NEWS
author haftmann
Fri Oct 14 22:42:56 2011 +0200 (2011-10-14)
changeset 45145 d5086da3c32d
parent 45134 9b02f6665fc8
child 45143 aed8f14bf562
permissions -rw-r--r--
monadic bind
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Pure ***
     8 
     9 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
    10 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    11 
    12 
    13 *** HOL ***
    14 
    15 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
    16   INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
    17 
    18   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
    19   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
    20   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
    21   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
    22   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
    23   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
    24   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
    25   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
    26   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
    27   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
    28   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
    29   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
    30   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
    31   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
    32   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
    33   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
    34   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
    35   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
    36   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
    37   zle_refl ~> order_refl
    38   zle_trans ~> order_trans
    39   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
    40   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
    41   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
    42   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
    43   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
    44   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
    45   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
    46   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
    47   zless_le ~> less_le
    48   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
    49   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
    50   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
    51 
    52 
    53 *** ML ***
    54 
    55 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
    56 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57 
    58 
    59 
    60 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
    61 ------------------------------------
    62 
    63 *** General ***
    64 
    65 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
    66 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
    67 
    68   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
    69     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
    70     files for checking).
    71 
    72   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
    73     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
    74     positions.
    75 
    76   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
    77     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
    78     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
    79 
    80   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
    81     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
    82     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
    83 
    84   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
    85     cores.
    86 
    87   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
    88     versions (garbage collection).
    89 
    90 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
    91 including some remaining limitations.
    92 
    93 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    94 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    95 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    96 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    97 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    98 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   101 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   102 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   103 
   104 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   105 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   106 usedir option -Q.
   107 
   108 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   109 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   110 
   111   long_names   ~> names_long
   112   short_names  ~> names_short
   113   unique_names ~> names_unique
   114 
   115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   116 
   117   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   118 
   119 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   120 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   121 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   122 
   123 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   124 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   125 
   126 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   127   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   128   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   129   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   130     "Classical Reasoner".
   131 
   132 
   133 *** HOL ***
   134 
   135 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   136 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   139 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   140 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   141 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   142 class complete_linorder.
   143 
   144 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   145 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   146 
   147 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   148 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   149 
   150   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   151   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   152   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   153   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   154   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   155   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   156   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   157   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   158   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   159   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   160   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   161 
   162 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   163 
   164   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   165   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   166   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   167   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   168   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   169   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   170   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   171   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   172   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   173   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   174   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   175   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   176   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   177   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   178   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   179   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   180 
   181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   187 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   188 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   189 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   192 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   193 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   197 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   198 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   199 
   200 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   201 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   202 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   205 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   206 
   207 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   208 
   209     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   210     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   211 
   212 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   213 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   216 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   219 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   220 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   221 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   224   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   225   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   226   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   227   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   228   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   229   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   230 
   231 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   232 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   235   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   236   real_less_def ~> less_le
   237   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   238   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   239   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   240   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   241   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   242   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   243   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   244   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   245   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   246   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   247   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   248   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   249   real_le_linear ~> linear
   250   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   251   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   252   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   253   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   254   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   255   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   256   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   257   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   258   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   259   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   260   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   261   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   262   expi_add ~> exp_add
   263   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   264   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   265   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   266   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   267   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   268   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   269   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   270   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   271   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   272   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   273   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   274   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   275   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   276   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   277   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   278   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   279   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   280   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   281   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   282   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   283   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   284   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   285   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   286   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   287   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   288   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   289   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   290   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   291   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   292   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   293   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   294   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   295   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   296   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   297   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   298   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   299   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   300   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   301   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   302   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   303   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   304   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   305   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   306   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   307   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   308   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   309   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   310   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   311   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   312   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   313   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   314   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   315   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   316 
   317 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   318 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   319 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   320 
   321 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   322 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   323 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   324 
   325 * Code generation:
   326 
   327   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   328     characters in the target language.
   329 
   330   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   331     instead.
   332 
   333   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   334 
   335   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   336     reactivated by the following theory command:
   337 
   338       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   339 
   340 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   343 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   344 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   345 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   346 syntax.
   347 
   348 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   349 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   350 
   351 * Nitpick:
   352   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   353   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   354   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Sledgehammer:
   358   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   359   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   360     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   361   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   362     this can be done within reasonable time.
   363   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   364     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   366     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   367   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   368     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   369 
   370 * Metis:
   371   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   372   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   373     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * Command 'try':
   376   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   377     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   379     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   380 
   381 * Quickcheck:
   382   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   383     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   384   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   385     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   386   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   387     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   388     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   389     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   390   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   391     (formly in HOL/Library).
   392 
   393 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   394 use 'partial_function' instead.
   395 
   396 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   397 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   398 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   399 
   400 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   401 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   403 
   404 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   405 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   408 arithmetic.
   409 
   410 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   411 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   412 and lattice type classes.
   413 
   414 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   415 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   416 
   417 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   418 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   419 
   420 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   421 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   422 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   425   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   426   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   427   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   428 
   429 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   430 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   431 constants:
   432 
   433   type inat   ~> type enat
   434   Fin         ~> enat
   435   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   436   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   437   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   438 
   439 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   440 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   443 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   444 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   445 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   446 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   447 
   448 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   449 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   450 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   451 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   452 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   453 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   454 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   455 
   456   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   457   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   458   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   459   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   460 
   461 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   462 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   463 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   466   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   467   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   468   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   469   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   470   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   471   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   472   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   473   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   474   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   475   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   476   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   477   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   478   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   479   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   480   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   481   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   482   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   483   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   484   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   485   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   486   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   487   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   488   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   489   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   490   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   491   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   492   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   493   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   494   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   495   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   496   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   497   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   498   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   499   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   500   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   501   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   502   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   503   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   504   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   505   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   506   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   507   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   508   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   509   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   510   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   511   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   512   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   513   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   514   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   515   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   516 
   517 * Session HOL-Probability:
   518   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   519   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   520   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   521   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   522     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   527   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   528   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   529   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   530   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   531   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   532   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   533   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   534   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   535   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   536   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   537   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   538   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   539   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   540   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   541   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   542   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   543   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   544   UU_I ~> bottomI
   545   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   546   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   547   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   548   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   549   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   550   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   551 
   552 
   553 *** Document preparation ***
   554 
   555 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   556 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   557 same.
   558 
   559 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   560 result.
   561 
   562 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   563 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   564 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   565 
   566 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   567 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   568 
   569 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   570 like this:
   571 
   572   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   573   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   574 
   575 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   576 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   577 layouts.
   578 
   579 
   580 *** ML ***
   581 
   582 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   583 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   584 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   585 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   586 under external program control.
   587 
   588 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   589 data, which requires explicit setup.
   590 
   591 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   592 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   593 (better known as Proof General).
   594 
   595 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   596 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   597 
   598 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   599 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   600 
   601 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   602 (including quotes etc.).
   603 
   604 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   605 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   606 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   607 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   608 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   609 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   610 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   611 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   612 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   613 
   614 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   615 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   616 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   617 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   618 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   619 
   620 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   621 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   622 
   623 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   624 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   625 
   626 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   627 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   628 
   629 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   630 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   631 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   632 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   633 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   635 proper Proof.context.
   636 
   637 
   638 *** System ***
   639 
   640 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   641 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   642 
   643 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   644 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   645 
   646 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   647 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   648 
   649   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   650   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   651   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   652   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   653   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   654 
   655 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   656 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   659 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   660 example:
   661 
   662   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   663 
   664 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   665 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   666 
   667 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   668 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   669 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   670 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   671 
   672 
   673 
   674 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   675 ----------------------------------
   676 
   677 *** General ***
   678 
   679 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   680 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   681 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   682 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   683 like this:
   684 
   685   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   686 
   687 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   688 
   689 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   690 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   691 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   692 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   693 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   694 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   695 
   696 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   697 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   698 the following package declarations:
   699 
   700   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   701   \usepackage{textcomp}
   702 
   703 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   704 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   705 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   706 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   707 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   708 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   709 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   710 
   711 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   712 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   713 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   714 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   715 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   716 
   717 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   718 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   719 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   720 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   721 
   722 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   723 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   724 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   725 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   726 
   727   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   728 
   729   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   730   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   731   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   732   show_types                    show_types
   733   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   734   show_consts                   show_consts
   735   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   736 
   737   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   738   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   739   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   740 
   741   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   742   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   743 
   744   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   745 
   746   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   747   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   748   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   749   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   750   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   751 
   752 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   753 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   754 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   755 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   756 
   757 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   761   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   762 
   763 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   764 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   765 float_token.
   766 
   767 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   768 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   772 DejaVu Sans.
   773 
   774 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   775 
   776 
   777 *** Pure ***
   778 
   779 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   780 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   781 time.
   782 
   783 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   784 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785 
   786 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   787 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   790 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   791 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   792 command already provided this functionality.
   793 
   794 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   795 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   796 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   797 without interpretations.
