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NEWS

author | hoelzl |

Mon Aug 23 19:35:57 2010 +0200 (2010-08-23) | |

changeset 38656 | d5d342611edb |

parent 38642 | 8fa437809c67 |

child 38708 | 8915e3ce8655 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

Rewrite the Probability theory.

Introduced pinfreal as real numbers with infinity.

Use pinfreal as value for measures.

Introduces Lebesgue Measure based on the integral in Multivariate Analysis.

Proved Radon Nikodym for arbitrary sigma finite measure spaces.

Introduced pinfreal as real numbers with infinity.

Use pinfreal as value for measures.

Introduces Lebesgue Measure based on the integral in Multivariate Analysis.

Proved Radon Nikodym for arbitrary sigma finite measure spaces.

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Explicit treatment of UTF8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

10 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

11 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

12 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

13 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

14 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

15 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

17 * Theory loading: only the master source file is looked-up in the

18 implicit load path, all other files are addressed relatively to its

19 directory. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

21 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

22 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

23 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

24 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

27 *** Pure ***

29 * Interpretation command 'interpret' accepts a list of equations like

30 'interpretation' does.

32 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

33 in addition to interpretations in theories.

36 *** HOL ***

38 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

40 * Theory SetsAndFunctions has been split into Function_Algebras and Set_Algebras;

41 canonical names for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

42 INCOMPATIBILITY.

44 * Records: logical foundation type for records do not carry a '_type' suffix

45 any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

47 * Code generation for records: more idiomatic representation of record types.

48 Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code generation any longer.

49 INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable rep_datatype declaration

50 helps to succeed then:

52 record 'a foo = ...

53 ...

54 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

56 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

57 INCOMPATIBILITY.

59 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

60 counter example search.

62 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types. Syntax

63 in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

64 INCOMPATIBILITY.

66 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

67 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

69 * Abolished symbol type names: "prod" and "sum" replace "*" and "+"

70 respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

72 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names

73 of ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

74 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

76 * Dropped old infix syntax "mem" for List.member; use "in set"

77 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

79 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in List.thy

81 constants

82 null ~> List.null

84 facts

85 mem_iff ~> member_def

86 null_empty ~> null_def

88 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not suppossed to be used

89 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

90 generation.

92 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

94 types

95 bool ~> HOL.bool

96 nat ~> Nat.nat

98 constants

99 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

100 True ~> HOL.True

101 False ~> HOL.False

102 Not ~> HOL.Not

103 The ~> HOL.The

104 All ~> HOL.All

105 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

106 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

107 Let ~> HOL.Let

108 If ~> HOL.If

109 Ball ~> Set.Ball

110 Bex ~> Set.Bex

111 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

112 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

113 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

114 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

115 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

116 op : ~> Set.member

117 Collect ~> Set.Collect

119 INCOMPATIBILITY.

121 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

122 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

124 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality

125 (class eq) carry proper names and are treated as default code

126 equations.

128 * List.thy: use various operations from the Haskell prelude when

129 generating Haskell code.

131 * code_simp.ML and method code_simp: simplification with rules determined

132 by code generator.

134 * code generator: do not print function definitions for case

135 combinators any longer.

137 * Multivariate Analysis: Introduced a type class for euclidean space. Most

138 theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces instead of finite

139 cartesian products.

141 types

142 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

143 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

144 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

145 (depends on your needs)

147 constants

148 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

149 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

150 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

152 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some finite

153 type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products of euclidean

154 spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to be euclidean_spaces.

156 INCOMPATIBILITY.

158 * Probability: Introduced pinfreal as real numbers with infinity. Use pinfreal

159 as value for measures. Introduces Lebesgue Measure based on the integral in

160 Multivariate Analysis. Proved Radon Nikodym for arbitrary sigma finite measure

161 spaces.

163 INCOMPATIBILITY.

165 * Inductive package: offers new command "inductive_simps" to automatically

166 derive instantiated and simplified equations for inductive predicates,

167 similar to inductive_cases.

170 *** FOL ***

172 * All constant names are now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

175 *** ZF ***

177 * All constant names are now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

180 *** ML ***

182 * ML antiquotations @{theory} and @{theory_ref} refer to named

183 theories from the ancestry of the current context, not any accidental

184 theory loader state as before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle

185 change in semantics.

188 *** System ***

190 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

194 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

195 ---------------------------------

197 *** General ***

199 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

200 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

201 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

202 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

203 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

204 their full internal name.

206 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

207 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

208 Some hints on upgrading:

210 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

211 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

212 which are independent of this issue.

214 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

215 provides the following special forms:

217 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

218 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

219 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

221 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

222 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

223 extra variables".

225 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

226 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

227 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

228 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

229 "logic".

231 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

232 antiquotations:

234 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

235 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

236 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

237 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

239 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

240 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

241 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

242 antiquotations.

244 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

245 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

246 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

247 diagnose syntax problems.

249 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

251 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

252 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

253 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

254 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

256 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

257 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

258 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

259 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

261 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

262 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

263 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

264 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

265 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

267 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

268 discontinued (old legacy feature).

270 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

271 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

272 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

274 using [[trace_simp = true]]

276 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

277 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

278 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

280 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

281 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

282 INCOMPATIBILITY.

284 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

285 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

288 *** Pure ***

290 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

291 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

292 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

293 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

294 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

295 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

296 inspect proof terms.

298 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

299 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

300 are added internally. For example:

302 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

304 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

305 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

307 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

309 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

310 'class' instead.

312 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

313 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

314 INCOMPATIBILITY.

316 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

317 invariants.

319 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

320 user space functionality any longer.

322 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

323 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

324 INCOMPATIBILITY.

326 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

327 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

329 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

330 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

331 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

333 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

334 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

335 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

337 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

338 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

341 *** HOL ***

343 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

344 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

345 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

346 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

347 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

349 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

350 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

351 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

352 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

354 fun

355 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

356 where

357 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

359 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

360 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

362 quotient_definition

363 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

365 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

366 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

367 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

368 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

370 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

371 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

373 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

374 separate HOL-SMT session.

376 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

377 INCOMPATIBILITY.

379 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

380 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

381 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

383 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

384 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

386 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

387 INCOMPATIBILITY.

389 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

390 INCOMPATIBILITY.

392 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

393 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

395 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

396 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

397 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

399 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

400 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

401 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

402 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

403 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

404 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

405 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

406 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

407 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

408 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

409 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

410 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

411 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

412 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

413 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

414 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

415 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

416 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

417 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

418 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

419 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

420 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

421 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

422 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

423 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

424 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

425 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

426 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

427 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

428 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

430 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

431 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

433 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

434 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

435 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

437 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

438 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

440 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

441 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

443 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

445 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

446 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

448 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

449 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

451 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

453 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

454 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

456 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

457 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

458 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

459 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

461 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

462 - less_eq, less: Orderings

463 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

464 - inverse, divide: Rings

465 INCOMPATIBILITY.

467 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

468 lattices):

470 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

471 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

473 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

475 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

476 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

477 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

478 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

479 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

480 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

481 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

482 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

483 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

484 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

485 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

486 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

487 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

489 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

490 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

491 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

492 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

493 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

494 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

495 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

496 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

497 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

498 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

499 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

500 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

501 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

502 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

503 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

504 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

505 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

506 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

508 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

509 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

511 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

512 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

513 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

514 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

515 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

517 INCOMPATIBILITY.

519 * Refined field classes:

520 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

521 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

522 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

523 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

524 INCOMPATIBILITY.

526 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

527 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

528 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

529 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

530 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

531 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

532 equal_neg_zero.

533 INCOMPATIBILITY.

535 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

536 sets to lattices:

538 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

539 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

540 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

541 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

542 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

543 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

544 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

545 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

546 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

547 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

549 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

550 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

551 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

552 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

553 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

554 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

556 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

557 multiset order:

559 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

560 <= and <;

561 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

562 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

563 multiset_order;

564 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

565 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

566 generation;

567 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

568 if needed.

570 Renamed:

572 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

573 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

574 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

576 INCOMPATIBILITY.

578 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

580 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

582 * Theory List: added transpose.

584 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

585 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

586 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

588 Constants:

589 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

590 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

591 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

592 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

593 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

594 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

595 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

596 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

597 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

598 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

599 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

600 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

601 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

603 Lemmas:

604 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

605 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

606 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

607 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

608 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

609 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

610 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

611 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

612 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

613 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

614 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

615 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

616 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

618 * Sledgehammer:

619 - Renamed ATP commands:

620 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

621 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

622 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

623 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

624 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

625 INCOMPATIBILITY.

626 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

627 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

628 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

629 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

630 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

631 is still experimental.)

632 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

633 full-typed mode.

634 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

636 * Nitpick:

637 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

638 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

639 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

640 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

641 - Added support for quotient types.

