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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Fri Aug 27 12:40:20 2010 +0200 (2010-08-27) | |

changeset 38767 | d8da44a8dd25 |

parent 38708 | 8915e3ce8655 |

child 38797 | abe92b33ac9f |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

proper context for various Thy_Output options, via official configuration options in ML and Isar;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Explicit treatment of UTF8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

10 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

11 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

12 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

13 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

14 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

15 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

17 * Theory loading: only the master source file is looked-up in the

18 implicit load path, all other files are addressed relatively to its

19 directory. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

21 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

22 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

23 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

24 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

26 * Various options that affect document antiquotations are now properly

27 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

28 unsynchronized references. There are both ML Config.T entities and

29 Isar declaration attributes to access these.

31 ML: Isar:

33 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

34 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

35 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

36 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

37 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

39 Note that the corresponding "..._default" references may be only

40 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

43 *** Pure ***

45 * Interpretation command 'interpret' accepts a list of equations like

46 'interpretation' does.

48 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

49 in addition to interpretations in theories.

51 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

52 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

53 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

54 feature is still required for historical reasons.

57 *** HOL ***

59 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

61 * Theory SetsAndFunctions has been split into Function_Algebras and Set_Algebras;

62 canonical names for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

63 INCOMPATIBILITY.

65 * Records: logical foundation type for records do not carry a '_type' suffix

66 any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

68 * Code generation for records: more idiomatic representation of record types.

69 Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code generation any longer.

70 INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable rep_datatype declaration

71 helps to succeed then:

73 record 'a foo = ...

74 ...

75 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

77 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

78 INCOMPATIBILITY.

80 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

81 counter example search.

83 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types. Syntax

84 in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

85 INCOMPATIBILITY.

87 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

88 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

90 * Abolished symbol type names: "prod" and "sum" replace "*" and "+"

91 respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

93 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names

94 of ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

95 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

97 * Dropped old infix syntax "mem" for List.member; use "in set"

98 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

100 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in List.thy

102 constants

103 null ~> List.null

105 facts

106 mem_iff ~> member_def

107 null_empty ~> null_def

109 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not suppossed to be used

110 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

111 generation.

113 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

115 types

116 bool ~> HOL.bool

117 nat ~> Nat.nat

119 constants

120 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

121 True ~> HOL.True

122 False ~> HOL.False

123 Not ~> HOL.Not

124 The ~> HOL.The

125 All ~> HOL.All

126 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

127 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

128 Let ~> HOL.Let

129 If ~> HOL.If

130 Ball ~> Set.Ball

131 Bex ~> Set.Bex

132 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

133 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

134 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

135 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

136 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

137 op : ~> Set.member

138 Collect ~> Set.Collect

140 INCOMPATIBILITY.

142 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

143 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

145 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality

146 (class eq) carry proper names and are treated as default code

147 equations.

149 * List.thy: use various operations from the Haskell prelude when

150 generating Haskell code.

152 * code_simp.ML and method code_simp: simplification with rules determined

153 by code generator.

155 * code generator: do not print function definitions for case

156 combinators any longer.

158 * Multivariate Analysis: Introduced a type class for euclidean space. Most

159 theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces instead of finite

160 cartesian products.

162 types

163 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

164 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

165 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

166 (depends on your needs)

168 constants

169 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

170 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

171 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

173 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some finite

174 type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products of euclidean

175 spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to be euclidean_spaces.

177 INCOMPATIBILITY.

179 * Probability: Introduced pinfreal as real numbers with infinity. Use pinfreal

180 as value for measures. Introduces Lebesgue Measure based on the integral in

181 Multivariate Analysis. Proved Radon Nikodym for arbitrary sigma finite measure

182 spaces.

184 INCOMPATIBILITY.

186 * Inductive package: offers new command "inductive_simps" to automatically

187 derive instantiated and simplified equations for inductive predicates,

188 similar to inductive_cases.

191 *** FOL ***

193 * All constant names are now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

196 *** ZF ***

198 * All constant names are now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

201 *** ML ***

203 * ML antiquotations @{theory} and @{theory_ref} refer to named

204 theories from the ancestry of the current context, not any accidental

205 theory loader state as before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle

206 change in semantics.

209 *** System ***

211 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

215 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

216 ---------------------------------

218 *** General ***

220 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

221 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

222 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

223 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

224 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

225 their full internal name.

227 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

228 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

229 Some hints on upgrading:

231 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

232 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

233 which are independent of this issue.

235 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

236 provides the following special forms:

238 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

239 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

240 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

242 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

243 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

244 extra variables".