   798 
   799 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   800 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   801 
   802 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   803 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   804 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   805 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   806 
   807 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   808 'definition' instead.
   809 
   810 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   811 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   812 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   813 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   814 
   815 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   816 constructors.
   817 
   818 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   819 the local file system.
   820 
   821 
   822 *** HOL ***
   823 
   824 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   825 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   826 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   827 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   828 
   829   declare [[coercion f]]
   830 
   831 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   832 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   833 
   834   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   835 
   836 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   837 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   838 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   839 other theories like this:
   840 
   841   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   842 
   843 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   844 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   845 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   846 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   847 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   848 for examples.
   849 
   850 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   851 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   854 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   855 
   856 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   857 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   858 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   859 
   860 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   861 functorial structure of types.
   862 
   863 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   864 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   865 
   866 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   867 languages.
   868 
   869 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   870 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872 
   873 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   874 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   875 
   876 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   877 combinators any longer.
   878 
   879 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   880 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   881 
   882 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   883 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   884 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   885 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   886 
   887   record 'a foo = ...
   888   ...
   889   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   890 
   891 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   892 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   896 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   897 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   898 
   899 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   900 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   901 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   902 
   903 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   904 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905 
   906 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   907 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   908 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   909 independently.
   910 
   911 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   912 counter example search.
   913 
   914 * Sledgehammer:
   915   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   916     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   917     sledgehammer").
   918   - Renamed commands:
   919     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   920     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   921     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   922     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923   - Renamed options:
   924     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   925     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   926     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   927     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   928     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   929 
   930 * Nitpick:
   931   - Renamed options:
   932     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   933     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   934     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   935   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   936   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   937   - Added "whack" option.
   938   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   939   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   940   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   941   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   942     higher cardinalities.
   943   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   944 
   945 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   946 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   947 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   948 
   949     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   950 
   951 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   952 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   953 
   954 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   955 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   956 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   957 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   958 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   959 "smt_solver".
   960 
   961 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   962 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   963 
   964 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   965 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   966 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   967 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   970   - Renamed:
   971     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   972     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   973     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   974   - Added:
   975     smt_verbose
   976     smt_random_seed
   977     smt_datatypes
   978     smt_infer_triggers
   979     smt_monomorph_limit
   980     cvc3_options
   981     remote_cvc3_options
   982     remote_z3_options
   983     yices_options
   984 
   985 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   986 header.
   987 
   988 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   989 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   990 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   991 
   992   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   993 
   994 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   997 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1002 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1005 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1006 
  1007 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1008 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1011 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1012 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1020 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1023 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1024 for congruent(2)).
  1025 
  1026 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1027 
  1028   types
  1029     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1030     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1031 
  1032   constants
  1033     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1034     True ~> HOL.True
  1035     False ~> HOL.False
  1036     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1037     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1038     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1039     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1040     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1041     The ~> HOL.The
  1042     All ~> HOL.All
  1043     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1044     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1045     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1046     If ~> HOL.If
  1047     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1048     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1049     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1050     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1051     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1052     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1053     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1054     op : ~> Set.member
  1055     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1056 
  1057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1060 
  1061     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1062     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1063     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1064     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1065     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1066     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1067     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1068     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1069 
  1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * More stylized fact names:
  1073 
  1074   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1075   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1076   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1077   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1078 
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1082 
  1083   constants
  1084     null ~> List.null
  1085 
  1086   facts
  1087     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1088     null_empty ~> null_def
  1089 
  1090 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1091 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1092 generation.
  1093 
  1094 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1095 Haskell code.
  1096 
  1097 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1098 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1099 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1102 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1105 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1106 
  1107 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1108 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1109 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1112 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1118 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1119 referred to by its qualified name.
  1120 
  1121   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1122   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1123   product ~>  Enum.product
  1124 
  1125 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1126 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1130 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1131 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1135 sort_key.
  1136 
  1137 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1141 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1142 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1143 
  1144   types
  1145     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1146               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1147               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1148         (depends on your needs)
  1149 
  1150   constants
  1151      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1152      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1153      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1154 
  1155 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1156 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1157 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1158 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159 
  1160 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1161 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1162 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1163 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1164 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1168 
  1169 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1170 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1171 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1172 
  1173 
  1174 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1175 
  1176 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1177 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1178 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1179 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1180 compatibility.
  1181 
  1182 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1183 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1184 
  1185 
  1186 *** HOLCF ***
  1187 
  1188 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1189 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1190 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1194 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1195 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1198   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1199   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1200 
  1201 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1202 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1203 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1206 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1207 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1208 domain definition now works:
  1209 
  1210   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1211 
  1212 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1213 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1214 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1215 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1216 
  1217   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1218     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1219 
  1220   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1221 
  1222 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1223 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1224 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1225 
  1226 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1227 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228 
  1229 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1230 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1231 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1232 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1233 
  1234 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1235 
  1236 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1242 
  1243 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1244 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1245 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1246 
  1247 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1248 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1249 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250 
  1251 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1252 still supported as an input translation.
  1253 
  1254 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1255 
  1256   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1257   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1258   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1259   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1260   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1261   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1262   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1263 
  1264 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1265 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1268   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1269   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1270   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1271   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1272   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1273 
  1274 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1275 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1278 
  1279   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1280   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1281   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1282   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1283 
  1284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1287 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1290 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1293   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1294   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1295   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1296   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1297   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1298   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1299   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1300   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1301   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1302   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1303   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1304   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1305   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1306   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1307   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1308   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1309   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1310   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1311   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1312 
  1313 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1316   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1317   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1318   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1319   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1320   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1321   box_less             ~> box_below
  1322   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1323   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1324   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1325   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1326   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1327   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1328   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1329   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1330   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1331   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1332   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1333   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1334   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1335   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1336   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1337   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1338   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1339   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1340   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1341   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1342   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1343   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1344   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1345   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1346   up_less              ~> up_below
  1347   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1348   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1349   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1350   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1351   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1352   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1353   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1354   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1355   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1356   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1357   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1358   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1359   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1360 
  1361 
  1362 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1363 
  1364 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1365 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 
  1368 *** ML ***
  1369 
  1370 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1371 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1372 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1373 
  1374 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1375 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1376 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1377 
  1378 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1379 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1380 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1381 
  1382 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1383 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1384 
  1385 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1386 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1387 
  1388 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1389 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1390 
  1391 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1392 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1393 
  1394 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1395 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1396 almost all situations.
  1397 
  1398 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1399 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1400 Isabelle/ML.
  1401 
  1402 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1403 meaning.
  1404 
  1405 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1406 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1407 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1408 
  1409 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1410 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1411 
  1412 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1413 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1414 
  1415 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1416 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1417 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1418 
  1419 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1420 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1421 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1422 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1423 configuration options.
  1424 
  1425 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1426 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1427 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1428 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1429 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1430 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1431 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1432 
  1433 
  1434 
  1435 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1436 ---------------------------------
  1437 
  1438 *** General ***
  1439 
  1440 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1441 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1442 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1443 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1444 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1445 their full internal name.
  1446 
  1447 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1448 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1449 Some hints on upgrading:
  1450 
  1451   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1452     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1453     which are independent of this issue.
  1454 
  1455   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1456     provides the following special forms:
  1457 
  1458       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1459       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1460       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1461 
  1462     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1463     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1464     extra variables".
  1465 
  1466     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1467     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1468     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1469     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1470     "logic".
  1471 
  1472   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1473     antiquotations:
  1474 
  1475       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1476       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1477       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1478       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1479 
  1480   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1481     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1482     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1483     antiquotations.
  1484 
  1485 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1486 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1487 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1488 diagnose syntax problems.
  1489 
  1490 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1491 
  1492 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1493 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1494 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1495 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1496 
  1497 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1498 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1499 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1500 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1503 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1504 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1505 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1506 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1509 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1510 
  1511 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1512 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1513 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1514 
  1515   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1516 
  1517 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1518 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1519 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1520 
  1521 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1522 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1526 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1527 
  1528 
  1529 *** Pure ***
  1530 
  1531 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1532 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1533 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1534 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1535 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1536 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1537 inspect proof terms.
  1538 
  1539 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1540 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1541 are added internally.  For example:
  1542 
  1543   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1544 
  1545 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1546 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 
  1550 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1551 'class' instead.
  1552 
  1553 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1554 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1556 
  1557 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1558 invariants.
  1559 
  1560 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1561 user space functionality any longer.