642 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

643 constructs.

644 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

645 "termination" proofs).

646 - Added support for term postprocessors.

647 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

648 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

649 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

650 record getters.

651 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

652 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

653 - Improved precision of set constructs.

654 - Added "atoms" option.

655 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

656 problems.

657 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

658 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

659 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

660 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

661 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

662 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

664 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

665 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

666 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

667 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

668 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

669 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

670 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

671 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

672 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

673 INCOMPATIBILITY.

676 *** HOLCF ***

678 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

679 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

680 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

682 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

683 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

684 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

685 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

687 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

688 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

689 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

690 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

691 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

693 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

694 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

695 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

697 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

698 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

700 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

701 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

703 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

704 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

706 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

707 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

708 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

709 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

710 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

712 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

713 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

715 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

716 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

717 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

719 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

720 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

721 INCOMPATIBILITY.

723 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

724 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

726 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

728 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

729 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

732 *** ML ***

734 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

736 @{class NAME} -- type class

737 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

739 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

740 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

741 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

742 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

744 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

745 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

746 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

748 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

749 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

751 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

752 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

753 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

755 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

756 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

757 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

758 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

760 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

761 the context or even global references.

763 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

764 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

766 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

767 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

769 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

770 OuterLex ~> Token

771 OuterParse ~> Parse

772 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

773 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

774 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

775 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

776 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

777 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

778 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

780 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

781 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

783 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

784 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

785 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

786 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

787 pass the proper local context through the code!

789 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

790 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

791 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

792 Theory_Data version.

794 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

795 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

796 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

797 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

798 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

799 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

800 explicitly in rare situations.

802 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

803 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

804 INCOMPATIBILITY.

806 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

807 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

809 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

810 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

811 quite rare).

813 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

814 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

816 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

817 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

818 terms.

820 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

821 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

822 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

825 *** System ***

827 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

828 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

829 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

831 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

832 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

833 respectively.

835 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

836 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

837 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

838 prefers 64 bit if available:

840 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

842 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

843 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

844 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

845 component.

847 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

848 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

849 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

850 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

851 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

852 the user for manual installation.

856 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

857 -------------------------------------

859 *** General ***

861 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

862 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

865 *** Pure ***

867 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

868 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

869 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

871 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

872 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

873 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

875 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

876 interpretation.

878 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

879 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

882 *** Document preparation ***

884 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

885 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

886 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

887 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

890 *** HOL ***

892 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

893 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

894 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

895 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

896 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

897 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

898 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

899 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

900 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

902 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

903 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

904 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

906 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

907 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

908 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

910 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

911 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

913 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

915 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

916 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

917 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

918 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

920 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

921 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

922 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

923 "mirabelle" utility.

925 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

926 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

927 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

928 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

929 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

930 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

931 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

932 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

933 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

934 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

936 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

937 procedure only.

939 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

941 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

942 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

943 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

944 that fail later.

946 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

947 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

949 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

950 the same method as the approximation method.

952 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

953 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

954 series expansion.

956 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

957 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

959 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

960 reals.

962 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

963 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

965 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

966 fixpoint theorem.

968 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

969 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

970 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

971 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

972 accordingly

973 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

974 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

975 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

976 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

978 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

979 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

980 lattice.

982 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

983 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

984 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

985 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

986 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

987 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

988 INCOMPATIBILITY.

990 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

991 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

992 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

993 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

994 le_inf_iff

995 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

996 sup_aci)

997 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

998 - new class "boolean_algebra"

999 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1000 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1001 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1002 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1003 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1004 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1005 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1006 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1007 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1008 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1009 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1010 - authentic syntax for

1011 Set.Pow

1012 Set.image

1013 - mere abbreviations:

1014 Set.empty (for bot)

1015 Set.UNIV (for top)

1016 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1017 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1018 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1019 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1020 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1021 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1022 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1024 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1025 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1026 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1027 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1029 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1030 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1031 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1033 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1034 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1036 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1037 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1038 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1039 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1041 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1042 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1043 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1044 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1045 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1047 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1048 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1049 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1051 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1052 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1054 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1055 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1056 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1057 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1058 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1059 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1060 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1061 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1063 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1064 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1065 code_post replaces code post

1066 etc.

1067 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1069 * Renamed methods:

1070 sizechange -> size_change

1071 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1072 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1074 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1075 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1077 * Renamed theorems:

1078 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1079 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1080 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1081 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1082 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1083 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1085 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1086 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1088 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1089 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1092 *** HOLCF ***

1094 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1095 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1096 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1098 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1099 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1100 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1101 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1102 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1104 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1105 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1106 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1107 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1108 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1110 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1111 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1112 constructor are pre-configured.

1114 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1115 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1116 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1118 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1119 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1120 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1121 as well.)

1123 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1124 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1125 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1126 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1127 examples.

1130 *** ML ***

1132 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

1133 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

1135 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

1136 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

1137 position, logical grouping etc.

1139 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

1140 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

1141 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

1142 copy operation) is still available for some time.

1144 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

1145 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

1146 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

1147 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

1148 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

1149 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

1151 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

1152 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

1153 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

1154 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

1155 experiments with references.

1157 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

1158 parallel tactical reasoning.

1160 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

1161 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

1162 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

1163 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

1165 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

1166 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

1167 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

1169 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

1170 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

1171 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1173 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1175 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

1176 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1178 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

1179 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

1181 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

1182 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

1183 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

1185 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

1186 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

1187 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1189 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

1190 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

1191 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

1192 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1194 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1195 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

1196 instead of global theory.

1199 *** System ***

1201 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

1202 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

1203 usedir option -q.

1205 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

1206 also the system manual.

1208 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

1209 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

1211 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

1212 this is always enabled.

1214 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

1216 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

1217 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

1218 currently supported on Linux only.

1222 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

1223 --------------------------------

1225 *** General ***

1227 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

1228 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1230 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

1231 "isatool."

1233 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

1234 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

1236 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

1237 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

1239 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

1240 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

1241 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

1243 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

1244 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

1245 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

1246 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

1247 via "isabelle emacs".

1249 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

1250 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

1251 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

1253 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

1254 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

1255 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1257 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

1258 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

1259 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

1260 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

1261 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

1263 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

1264 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

1265 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

1266 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

1268 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

1269 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

1270 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

1273 *** Pure ***

1275 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

1276 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

1277 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

1279 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

1280 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

1281 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

1282 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

1283 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

1285 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

1286 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

1287 useful in locale declarations.

1289 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

1290 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

1291 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

1292 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

1293 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

1294 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

1295 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

1296 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

1297 no longer generated.

1299 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

1300 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

1301 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

1303 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

1304 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

1305 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

1306 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

1307 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

1309 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

1310 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

1311 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

1312 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

1313 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

1314 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

1315 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

1316 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

1318 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

1319 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

1320 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

1321 the parameters (context element "constrains").

1323 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1325 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

1326 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

1327 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

1329 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

1330 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1332 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

1333 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

1334 in HOL, write

1336 class foo = ...

1338 instead of

1340 class foo = type + ...

1342 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

1343 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1345 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

1346 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

1348 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

1349 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

1350 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

1352 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

1353 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

1354 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

1355 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

1356 directly in regular applications.

1358 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

1359 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

1361 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

1362 interface with 'setup' command instead.

1364 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

1365 theory context.

1367 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

1368 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1370 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

1371 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

1372 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

1373 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

1374 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

1375 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

1377 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

1379 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

1380 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

1381 normalization.

1383 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

1384 addressing etc.

1386 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

1388 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

1389 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

1391 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1393 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

1394 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

1395 parts of the code generator framework).

1397 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

1398 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

1399 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

1401 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1403 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

1404 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1406 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

1407 patterns, e.g.

1409 find_consts "_ => bool"

1411 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

1412 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

1413 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

1414 hyphen:

1416 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

1418 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

1419 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

1421 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

1422 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

1423 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

1424 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

1425 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

1426 higher-order unification.

1429 *** Document preparation ***

1431 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

1432 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

1433 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

1436 *** HOL ***

1438 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

1439 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

1441 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

1442 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

1443 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

1444 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

1445 Main, as before.

1447 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

1448 experimentation due to shorter build times.

1450 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

1451 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

1452 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

1453 new entry point Hypercomplex.

1455 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

1456 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

1457 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

1458 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

1459 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

1460 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

1462 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

1463 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

1464 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

1465 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

1467 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

1468 menu.

1470 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

1471 (contains the empty clause).