246 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

247 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

248 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

249 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

250 "logic".

252 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

253 antiquotations:

255 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

256 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

257 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

258 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

260 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

261 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

262 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

263 antiquotations.

265 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

266 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

267 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

268 diagnose syntax problems.

270 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

272 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

273 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

274 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

275 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

277 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

278 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

279 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

280 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

282 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

283 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

284 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

285 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

286 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

288 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

289 discontinued (old legacy feature).

291 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

292 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

293 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

295 using [[trace_simp = true]]

297 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

298 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

299 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

301 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

302 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

303 INCOMPATIBILITY.

305 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

306 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

309 *** Pure ***

311 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

312 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

313 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

314 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

315 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

316 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

317 inspect proof terms.

319 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

320 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

321 are added internally. For example:

323 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

325 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

326 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

328 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

330 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

331 'class' instead.

333 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

334 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

335 INCOMPATIBILITY.

337 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

338 invariants.

340 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

341 user space functionality any longer.

343 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

344 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

345 INCOMPATIBILITY.

347 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

348 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

350 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

351 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

352 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

354 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

355 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

356 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

358 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

359 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

362 *** HOL ***

364 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

365 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

366 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

367 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

368 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

370 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

371 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

372 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

373 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

375 fun

376 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

377 where

378 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

380 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

381 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

383 quotient_definition

384 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

386 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

387 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

388 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

389 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

391 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

392 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

394 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

395 separate HOL-SMT session.

397 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

398 INCOMPATIBILITY.

400 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

401 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

402 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

404 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

405 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

407 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

408 INCOMPATIBILITY.

410 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

411 INCOMPATIBILITY.

413 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

414 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

416 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

417 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

418 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

420 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

421 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

422 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

423 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

424 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

425 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

426 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

427 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

428 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

429 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

430 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

431 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

432 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

433 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

434 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

435 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

436 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

437 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

438 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

439 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

440 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

441 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

442 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

443 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

444 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

445 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

446 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

447 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

448 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

449 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

451 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

452 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

454 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

455 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

456 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

458 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

459 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

461 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

462 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

464 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

466 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

467 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

469 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

470 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

472 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

474 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

475 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

477 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

478 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

479 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

480 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

482 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

483 - less_eq, less: Orderings

484 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

485 - inverse, divide: Rings

486 INCOMPATIBILITY.

488 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

489 lattices):

491 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

492 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

494 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

496 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

497 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

498 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

499 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

500 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

501 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

502 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

503 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

504 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

505 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

506 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

507 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

508 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

510 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

511 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

512 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

513 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

514 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

515 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

516 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

517 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

518 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

519 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

520 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

521 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

522 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

523 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

524 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

525 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

526 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

527 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

529 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

530 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

532 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

533 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

534 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

535 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

536 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

538 INCOMPATIBILITY.

540 * Refined field classes:

541 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

542 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

543 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

544 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

545 INCOMPATIBILITY.

547 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

548 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

549 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

550 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

551 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

552 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

553 equal_neg_zero.

554 INCOMPATIBILITY.

556 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

557 sets to lattices:

559 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

560 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

561 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

562 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

563 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

564 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

565 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

566 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

567 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

568 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

570 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

571 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

572 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

573 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

574 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

575 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

577 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

578 multiset order:

580 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

581 <= and <;

582 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

583 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

584 multiset_order;

585 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

586 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

587 generation;

588 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

589 if needed.

591 Renamed:

593 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

594 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

595 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

597 INCOMPATIBILITY.

599 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

601 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

603 * Theory List: added transpose.

605 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

606 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

607 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

609 Constants:

610 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

611 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

612 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

613 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

614 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

615 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

616 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

617 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

618 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

619 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

620 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

621 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

622 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

624 Lemmas:

625 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

626 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

627 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

628 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

629 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

630 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

631 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

632 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

633 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

634 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

635 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

636 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

637 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

639 * Sledgehammer:

640 - Renamed ATP commands:

641 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

642 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

643 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

644 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

645 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

646 INCOMPATIBILITY.

647 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

648 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

649 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

650 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

651 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

652 is still experimental.)

653 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

654 full-typed mode.

655 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

657 * Nitpick:

658 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

659 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

660 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

661 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

662 - Added support for quotient types.

663 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

664 constructs.

665 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

666 "termination" proofs).

667 - Added support for term postprocessors.

668 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

669 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

670 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

671 record getters.

672 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

673 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

674 - Improved precision of set constructs.