  1562 
  1563 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1564 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1568 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1569 
  1570 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1571 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1572 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1573 
  1574 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1575 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1576 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1577 
  1578 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1579 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 
  1582 *** HOL ***
  1583 
  1584 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1585 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1586 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1587 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1588 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1589 
  1590 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1591 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1592 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1593 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1594 
  1595   fun
  1596     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1597   where
  1598     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1599 
  1600   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1601     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1602 
  1603   quotient_definition
  1604     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1605 
  1606 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1607 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1608 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1609 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1610 
  1611 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1612 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1613 
  1614 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1615 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1616 
  1617 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1621 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1622 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1623 
  1624 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1625 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1634 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1637 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1638 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1641   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1642   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1643   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1644   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1645   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1646   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1647   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1648   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1649   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1650   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1651   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1652   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1653   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1654   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1655   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1656   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1657   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1658   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1659   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1660   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1661   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1662   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1663   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1664   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1665   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1666   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1667   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1668   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1669   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1670 
  1671 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1672 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1673 
  1674 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1675 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1676 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1677 
  1678 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1679 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1680 
  1681 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1682 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1685 
  1686 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1687 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1690 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1695 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1696 
  1697 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1698 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1699 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1700 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1703   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1704   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1705   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1709 lattices):
  1710 
  1711     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1712     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1713 
  1714     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1715 
  1716     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1717     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1718     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1719     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1720     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1721     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1722     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1723     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1724     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1725     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1726     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1727     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1728     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1729 
  1730     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1731     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1732     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1733     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1734     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1735     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1736     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1737     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1738     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1739     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1740     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1741     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1742     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1743     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1744     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1745     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1746     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1747     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1748 
  1749   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1750   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1751 
  1752     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1753     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1754     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1755     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1756     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1757 
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Refined field classes:
  1761   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1762     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1763     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1764   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1766 
  1767 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1768   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1769   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1770   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1771     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1772   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1773     equal_neg_zero.
  1774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1777 sets to lattices:
  1778 
  1779   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1780   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1781   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1782   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1783   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1784   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1785   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1786   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1787   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1788   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1789 
  1790 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1791 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1792 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1793 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1794 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1795 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1798 multiset order:
  1799 
  1800   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1801     <= and <;
  1802   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1803     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1804     multiset_order;
  1805   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1806     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1807     generation;
  1808   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1809     if needed.
  1810 
  1811 Renamed:
  1812 
  1813   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1814   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1815   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1816 
  1817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1820 
  1821 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1822 
  1823 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1824 
  1825 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1826 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1827 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829   Constants:
  1830   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1831   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1832   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1833   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1834   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1835   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1836   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1837   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1838   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1839   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1840   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1841   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1842   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1843 
  1844   Lemmas:
  1845   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1846   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1847   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1848   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1849   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1850   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1851   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1852   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1853   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1854   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1855   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1856   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1857   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1858 
  1859 * Sledgehammer:
  1860   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1861     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1862     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1863     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1864     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1865     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1866     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1868   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1869     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1870   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1871     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1872     is still experimental.)
  1873   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1874     full-typed mode.
  1875   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1876 
  1877 * Nitpick:
  1878   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1879   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1880   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1881     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1882   - Added support for quotient types.
  1883   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1884     constructs.
  1885   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1886     "termination" proofs).
  1887   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1888   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1889   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1890   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1891     record getters.
  1892   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1893   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1894   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1895   - Added "atoms" option.
  1896   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1897     problems.
  1898   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1899     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1900     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1902     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1906   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1907   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1908   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1909   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1910   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1911   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1912   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1913   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1914   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 
  1917 *** HOLCF ***
  1918 
  1919 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1920 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1921 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1924 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1925 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1926 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1927 
  1928 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1929 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1930 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1931 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1932 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1935 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1936 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1937 
  1938 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1939 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1942   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1943 
  1944 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1945 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1948   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1949   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1950   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1951   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1952 
  1953 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1954 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1957   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1958   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1959 
  1960 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1961 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1965 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966 
  1967 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1970 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972 
  1973 *** ML ***
  1974 
  1975 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1976 
  1977     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1978     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1979 
  1980     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1981     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1982     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1983     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1984 
  1985     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1986     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1987     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1988 
  1989 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1990 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1991 
  1992 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1993 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1994 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1995 
  1996 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1997 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1998 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1999 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2000 
  2001 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2002 the context or even global references.
  2003 
  2004 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2005 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2006 
  2007 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2008 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2009 
  2010   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2011   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2012   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2013   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2014   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2015   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2016   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2017   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2018   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2019   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2020 
  2021 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2022 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2023 
  2024 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2025 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2026 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2027 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2028 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2029 
  2030 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2031 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2032 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2033 Theory_Data version.
  2034 
  2035 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2036 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2037 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2038 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2039 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2040 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2041 explicitly in rare situations.
  2042 
  2043 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2044 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2048 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2051 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2052 quite rare).
  2053 
  2054 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2055 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2058 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2059 terms.
  2060 
  2061 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2062 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2063 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2064 
  2065 
  2066 *** System ***
  2067 
  2068 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2069 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2070 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2071 
  2072 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2073 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2074 respectively.
  2075 
  2076 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2077 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2078 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2079 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2080 
  2081   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2082 
  2083 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2084 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2085 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2086 component.
  2087 
  2088 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2089 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2090 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2091 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2092 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2093 the user for manual installation.
  2094 
  2095 
  2096 
  2097 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2098 -------------------------------------
  2099 
  2100 *** General ***
  2101 
  2102 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2103 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2104 
  2105 
  2106 *** Pure ***
  2107 
  2108 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2109 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2110 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2111 
  2112 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2113 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2114 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2115 
  2116 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2117 interpretation.
  2118 
  2119 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2120 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 
  2123 *** Document preparation ***
  2124 
  2125 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2126 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2127 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2128 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2129 
  2130 
  2131 *** HOL ***
  2132 
  2133 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2134 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2135 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2136 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2137 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2138 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2139 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2140 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2141 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2142 
  2143 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2144 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2145 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2146 
  2147 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2148 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2149 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2150 
  2151 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2152 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2153 
  2154 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2155 
  2156 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2157 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2158 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2159 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2160 
  2161 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2162 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2163 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2164 "mirabelle" utility.
  2165 
  2166 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2167 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2168 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2169 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2170 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2171 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2172 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2173 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2174 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2175 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2176 
  2177 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2178 procedure only.
  2179 
  2180 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2181 
  2182 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2183 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2184 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2185 that fail later.
  2186 
  2187 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2188 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2189 
  2190 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2191 the same method as the approximation method.
  2192 
  2193 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2194 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2195 series expansion.
  2196 
  2197 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2198 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2199 
  2200 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2201 reals.
  2202 
  2203 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2204 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2205 
  2206 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2207 fixpoint theorem.
  2208 
  2209 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2210   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2211     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2212   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2213     accordingly
  2214   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2215     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2216   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2217     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2218 
  2219 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2220 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2221 lattice.
  2222 
  2223 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2224 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2225 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2226 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2227 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2228 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2232   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2233     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2234   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2235     le_inf_iff
  2236   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2237     sup_aci)
  2238   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2239   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2240   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2241     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2242     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2243     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2244     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2245     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2246     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2247     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2248     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2249     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2250     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2251   - authentic syntax for
  2252     Set.Pow
  2253     Set.image
  2254   - mere abbreviations:
  2255     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2256     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2257     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2258     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2259     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2260     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2261     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2262     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2263   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2264 
  2265 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2266 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2267 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2268 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2269 
  2270 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2271 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2272 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2275 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2278 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2279 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2280 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2283 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2284 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2285 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2286 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2287 
  2288 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2289 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2293 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2296 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2297 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2298 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2299 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2300 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2301 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2303 
  2304 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2305     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2306     code_post       replaces    code post
  2307     etc.
  2308   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310 * Renamed methods:
  2311     sizechange -> size_change
  2312     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2313   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2317 
  2318 * Renamed theorems:
  2319     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2320     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2321     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2322     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2323     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2324   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2331 
  2332 
  2333 *** HOLCF ***
  2334 
  2335 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2336 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2337 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2338 
  2339 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2340 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2341 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2342 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2343 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2344 
  2345 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2346 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2347 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2348 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2349 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2350 
  2351 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2352 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2353 constructor are pre-configured.
  2354 
  2355 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2356 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2357 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2358 
  2359 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2360 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2361 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2362 as well.)
  2363 
  2364 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2365 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2366 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2367 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2368 examples.
  2369 
  2370 
  2371 *** ML ***
  2372 
  2373 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2374 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2375 
  2376 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2377 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2378 position, logical grouping etc.
  2379 
  2380 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2381 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2382 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2383 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2384 
  2385 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2386 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2387 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2388 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2389 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2390 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2391 
  2392 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2393 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2394 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2395 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2396 experiments with references.
  2397 
  2398 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2399 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2400 
  2401 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2402 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2403 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2404 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2405 
  2406 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2407 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2408 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2409 
  2410 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2411 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2412 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2420 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2421 
  2422 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2423 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2424 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2425 
  2426 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2427 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2428 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429 
  2430 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2431 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2432 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2436 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2437 instead of global theory.
  2438 
  2439 
  2440 *** System ***
  2441 
  2442 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2443 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2444 usedir option -q.
  2445 
  2446 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2447 also the system manual.
