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5179 
  5180 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5181 theory context.
  5182 
  5183 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5184 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5187 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5188 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5189 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5190 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5191 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5192 
  5193   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5194 
  5195 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5196 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5197 normalization.
  5198 
  5199 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5200 addressing etc.
  5201 
  5202 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5203 
  5204   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5205   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5206 
  5207 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5208 
  5209   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5210      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5211      parts of the code generator framework).
  5212 
  5213   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5214      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5215      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5216 
  5217 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5218 
  5219 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5220 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5221 
  5222 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5223 patterns, e.g.
  5224 
  5225     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5226 
  5227 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5228 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5229 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5230 hyphen:
  5231 
  5232     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5233 
  5234 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5235 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5236 
  5237 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5238 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5239 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5240 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5241 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5242 higher-order unification.
  5243 
  5244 
  5245 *** Document preparation ***
  5246 
  5247 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5248 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5249 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5250 
  5251 
  5252 *** HOL ***
  5253 
  5254 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5255 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5256 
  5257 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5258 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5259 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5260 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5261 Main, as before.
  5262 
  5263 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5264 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5265 
  5266 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5267 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5268 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5269 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5270 
  5271 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5272 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5273 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5274 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5275 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5276 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5277 
  5278 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5279 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5280 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5281 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5282 
  5283 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5284 menu.
  5285 
  5286 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5287 (contains the empty clause).
  5288 
  5289 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5290 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5291 
  5292 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5293 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5294 
  5295 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5296 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5297 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5300 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5301 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5302 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5303 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5304 
  5305 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5306 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5307 
  5308 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5309 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5310 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5311 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5312 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5313 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5314 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5315 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5316 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5317 
  5318 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5319 
  5320 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5321 
  5322 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5323 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5324 
  5325 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5326 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5327 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5328 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5329 
  5330 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5331 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5332 
  5333     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5334     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5335     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5336     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5337     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5338     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5339     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5340     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5341 
  5342 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5343 theory Set.
  5344 
  5345 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5346 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5347 
  5348 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5349 
  5350 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5351 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5352 
  5353 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5354 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5355 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5356 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5357 allowed. For examples see
  5358 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5359 
  5360 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5361 
  5362 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5366 structure:
  5367 
  5368     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5369     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5370     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5371     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5372     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5373     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5374     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5375     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5376     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5377     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5378     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5379     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5380     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5381     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5382     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5383     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5384     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5385     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5386     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5387     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5388     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5389     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5390     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5391     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5392     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5393     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5394     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5395     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5396     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5397     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5398     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5399     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5400     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5401 
  5402     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5403     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5404     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5405     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5406     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5407     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5408     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5409     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5410     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5411     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5412 
  5413     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5414     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5415     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5416     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5417     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5418     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5419 
  5420 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5421 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5422 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5423 
  5424 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5425 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5426 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5427 
  5428 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5429 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5430 
  5431 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5432 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5433 
  5434 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5435 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5436 proofs, e.g.
  5437 
  5438   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5439 
  5440 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5441 
  5442 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5443 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5444 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 
  5446 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5447 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5449 
  5450 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5451 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5452 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5454 
  5455 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5456 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5457 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5458 preorder_class.*.
  5459 
  5460 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5461 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5462 
  5463 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5464 
  5465   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5466 
  5467 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5468 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5469 fold_image.
  5470 
  5471 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5472 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5473 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5474 the former will disappear at some point.
  5475 
  5476 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5477 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5478 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5479 
  5480 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5481 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5482 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5483 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5484 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5485 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5486 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5487 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5488 
  5489 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5490 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5491 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5492 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5493 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5494 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5495 
  5496     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5497     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5498     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5499     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5500     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5501     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5502     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5503 
  5504 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5505 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5506 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5507 
  5508 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5509 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5510 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5511 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5512 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5513 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5514 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5515 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5516 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5517 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5518 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5519 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5520 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5521 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5522 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5523 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5524 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5525 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5526 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5527 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5528 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5529 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5530 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5531 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5532 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5533 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5534 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5535 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5536 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5537 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5538 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5539 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5540 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5541 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5542 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5543 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5544 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5545 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5546 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5547 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5548 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5549 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5550 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5551 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5552 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5553 
  5554 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5557 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5558 
  5559 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5560 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5561 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5562 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5563 
  5564 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5565 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5566 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5567 theory RealVector.