1473 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

1474 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

1476 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

1477 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

1479 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

1480 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

1481 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1483 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

1484 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

1485 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

1486 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

1487 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

1489 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

1490 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

1492 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

1493 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

1494 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

1495 are now presented as a list of individual projections

1496 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

1497 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

1498 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

1499 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

1500 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

1502 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

1504 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

1506 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

1507 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1509 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

1510 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

1511 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

1512 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

1514 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

1515 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1517 op Int ~> Set.Int

1518 op Un ~> Set.Un

1519 INTER ~> Set.INTER

1520 UNION ~> Set.UNION

1521 Inter ~> Set.Inter

1522 Union ~> Set.Union

1523 {} ~> Set.empty

1524 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

1526 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

1527 theory Set.

1529 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

1530 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

1532 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

1534 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

1535 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

1537 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

1538 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

1539 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

1540 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

1541 allowed. For examples see

1542 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

1544 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

1546 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

1547 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1549 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

1550 structure:

1552 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

1553 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

1554 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

1555 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

1556 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

1557 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

1558 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

1559 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

1560 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

1561 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

1562 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

1563 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

1564 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

1565 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

1566 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

1567 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

1568 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

1569 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

1570 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

1571 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

1572 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

1573 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

1574 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

1575 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

1576 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

1577 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

1578 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

1579 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

1580 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

1581 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

1582 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

1583 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

1584 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

1586 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1587 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1588 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1589 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

1590 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1591 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1592 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1593 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1594 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1595 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1597 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1598 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1599 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1600 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1601 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1602 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1604 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

1605 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

1606 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

1608 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

1609 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

1610 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

1612 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

1613 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1615 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

1616 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

1618 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

1619 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

1620 proofs, e.g.

1622 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

1624 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

1626 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

1627 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

1628 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1630 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

1631 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

1632 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1634 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

1635 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

1636 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

1637 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1639 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

1640 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

1641 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

1642 preorder_class.*.

1644 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

1645 "diag" to "Id_on".

1647 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

1649 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

1651 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

1652 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

1653 fold_image.

1655 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

1656 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

1657 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

1658 the former will disappear at some point.

1660 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

1661 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

1662 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

1664 rat_power_0 -> power_0

1665 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

1666 realpow_0 -> power_0

1667 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

1668 complexpow_0 -> power_0

1669 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

1670 power_poly_0 -> power_0

1671 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

1673 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

1674 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

1675 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

1676 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

1677 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

1678 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

1680 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

1681 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

1682 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

1683 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

1684 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

1685 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

1686 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

1688 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

1689 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

1690 rename old lemmas as follows:

1692 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

1693 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

1694 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

1695 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

1696 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

1697 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

1698 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

1699 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

1700 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

1701 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

1702 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

1703 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

1704 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

1705 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

1706 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

1707 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

1708 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

1709 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

1710 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

1711 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

1712 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

1713 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

1714 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

1715 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

1716 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

1717 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

1718 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

1719 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

1720 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

1721 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

1722 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

1723 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

1724 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

1725 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

1726 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

1727 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

1728 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

1729 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

1730 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

1731 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

1732 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

1733 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

1734 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

1735 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

1736 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

1738 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1740 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

1741 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

1743 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

1744 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

1745 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

1746 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

1748 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

1749 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

1750 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

1751 theory RealVector.

1753 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

1754 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

1755 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

1756 and inner products are included.

1758 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

1759 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

1760 supported.

1762 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

1763 first diagonalization argument.

1765 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

1766 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

1767 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

1768 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1769 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

1771 hide (open) const gcd

1772 abbreviation gcd where

1773 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

1774 notation (output)

1775 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

1777 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

1779 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

1780 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

1781 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1783 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

1784 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

1785 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

1786 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

1787 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

1788 instrumentalizing code generation. See

1789 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

1790 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

1791 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

1792 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

1793 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

1794 cases.

1796 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

1797 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

1798 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

1799 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

1800 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

1802 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

1803 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

1804 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

1805 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

1806 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

1809 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1811 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

1812 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

1813 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

1815 * New theory of factorial domains.

1817 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

1818 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

1819 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

1821 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1823 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

1824 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

1825 least_carrier ~> least_closed

1826 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

1827 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

1828 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

1829 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

1832 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1834 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

1836 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

1837 theory targets.

1839 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

1840 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

1841 'inductive' etc.

1843 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

1844 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

1846 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

1847 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

1849 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

1850 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

1851 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

1852 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

1853 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

1854 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

1855 the algorithm W:

1857 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

1858 -----------------------------------------------------------------

1859 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

1861 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

1862 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

1863 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

1866 *** HOLCF ***

1868 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

1869 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

1870 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

1872 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

1873 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

1874 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

1875 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

1876 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1878 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

1879 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1880 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1883 *** ZF ***

1885 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

1888 *** ML ***

1890 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

1891 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

1892 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

1893 5.2.1!

1895 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

1896 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

1897 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

1898 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

1899 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

1900 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

1901 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

1903 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

1904 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

1905 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

1906 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

1907 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

1908 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

1909 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

1911 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

1912 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

1913 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

1914 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

1915 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

1917 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

1918 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

1919 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

1920 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

1921 Method.add_method.

1923 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

1924 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

1925 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

1926 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

1927 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

1928 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

1930 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

1931 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

1932 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

1933 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

1934 examples.

1936 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

1937 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

1938 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

1939 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

1940 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

1941 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

1942 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

1943 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

1944 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

1945 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

1947 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

1948 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

1949 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

1951 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

1952 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

1953 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

1954 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

1955 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

1956 resort for legacy applications.

1958 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

1959 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

1960 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

1961 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

1962 explicit runtime argument.

1964 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

1965 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

1966 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

1967 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

1968 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1970 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

1971 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

1972 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

1973 theory state.

1975 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

1976 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

1978 @{binding name} - basic name binding

1979 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

1980 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

1981 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

1982 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

1983 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

1984 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

1985 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

1986 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

1987 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

1990 *** System ***

1992 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

1993 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

1994 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

1995 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

1996 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

1998 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

1999 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2000 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2001 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2003 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2005 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2006 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2007 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2008 prover operations.

2012 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2013 -------------------------------

2015 *** General ***

2017 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2018 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2020 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2021 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2022 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2023 provides a proper context already.

2025 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2026 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2027 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2029 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2030 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2031 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2032 swap theory imports.

2034 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2035 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2037 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2038 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2039 white space without escapes.

2041 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2042 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2043 "foo_bar".

2046 *** Pure ***

2048 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2049 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2051 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2052 There are three ways of invoking it:

2054 (1) unused_thms

2055 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2057 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2058 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2059 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2061 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2062 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2063 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2064 their ancestors.

2066 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2067 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2068 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2069 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2070 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2071 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2072 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2074 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2075 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2076 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2078 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2079 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2080 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2081 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2082 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2084 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2086 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2087 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2088 update of theories within ML code.

2090 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2091 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2092 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2093 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2095 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2096 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2097 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2098 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2100 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2102 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2103 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2104 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2105 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2106 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2108 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2109 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2110 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2111 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2112 situations.

2114 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2115 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2116 proof text.

2118 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2119 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2121 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2122 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2123 predicates.

2126 *** Document preparation ***

2128 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

2129 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

2130 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

2131 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

2132 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

2133 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

2135 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

2136 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

2137 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

2140 *** HOL ***

2142 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

2143 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

2144 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

2145 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

2146 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

2147 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

2149 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

2150 with multithreading.

2152 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

2153 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

2154 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

2156 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

2157 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

2158 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

2159 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2161 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

2162 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

2163 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

2164 and makes them available separately. See

2165 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

2167 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

2168 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

2169 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

2170 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

2171 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

2172 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

2173 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

2174 the declared rules.

2176 This setup also deals with rules like

2178 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

2180 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

2181 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

2183 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

2185 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2187 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

2188 definitions on => and bool.

2190 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

2191 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

2192 the following theorems have been renamed:

2194 subset_def -> subset_eq

2195 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

2196 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

2197 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

2198 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

2199 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

2200 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

2201 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

2203 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

2204 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

2205 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

2207 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

2208 The proof pattern

2210 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2211 then have "EX S. P S" ..

2213 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

2214 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

2216 have "EX S. P S"

2217 proof

2218 show "P S" <...>

2219 qed

2221 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

2222 The proof pattern

2224 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2225 also have "S = T" <...>

2226 finally have "P T" .

2228 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

2229 must be replaced by something like

2231 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2232 moreover have "S = T" <...>

2233 ultimately have "P T" by simp

2235 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

2236 Code performing pattern matching on types via

2238 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

2240 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

2241 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

2242 type of the form

2244 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

2246 rather than

2248 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

2250 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

2251 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

2253 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2255 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

2256 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2259 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

2260 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2262 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

2263 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2265 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

2266 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

2267 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2269 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

2270 the same name in theory Orderings:

2272 less_trans

2273 less_linear

2274 le_imp_less_or_eq

2275 le_less_trans

2276 less_le_trans

2277 less_not_sym

2278 less_asym

2280 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

2281 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

2282 and different variable names.

2284 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

2286 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

2287 finite maps.