  2448 
  2449 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2450 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2451 
  2452 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2453 this is always enabled.
  2454 
  2455 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2456 
  2457 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2458 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2459 currently supported on Linux only.
  2460 
  2461 
  2462 
  2463 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2464 --------------------------------
  2465 
  2466 *** General ***
  2467 
  2468 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2469 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2470 
  2471   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2472     "isatool."
  2473 
  2474   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2475     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2476 
  2477   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2478     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2479 
  2480 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2481 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2482 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2483 
  2484 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2485 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2486 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2487 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2488 via "isabelle emacs".
  2489 
  2490 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2491 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2492 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2493 
  2494 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2495 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2496 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2497 
  2498 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2499 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2500 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2501 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2502 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2503 
  2504 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2505 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2506 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2507 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2508 
  2509 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2510 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2511 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2512 
  2513 
  2514 *** Pure ***
  2515 
  2516 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2517 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2518 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2519 
  2520 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2521 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2522 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2523 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2524 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2525 
  2526 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2527 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2528 useful in locale declarations.
  2529 
  2530 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2531 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2532 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2533 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2534 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2535 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2536 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2537 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2538 no longer generated.
  2539 
  2540 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2541 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2542 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2543 
  2544 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2545 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2546 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2547 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2548 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2549 
  2550 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2551 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2552 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2553 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2554 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2555 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2556 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2557 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2558 
  2559 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2560 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2561 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2562 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2563 
  2564 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2567 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2568 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2569 
  2570 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2571 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2574 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2575 in HOL, write
  2576 
  2577     class foo = ...
  2578 
  2579 instead of
  2580 
  2581     class foo = type + ...
  2582 
  2583 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2584 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2588 
  2589 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2590 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2591 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2592 
  2593 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2594 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2595 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2596 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2597 directly in regular applications.
  2598 
  2599 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2600 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2601 
  2602 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2603 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2604 
  2605 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2606 theory context.
  2607 
  2608 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2609 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2612 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2613 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2614 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2615 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2616 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2617 
  2618   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2619 
  2620 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2621 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2622 normalization.
  2623 
  2624 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2625 addressing etc.
  2626 
  2627 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2628 
  2629   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2630   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2631 
  2632 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2633 
  2634   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2635      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2636      parts of the code generator framework).
  2637 
  2638   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2639      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2640      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2641 
  2642 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2645 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2648 patterns, e.g.
  2649 
  2650     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2651 
  2652 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2653 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2654 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2655 hyphen:
  2656 
  2657     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2658 
  2659 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2660 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2661 
  2662 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2663 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2664 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2665 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2666 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2667 higher-order unification.
  2668 
  2669 
  2670 *** Document preparation ***
  2671 
  2672 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2673 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2674 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2675 
  2676 
  2677 *** HOL ***
  2678 
  2679 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2680 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2681 
  2682 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2683 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2684 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2685 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2686 Main, as before.
  2687 
  2688 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2689 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2690 
  2691 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2692 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2693 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2694 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2695 
  2696 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2697 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2698 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2699 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2700 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2701 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2702 
  2703 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2704 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2705 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2706 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2707 
  2708 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2709 menu.
  2710 
  2711 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2712 (contains the empty clause).
  2713 
  2714 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2715 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2716 
  2717 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2718 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2719 
  2720 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2721 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2722 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2725 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2726 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2727 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2728 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2729 
  2730 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2731 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2732 
  2733 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2734 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2735 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2736 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2737 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2738 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2739 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2740 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2741 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2742 
  2743 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2744 
  2745 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2746 
  2747 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2748 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749 
  2750 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2751 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2752 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2753 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2754 
  2755 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2756 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2757 
  2758     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2759     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2760     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2761     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2762     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2763     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2764     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2765     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2766 
  2767 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2768 theory Set.
  2769 
  2770 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2771 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2772 
  2773 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2774 
  2775 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2776 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2777 
  2778 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2779 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2780 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2781 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2782 allowed. For examples see
  2783 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2784 
  2785 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2786 
  2787 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2791 structure:
  2792 
  2793     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2794     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2795     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2796     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2797     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2798     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2799     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2800     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2801     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2802     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2803     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2804     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2805     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2806     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2807     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2808     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2809     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2810     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2811     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2812     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2813     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2814     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2815     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2816     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2821     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2822     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2823     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2824     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2825     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2826 
  2827     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2828     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2829     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2830     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2831     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2832     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2833     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2834     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2835     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2836     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2837 
  2838     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2839     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2840     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2841     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2842     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2843     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2844 
  2845 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2846 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2847 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2848 
  2849 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2850 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2851 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2852 
  2853 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2854 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2857 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2858 
  2859 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2860 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2861 proofs, e.g.
  2862 
  2863   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2864 
  2865 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2866 
  2867 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2868 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2869 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2872 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2876 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2877 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879 
  2880 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2881 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2882 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2883 preorder_class.*.
  2884 
  2885 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2886 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2887 
  2888 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2889 
  2890   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2891 
  2892 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2893 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2894 fold_image.
  2895 
  2896 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2897 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2898 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2899 the former will disappear at some point.
  2900 
  2901 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2902 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2903 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2904 
  2905 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2906 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2907 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2908 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2909 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2910 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2911 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2912 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2913 
  2914 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2915 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2916 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2917 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2918 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2919 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2920 
  2921     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2922     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2923     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2924     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2925     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2926     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2927     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2928 
  2929 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2930 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2931 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2932 
  2933 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2934 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2935 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2936 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2937 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2938 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2939 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2940 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2941 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2942 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2943 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2944 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2945 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2946 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2947 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2948 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2949 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2950 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2951 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2952 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2953 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2954 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2955 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2956 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2957 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2958 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2959 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2960 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2961 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2962 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2963 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2964 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2965 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2966 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2967 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2968 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2969 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2970 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2971 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2972 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2973 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2974 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2975 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2976 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2977 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2978 
  2979 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980 
  2981 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2982 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2983 
  2984 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2985 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2986 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2987 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2988 
  2989 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2990 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2991 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2992 theory RealVector.
  2993 
  2994 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2995 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2996 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2997 and inner products are included.
  2998 
  2999 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3000 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3001 supported.
  3002 
  3003 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3004 first diagonalization argument.
  3005 
  3006 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3007 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3008 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3009 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3010 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3011 
  3012     hide (open) const gcd
  3013     abbreviation gcd where
  3014       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3015     notation (output)
  3016       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3017 
  3018 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3019 
  3020 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3021 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3022 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3025 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3026 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3027 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3028 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3029 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3030 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3031 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3032 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3033 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3034 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3035 cases.
  3036 
  3037 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3038 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3039 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3040 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3041 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3042 
  3043     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3044     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3045     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3046     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3047     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3048 
  3049 
  3050 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3051 
  3052 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3053 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3054 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3055 
  3056 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3057 
  3058 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3059 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3060 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3061 
  3062 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3063 
  3064 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3065 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3066 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3067 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3068 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3069 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3070 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3071 
  3072 
  3073 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3074 
  3075 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3076 
  3077 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3078 theory targets.
  3079 
  3080 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3081 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3082 'inductive' etc.
  3083 
  3084 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3085 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3086 
  3087 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3088 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3089 
  3090 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3091 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3092 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3093 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3094 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3095 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3096 the algorithm W:
  3097 
  3098  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3099  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3100          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3101 
  3102 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3103 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3104 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3105 
  3106 
  3107 *** HOLCF ***
  3108 
  3109 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3110 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3111 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3112 
  3113 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3114 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3115 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3116 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3117 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3120 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3121 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 
  3124 *** ZF ***
  3125 
  3126 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3127 
  3128 
  3129 *** ML ***
  3130 
  3131 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3132 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3133 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3134 5.2.1!
  3135 
  3136 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3137 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3138 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3139 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3140 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3141 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3142 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3143 
  3144 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3145 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3146 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3147 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3148 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3149 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3150 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3151 
  3152 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3153 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3154 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3155 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3156 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3157 
  3158 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3159 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3160 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3161 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3162 Method.add_method.
  3163 
  3164 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3165 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3166 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3167 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3168 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3169 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3170 
  3171 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3172 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3173 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3174 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3175 examples.
  3176 
  3177 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3178 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3179 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3180 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3181 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3182 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3183 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3184 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3185 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3186 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3187 
  3188 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3189 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3190 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3191 
  3192 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3193 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3194 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3195 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3196 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3197 resort for legacy applications.
  3198 
  3199 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3200 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3201 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3202 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3203 explicit runtime argument.
  3204 
  3205 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3206 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3207 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3208 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3209 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3212 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3213 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3214 theory state.
  3215 
  3216 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3217 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3218 
  3219   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3220   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3221   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3222   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3223   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3224   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3225   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3226   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3227   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3228   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3229 
  3230 
  3231 *** System ***
  3232 
  3233 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3234 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3235 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3236 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3237 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3238 
  3239 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3240 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3241 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3242 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3243 
  3244 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3245 
  3246 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3247 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3248 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3249 prover operations.