  5568 
  5569 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5570 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5571 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5572 and inner products are included.
  5573 
  5574 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5575 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5576 supported.
  5577 
  5578 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5579 first diagonalization argument.
  5580 
  5581 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5582 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5583 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5584 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5585 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5586 
  5587     hide (open) const gcd
  5588     abbreviation gcd where
  5589       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5590     notation (output)
  5591       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5592 
  5593 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5594 
  5595 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5596 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5597 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5600 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5601 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5602 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5603 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5604 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5605 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5606 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5607 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5608 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5609 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5610 cases.
  5611 
  5612 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5613 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5614 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5615 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5616 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5617 
  5618     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5619     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5620     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5621     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5622     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5623 
  5624 
  5625 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5626 
  5627 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5628 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5629 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5630 
  5631 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5632 
  5633 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5634 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5635 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5636 
  5637 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5638 
  5639 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5640 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5641 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5642 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5643 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5644 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5645 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5646 
  5647 
  5648 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5649 
  5650 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5651 
  5652 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5653 theory targets.
  5654 
  5655 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5656 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5657 'inductive' etc.
  5658 
  5659 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5660 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5661 
  5662 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5663 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5664 
  5665 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5666 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5667 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5668 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5669 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5670 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5671 the algorithm W:
  5672 
  5673  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5674  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5675          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5676 
  5677 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5678 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5679 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5680 
  5681 
  5682 *** HOLCF ***
  5683 
  5684 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5685 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5686 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5687 
  5688 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5689 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5690 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5691 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5692 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5695 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5696 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 
  5699 *** ZF ***
  5700 
  5701 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5702 
  5703 
  5704 *** ML ***
  5705 
  5706 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5707 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5708 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5709 5.2.1!
  5710 
  5711 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5712 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5713 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5714 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5715 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5716 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5717 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5718 
  5719 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5720 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5721 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5722 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5723 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5724 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5725 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5726 
  5727 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5728 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5729 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5730 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5731 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5732 
  5733 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5734 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5735 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5736 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5737 Method.add_method.
  5738 
  5739 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5740 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5741 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5742 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5743 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5744 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5745 
  5746 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5747 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5748 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5749 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5750 examples.
  5751 
  5752 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5753 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5754 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5755 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5756 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5757 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5758 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5759 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5760 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5761 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5762 
  5763 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5764 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5765 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5766 
  5767 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5768 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5769 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5770 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5771 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5772 resort for legacy applications.
  5773 
  5774 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5775 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5776 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5777 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5778 explicit runtime argument.
  5779 
  5780 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5781 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5782 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5783 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5784 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5785 
  5786 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5787 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5788 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5789 theory state.
  5790 
  5791 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5792 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5793 
  5794   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5795   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5796   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5797   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5798   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5799   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5800   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5801   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5802   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5803   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5804 
  5805 
  5806 *** System ***
  5807 
  5808 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5809 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5810 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5811 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5812 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5813 
  5814 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5815 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5816 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5817 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5818 
  5819 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5820 
  5821 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5822 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5823 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5824 prover operations.
  5825 
  5826 
  5827 
  5828 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5829 -------------------------------
  5830 
  5831 *** General ***
  5832 
  5833 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5834 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5835 
  5836 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5837 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5838 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5839 provides a proper context already.
  5840 
  5841 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5842 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5843 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5844 
  5845 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5846 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5847 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5848 swap theory imports.
  5849 
  5850 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5851 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5852 
  5853 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5854 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5855 white space without escapes.
  5856 
  5857 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5858 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5859 "foo_bar".
  5860 
  5861 
  5862 *** Pure ***
  5863 
  5864 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5865 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5866 
  5867 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5868 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5869 
  5870 (1) unused_thms
  5871      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5872 
  5873 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5874      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5875      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5876 
  5877 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5878      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5879      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5880      their ancestors.
  5881 
  5882 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5883 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5884 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5885 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5886 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5887 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5888 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5889 
  5890 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5891 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5892 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5893 
  5894 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5895 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5896 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5897 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5898 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5899 
  5900 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5901 
  5902 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5903 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5904 update of theories within ML code.
  5905 
  5906 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5907 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5908 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5909 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5910 
  5911 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5912 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5913 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5917 
  5918 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5919 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5920 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5921 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5922 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5923 
  5924 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5925 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5926 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5927 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5928 situations.