675 - Added "atoms" option.

676 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

677 problems.

678 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

679 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

680 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

681 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

682 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

683 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

685 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

686 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

687 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

688 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

689 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

690 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

691 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

692 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

693 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

694 INCOMPATIBILITY.

697 *** HOLCF ***

699 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

700 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

701 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

703 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

704 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

705 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

706 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

708 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

709 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

710 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

711 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

712 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

714 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

715 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

716 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

718 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

719 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

721 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

722 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

724 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

725 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

727 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

728 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

729 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

730 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

731 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

733 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

734 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

736 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

737 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

738 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

740 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

741 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

742 INCOMPATIBILITY.

744 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

745 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

747 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

749 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

750 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

753 *** ML ***

755 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

757 @{class NAME} -- type class

758 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

760 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

761 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

762 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

763 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

765 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

766 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

767 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

769 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

770 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

772 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

773 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

774 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

776 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

777 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

778 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

779 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

781 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

782 the context or even global references.

784 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

785 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

787 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

788 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

790 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

791 OuterLex ~> Token

792 OuterParse ~> Parse

793 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

794 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

795 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

796 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

797 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

798 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

799 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

801 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

802 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

804 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

805 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

806 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

807 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

808 pass the proper local context through the code!

810 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

811 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

812 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

813 Theory_Data version.

815 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

816 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

817 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

818 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

819 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

820 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

821 explicitly in rare situations.

823 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

824 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

825 INCOMPATIBILITY.

827 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

828 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

830 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

831 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

832 quite rare).

834 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

835 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

837 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

838 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

839 terms.

841 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

842 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

843 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

846 *** System ***

848 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

849 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

850 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

852 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

853 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

854 respectively.

856 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

857 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

858 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

859 prefers 64 bit if available:

861 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

863 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

864 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

865 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

866 component.

868 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

869 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

870 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

871 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

872 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

873 the user for manual installation.

877 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

878 -------------------------------------

880 *** General ***

882 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

883 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

886 *** Pure ***

888 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

889 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

890 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

892 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

893 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

894 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

896 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

897 interpretation.

899 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

900 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

903 *** Document preparation ***

905 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

906 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

907 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

908 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

911 *** HOL ***

913 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

914 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

915 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

916 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

917 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

918 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

919 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

920 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

921 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

923 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

924 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

925 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

927 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

928 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

929 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

931 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

932 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

934 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

936 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

937 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

938 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

939 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

941 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

942 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

943 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

944 "mirabelle" utility.

946 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

947 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

948 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

949 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

950 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

951 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

952 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

953 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

954 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

955 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

957 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

958 procedure only.

960 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

962 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

963 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

964 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

965 that fail later.

967 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

968 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

970 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

971 the same method as the approximation method.

973 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

974 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

975 series expansion.

977 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

978 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

980 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

981 reals.

983 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

984 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

986 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

987 fixpoint theorem.

989 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

990 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

991 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

992 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

993 accordingly

994 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

995 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

996 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

997 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

999 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

1000 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

1001 lattice.

1003 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

1004 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

1005 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

1006 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

1007 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

1008 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1011 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

1012 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

1013 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

1014 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

1015 le_inf_iff

1016 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

1017 sup_aci)

1018 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

1019 - new class "boolean_algebra"

1020 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1021 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1022 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1023 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1024 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1025 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1026 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1027 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1028 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1029 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1030 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1031 - authentic syntax for

1032 Set.Pow

1033 Set.image

1034 - mere abbreviations:

1035 Set.empty (for bot)

1036 Set.UNIV (for top)

1037 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1038 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1039 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1040 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1041 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1042 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1043 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1045 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1046 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1047 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1048 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1050 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1051 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1052 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1054 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1055 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1057 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1058 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1059 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1060 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1062 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1063 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1064 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1065 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1066 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1068 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1069 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1072 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1073 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1075 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1076 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1077 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1078 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1079 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1080 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1081 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1082 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1084 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1085 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1086 code_post replaces code post

1087 etc.

1088 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1090 * Renamed methods:

1091 sizechange -> size_change

1092 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1095 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1096 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1098 * Renamed theorems:

1099 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1100 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1101 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1102 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1103 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1106 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1109 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1110 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1113 *** HOLCF ***

1115 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1116 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1117 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1119 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1120 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1121 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1122 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1123 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1125 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1126 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1127 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1128 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1129 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1131 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1132 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1133 constructor are pre-configured.

1135 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1136 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1137 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1139 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1140 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1141 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1142 as well.)