  3250 
  3251 
  3252 
  3253 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3254 -------------------------------
  3255 
  3256 *** General ***
  3257 
  3258 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3259 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3260 
  3261 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3262 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3263 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3264 provides a proper context already.
  3265 
  3266 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3267 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3268 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3269 
  3270 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3271 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3272 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3273 swap theory imports.
  3274 
  3275 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3276 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3277 
  3278 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3279 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3280 white space without escapes.
  3281 
  3282 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3283 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3284 "foo_bar".
  3285 
  3286 
  3287 *** Pure ***
  3288 
  3289 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3290 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3291 
  3292 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3293 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3294 
  3295 (1) unused_thms
  3296      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3297 
  3298 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3299      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3300      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3301 
  3302 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3303      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3304      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3305      their ancestors.
  3306 
  3307 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3308 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3309 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3310 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3311 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3312 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3313 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3314 
  3315 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3316 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3317 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3318 
  3319 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3320 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3321 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3322 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3323 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3324 
  3325 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3326 
  3327 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3328 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3329 update of theories within ML code.
  3330 
  3331 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3332 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3333 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3334 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3335 
  3336 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3337 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3338 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3342 
  3343 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3344 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3345 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3346 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3347 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3348 
  3349 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3350 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3351 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3352 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3353 situations.
  3354 
  3355 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3356 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3357 proof text.
  3358 
  3359 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3360 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3361 
  3362 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3363 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3364 predicates.
  3365 
  3366 
  3367 *** Document preparation ***
  3368 
  3369 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3370 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3371 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3372 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3373 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3374 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3375 
  3376 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3377 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3378 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3379 
  3380 
  3381 *** HOL ***
  3382 
  3383 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3384 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3385 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3386 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3387 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3388 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3389 
  3390 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3391 with multithreading.
  3392 
  3393 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3394 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3395 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3396 
  3397 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3398 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3399 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3400 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3403 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3404 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3405 and makes them available separately.  See
  3406 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3407 
  3408 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3409 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3410 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3411 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3412 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3413 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3414 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3415 the declared rules.
  3416 
  3417 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3418 
  3419   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3420 
  3421 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3422 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3423 
  3424 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3425 
  3426   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3427 
  3428   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3429     definitions on => and bool.
  3430 
  3431   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3432     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3433     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3434 
  3435       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3436       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3437       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3438       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3439       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3440       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3441       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3442       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3443 
  3444   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3445     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3446     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3447 
  3448   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3449     The proof pattern
  3450 
  3451       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3452       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3453 
  3454     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3455     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3456 
  3457       have "EX S. P S"
  3458       proof
  3459         show "P S" <...>
  3460       qed
  3461 
  3462   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3463     The proof pattern
  3464 
  3465       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3466       also have "S = T" <...>
  3467       finally have "P T" .
  3468 
  3469     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3470     must be replaced by something like
  3471 
  3472       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3473       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3474       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3475 
  3476   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3477     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3478 
  3479       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3480 
  3481     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3482     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3483     type of the form
  3484 
  3485       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3486 
  3487     rather than
  3488 
  3489       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3490 
  3491 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3492 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3493 
  3494 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3497 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3501 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3504 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3507 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3508 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3511 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3512 
  3513   less_trans
  3514   less_linear
  3515   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3516   le_less_trans
  3517   less_le_trans
  3518   less_not_sym
  3519   less_asym
  3520 
  3521 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3522 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3523 and different variable names.
  3524 
  3525 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3526 
  3527 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3528 finite maps.
  3529 
  3530 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3531 
  3532 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3533 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3534 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3535 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3536 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3537 accordingly.
  3538 
  3539 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3540 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3541 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3542 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3543 
  3544 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3545 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3546 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3547 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3548 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3552 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3555 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3556 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3557 
  3558 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3562 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3563 
  3564 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3565 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3568 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3571 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3575 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3578 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3579 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3580 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3581 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3582 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3585 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3587 
  3588 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3589 
  3590 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3591 
  3592 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3593 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3594 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3595 
  3596 
  3597 *** ZF ***
  3598 
  3599 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3600 same session:
  3601 
  3602   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3603   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3604   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3605   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3606   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3607   List      -> List_ZF
  3608   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3609 
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3611 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3612 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3613 
  3614 
  3615 *** ML ***
  3616 
  3617 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3618 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3619 
  3620 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3621 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3622 
  3623 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3624 
  3625 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3626 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3627 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3628 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3629 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3632 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3633 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3634 
  3635 
  3636 *** System ***
  3637 
  3638 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3639 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3640 
  3641 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3642 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3643 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3644 
  3645 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3646 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3647 
  3648 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3649 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3650 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3651 
  3652 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3653 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3654 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3655 
  3656 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3657 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3658 
  3659 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3660 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3661 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3662 script.
  3663 
  3664 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3665 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3666 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3667 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3668 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3669 
  3670 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3671 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3672 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3673 
  3674 
  3675 
  3676 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3677 -----------------------------------
  3678 
  3679 *** General ***
  3680 
  3681 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3682 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3683 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3684 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3685 
  3686 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3687 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3688 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3691 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3692 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3693 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3696 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3697 quotes.
  3698 
  3699 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3700 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3701 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3702 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3703 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3704 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3705 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3707 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3708 
  3709 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3710 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3711 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3712 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3713 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3714 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3715 
  3716 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3717 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3718 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3719 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3720 
  3721 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3722 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3723 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3724 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3725 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3726 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3727 
  3728 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3729 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3730 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3731 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3732 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3733 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3734 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3735 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3736 
  3737 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3738 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3739 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3740 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3741 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3742 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3743 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3744 
  3745 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3746 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3747 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3748 
  3749 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3750 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3751 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3752 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3753 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3754 limit is imposed.
  3755 
  3756 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3757 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3758 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3759 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3760 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3761 and scalability.
  3762 
  3763 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3764 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3765 
  3766 
  3767 *** Document preparation ***
  3768 
  3769 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3770 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3771 current context.
  3772 
  3773 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3774 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3775 
  3776 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3777 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3778 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3779 
  3780 
  3781 *** Pure ***
  3782 
  3783 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3784 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3785 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3786 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3787 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3788 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3789 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3790 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3791 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3792 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3793 
  3794 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3795 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3796 sketch:
  3797 
  3798     internal compilation:
  3799         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3800     writing SML code to a file:
  3801         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3802     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3803         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3804     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3805         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3806 
  3807     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3808         method ``eval''
  3809 
  3810 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3811 
  3812 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3813 
  3814     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3815     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3816     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3817     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3818 
  3819 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3820 
  3821     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3822       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3823 
  3824     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3825       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3826 
  3827     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3828       {(target)}+
  3829         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3830 
  3831     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3832       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3833         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3834 
  3835 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3836 
  3837 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3838 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3839 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3840 codegen".
  3841 
  3842 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3843 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3844 annotations).
  3845 
  3846 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3847 syntax.
  3848 
  3849 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3850 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3851 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3852 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3854 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3855 
  3856 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3857 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3858 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3859 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3860 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3861 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3862 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3863 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3864 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3865 equations, see section "definitions".
  3866 
  3867 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3868 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3869 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3870 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3871 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3872 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3873 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3874 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3875 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3876 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3877 
  3878 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3879 configuration options:
  3880 
  3881   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3882   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3883   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3884   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3885   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3886   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3887   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3888   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3889   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3890 
  3891 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3892 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3893 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3894 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3895 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3896 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3897 order.
  3898 
  3899 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3900 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3901 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3902 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3903 context encountered later on.
  3904 
  3905 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3906 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3907 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3908 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3909 
  3910 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3911 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3912 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3913 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3914 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3915 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3916 
  3917 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3918 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3919 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3920 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3921 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3922 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3923 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3924 more permissive.
  3925 
  3926 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3927 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3928 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3929 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3930 maintainability of proof texts.
  3931 
  3932 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3933 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3934 
  3935   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3936   then guess x and y by clarify
  3937 
  3938 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3939 proof tools being involved here.
  3940 
  3941 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3942 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3943 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3944 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3945 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3946 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3947 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3948 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3949 
  3950 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3951 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3952 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3953 
  3954   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3955   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3956   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3957   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3958 
  3959 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3960 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3961 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3962 
  3963 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3964 both named and unnamed ones.
  3965 
  3966 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3967 
  3968   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3969 
  3970 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3971 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3972 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3973 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3974 
  3975 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3976 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3977 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3978 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3979 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3980 
  3981 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3982 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3983 
  3984 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3985 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3986 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3987 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3988 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3989 originally first one.
  3990 
  3991 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3992 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3993 expected.