2289 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

2291 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

2292 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

2293 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

2294 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

2295 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

2296 accordingly.

2298 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

2299 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

2300 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

2301 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

2303 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

2304 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

2305 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

2306 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

2307 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

2308 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2310 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

2311 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2313 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

2314 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

2315 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

2317 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

2318 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2320 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

2321 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

2323 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

2324 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2326 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

2327 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2329 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

2330 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

2331 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2333 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

2334 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2336 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

2337 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

2338 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

2339 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

2340 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

2341 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2343 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

2344 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

2345 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

2347 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

2349 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

2351 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

2352 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

2353 well-orders on sets and on types.

2356 *** ZF ***

2358 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

2359 same session:

2361 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

2362 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

2363 Int -> Int_ZF

2364 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

2365 Nat -> Nat_ZF

2366 List -> List_ZF

2367 Main -> Main_ZF

2369 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

2370 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

2371 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

2374 *** ML ***

2376 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

2377 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

2379 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

2380 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

2382 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

2384 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

2385 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

2386 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

2387 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

2388 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2390 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

2391 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

2392 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

2395 *** System ***

2397 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

2398 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

2400 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

2401 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

2402 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

2404 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

2405 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

2407 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

2408 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

2409 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

2411 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

2412 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

2413 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

2415 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

2416 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

2418 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

2419 way of changing the user's settings is via

2420 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

2421 script.

2423 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

2424 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

2425 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

2426 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

2427 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

2429 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

2430 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

2431 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

2435 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

2436 -----------------------------------

2438 *** General ***

2440 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

2441 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

2442 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

2443 legacy features will disappear eventually.

2445 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

2446 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

2447 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2449 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

2450 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

2451 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

2452 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2454 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

2455 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

2456 quotes.

2458 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

2459 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

2460 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

2461 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

2462 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

2463 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

2464 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

2465 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

2466 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

2468 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

2469 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

2470 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

2471 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

2472 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

2473 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

2475 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2476 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

2477 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

2478 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

2480 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

2481 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

2482 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

2483 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

2484 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

2485 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

2487 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

2488 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

2489 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

2490 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

2491 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

2492 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

2493 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

2494 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

2496 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

2497 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

2498 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

2499 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

2500 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

2501 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

2502 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

2504 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

2505 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

2506 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

2508 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

2509 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

2510 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

2511 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

2512 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

2513 limit is imposed.

2515 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

2516 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

2517 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

2518 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

2519 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

2520 and scalability.

2522 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

2523 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

2526 *** Document preparation ***

2528 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

2529 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

2530 current context.

2532 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

2533 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

2535 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

2536 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

2537 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

2540 *** Pure ***

2542 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

2543 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

2544 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

2545 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

2546 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

2547 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

2548 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

2549 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

2550 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

2551 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

2553 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

2554 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

2555 sketch:

2557 internal compilation:

2558 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

2559 writing SML code to a file:

2560 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

2561 writing OCaml code to a file:

2562 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

2563 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

2564 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

2566 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

2567 method ``eval''

2569 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

2571 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

2573 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

2574 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

2575 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

2576 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

2578 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

2580 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

2581 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

2583 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

2584 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

2586 code_instance <and-list of instances>

2587 {(target)}+

2588 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

2590 code_class <and_list of classes>

2591 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

2592 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

2594 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

2596 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

2597 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

2598 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

2599 codegen".

2601 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

2602 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

2603 annotations).

2605 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

2606 syntax.

2608 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

2609 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

2610 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

2611 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

2612 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

2613 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

2615 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

2616 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

2617 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

2618 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

2619 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

2620 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

2621 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

2622 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

2623 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

2624 equations, see section "definitions".

2626 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

2627 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

2628 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

2629 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

2630 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

2631 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

2632 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

2633 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

2634 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

2635 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

2637 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

2638 configuration options:

2640 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

2641 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

2642 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

2643 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

2644 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

2645 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

2646 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

2647 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

2648 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

2650 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

2651 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

2652 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

2653 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

2654 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

2655 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

2656 order.

2658 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

2659 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

2660 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

2661 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

2662 context encountered later on.

2664 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

2665 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

2666 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

2667 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

2669 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

2670 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

2671 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

2672 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

2673 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

2674 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

2676 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

2677 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

2678 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

2679 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

2680 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

2681 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

2682 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

2683 more permissive.

2685 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

2686 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

2687 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

2688 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

2689 maintainability of proof texts.

2691 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

2692 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

2694 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

2695 then guess x and y by clarify

2697 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

2698 proof tools being involved here.

2700 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

2701 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

2702 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

2703 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

2704 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

2705 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

2706 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

2707 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

2709 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

2710 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

2711 certain special cases of literal facts:

2713 have "A" by fact == note `A`

2714 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

2715 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

2716 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

2718 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

2719 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

2720 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

2722 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

2723 both named and unnamed ones.

2725 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

2727 def x == "t" and y == "u"

2729 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

2730 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

2731 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

2732 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

2734 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

2735 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

2736 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

2737 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

2738 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

2740 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

2741 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

2743 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

2744 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

2745 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

2746 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

2747 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

2748 originally first one.

2750 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

2751 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

2752 expected.

2754 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

2755 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

2756 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

2757 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

2758 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

2760 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2761 assumes "EX x. P x"

2762 obtains x where "P x"

2764 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2765 assumes "A & B"

2766 obtains A and B

2768 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2769 assumes "A | B"

2770 obtains

2771 A

2772 | B

2774 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

2775 explicitly:

2777 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2778 obtains "~ thesis"

2780 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2781 obtains "thesis ==> something"

2783 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

2784 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

2785 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

2786 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

2787 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

2788 case_names).

2790 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

2791 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

2792 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

2793 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

2795 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

2796 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

2797 top-level lemma.

2799 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

2800 introduction rule (default "that").

2802 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2803 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

2804 to occur.

2806 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

2807 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

2808 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

2809 representations independently of name spaces.

2811 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

2812 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

2813 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2815 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

2816 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

2817 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

2818 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

2819 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

2820 current context.

2822 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

2823 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

2824 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

2825 isar-ref manual. Examples:

2827 axiomatization

2828 eq (infix "===" 50) where

2829 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

2831 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

2832 definition g where "g x = f x x"

2834 abbreviation

2835 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

2836 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

2838 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

2839 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

2840 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

2841 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

2842 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

2843 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

2844 entities from a monomorphic theory.

2846 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

2847 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

2848 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

2849 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

2850 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

2852 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

2853 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

2854 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

2855 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

2857 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

2858 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

2859 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

2861 definition "K x _ = x"

2863 inductive conj for A B

2864 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

2866 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

2867 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

2868 abbreviations on output.

2870 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

2871 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

2872 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

2873 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

2875 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

2876 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

2877 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

2878 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

2879 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

2880 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

2881 `unfold_locales'; see below.

2883 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

2884 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

2885 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

2886 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

2887 unfold predicates to assumptions.

2889 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

2890 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

2891 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

2893 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

2894 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

2895 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

2896 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

2897 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

2899 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

2900 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

2902 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

2903 definition specification element in the context of locale

2904 partial_order.

2906 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

2907 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

2908 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

2909 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

2910 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

2911 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

2912 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

2913 examples.

2915 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

2916 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

2917 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

2918 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

2919 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

2921 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

2922 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

2923 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

2924 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

2925 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

2927 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

2928 (induct set: foo bar)

2929 (induct pred: foo bar)

2930 (induct type: foo bar)

2932 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

2933 new format.

2935 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

2936 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

2938 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

2939 considered a legacy feature.

2941 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

2942 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2944 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

2945 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

2946 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

2947 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

2949 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

2950 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

2951 manipulating the claset.

2953 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

2954 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

2955 least one premise.

2957 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

2958 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

2959 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

2960 rule steps.

2962 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

2963 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

2964 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

2965 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

2966 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

2967 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

2969 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

2970 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

2971 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

2973 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

2974 the graph browser tool.

2976 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

2977 default; use '!' option for full details.

2980 *** HOL ***

2982 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

2983 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

2984 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

2985 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

2986 multi-threading.

2988 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

2989 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

2990 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

2991 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

2992 work with multi-threading.

2994 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

2995 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

2996 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

2997 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

2998 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3000 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3002 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3003 equality.

3005 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3006 the new 'class' package:

3008 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3009 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3010 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3011 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3012 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3013 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3014 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3015 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3016 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3017 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3018 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3019 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3020 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3021 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3022 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3023 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3024 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3025 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3026 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3027 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3029 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3031 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3032 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3033 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3034 names.

3036 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3037 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3039 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3040 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3041 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3042 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3043 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3045 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3046 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3047 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3048 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3050 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3052 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3053 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3054 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3055 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3056 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3058 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3059 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3061 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3062 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3063 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3065 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3066 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3068 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3069 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3070 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3071 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3072 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3073 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3074 in the current context.