1144 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1145 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1146 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1147 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1148 examples.

1151 *** ML ***

1153 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

1154 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

1156 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

1157 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

1158 position, logical grouping etc.

1160 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

1161 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

1162 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

1163 copy operation) is still available for some time.

1165 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

1166 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

1167 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

1168 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

1169 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

1170 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

1172 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

1173 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

1174 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

1175 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

1176 experiments with references.

1178 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

1179 parallel tactical reasoning.

1181 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

1182 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

1183 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

1184 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

1186 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

1187 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

1188 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

1190 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

1191 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

1192 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1194 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1196 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

1197 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1199 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

1200 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

1202 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

1203 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

1204 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

1206 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

1207 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

1208 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1210 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

1211 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

1212 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

1213 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1215 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1216 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

1217 instead of global theory.

1220 *** System ***

1222 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

1223 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

1224 usedir option -q.

1226 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

1227 also the system manual.

1229 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

1230 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

1232 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

1233 this is always enabled.

1235 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

1237 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

1238 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

1239 currently supported on Linux only.

1243 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

1244 --------------------------------

1246 *** General ***

1248 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

1249 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1251 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

1252 "isatool."

1254 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

1255 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

1257 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

1258 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

1260 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

1261 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

1262 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

1264 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

1265 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

1266 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

1267 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

1268 via "isabelle emacs".

1270 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

1271 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

1272 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

1274 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

1275 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

1276 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1278 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

1279 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

1280 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

1281 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

1282 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

1284 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

1285 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

1286 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

1287 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

1289 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

1290 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

1291 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

1294 *** Pure ***

1296 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

1297 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

1298 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

1300 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

1301 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

1302 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

1303 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

1304 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

1306 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

1307 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

1308 useful in locale declarations.

1310 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

1311 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

1312 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

1313 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

1314 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

1315 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

1316 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

1317 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

1318 no longer generated.

1320 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

1321 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

1322 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

1324 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

1325 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

1326 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

1327 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

1328 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

1330 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

1331 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

1332 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

1333 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

1334 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

1335 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

1336 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

1337 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

1339 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

1340 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

1341 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

1342 the parameters (context element "constrains").

1344 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1346 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

1347 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

1348 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

1350 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

1351 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1353 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

1354 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

1355 in HOL, write

1357 class foo = ...

1359 instead of

1361 class foo = type + ...

1363 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

1364 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1366 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

1367 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

1369 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

1370 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

1371 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

1373 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

1374 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

1375 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

1376 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

1377 directly in regular applications.

1379 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

1380 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

1382 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

1383 interface with 'setup' command instead.

1385 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

1386 theory context.

1388 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

1389 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1391 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

1392 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

1393 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

1394 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

1395 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

1396 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

1398 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

1400 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

1401 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

1402 normalization.

1404 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

1405 addressing etc.

1407 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

1409 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

1410 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

1412 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1414 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

1415 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

1416 parts of the code generator framework).

1418 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

1419 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

1420 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

1422 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1424 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

1425 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1427 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

1428 patterns, e.g.

1430 find_consts "_ => bool"

1432 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

1433 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

1434 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

1435 hyphen:

1437 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

1439 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

1440 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

1442 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

1443 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

1444 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

1445 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

1446 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

1447 higher-order unification.

1450 *** Document preparation ***

1452 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

1453 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

1454 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

1457 *** HOL ***

1459 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

1460 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

1462 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

1463 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

1464 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

1465 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

1466 Main, as before.

1468 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

1469 experimentation due to shorter build times.

1471 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

1472 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

1473 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

1474 new entry point Hypercomplex.

1476 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

1477 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

1478 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

1479 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

1480 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

1481 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

1483 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

1484 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

1485 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

1486 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

1488 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

1489 menu.

1491 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

1492 (contains the empty clause).

1494 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

1495 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

1497 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

1498 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

1500 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

1501 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

1502 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1504 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

1505 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

1506 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

1507 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

1508 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

1510 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

1511 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

1513 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

1514 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

1515 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

1516 are now presented as a list of individual projections

1517 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

1518 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

1519 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

1520 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

1521 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

1523 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

1525 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

1527 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

1528 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1530 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

1531 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

1532 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

1533 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

1535 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

1536 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1538 op Int ~> Set.Int

1539 op Un ~> Set.Un

1540 INTER ~> Set.INTER

1541 UNION ~> Set.UNION

1542 Inter ~> Set.Inter

1543 Union ~> Set.Union

1544 {} ~> Set.empty

1545 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

1547 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

1548 theory Set.