  3994 
  3995 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3996 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3997 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3998 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3999 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4000 
  4001   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4002     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4003     obtains x where "P x"
  4004 
  4005   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4006     assumes "A & B"
  4007     obtains A and B
  4008 
  4009   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4010     assumes "A | B"
  4011     obtains
  4012       A
  4013     | B
  4014 
  4015 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4016 explicitly:
  4017 
  4018   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4019     obtains "~ thesis"
  4020 
  4021   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4022     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4023 
  4024 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4025 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4026 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4027 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4028 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4029 case_names).
  4030 
  4031 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4032 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4033 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4034 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4035 
  4036 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4037 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4038 top-level lemma.
  4039 
  4040 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4041 introduction rule (default "that").
  4042 
  4043 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4044 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4045 to occur.
  4046 
  4047 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4048 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4049 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4050 representations independently of name spaces.
  4051 
  4052 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4053 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4054 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4057 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4058 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4059 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4060 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4061 current context.
  4062 
  4063 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4064 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4065 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4066 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4067 
  4068   axiomatization
  4069     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4070     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4071 
  4072   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4073   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4074 
  4075   abbreviation
  4076     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4077     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4078 
  4079 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4080 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4081 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4082 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4083 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4084 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4085 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4086 
  4087 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4088 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4089 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4090 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4091 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4092 
  4093 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4094 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4095 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4096 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4097 
  4098 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4099 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4100 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4101 
  4102   definition "K x _ = x"
  4103 
  4104   inductive conj for A B
  4105   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4106 
  4107 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4108 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4109 abbreviations on output.
  4110 
  4111 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4112 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4113 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4114 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4115 
  4116 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4117 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4118 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4119 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4120 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4121 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4122 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4123 
  4124 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4125 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4126 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4127 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4128 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4129 
  4130 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4131 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4132 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4133 
  4134 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4135 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4136 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4137 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4138 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4139 
  4140   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4141     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4142 
  4143 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4144 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4145 partial_order.
  4146 
  4147 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4148 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4149 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4150 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4151 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4152 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4153 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4154 examples.
  4155 
  4156 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4157 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4158 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4159 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4160 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4161 
  4162 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4163 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4164 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4165 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4166 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4167 
  4168   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4169   (induct set: foo bar)
  4170   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4171   (induct type: foo bar)
  4172 
  4173 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4174 new format.
  4175 
  4176 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4177 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4178 
  4179 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4180 considered a legacy feature.
  4181 
  4182 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4183 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4186 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4187 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4188 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4189   
  4190 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4191 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4192 manipulating the claset.
  4193 
  4194 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4195 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4196 least one premise.
  4197 
  4198 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4199 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4200 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4201 rule steps.
  4202 
  4203 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4204 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4205 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4206 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4207 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4208 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4209 
  4210 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4211 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4212 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4213 
  4214 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4215 the graph browser tool.
  4216 
  4217 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4218 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4219 
  4220 
  4221 *** HOL ***
  4222 
  4223 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4224 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4225 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4226 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4227 multi-threading.
  4228   
  4229 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4230 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4231 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4232 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4233 work with multi-threading.
  4234 
  4235 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4236 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4237 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4238 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4239 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4240 
  4241 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4242 
  4243 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4244 equality.
  4245 
  4246 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4247 the new 'class' package:
  4248 
  4249     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4250     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4251     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4252     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4253     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4254     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4255     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4256     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4257     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4258     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4259     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4260     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4261     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4262     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4263     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4264     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4265     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4266     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4267     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4268     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4269 
  4270 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4271 
  4272 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4273 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4274 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4275 names.
  4276 
  4277 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4278 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4279 
  4280 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4281 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4282 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4283 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4284 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4285 
  4286 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4287 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4288 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4289 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4290 
  4291 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4292 
  4293 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4294 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4295 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4296 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4300 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4303 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4304 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4307 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4308 
  4309 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4310 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4311 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4312 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4313 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4314 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4315 in the current context.
  4316 
  4317 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4318 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4322 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4323 
  4324 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4325 
  4326     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4327     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4328 
  4329     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4330       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4331     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4332     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4333 
  4334     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4335     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4336 
  4337   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4338 
  4339     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4340     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4341     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4342     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4343     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4344     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4345     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4346     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4347     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4348     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4349     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4350     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4351     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4352     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4353     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4354     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4355     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4356     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4357     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4358     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4359     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4360     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4361     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4362     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4363     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4364     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4365     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4366     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4367     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4368     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4369     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4370     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4371     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4372     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4373     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4374 
  4375     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4376     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4377     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4378     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4379     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4380     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4381     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4382     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4383     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4384     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4385     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4386     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4387     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4388     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4389     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4390     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4391     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4392 
  4393     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4394     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4395     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4396     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4397     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4398     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4399     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4400     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4401     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4402     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4403     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4404     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4405     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4406     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4407     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4408     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4409     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4410     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4411     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4412     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4413     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4414     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4415     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4416     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4417     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4418     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4419     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4420     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4421 
  4422     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4423     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4424     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4425     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4426     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4427     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4428 
  4429     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4430     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4431     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4432     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4433 
  4434     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4435     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4436 
  4437     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4438     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4439 
  4440 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4441 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4442 
  4443 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4444 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4445 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4446 "*.size".
  4447 
  4448 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4452 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4453 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4458 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4459 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4460 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4461 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4462 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4463 numerals on all operations.
  4464 
  4465 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4466 
  4467 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4468 
  4469 * Code generator library theories:
  4470   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4471     languages.
  4472   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4473     languages.
  4474   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4475     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4476   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4477   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4478     denominator).
  4479   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4480     representable by rational numbers.
  4481   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4482     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4483     includes Code_Integer.
  4484   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4485     target-language built-in integers.
  4486   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4487     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4488 
  4489 * New package for inductive predicates
  4490 
  4491   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4492 
  4493     inductive
  4494       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4495       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4496     where
  4497       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4498     | ...
  4499 
  4500   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4501 
  4502     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4503 
  4504     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4505     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4506 
  4507     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4508     intros
  4509       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4510       ...
  4511 
  4512   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4513   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4514 
  4515     inductive_set
  4516       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4517       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4518     where
  4519       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4520     | ...
  4521 
  4522   or
  4523 
  4524     inductive_set
  4525       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4526       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4527       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4528     where
  4529       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4530     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4531     | ...
  4532 
  4533   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4534 
  4535   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4536   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4537 
  4538   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4539 
  4540   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4541     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4542     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4543     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4544     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4545 
  4546   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4547     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4548     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4549     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4550     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4551     statements of the form
  4552 
  4553       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4554 
  4555     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4556     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4557 
  4558       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4559 
  4560   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4561 
  4562       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4563         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4564         ==> ... ==> P
  4565 
  4566     for predicates and
  4567 
  4568       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4569         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4570         ==> ... ==> P
  4571 
  4572     for sets rather than
  4573 
  4574       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4575         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4576         ==> ... ==> P
  4577 
  4578     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4579     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4580     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4581 
  4582   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4583     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4584     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4585 
  4586 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4587 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4588 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4589 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4590 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4591 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4592 
  4593 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4594 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4595 
  4596 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4597 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4598 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4599 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4600 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4601 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4602 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4603 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4604 variable.
  4605 
  4606 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4607 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4608 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4609 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4610   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4611   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4612 
  4613 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4614 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4615 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4616 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4617 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4618 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4619 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4620 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4621 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4622 
  4623 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4624 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4625 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4626 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4627 rat, etc.
  4628 
  4629 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4630 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4631 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4632 
  4633 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4634 
  4635 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4636 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4637 
  4638 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4639 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4640 
  4641 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4642 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4643 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4646 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4650 
  4651 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4652 
  4653 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4654 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4655 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4656 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4657 
  4658 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4659 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4660 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4661 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4664 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4665 algebraic operations.
  4666 
  4667 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4674 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4675 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4676 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4677 adapted.
  4678  
  4679 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4680 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4681 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4682 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4683 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4684 
  4685 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4686 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4687 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4688 
  4689 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4690 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4691 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4692 
  4693 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4694 
  4695 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4696 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4697 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4698   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4699       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4700   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4701   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4702   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4703 
  4704 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4705 
  4706 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4707 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4708 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4709 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4710 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4711 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4712 
  4713 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4714 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4715 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4716 
  4717 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4718 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4719 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4723 
  4724 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4725 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4728 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4729 
  4730 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4731 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4732 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4733 
  4734 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4735 True/False.
  4736 
  4737 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4738 
  4739 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4740 
  4741 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4742 ``rule'' method.
  4743 
  4744 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4745 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4746 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4747 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4748 
  4749 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4750 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4751 
  4752 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4753 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4754 
  4755 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4756 Library.
  4757 
  4758 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4759 
  4760 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4761 as greatest fixed-point.
  4762 
  4763 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4764 association lists.
  4765 
  4766 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4767 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4768 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4769 
  4770 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4771 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4772 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4773 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4774 behavior.