3076 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3077 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3078 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3080 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3081 with new class dense_linear_order.

3083 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3085 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3086 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3088 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3089 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3090 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3091 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3093 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3094 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3096 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3098 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3099 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3100 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3101 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3102 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3103 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3104 join_leI ~> le_supI

3105 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3106 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3107 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3108 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3109 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3110 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3111 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3112 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3113 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3114 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3115 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3116 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3117 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3118 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3119 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3120 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3121 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3122 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3123 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3124 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3125 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3126 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3127 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

3128 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

3129 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

3130 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

3131 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

3132 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

3134 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

3135 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

3136 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

3137 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

3138 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

3139 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

3140 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

3141 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

3142 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

3143 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

3144 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

3145 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

3146 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

3147 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

3148 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

3149 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

3150 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

3152 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

3153 mono_join ~> mono_sup

3154 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

3155 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

3156 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

3157 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

3158 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

3159 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

3160 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

3161 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

3162 meet1I ~> inf1I

3163 meet2I ~> inf2I

3164 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

3165 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

3166 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

3167 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

3168 meet1E ~> inf1E

3169 meet2E ~> inf2E

3170 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

3171 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

3172 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3173 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

3174 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3175 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

3176 join1CI ~> sup1CI

3177 join2CI ~> sup2CI

3178 join1E ~> sup1E

3179 join2E ~> sup2E

3181 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

3182 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

3183 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

3184 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

3185 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

3186 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

3188 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

3189 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

3190 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

3191 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

3193 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

3194 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

3196 meet_min ~> inf_min

3197 join_max ~> sup_max

3199 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

3200 type "'a::size ==> bool"

3202 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

3203 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

3204 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

3205 "*.size".

3207 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

3208 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3210 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

3211 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

3212 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3214 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3216 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

3217 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

3218 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

3219 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

3220 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

3221 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

3222 numerals on all operations.

3224 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

3226 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

3228 * Code generator library theories:

3229 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

3230 languages.

3231 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

3232 languages.

3233 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

3234 codes; includes Code_Integer.

3235 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

3236 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

3237 denominator).

3238 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

3239 representable by rational numbers.

3240 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

3241 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

3242 includes Code_Integer.

3243 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

3244 target-language built-in integers.

3245 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

3246 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

3248 * New package for inductive predicates

3250 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

3252 inductive

3253 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3254 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3255 where

3256 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

3257 | ...

3259 with full support for type-inference, rather than

3261 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3263 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3264 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3266 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

3267 intros

3268 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3269 ...

3271 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

3272 sets to be defined with the new package via

3274 inductive_set

3275 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3276 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3277 where

3278 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3279 | ...

3281 or

3283 inductive_set

3284 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3285 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3286 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3287 where

3288 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3289 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

3290 | ...

3292 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

3294 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

3295 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

3297 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3299 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

3300 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

3301 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

3302 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

3303 than before the actual inductive definition.

3305 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

3306 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

3307 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

3308 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

3309 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

3310 statements of the form

3312 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

3314 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

3315 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

3317 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

3319 - The format of the elimination rules is now

3321 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

3322 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

3323 ==> ... ==> P

3325 for predicates and

3327 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

3328 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

3329 ==> ... ==> P

3331 for sets rather than

3333 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

3334 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

3335 ==> ... ==> P

3337 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

3338 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

3339 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

3341 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

3342 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

3343 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

3345 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

3346 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

3347 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

3348 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

3349 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

3350 users are encouraged to use the new package.

3352 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

3353 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

3355 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

3356 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

3357 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

3358 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

3359 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

3360 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

3361 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

3362 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

3363 variable.

3365 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

3366 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

3367 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

3368 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3369 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

3370 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

3372 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

3373 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

3374 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

3375 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

3376 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

3377 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

3378 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

3379 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

3380 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

3382 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

3383 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

3384 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

3385 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

3386 rat, etc.

3388 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

3389 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

3390 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

3392 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

3394 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

3395 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

3397 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

3398 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

3400 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

3401 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

3402 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3404 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

3405 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

3406 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3408 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

3410 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

3412 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

3413 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

3414 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

3415 positive/negative (in inequations).

3417 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

3418 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

3419 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

3420 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3422 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

3423 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

3424 algebraic operations.

3426 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3429 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

3430 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3432 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

3433 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

3434 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

3435 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

3436 adapted.

3438 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

3439 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

3440 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

3441 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

3442 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

3444 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

3445 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

3446 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

3448 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

3449 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

3450 better use 'abbreviation'.

3452 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3454 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

3455 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

3456 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

3457 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

3458 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

3459 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

3460 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

3461 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

3463 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

3465 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

3466 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

3467 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

3468 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

3469 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

3470 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

3472 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

3473 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

3474 "A = B" (with priority 50).

3476 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

3477 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

3478 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

3479 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3481 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

3483 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

3484 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3486 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

3487 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

3489 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

3490 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

3491 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

3493 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

3494 True/False.

3496 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

3498 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

3500 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

3501 ``rule'' method.

3503 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

3504 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

3505 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

3506 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

3508 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

3509 zChaff is still supported as well.

3511 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

3512 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

3514 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

3515 Library.

3517 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

3519 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

3520 as greatest fixed-point.

3522 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

3523 association lists.

3525 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

3526 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

3527 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

3529 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

3530 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

3531 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3532 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

3533 behavior.

3535 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

3537 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

3538 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

3539 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

3540 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

3541 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

3542 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

3544 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

3545 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

3546 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

3547 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

3548 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

3549 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

3550 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

3552 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

3553 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

3555 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

3556 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

3557 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

3558 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

3559 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

3562 *** HOL-Complex ***

3564 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

3565 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

3566 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

3567 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

3568 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3570 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

3571 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

3572 and norm :: 'a => real.

3574 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

3575 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

3576 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3578 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

3579 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

3581 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

3582 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

3583 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

3584 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3586 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

3587 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

3588 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

3589 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

3590 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

3591 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

3592 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

3593 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

3594 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

3595 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

3596 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

3597 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

3598 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

3599 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

3600 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

3602 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

3603 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

3604 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

3605 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3607 approx <-- capprox

3608 HFinite <-- CFinite

3609 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

3610 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

3611 monad <-- cmonad

3612 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

3613 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

3614 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

3615 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

3618 *** HOL-Algebra ***

3620 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

3622 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

3623 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3625 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

3626 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3628 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

3629 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

3630 of algebraic structures.

3632 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

3635 *** HOL-Nominal ***

3637 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

3638 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

3639 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

3640 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

3643 *** ML ***

3645 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

3646 (even on SML/NJ).

3648 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

3649 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

3650 compile-time. For example:

3652 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

3653 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

3654 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

3655 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

3656 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

3657 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

3658 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

3659 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

3660 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

3661 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

3662 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

3663 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

3664 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

3665 ML {* @{context} *}

3666 ML {* @{theory} *}

3667 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

3668 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

3669 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

3670 ML {* @{simpset} *}

3671 ML {* @{claset} *}

3672 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

3674 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

3676 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

3677 ML_Context.trace enabled.

3679 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

3680 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

3681 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

3683 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

3684 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

3686 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

3687 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

3688 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

3690 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

3691 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

3692 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

3693 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

3694 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

3695 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

3696 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

3697 declarations and definitions.

3699 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

3700 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

3701 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

3702 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

3704 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

3705 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

3706 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

3707 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3709 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

3710 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

3711 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

3712 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

3713 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

3714 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

3716 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

3717 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

3718 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

3719 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

3720 attributes, methods, etc.

3722 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

3723 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

3724 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

3725 fold_map combinators.

3727 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

3728 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

3729 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

3730 derivation.

3732 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

3733 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

3734 achieve the old behaviour.

3736 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

3737 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

3738 statements.

3740 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

3741 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

3742 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

3744 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

3745 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

3746 some popular functions from term.ML:

3748 Term.variant -> Name.variant

3749 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

3750 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

3752 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

3753 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

3755 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

3756 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

3757 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

3758 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

3759 various freeze_thaw operations.

3761 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

3762 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

3763 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

3764 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

3765 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

3766 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

3767 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

3768 in a locale context).

3770 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

3771 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

3772 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

3773 which are considered legacy and await removal.

3775 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

3776 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

3777 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

3778 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

3779 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

3780 a mere theory instead of a full context.

3782 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

3783 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

3784 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

3785 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

3786 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

3788 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

3790 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

3791 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

3792 this:

3794 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

3796 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

3797 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

3798 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

3799 -- use plain ERROR instead.

3801 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

3802 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

3804 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

3805 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

3807 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

3808 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

3809 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

3810 batch mode.