1550 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

1551 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

1553 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

1555 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

1556 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

1558 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

1559 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

1560 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

1561 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

1562 allowed. For examples see

1563 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

1565 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

1567 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1570 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

1571 structure:

1573 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

1574 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

1575 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

1576 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

1577 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

1578 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

1579 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

1580 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

1581 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

1582 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

1583 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

1584 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

1585 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

1586 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

1587 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

1588 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

1589 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

1590 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

1591 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

1592 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

1593 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

1594 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

1595 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

1596 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

1597 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

1598 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

1599 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

1600 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

1601 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

1602 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

1603 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

1604 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

1605 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

1607 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1608 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1609 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1610 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

1611 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1612 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1613 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1614 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1615 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1616 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

1618 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1619 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1620 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1621 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1622 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1623 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

1625 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

1626 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

1627 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

1629 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

1630 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

1631 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

1633 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

1634 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1636 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

1637 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

1639 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

1640 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

1641 proofs, e.g.

1643 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

1645 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

1647 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

1648 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

1649 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1651 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

1652 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

1653 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1655 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

1656 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

1657 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

1658 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1660 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

1661 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

1662 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

1663 preorder_class.*.

1665 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

1666 "diag" to "Id_on".

1668 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

1670 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

1672 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

1673 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

1674 fold_image.

1676 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

1677 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

1678 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

1679 the former will disappear at some point.

1681 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

1682 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

1683 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

1685 rat_power_0 -> power_0

1686 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

1687 realpow_0 -> power_0

1688 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

1689 complexpow_0 -> power_0

1690 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

1691 power_poly_0 -> power_0

1692 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

1694 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

1695 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

1696 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

1697 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

1698 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

1699 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

1701 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

1702 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

1703 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

1704 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

1705 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

1706 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

1707 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

1709 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

1710 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

1711 rename old lemmas as follows:

1713 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

1714 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

1715 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

1716 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

1717 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

1718 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

1719 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

1720 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

1721 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

1722 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

1723 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

1724 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

1725 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

1726 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

1727 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

1728 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

1729 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

1730 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

1731 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

1732 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

1733 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

1734 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

1735 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

1736 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

1737 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

1738 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

1739 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

1740 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

1741 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

1742 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

1743 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

1744 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

1745 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

1746 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

1747 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

1748 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

1749 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

1750 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

1751 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

1752 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

1753 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

1754 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

1755 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

1756 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

1757 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

1759 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1761 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

1762 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

1764 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

1765 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

1766 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

1767 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

1769 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

1770 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

1771 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

1772 theory RealVector.

1774 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

1775 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

1776 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

1777 and inner products are included.

1779 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

1780 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

1781 supported.

1783 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

1784 first diagonalization argument.

1786 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

1787 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

1788 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

1789 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1790 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

1792 hide (open) const gcd

1793 abbreviation gcd where

1794 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

1795 notation (output)

1796 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

1798 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

1800 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

1801 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

1802 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1804 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

1805 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

1806 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

1807 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

1808 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

1809 instrumentalizing code generation. See

1810 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

1811 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

1812 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

1813 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

1814 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

1815 cases.

1817 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

1818 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

1819 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

1820 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

1821 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

1823 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

1824 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

1825 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

1826 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

1827 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

1830 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1832 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

1833 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

1834 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

1836 * New theory of factorial domains.

1838 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

1839 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

1840 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

1842 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1844 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

1845 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

1846 least_carrier ~> least_closed

1847 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

1848 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

1849 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

1850 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

1853 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1855 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

1857 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

1858 theory targets.

1860 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

1861 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

1862 'inductive' etc.

1864 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

1865 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

1867 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

1868 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

1870 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

1871 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

1872 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

1873 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

1874 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

1875 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

1876 the algorithm W:

1878 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

1879 -----------------------------------------------------------------

1880 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

1882 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

1883 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

1884 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

1887 *** HOLCF ***

1889 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

1890 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

1891 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

1893 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

1894 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

1895 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

1896 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

1897 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1899 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

1900 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1901 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1904 *** ZF ***

1906 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

1909 *** ML ***

1911 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

1912 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

1913 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

1914 5.2.1!

1916 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

1917 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

1918 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

1919 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

1920 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

1921 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

1922 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

1924 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

1925 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

1926 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

1927 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

1928 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

1929 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

1930 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

1932 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

1933 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

1934 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

1935 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

1936 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

1938 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

1939 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

1940 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

1941 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

1942 Method.add_method.

1944 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

1945 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

1946 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

1947 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

1948 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

1949 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

1951 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

1952 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

1953 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

1954 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

1955 examples.