  4775 
  4776 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4777 
  4778 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4779 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4780 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4781 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4782 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4783 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4784 
  4785 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4786 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4787 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4788 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4789 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4790 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4791 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4792 
  4793 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4794 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4795 
  4796 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4797 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4798 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4799 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4800 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4801 
  4802 
  4803 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4804 
  4805 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4806 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4807 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4808 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4812 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4813 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4814 
  4815 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4816 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4817 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4820 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4821 
  4822 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4823 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4824 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4828   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4829   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4830   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4831   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4832   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4833   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4834   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4835   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4836   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4837   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4838   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4839   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4840   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4841   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4842 
  4843 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4844 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4845 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4846 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4847 
  4848   approx        <-- capprox
  4849   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4850   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4851   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4852   monad         <-- cmonad
  4853   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4854   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4855   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4856   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4857 
  4858 
  4859 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4860 
  4861 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4862 
  4863 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4865 
  4866 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4867 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4870 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4871 of algebraic structures.
  4872 
  4873 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4874 
  4875 
  4876 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4877 
  4878 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4879 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4880 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4881 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4882 
  4883 
  4884 *** ML ***
  4885 
  4886 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4887 (even on SML/NJ).
  4888 
  4889 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4890 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4891 compile-time.  For example:
  4892 
  4893 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4894 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4895 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4896 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4897 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4898 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4899 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4900 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4901 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4902 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4903 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4904 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4905 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4906 ML {* @{context} *}
  4907 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4908 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4909 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4910 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4911 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4912 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4913 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4914 
  4915 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4916 
  4917 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4918 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4919 
  4920 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4921 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4922 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4923 
  4924 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4925 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4926 
  4927 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4928 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4929 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4930 
  4931 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4932 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4933 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4934 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4935 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4936 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4937 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4938 declarations and definitions.
  4939 
  4940 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4941 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4942 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4943 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4944 
  4945 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4946 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4947 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4948 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4949 
  4950 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4951 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4952 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4953 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4954 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4955 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4956 
  4957 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4958 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4959 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4960 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4961 attributes, methods, etc.
  4962 
  4963 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4964 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4965 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4966 fold_map combinators.
  4967 
  4968 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4969 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4970 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4971 derivation.
  4972 
  4973 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4974 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4975 achieve the old behaviour.
  4976 
  4977 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4978 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4979 statements.
  4980 
  4981 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4982 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4983 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4984 
  4985 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4986 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4987 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4988 
  4989   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4990   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4991   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4992 
  4993 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4994 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4995 
  4996 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4997 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4998 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4999 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5000 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5001 
  5002 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5003 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5004 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5005 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5006 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5007 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5008 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5009 in a locale context).
  5010 
  5011 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5012 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5013 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5014 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5015 
  5016 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5017 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5018 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5019 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5020 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5021 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5022 
  5023 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5024 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5025 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5026 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5027 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5028 
  5029   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5030 
  5031 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5032 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5033 this:
  5034 
  5035   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5036 
  5037 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5038 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5039 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5040 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5041 
  5042 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5043 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5044 
  5045 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5046 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5047 
  5048 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5049 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5050 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5051 batch mode.
  5052 
  5053 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5054 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5055 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5056 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5059 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5060 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5061 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5062 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5063 
  5064 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5065 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5066 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5067 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5068 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5069 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5070 
  5071 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5072 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5073 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5077 "Trueprop" etc.
  5078 
  5079 
  5080 *** System ***
  5081 
  5082 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5083 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5084 Isabelle installations.
  5085 
  5086 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5087 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5088 code.
  5089 
  5090 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5091 
  5092 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5093 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5094 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5095 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5096 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5097 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5098 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5099 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5100 Implementation manual.
  5101 
  5102 
  5103 
  5104 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5105 ----------------------------------
  5106 
  5107 *** General ***
  5108 
  5109 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5110 
  5111   theory <name>
  5112   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5113   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5114   begin
  5115 
  5116 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5117 
  5118   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5119 
  5120 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5121 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5122 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5123 
  5124 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5125 relative and absolute paths.
  5126 
  5127 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5128 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5129 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5130 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5131 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5132 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5133 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5134 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5135 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5136 
  5137   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5138 
  5139 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5140 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5141 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5142 
  5143 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5144 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5145 
  5146 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5147 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5148 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5149 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5150 
  5151   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5152   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5153 
  5154 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5155 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5156 faster.
  5157 
  5158 
  5159 *** Document preparation ***
  5160 
  5161 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5162 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5163 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5164 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5165 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5166 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5167 
  5168 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5169 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5170 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5171 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5172 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5173 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5174 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5175 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5176 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5177 \isadroptag.
  5178 
  5179 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5180 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5181 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5182 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5183 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5184 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5185 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5186 specified above.
  5187 
  5188 * Several new antiquotations:
  5189 
  5190   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5191 
  5192   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5193 
  5194   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5195   argument is a known logical constant;
  5196 
  5197   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5198   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5199 
  5200   @{ML text}
  5201 
  5202 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5203 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5204 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5205 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5206 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5207 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5208 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5209 
  5210 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5211 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5212 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5213 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5214 
  5215 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5216 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5217 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5218 
  5219 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5220 a proof context.
  5221 
  5222 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5223 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5224 
  5225 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5226 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5227 
  5228 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5229 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5230 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5231 
  5232 
  5233 *** Pure ***
  5234 
  5235 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5236 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5237 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5238 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5239 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5240 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5241 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5242 
  5243 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5244 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5245 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5246 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5247 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5248 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5249 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5250 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5251 
  5252 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5253 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5254 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5255 
  5256 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5257 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5258 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5259 
  5260 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5261 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5262 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5263 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5265 
  5266 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5267 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5268 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5269 axclasses vs. locales.
  5270 
  5271 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5272 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5273 
  5274 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5275 marks in schematic variable names.
  5276 
  5277 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5278 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5279 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5280 
  5281   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5282     by simp
  5283 
  5284 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5285 
  5286 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5287 annotations as "(00...)".
  5288 
  5289 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5290 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5291 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5292 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5293 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5294 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5295 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5296 
  5297 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5298 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5299 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5300 specifications.
  5301 
  5302 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5303 locally fixed variables as well.
  5304 
  5305 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5306 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5307 Limit.
  5308 
  5309 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5310 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5311 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5312 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5313 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5314 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5315 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5316 
  5317 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5318 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5319 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5320 
  5321 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5322 
  5323 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5324 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5325 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5326 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5327 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5328 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5329 
  5330 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5331 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5332 
  5333 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5334 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5335 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5336 
  5337 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5338 
  5339 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5340 theory development.
  5341 
  5342 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5343 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5344 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5345 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5346 
  5347 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5348 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5349 quoted when used as identifier.
  5350 
  5351 
  5352 *** Locales ***
  5353 
  5354 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5355 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5356 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5357 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5358 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5359 commands is a follows:
  5360 
  5361   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5362   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5363   (3) interpret expr inst
  5364 
  5365 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5366 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5367 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5368 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5369 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5370 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5371 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5372 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5373 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5374 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5375 
  5376 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5377 'interpret' instead.
  5378 
  5379 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5380 parameters.
  5381 
  5382 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5383 redeclaration.
  5384 
  5385 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5386 
  5387 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5388 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5389 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5390 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5391 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5392 
  5393 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5394 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5395 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5396 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5397 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5398 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5399 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5400 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5401 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5402 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5403 
  5404 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5405 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5406 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5407 
  5408 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5409 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5410 
  5411 
  5412 *** Provers ***
  5413 
  5414 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5415 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5416 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5417 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5418 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5419 
  5420 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5421 and quasi orders.
  5422 
  5423 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5424 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5425 
  5426 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5427 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5428 
  5429 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5430 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5431 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 
  5433 
  5434 *** HOL ***
  5435 
  5436 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5437 
  5438   syntax (epsilon)
  5439     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5440 
  5441 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5442 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5443 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5444 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5445 
  5446 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5447 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5448 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5449 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5450 
  5451 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5452 instead of ":".
  5453 
  5454 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5455 
  5456   Old       New
  5457   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5458   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5459   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5460   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5461   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5462 
  5463 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5464 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5465 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5466 
  5467   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5468   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5469 
  5470 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5471 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5472 interface.
  5473 
  5474 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5475 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5476 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5477 be a tuple pattern.
  5478 
  5479 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5480 
  5481   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5482   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5483   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5484   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5485 
  5486 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5487 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5488 
  5489 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5490 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5491 (insert F x)'.
  5492 
  5493 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5494 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5495 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5496 
  5497 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5498 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5499 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5500 
  5501 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5502 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5503 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5504 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5505 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5506 
  5507 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5508 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5509 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5510 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5511 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5512 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5514 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5515 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5516 
  5517 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5518 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5519 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5520 quite long.
  5521 
  5522 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5523 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5524 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5525 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5526 
  5527 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5528 type-variables in the term.
  5529 
  5530 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5531 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5532 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5533 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5534 goals than previously.