3812 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

3813 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

3814 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

3815 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3817 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

3818 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

3819 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

3820 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

3821 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

3823 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

3824 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

3825 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

3826 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

3827 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

3828 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

3830 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

3831 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

3832 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

3833 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3835 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

3836 "Trueprop" etc.

3839 *** System ***

3841 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

3842 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

3843 Isabelle installations.

3845 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

3846 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

3847 code.

3849 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

3851 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

3852 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

3853 independent theories, according to the given theory header

3854 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

3855 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

3856 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

3857 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

3858 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

3859 Implementation manual.

3863 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

3864 ----------------------------------

3866 *** General ***

3868 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

3870 theory <name>

3871 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

3872 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

3873 begin

3875 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

3877 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

3879 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

3880 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

3881 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

3883 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

3884 relative and absolute paths.

3886 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

3887 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

3888 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

3889 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

3890 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

3891 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

3892 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

3893 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

3894 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

3896 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

3898 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

3899 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

3900 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

3902 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

3903 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

3905 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

3906 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

3907 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

3908 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

3910 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

3911 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

3913 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

3914 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

3915 faster.

3918 *** Document preparation ***

3920 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

3921 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

3922 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

3923 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

3924 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

3925 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

3927 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

3928 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

3929 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

3930 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

3931 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

3932 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

3933 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

3934 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

3935 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

3936 \isadroptag.

3938 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

3939 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

3940 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

3941 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

3942 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

3943 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

3944 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

3945 specified above.

3947 * Several new antiquotations:

3949 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

3951 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

3953 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

3954 argument is a known logical constant;

3956 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

3957 theorem applying a "style" to it

3959 @{ML text}

3961 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

3962 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

3963 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

3964 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

3965 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

3966 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

3967 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

3969 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

3970 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

3971 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

3972 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

3974 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

3975 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

3976 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

3978 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

3979 a proof context.

3981 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

3982 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

3984 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

3985 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

3987 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

3988 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

3989 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

3992 *** Pure ***

3994 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

3995 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

3996 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

3997 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

3998 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

3999 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4000 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4002 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4003 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4004 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4005 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4006 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4007 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4008 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4009 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4011 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4012 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4013 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4015 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4016 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4017 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4019 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4020 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4021 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4022 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4023 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4025 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4026 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4027 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4028 axclasses vs. locales.

4030 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4031 instead of base 26 numbers.

4033 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4034 marks in schematic variable names.

4036 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4037 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4038 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4040 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4041 by simp

4043 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4045 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4046 annotations as "(00...)".

4048 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4049 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4050 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4051 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4052 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4053 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4054 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4056 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4057 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4058 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4059 specifications.

4061 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4062 locally fixed variables as well.

4064 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4065 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4066 Limit.

4068 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4069 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4070 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4071 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4072 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4073 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4074 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4076 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4077 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4078 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4080 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4082 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4083 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4084 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4085 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4086 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4087 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4089 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4090 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4092 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4093 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4094 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4096 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4098 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4099 theory development.

4101 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4102 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4103 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4104 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4106 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4107 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4108 quoted when used as identifier.

4111 *** Locales ***

4113 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4114 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4115 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4116 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4117 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4118 commands is a follows:

4120 (1) interpretation expr inst

4121 (2) interpretation target < expr

4122 (3) interpret expr inst

4124 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4125 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4126 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4127 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

4128 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

4129 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

4130 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

4131 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

4132 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

4133 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

4135 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

4136 'interpret' instead.

4138 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

4139 parameters.

4141 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

4142 redeclaration.

4144 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

4146 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

4147 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

4148 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

4149 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

4150 to attribute arguments as expected.

4152 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

4153 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

4154 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

4155 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

4156 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

4157 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

4158 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

4159 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

4160 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

4161 values to argument tokens explicitly.

4163 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

4164 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

4165 theorem statement in rare situations.

4167 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

4168 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

4171 *** Provers ***

4173 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

4174 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

4175 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

4176 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

4177 still available as 'simplesubst'.

4179 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

4180 and quasi orders.

4182 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

4183 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

4185 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

4186 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

4188 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

4189 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

4190 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4193 *** HOL ***

4195 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

4197 syntax (epsilon)

4198 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

4200 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

4201 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

4202 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

4203 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

4205 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

4206 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

4207 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

4208 support corresponding Isar calculations.

4210 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

4211 instead of ":".

4213 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

4215 Old New

4216 {..n(} {..<n}

4217 {)n..} {n<..}

4218 {m..n(} {m..<n}

4219 {)m..n} {m<..n}

4220 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

4222 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

4223 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

4224 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

4226 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

4227 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

4229 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

4230 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

4231 interface.

4233 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

4234 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

4235 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

4236 be a tuple pattern.

4238 Some new syntax forms are available:

4240 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

4241 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

4242 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

4243 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

4245 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

4246 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

4248 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

4249 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

4250 (insert F x)'.

4252 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

4253 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

4254 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

4256 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

4257 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

4258 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

4260 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

4261 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

4262 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

4263 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4264 in unstructured proof scripts.

4266 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

4267 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

4268 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

4269 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

4270 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

4271 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

4272 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

4273 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

4274 <record_name>_ext_type.

4276 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

4277 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

4278 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

4279 quite long.

4281 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

4282 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

4283 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

4284 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

4286 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

4287 type-variables in the term.

4289 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

4290 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

4291 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

4292 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

4293 goals than previously.

4295 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

4296 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

4297 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

4298 just like y <= x.

4300 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

4301 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

4302 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

4303 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

4304 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

4305 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

4306 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

4308 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

4310 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

4311 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

4313 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

4314 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

4315 inequalities.

4317 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4318 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4320 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

4321 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

4322 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

4323 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

4324 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

4325 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

4326 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

4327 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

4328 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

4329 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

4330 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

4332 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

4334 zero_le_square

4335 not_square_less_zero

4337 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

4339 realpow_zero_zero

4340 realpow_two

4341 realpow_less

4342 zero_le_power

4343 realpow_two_le

4344 abs_realpow_two

4345 realpow_two_abs

4347 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

4349 * Theory List:

4351 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4352 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4354 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

4355 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

4356 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

4357 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

4359 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

4360 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

4363 *** HOL-Complex ***

4365 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

4366 integers in the reals.

4368 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4369 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4371 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

4372 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4373 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4374 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4375 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4377 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

4379 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

4381 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

4382 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

4384 hypreal = real star

4385 hypnat = nat star

4386 hcomplex = complex star

4388 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

4389 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4391 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

4393 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

4394 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

4395 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

4396 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

4397 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

4399 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4400 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

4401 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

4402 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

4403 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

4405 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

4406 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4408 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

4409 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

4410 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

4411 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

4412 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

4413 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

4414 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

4415 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

4416 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

4417 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

4418 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

4419 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

4420 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

4421 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

4422 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

4423 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

4424 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

4425 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

4426 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

4427 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

4428 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

4429 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

4430 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

4431 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

4433 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

4434 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

4435 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4437 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

4438 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

4439 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

4440 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

4441 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

4442 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

4443 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

4444 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

4445 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

4446 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

4447 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

4448 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

4449 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

4450 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

4451 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

4452 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

4453 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

4454 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

4455 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

4456 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

4457 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

4458 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

4459 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

4460 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4461 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4462 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

4463 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

4464 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

4465 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

4466 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

4467 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

4468 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

4469 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

4470 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

4471 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

4472 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

4473 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

4474 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

4475 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

4476 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

4477 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

4478 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

4479 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

4480 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

4481 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

4482 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

4483 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

4484 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

4485 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

4486 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

4487 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

4488 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

4489 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

4490 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

4492 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

4493 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

4494 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

4495 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

4496 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

4497 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

4498 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

4499 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

4500 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

4501 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

4502 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

4504 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

4505 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

4506 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

4507 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

4508 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

4509 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

4510 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

4511 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

4512 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

4513 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

4514 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

4515 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

4516 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

4517 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

4518 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

4519 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

4520 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

4521 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

4522 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

4523 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

4524 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

4526 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

4527 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

4528 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

4529 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

4530 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

4531 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

4533 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

4536 *** HOLCF ***

4538 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

4539 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

4540 type-inference.

4542 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

4543 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

4544 instead of exponential time).

4546 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

4547 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

4549 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

4551 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

4552 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

4553 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

4554 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

4555 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

4556 syntax and examples.

4558 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

4559 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

4560 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

4561 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

4562 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

4564 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

4565 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4567 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

4568 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

4569 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

4570 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

4571 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

4572 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

4575 *** ZF ***

4577 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

4578 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

4579 of a homomorphism).

4581 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

4582 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

4583 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

4586 *** Cube ***

4588 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

4589 theories.