1957 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

1958 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

1959 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

1960 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

1961 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

1962 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

1963 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

1964 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

1965 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

1966 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

1968 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

1969 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

1970 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

1972 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

1973 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

1974 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

1975 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

1976 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

1977 resort for legacy applications.

1979 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

1980 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

1981 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

1982 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

1983 explicit runtime argument.

1985 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

1986 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

1987 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

1988 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

1989 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1991 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

1992 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

1993 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

1994 theory state.

1996 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

1997 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

1999 @{binding name} - basic name binding

2000 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

2001 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

2002 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

2003 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

2004 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

2005 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

2006 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

2007 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

2008 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

2011 *** System ***

2013 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

2014 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

2015 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

2016 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

2017 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

2019 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

2020 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2021 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2022 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2024 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2026 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2027 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2028 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2029 prover operations.

2033 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2034 -------------------------------

2036 *** General ***

2038 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2039 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2041 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2042 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2043 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2044 provides a proper context already.

2046 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2047 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2048 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2050 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2051 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2052 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2053 swap theory imports.

2055 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2056 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2058 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2059 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2060 white space without escapes.

2062 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2063 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2064 "foo_bar".

2067 *** Pure ***

2069 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2070 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2072 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2073 There are three ways of invoking it:

2075 (1) unused_thms

2076 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2078 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2079 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2080 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2082 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2083 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2084 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2085 their ancestors.

2087 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2088 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2089 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2090 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2091 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2092 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2093 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2095 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2096 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2097 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2099 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2100 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2101 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2102 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2103 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2105 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2107 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2108 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2109 update of theories within ML code.

2111 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2112 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2113 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2114 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2116 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2117 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2118 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2119 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2121 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2123 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2124 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2125 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2126 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2127 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2129 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2130 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2131 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2132 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2133 situations.

2135 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2136 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2137 proof text.

2139 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2140 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2142 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2143 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2144 predicates.

2147 *** Document preparation ***

2149 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

2150 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

2151 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

2152 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

2153 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

2154 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

2156 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

2157 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

2158 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

2161 *** HOL ***

2163 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

2164 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

2165 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

2166 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

2167 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

2168 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

2170 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

2171 with multithreading.

2173 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

2174 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

2175 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

2177 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

2178 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

2179 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

2180 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2182 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

2183 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

2184 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

2185 and makes them available separately. See

2186 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

2188 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

2189 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

2190 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

2191 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

2192 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

2193 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

2194 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

2195 the declared rules.

2197 This setup also deals with rules like

2199 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

2201 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

2202 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

2204 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

2206 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2208 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

2209 definitions on => and bool.

2211 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

2212 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

2213 the following theorems have been renamed:

2215 subset_def -> subset_eq

2216 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

2217 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

2218 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

2219 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

2220 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

2221 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

2222 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

2224 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

2225 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

2226 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

2228 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

2229 The proof pattern

2231 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2232 then have "EX S. P S" ..

2234 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

2235 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

2237 have "EX S. P S"

2238 proof

2239 show "P S" <...>

2240 qed

2242 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

2243 The proof pattern

2245 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2246 also have "S = T" <...>

2247 finally have "P T" .

2249 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

2250 must be replaced by something like

2252 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2253 moreover have "S = T" <...>

2254 ultimately have "P T" by simp

2256 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

2257 Code performing pattern matching on types via

2259 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

2261 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

2262 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

2263 type of the form

2265 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

2267 rather than

2269 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

2271 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

2272 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

2274 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2276 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

2277 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

2278 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2280 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

2281 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2283 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

2284 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2286 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

2287 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

2288 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2290 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

2291 the same name in theory Orderings:

2293 less_trans

2294 less_linear

2295 le_imp_less_or_eq

2296 le_less_trans

2297 less_le_trans

2298 less_not_sym

2299 less_asym

2301 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

2302 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

2303 and different variable names.

2305 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

2307 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

2308 finite maps.

2310 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

2312 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

2313 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

2314 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

2315 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

2316 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

2317 accordingly.

2319 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

2320 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

2321 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

2322 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

2324 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

2325 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

2326 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

2327 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

2328 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

2329 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2331 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

2332 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2334 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

2335 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

2336 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

2338 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

2339 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2341 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

2342 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

2344 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

2345 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2347 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

2348 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2350 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

2351 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

2352 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2354 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

2355 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2357 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

2358 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

2359 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

2360 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

2361 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

2362 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2364 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

2365 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

2366 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

2368 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

2370 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

2372 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

2373 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

2374 well-orders on sets and on types.