  5929 
  5930 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5931 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5932 proof text.
  5933 
  5934 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5935 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5936 
  5937 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5938 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5939 predicates.
  5940 
  5941 
  5942 *** Document preparation ***
  5943 
  5944 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5945 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5946 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5947 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5948 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5949 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5950 
  5951 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5952 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5953 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5954 
  5955 
  5956 *** HOL ***
  5957 
  5958 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5959 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5960 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5961 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5962 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5963 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5964 
  5965 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5966 with multithreading.
  5967 
  5968 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5969 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5970 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5971 
  5972 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5973 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5974 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5975 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5976 
  5977 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5978 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5979 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5980 and makes them available separately.  See
  5981 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5982 
  5983 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5984 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5985 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5986 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5987 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5988 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5989 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5990 the declared rules.
  5991 
  5992 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5993 
  5994   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5995 
  5996 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5997 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5998 
  5999 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6000 
  6001   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6002 
  6003   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6004     definitions on => and bool.
  6005 
  6006   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6007     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6008     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6009 
  6010       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6011       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6012       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6013       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6014       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6015       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6016       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6017       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6018 
  6019   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6020     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6021     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6022 
  6023   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6024     The proof pattern
  6025 
  6026       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6027       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6028 
  6029     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6030     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6031 
  6032       have "EX S. P S"
  6033       proof
  6034         show "P S" <...>
  6035       qed
  6036 
  6037   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6038     The proof pattern
  6039 
  6040       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6041       also have "S = T" <...>
  6042       finally have "P T" .
  6043 
  6044     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6045     must be replaced by something like
  6046 
  6047       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6048       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6049       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6050 
  6051   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6052     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6053 
  6054       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6055 
  6056     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6057     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6058     type of the form
  6059 
  6060       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6061 
  6062     rather than
  6063 
  6064       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6065 
  6066 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6067 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6068 
  6069 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6072 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6076 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6077 
  6078 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6079 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6080 
  6081 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6082 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6083 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6084 
  6085 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6086 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6087 
  6088   less_trans
  6089   less_linear
  6090   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6091   le_less_trans
  6092   less_le_trans
  6093   less_not_sym
  6094   less_asym
  6095 
  6096 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6097 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6098 and different variable names.
  6099 
  6100 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6101 
  6102 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6103 finite maps.
  6104 
  6105 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6106 
  6107 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6108 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6109 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6110 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6111 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6112 accordingly.
  6113 
  6114 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6115 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6116 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6117 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6118 
  6119 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6120 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6121 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6122 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6123 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6125 
  6126 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6127 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6130 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6131 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6132 
  6133 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6135 
  6136 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6137 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6138 
  6139 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6140 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6141 
  6142 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6143 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6144 
  6145 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6146 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6148 
  6149 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6150 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6151 
  6152 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6153 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6154 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6155 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6156 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6157 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6158 
  6159 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6160 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6161 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6162 
  6163 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6164 
  6165 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6166 
  6167 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6168 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6169 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6170 
  6171 
  6172 *** ZF ***
  6173 
  6174 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6175 same session:
  6176 
  6177   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6178   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6179   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6180   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6181   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6182   List      -> List_ZF
  6183   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6184 
  6185 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6186 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6187 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6188 
  6189 
  6190 *** ML ***
  6191 
  6192 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6193 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6194 
  6195 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6196 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6197 
  6198 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6199 
  6200 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6201 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6202 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6203 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6204 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6205 
  6206 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6207 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6208 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6209 
  6210 
  6211 *** System ***
  6212 
  6213 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6214 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6215 
  6216 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6217 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6218 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6219 
  6220 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6221 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6222 
  6223 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6224 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6225 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6226 
  6227 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6228 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6229 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6230 
  6231 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6232 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6233 
  6234 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6235 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6236 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6237 script.
  6238 
  6239 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6240 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6241 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6242 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6243 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6244 
  6245 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6246 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6247 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6248 
  6249 
  6250 
  6251 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6252 -----------------------------------
  6253 
  6254 *** General ***
  6255 
  6256 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6257 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6258 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6259 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6260 
  6261 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6262 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6263 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6264 
  6265 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6266 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6267 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6268 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6269 
  6270 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6271 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6272 quotes.