4592 *** ML ***

4594 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

4595 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

4597 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

4598 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

4599 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

4600 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

4601 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

4603 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

4604 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

4605 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

4606 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

4608 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

4609 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

4610 suggests how one can translate existing code:

4612 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

4613 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

4614 last_elem xs = List.last xs

4615 flat xss = List.concat xss

4616 seq fs = List.app fs

4617 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

4618 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

4620 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

4621 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

4623 x |> f f #> g

4624 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

4626 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

4628 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

4629 infix 2 ?;

4630 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

4631 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

4633 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

4634 infix operators.

4636 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

4637 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

4638 example:

4640 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

4641 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

4643 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

4644 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

4646 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

4647 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

4649 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

4650 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

4652 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

4653 available:

4655 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

4656 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

4657 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

4658 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

4660 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

4661 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

4662 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

4663 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

4664 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

4666 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

4667 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

4668 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

4670 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

4672 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

4673 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

4675 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

4676 Naive rewrites:

4678 make_keylist = AList.make

4679 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

4681 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

4682 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

4684 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

4685 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

4687 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

4688 Naive rewrites:

4690 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

4691 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

4693 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

4694 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

4695 lists.

4697 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

4698 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

4699 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

4700 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

4702 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

4703 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

4704 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

4705 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

4706 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

4707 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

4708 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

4709 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

4710 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

4711 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

4712 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

4713 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

4714 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

4715 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

4716 Output.raw have no effect.

4718 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

4719 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

4720 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

4722 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

4723 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

4724 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

4725 internal and external process view of file names are different.

4727 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

4728 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

4729 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

4730 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

4731 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

4732 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

4733 Library.sort_strings on result).

4735 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

4736 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

4737 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

4738 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

4740 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

4741 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

4742 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

4743 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

4744 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

4745 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

4746 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

4747 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

4748 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

4749 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

4750 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

4752 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

4753 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

4754 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

4755 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

4756 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

4757 with earlier declarations.

4759 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

4760 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

4761 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

4763 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

4764 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

4765 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

4766 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

4767 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

4768 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

4770 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

4771 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

4773 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

4774 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

4776 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

4777 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

4778 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

4779 Theory.merge, etc.)

4781 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

4782 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

4783 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

4785 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

4787 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

4788 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

4789 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

4790 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

4792 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

4793 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

4794 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

4795 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

4796 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

4797 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

4798 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

4799 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

4801 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

4802 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

4803 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4805 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

4806 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

4807 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

4809 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

4810 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

4812 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

4813 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

4814 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

4815 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

4817 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

4819 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

4820 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

4821 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

4822 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

4823 (both increase the runtime).

4825 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

4826 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

4827 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

4829 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

4830 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

4831 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

4832 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

4833 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

4834 for further details.

4836 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

4837 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

4838 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

4839 scripts for the time being.

4841 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

4842 generated HTML files. For example:

4844 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

4845 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

4848 *** System ***

4850 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

4851 isabelle, isatool etc.).

4853 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

4854 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

4856 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

4857 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

4859 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

4860 distribution being used.

4862 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

4863 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

4864 theories.

4868 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

4869 --------------------------------

4871 *** General ***

4873 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

4874 Replaces linorder.ML.

4876 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

4877 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

4878 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

4879 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

4880 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

4881 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

4882 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

4883 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

4884 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

4885 existing theory and ML files.

4887 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

4889 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

4890 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

4891 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

4892 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

4894 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

4895 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

4896 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

4897 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

4899 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

4900 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

4901 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

4903 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

4904 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

4905 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

4906 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

4907 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

4909 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

4910 (i.e. intersections of classes),

4912 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

4913 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

4914 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

4917 *** Isar ***

4919 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

4920 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

4921 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

4922 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

4923 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

4924 emulations.

4925 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

4926 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

4927 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

4929 * Attributes "where" and "of":

4930 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

4931 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

4932 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

4933 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

4935 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

4936 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

4937 and derived forms.

4939 * Locales:

4940 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

4941 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

4942 "_axioms") in the premise.

4943 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

4944 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

4945 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

4946 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

4947 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

4948 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

4949 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

4950 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

4951 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

4952 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

4953 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

4954 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

4955 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

4956 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

4957 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

4958 with "locale (open)".

4959 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

4961 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

4962 (Isar) contexts.

4965 *** HOL ***

4967 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

4968 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

4969 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

4970 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

4971 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

4973 * Simplifier:

4974 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

4975 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

4976 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

4977 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

4978 to solve goals from the assumptions.

4979 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

4980 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

4981 is solved by simplification already.

4983 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

4984 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

4986 * Numerics:

4987 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

4988 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

4989 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

4990 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

4991 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

4992 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

4993 exponentiation).

4995 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

4997 * Records:

4998 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

4999 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5000 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5001 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5002 (not enabled by default).

5003 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5004 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5005 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5007 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5008 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5009 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5011 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5013 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5015 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5016 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5018 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5019 matrix theory to linear programming.

5021 * Unions and Intersections:

5022 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5023 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5024 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5025 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5027 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5028 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5029 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5030 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5032 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5033 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5035 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5036 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5038 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5039 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5040 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5042 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5043 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5044 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5045 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5046 for examples.

5049 *** HOLCF ***

5051 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5055 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5056 ------------------------------

5058 *** General ***

5060 * Provers/simplifier:

5062 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5063 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5064 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5065 the order of assumptions.

5067 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5069 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5070 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5072 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5074 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5076 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5078 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5079 kind of problem.

5081 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5082 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5083 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5084 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5085 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5086 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5087 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5089 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5091 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5092 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5093 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5094 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5095 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5096 the simplifier would diverge.

5098 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5100 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5101 congruence is ignored.

5103 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5104 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5105 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5107 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5108 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5109 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5110 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5112 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5113 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5114 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5115 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5116 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5117 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5118 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5120 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5121 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5122 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5123 assumption failed.

5125 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5126 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5127 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

5128 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

5129 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

5130 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

5131 on the old view without predicates;

5133 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

5134 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

5135 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

5137 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

5138 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

5139 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

5140 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

5141 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

5142 be given (the default is 40);

5144 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

5145 (batch-mode only);

5147 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

5148 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

5149 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

5151 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

5152 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

5153 for slight decrease in efficiency;

5155 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

5156 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

5158 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

5159 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

5162 *** HOL ***

5164 * arith(_tac)

5166 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

5167 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

5168 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

5169 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

5171 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

5173 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

5174 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

5175 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

5177 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

5178 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

5180 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

5181 are distributed over a sum of terms;

5183 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

5184 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

5185 "<=", "<" and "=").

5187 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

5188 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

5190 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

5191 definition;

5193 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

5194 Finite_Set);

5196 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

5197 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

5199 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

5200 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

5202 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

5203 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

5204 of the empty set.

5206 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

5207 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

5208 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

5209 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

5211 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

5213 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

5214 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

5215 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

5217 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

5219 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

5220 Fleuriot);

5222 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

5224 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

5225 Gray and Kramer);

5227 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

5229 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

5230 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

5232 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

5233 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

5234 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

5235 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

5236 assignment, exceptions.

5239 *** ZF ***

5241 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

5242 universe, etc.);

5244 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

5247 *** ML ***

5249 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

5250 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

5251 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

5253 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

5255 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

5256 up simprocs;

5259 *** Document preparation ***

5261 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

5262 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

5263 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

5265 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

5266 other packages

5268 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

5269 broke \Rightarrow)

5271 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

5272 textcomp package)

5276 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

5277 --------------------------------

5279 *** Document preparation ***

5281 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

5282 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

5283 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

5284 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

5285 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

5286 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

5288 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

5289 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

5290 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

5292 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

5293 blocks after section headings;

5295 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

5296 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

5298 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

5299 better in printed text;

5301 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

5302 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

5303 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

5305 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

5306 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

5307 location;

5310 *** Isar ***

5312 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

5313 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

5314 "case (Suc n)");

5315 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

5316 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

5317 instantiation of cases;

5318 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

5319 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

5320 rules without further ado;

5321 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

5322 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

5323 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

5324 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

5325 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

5326 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

5327 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

5328 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

5329 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

5330 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

5331 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

5332 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

5333 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

5334 below);

5335 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

5336 success (no backtracking);

5337 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

5338 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

5339 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

5340 General versions);

5341 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

5342 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

5344 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

5345 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

5346 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

5347 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

5348 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

5349 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

5350 fails:

5352 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

5354 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

5355 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

5357 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

5358 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

5359 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

5360 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

5361 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

5362 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

5363 some examples;

5365 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

5366 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

5367 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

5368 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

5369 qualified by the locale name);

5371 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

5372 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

5373 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

5374 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

5375 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

5377 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

5378 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

5379 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

5380 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

5381 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

5383 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

5385 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

5386 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

5387 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

5389 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

5391 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

5393 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

5395 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

5396 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

5397 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

5399 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

5400 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

5401 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

5402 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

5403 proof *scripts*;

5405 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

5406 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

5407 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

5408 especially important for locales);