2377 *** ZF ***

2379 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

2380 same session:

2382 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

2383 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

2384 Int -> Int_ZF

2385 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

2386 Nat -> Nat_ZF

2387 List -> List_ZF

2388 Main -> Main_ZF

2390 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

2391 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

2392 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

2395 *** ML ***

2397 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

2398 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

2400 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

2401 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

2403 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

2405 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

2406 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

2407 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

2408 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

2409 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2411 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

2412 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

2413 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

2416 *** System ***

2418 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

2419 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

2421 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

2422 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

2423 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

2425 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

2426 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

2428 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

2429 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

2430 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

2432 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

2433 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

2434 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

2436 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

2437 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

2439 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

2440 way of changing the user's settings is via

2441 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

2442 script.

2444 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

2445 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

2446 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

2447 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

2448 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

2450 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

2451 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

2452 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

2456 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

2457 -----------------------------------

2459 *** General ***

2461 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

2462 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

2463 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

2464 legacy features will disappear eventually.

2466 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

2467 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

2468 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2470 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

2471 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

2472 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

2473 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2475 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

2476 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

2477 quotes.

2479 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

2480 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

2481 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

2482 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

2483 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

2484 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

2485 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

2486 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

2487 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

2489 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

2490 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

2491 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

2492 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

2493 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

2494 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

2496 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2497 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

2498 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

2499 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

2501 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

2502 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

2503 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

2504 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

2505 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

2506 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

2508 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

2509 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

2510 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

2511 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

2512 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

2513 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

2514 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

2515 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

2517 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

2518 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

2519 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

2520 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

2521 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

2522 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

2523 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

2525 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

2526 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

2527 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

2529 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

2530 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

2531 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

2532 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

2533 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

2534 limit is imposed.

2536 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

2537 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

2538 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

2539 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

2540 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

2541 and scalability.

2543 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

2544 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

2547 *** Document preparation ***

2549 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

2550 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

2551 current context.

2553 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

2554 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

2556 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

2557 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

2558 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

2561 *** Pure ***

2563 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

2564 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

2565 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

2566 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

2567 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

2568 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

2569 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

2570 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

2571 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

2572 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

2574 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

2575 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

2576 sketch:

2578 internal compilation:

2579 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

2580 writing SML code to a file:

2581 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

2582 writing OCaml code to a file:

2583 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

2584 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

2585 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

2587 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

2588 method ``eval''

2590 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

2592 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

2594 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

2595 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

2596 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

2597 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

2599 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

2601 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

2602 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

2604 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

2605 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

2607 code_instance <and-list of instances>

2608 {(target)}+

2609 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

2611 code_class <and_list of classes>

2612 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

2613 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

2615 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

2617 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

2618 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

2619 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

2620 codegen".

2622 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

2623 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

2624 annotations).

2626 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

2627 syntax.

2629 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

2630 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

2631 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

2632 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

2633 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

2634 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

2636 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

2637 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

2638 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

2639 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

2640 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

2641 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

2642 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

2643 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

2644 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

2645 equations, see section "definitions".

2647 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

2648 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

2649 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

2650 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

2651 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

2652 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

2653 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

2654 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

2655 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

2656 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

2658 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

2659 configuration options:

2661 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

2662 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

2663 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

2664 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

2665 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

2666 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

2667 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

2668 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

2669 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

2671 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

2672 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

2673 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

2674 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

2675 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

2676 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

2677 order.

2679 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

2680 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

2681 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

2682 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

2683 context encountered later on.

2685 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

2686 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

2687 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

2688 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

2690 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

2691 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

2692 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

2693 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

2694 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

2695 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

2697 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

2698 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

2699 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

2700 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

2701 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

2702 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

2703 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

2704 more permissive.

2706 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

2707 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

2708 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

2709 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

2710 maintainability of proof texts.

2712 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

2713 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

2715 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

2716 then guess x and y by clarify

2718 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

2719 proof tools being involved here.

2721 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

2722 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

2723 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

2724 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

2725 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

2726 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

2727 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

2728 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

2730 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

2731 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

2732 certain special cases of literal facts:

2734 have "A" by fact == note `A`

2735 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

2736 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

2737 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

2739 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

2740 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

2741 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

2743 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

2744 both named and unnamed ones.

2746 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

2748 def x == "t" and y == "u"

2750 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

2751 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

2752 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

2753 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

2755 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

2756 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

2757 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

2758 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

2759 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

2761 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

2762 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

2764 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

2765 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

2766 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

2767 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

2768 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

2769 originally first one.