  5535 
  5536 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5537 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5538 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5539 just like y <= x.
  5540 
  5541 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5542 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5543 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5544 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5545 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5546 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5547 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5548 
  5549 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5550 
  5551 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5552 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5553 
  5554 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5555 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5556 inequalities.
  5557 
  5558 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5559 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5560 
  5561   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5562   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5563   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5564   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5565   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5566   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5567   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5568   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5569   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5570   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5571   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5572 
  5573 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5574      
  5575      zero_le_square
  5576      not_square_less_zero 
  5577 
  5578   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5579   
  5580      realpow_zero_zero
  5581      realpow_two
  5582      realpow_less
  5583      zero_le_power
  5584      realpow_two_le
  5585      abs_realpow_two
  5586      realpow_two_abs     
  5587 
  5588 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5589 
  5590 * Theory List:
  5591 
  5592 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5593 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5594 
  5595   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5596   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5597   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5598   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5599 
  5600 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5601 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5602 
  5603 
  5604 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5605 
  5606 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5607 integers in the reals.
  5608 
  5609 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5610 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5611 
  5612   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5613   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5614   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5615   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5616   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5617 
  5618 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5619 
  5620 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5621 
  5622 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5623 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5624 
  5625   hypreal = real star
  5626   hypnat = nat star
  5627   hcomplex = complex star
  5628 
  5629 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5630 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5631 
  5632   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5633 
  5634   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5635   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5636   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5637   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5638   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5639 
  5640   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5641   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5642   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5643   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5644   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5645 
  5646 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5647 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5648 
  5649   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5650   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5651   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5652   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5653   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5654   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5655   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5656   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5657   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5658   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5659   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5660   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5661   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5662   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5663   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5664   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5665   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5666   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5667   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5668   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5669   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5670   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5671   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5672   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5673 
  5674 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5675 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5676 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5677 
  5678   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5679   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5680   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5681   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5682   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5683   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5684   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5685   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5686   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5687   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5688     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5689   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5690   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5691   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5692   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5693   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5694   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5695   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5696   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5697   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5698   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5699   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5700   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5701   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5702   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5703   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5704   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5705   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5706   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5707   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5708   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5709   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5710   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5711   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5712   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5713   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5714   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5715   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5716   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5717   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5718   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5719   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5720   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5721   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5722   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5723   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5724   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5725   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5726   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5727   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5728   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5729   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5730   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5731   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5732 
  5733   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5734   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5735   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5736   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5737   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5738   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5739   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5740   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5741   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5742   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5743   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5744 
  5745   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5746   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5747   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5748   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5749   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5750   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5751   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5752   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5753   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5754   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5755   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5756   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5757   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5758   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5759   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5760   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5761   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5762   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5763   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5764   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5765   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5766 
  5767 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5768 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5769 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5770 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5771 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5772 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5773 
  5774 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5775 
  5776 
  5777 *** HOLCF ***
  5778 
  5779 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5780 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5781 type-inference.
  5782 
  5783 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5784 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5785 instead of exponential time).
  5786 
  5787 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5788 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5789 
  5790   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5791 
  5792 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5793 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5794 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5795 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5796 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5797 syntax and examples.
  5798 
  5799 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5800 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5801 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5802 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5803 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5804 
  5805 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5806 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5807 
  5808   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5809   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5810   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5811   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5812   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5813   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5814 
  5815 
  5816 *** ZF ***
  5817 
  5818 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5819 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5820 of a homomorphism).
  5821 
  5822 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5823 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5824 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5825 
  5826 
  5827 *** Cube ***
  5828 
  5829 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5830 theories.
  5831 
  5832 
  5833 *** ML ***
  5834 
  5835 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5836 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5837 
  5838 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5839 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5840 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5841 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5842 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5843 
  5844 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5845 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5846 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5847 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5848 
  5849 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5850 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5851 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5852 
  5853     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5854     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5855     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5856     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5857     seq fs = List.app fs
  5858     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5859     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5860 
  5861 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5862 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5863 
  5864   x |> f                f #> g
  5865   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5866 
  5867 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5868 
  5869   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5870   infix 2 ?;
  5871   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5872   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5873 
  5874 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5875 infix operators.
  5876 
  5877 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5878 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5879 example:
  5880 
  5881   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5882     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5883 
  5884   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5885     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5886 
  5887   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5888     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5889 
  5890   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5891     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5892 
  5893 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5894 available:
  5895 
  5896   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5897   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5898   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5899   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5900 
  5901 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5902 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5903 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5904 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5905 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5906 
  5907   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5908   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5909   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5910 
  5911 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5912 
  5913   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5914   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5915 
  5916 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5917 Naive rewrites:
  5918 
  5919   make_keylist = AList.make
  5920   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5921 
  5922 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5923   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5924 
  5925     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5926     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5927 
  5928 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5929   Naive rewrites:
  5930 
  5931     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5932     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5933 
  5934 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5935 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5936 lists.
  5937 
  5938 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5939 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5940 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5941 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5942 
  5943 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5944 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5945 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5946 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5947 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5948 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5949 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5950 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5951 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5952 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5953 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5954 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5955 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5956 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5957 Output.raw have no effect.
  5958 
  5959 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5960 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5961 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5962 
  5963 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5964 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5965 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5966 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5967 
  5968 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5969 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5970 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5971 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5972 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5973 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5974 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5975 
  5976 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5977 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5978 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5979 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5980 
  5981 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5982 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5983 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5984 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5985 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5986 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5987 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5988 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5989 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5990 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5991 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5992 
  5993 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5994 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5995 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5996 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5997 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5998 with earlier declarations.
  5999 
  6000 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  6001 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  6002 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6003 
  6004 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  6005 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  6006 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  6007 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  6008 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  6009 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  6010 
  6011   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  6012     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  6013 
  6014   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  6015     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  6016 
  6017   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  6018     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  6019     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  6020     Theory.merge, etc.)
  6021 
  6022 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  6023 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  6024 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  6025 
  6026 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  6027 
  6028 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  6029 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  6030 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  6031 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  6032 
  6033 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  6034 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  6035 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  6036 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  6037 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  6038 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  6039 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  6040 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6041 
  6042 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  6043 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  6044 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6045 
  6046 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  6047 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  6048 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  6049 
  6050 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  6051 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  6052 
  6053   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6054   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  6055   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6056   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  6057 
  6058 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  6059 
  6060 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  6061 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  6062 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  6063 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  6064 (both increase the runtime).
  6065 
  6066 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  6067 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  6068 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  6069 
  6070 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  6071 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  6072 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  6073 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  6074 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  6075 for further details.
  6076 
  6077 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  6078 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  6079 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  6080 scripts for the time being.
  6081 
  6082 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  6083 generated HTML files.  For example:
  6084 
  6085   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  6086   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  6087 
  6088 
  6089 *** System ***
  6090 
  6091 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  6092 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  6093 
  6094 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  6095 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  6096 
  6097 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  6098 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  6099 
  6100 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  6101 distribution being used.
  6102 
  6103 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  6104 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  6105 theories.
  6106 
  6107 
  6108 
  6109 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  6110 --------------------------------
  6111 
  6112 *** General ***
  6113 
  6114 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  6115   Replaces linorder.ML.
  6116 
  6117 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  6118   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  6119   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  6120   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  6121   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  6122   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  6123   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  6124   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  6125   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  6126   existing theory and ML files.
  6127 
  6128 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  6129 
  6130 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  6131   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  6132   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  6133   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  6134 
  6135 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  6136   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  6137   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  6138   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  6139 
  6140 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  6141   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  6142   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  6143 
  6144 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  6145   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  6146   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  6147   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  6148   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  6149 
  6150 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  6151   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  6152 
  6153 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  6154   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  6155   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  6156 
  6157 
  6158 *** Isar ***
  6159 
  6160 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  6161   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  6162   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  6163     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  6164     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  6165     emulations.
  6166   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  6167     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  6168     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  6169 
  6170 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  6171   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  6172     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  6173     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  6174   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  6175 
  6176 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  6177   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  6178   and derived forms.
  6179 
  6180 * Locales:
  6181   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  6182     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  6183     "_axioms") in the premise.
  6184     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  6185   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  6186     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  6187   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  6188     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  6189   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  6190         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  6191     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  6192     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  6193     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  6194     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  6195     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  6196       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  6197     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  6198     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  6199     with "locale (open)".
  6200       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  6201 
  6202 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  6203   (Isar) contexts.
  6204 
  6205 
  6206 *** HOL ***
  6207 
  6208 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  6209   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  6210   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  6211   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  6212   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  6213 
  6214 * Simplifier:
  6215   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  6216     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  6217     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  6218     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  6219     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  6220   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  6221     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  6222     is solved by simplification already.
  6223 
  6224 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  6225     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  6226 
  6227 * Numerics:
  6228   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  6229     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  6230   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  6231     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  6232   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  6233     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  6234     exponentiation).
  6235 
  6236 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  6237