5410 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

5411 mode;

5413 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

5414 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

5415 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

5416 situations;

5418 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

5419 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

5421 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

5422 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

5423 discontinued;

5425 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

5426 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

5427 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

5429 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

5430 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

5431 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

5432 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

5433 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

5434 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

5435 INCOMPATIBILITY;

5437 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

5438 of introduction rules;

5440 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

5441 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

5442 conditional rules;

5444 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

5446 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

5447 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

5449 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

5450 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

5452 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

5453 wf_induct_rule;

5456 *** HOL ***

5458 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

5459 follows:

5461 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

5462 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

5464 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

5465 binary representation internally;

5467 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

5468 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

5470 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

5471 are some hints on converting existing sources:

5473 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

5474 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

5475 to be spaced properly;

5477 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

5478 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

5480 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

5482 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

5484 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

5485 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

5487 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

5489 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

5490 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

5491 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

5492 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

5493 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

5495 * HOL/record package improvements:

5496 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

5497 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

5498 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

5499 declared as simp by default;

5500 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

5501 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

5502 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

5503 INCOMPATIBILITY;

5504 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5505 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

5506 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

5507 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

5508 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

5509 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

5511 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

5512 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

5513 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

5514 via 'generate_code' theory section;

5516 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

5518 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

5519 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

5520 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

5522 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

5523 (beware of argument permutation!);

5525 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

5527 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

5529 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

5530 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5531 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

5533 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

5534 in this (rare) case use:

5536 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

5537 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

5539 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

5540 MAY FAIL;

5542 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

5543 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

5544 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

5545 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

5547 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

5548 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

5549 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

5551 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

5552 expressions;

5554 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

5555 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5557 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5558 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

5559 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

5561 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

5563 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

5564 the "cases" method);

5566 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

5567 Florian Kammller);

5569 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

5570 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

5571 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

5573 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

5575 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

5578 *** HOLCF ***

5580 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

5581 operations;

5583 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

5584 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

5586 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

5587 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

5588 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

5590 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

5593 *** ZF ***

5595 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

5596 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

5597 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

5598 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

5600 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

5601 your theory on Main_ZFC;

5603 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

5604 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

5606 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

5607 typeless version of the formalism;

5609 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

5610 format;

5612 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

5613 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

5614 new-style theory format;

5616 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

5619 *** General ***

5621 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

5622 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

5623 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

5624 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

5626 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

5627 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

5629 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

5630 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

5631 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

5632 properly;

5634 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

5635 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

5637 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

5638 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

5639 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

5640 type variable);

5642 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

5643 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

5644 "type_brackets";

5646 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

5647 tokens into AST constants;

5649 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

5650 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

5651 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

5653 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

5654 practice);

5656 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

5657 addSafter;

5659 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

5660 as well;

5662 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

5663 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

5664 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

5665 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

5666 support requires further installations, e.g. from

5667 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

5669 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

5671 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

5672 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

5674 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

5675 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

5677 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

5678 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

5679 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

5681 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

5682 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

5683 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

5684 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

5685 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

5687 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

5688 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

5689 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

5690 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

5692 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

5693 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

5694 terminal);

5698 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

5699 -----------------------------------

5701 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

5703 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

5704 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

5705 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

5707 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

5708 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

5709 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

5710 'split_rule (complete)';

5712 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

5713 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

5715 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

5717 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

5718 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

5719 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

5721 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

5722 operation;

5724 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

5726 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

5728 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

5729 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

5730 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

5732 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

5733 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

5736 *** Document preparation ***

5738 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

5739 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

5740 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

5741 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

5742 type-writer);

5744 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

5745 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

5747 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

5748 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

5750 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

5751 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

5752 definitions);

5754 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

5755 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

5756 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

5757 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

5759 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

5760 fonts;

5762 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

5763 generation;

5765 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

5768 *** Isar ***

5770 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

5771 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

5772 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

5773 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

5774 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

5776 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

5777 rules as well;

5779 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

5780 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

5781 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

5782 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

5784 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

5785 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

5787 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

5788 statements as well;

5790 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

5792 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

5793 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

5795 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

5796 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

5798 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

5800 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

5802 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

5803 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

5805 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

5806 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

5807 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

5809 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

5810 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

5811 the result to be shown in each case;

5813 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

5815 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

5818 *** HOL ***

5820 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

5821 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

5822 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

5823 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

5824 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

5826 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

5827 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

5828 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

5830 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

5831 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

5832 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

5833 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

5834 literature;

5836 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

5837 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

5838 operator \<Sum>;

5840 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

5841 HOL/subset.thy);

5843 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

5844 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

5845 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

5847 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

5848 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

5850 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

5851 rules with string literals);

5853 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

5854 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

5855 functions for the reals;

5857 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

5860 *** CTT ***

5862 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

5863 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

5865 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

5866 and Arith);

5869 *** General ***

5871 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

5872 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

5873 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

5874 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

5876 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

5877 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

5879 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

5880 as assumptions as well;

5882 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

5884 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

5888 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

5889 ----------------------------------

5891 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

5893 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

5894 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

5895 issue the following ML commands:

5897 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

5898 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

5900 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

5901 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

5903 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

5905 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

5906 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

5908 select_equality -> some_equality

5909 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

5910 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

5911 selectI2 -> someI2

5912 selectI -> someI

5913 select1_equality -> some1_equality

5914 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

5915 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

5917 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

5919 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

5920 instead);

5922 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

5923 f.simps instead of f.rules;

5925 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

5927 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

5928 sometimes be needed;

5930 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

5932 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

5934 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

5935 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

5936 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

5938 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

5939 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

5941 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

5942 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

5944 syntax (symbols)

5945 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

5946 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

5948 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

5950 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

5951 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

5952 internally;

5954 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

5955 changed from A/r to A//r;

5957 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

5958 proofs;

5960 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

5961 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

5963 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

5964 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

5965 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

5966 "rule del";

5968 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

5970 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

5972 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

5973 lib/texinputs);

5976 *** Document preparation ***

5978 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

5979 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

5980 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

5981 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

5983 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

5984 including proper document sources;

5986 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

5987 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

5988 of isatool usedir;

5990 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

5991 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

5992 LaTeX debugging;

5994 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

5996 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

5997 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

5998 graph for 'all sessions';

6000 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

6001 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

6002 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

6005 *** Isar ***

6007 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

6008 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

6009 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

6011 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

6012 generalized existence reasoning;

6014 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

6015 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

6016 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

6017 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

6018 premises;

6020 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

6021 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

6022 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

6023 to theorems as "tags";

6025 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

6026 class/type/const name spaces;

6028 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

6029 indicate potential overloading;

6031 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

6033 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

6034 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

6036 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

6037 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

6038 with the version in Provers/classical;

6040 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

6041 case name 'antecedent';

6043 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

6044 to the current context is now done automatically);

6046 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

6047 for definining proof methods in ML;

6049 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

6050 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

6051 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

6052 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

6054 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

6055 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

6057 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

6058 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

6059 well (including splits);

6061 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

6062 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

6064 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

6065 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

6067 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

6068 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

6069 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

6071 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

6072 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

6073 calculations;

6075 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

6076 method anyway;

6078 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

6079 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

6080 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

6082 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

6083 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

6084 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

6085 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

6087 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

6089 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

6091 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

6092 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

6093 proof states;

6095 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

6096 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

6097 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

6099 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

6100 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

6101 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

6102 (for HOL datatypes);

6104 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

6105 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

6106 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

6108 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

6110 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

6111 should instead use individual commands for printing items

6112 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

6114 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

6117 *** HOL ***

6119 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

6120 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

6121 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

6122 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

6123 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

6124 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

6126 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

6127 Clemens Ballarin;

6129 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

6130 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

6131 Rasmussen;

6133 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

6134 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

6135 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

6136 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

6137 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

6138 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

6140 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

6141 von Oheimb;

6143 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

6144 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

6146 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

6148 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

6149 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

6150 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

6152 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

6153 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

6154 well; admit "r" as field name;

6156 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

6157 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

6159 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

6160 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

6162 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

6163 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

6164 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

6165 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

6166 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

6167 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

6168 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

6170 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

6171 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

6172 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

6174 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

6175 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

6176 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

6178 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

6179 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

6180 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

6181 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

6182 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

6184 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

6185 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

6186 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

6187 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

6188 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

6189 each equation;

6191 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

6192 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

6193 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

6194 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

6196 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

6197 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

6199 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

6201 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

6202 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

6203 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

6205 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

6207 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

6208 main HOL, but was unused);

6210 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

6211 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

6213 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

6214 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

6215 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

6216 bogus);

6219 *** ZF ***

6221 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

6222 expressions over nat and int;

6224 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

6225 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

6226 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

6228 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

6229 using the function intify;

6231 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

6232 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;