2771 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

2772 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

2773 expected.

2775 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

2776 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

2777 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

2778 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

2779 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

2781 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2782 assumes "EX x. P x"

2783 obtains x where "P x"

2785 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2786 assumes "A & B"

2787 obtains A and B

2789 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2790 assumes "A | B"

2791 obtains

2792 A

2793 | B

2795 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

2796 explicitly:

2798 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2799 obtains "~ thesis"

2801 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2802 obtains "thesis ==> something"

2804 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

2805 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

2806 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

2807 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

2808 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

2809 case_names).

2811 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

2812 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

2813 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

2814 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

2816 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

2817 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

2818 top-level lemma.

2820 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

2821 introduction rule (default "that").

2823 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2824 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

2825 to occur.

2827 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

2828 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

2829 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

2830 representations independently of name spaces.

2832 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

2833 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

2834 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2836 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

2837 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

2838 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

2839 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

2840 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

2841 current context.

2843 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

2844 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

2845 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

2846 isar-ref manual. Examples:

2848 axiomatization

2849 eq (infix "===" 50) where

2850 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

2852 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

2853 definition g where "g x = f x x"

2855 abbreviation

2856 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

2857 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

2859 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

2860 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

2861 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

2862 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

2863 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

2864 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

2865 entities from a monomorphic theory.

2867 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

2868 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

2869 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

2870 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

2871 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

2873 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

2874 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

2875 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

2876 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

2878 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

2879 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

2880 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

2882 definition "K x _ = x"

2884 inductive conj for A B

2885 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

2887 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

2888 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

2889 abbreviations on output.

2891 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

2892 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

2893 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

2894 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

2896 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

2897 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

2898 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

2899 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

2900 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

2901 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

2902 `unfold_locales'; see below.

2904 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

2905 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

2906 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

2907 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

2908 unfold predicates to assumptions.

2910 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

2911 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

2912 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

2914 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

2915 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

2916 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

2917 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

2918 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

2920 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

2921 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

2923 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

2924 definition specification element in the context of locale

2925 partial_order.

2927 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

2928 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

2929 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

2930 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

2931 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

2932 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

2933 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

2934 examples.

2936 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

2937 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

2938 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

2939 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

2940 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

2942 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

2943 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

2944 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

2945 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

2946 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

2948 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

2949 (induct set: foo bar)

2950 (induct pred: foo bar)

2951 (induct type: foo bar)

2953 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

2954 new format.

2956 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

2957 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

2959 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

2960 considered a legacy feature.

2962 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

2963 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2965 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

2966 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

2967 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

2968 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

2970 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

2971 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

2972 manipulating the claset.

2974 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

2975 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

2976 least one premise.

2978 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

2979 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

2980 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

2981 rule steps.

2983 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

2984 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

2985 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

2986 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

2987 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

2988 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

2990 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

2991 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

2992 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

2994 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

2995 the graph browser tool.

2997 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

2998 default; use '!' option for full details.

3001 *** HOL ***

3003 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

3004 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

3005 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

3006 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

3007 multi-threading.

3009 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

3010 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

3011 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

3012 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

3013 work with multi-threading.

3015 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

3016 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

3017 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

3018 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

3019 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3021 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3023 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3024 equality.

3026 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3027 the new 'class' package:

3029 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3030 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3031 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3032 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3033 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3034 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3035 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3036 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3037 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3038 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3039 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3040 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3041 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3042 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3043 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3044 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3045 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3046 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3047 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3048 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3050 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3052 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3053 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3054 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3055 names.

3057 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3058 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3060 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3061 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3062 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3063 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3064 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3066 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3067 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3068 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3069 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3071 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3073 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3074 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3075 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3076 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3077 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3079 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3080 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3082 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3083 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3084 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3086 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3087 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3089 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3090 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3091 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3092 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3093 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3094 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3095 in the current context.

3097 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3098 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3099 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3101 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3102 with new class dense_linear_order.

3104 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3106 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3107 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3109 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3110 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3111 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3112 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3114 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3115 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3117 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3119 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3120 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3121 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3122 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3123 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3124 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3125 join_leI ~> le_supI

3126 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3127 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3128 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3129 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3130 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3131 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3132 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3133 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3134 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3135 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3136 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3137 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3138 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3139 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3140 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3141 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3142 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3143 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3144 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3145 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3146 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3147 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3148 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

3149 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

3150 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

3151 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

3152 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

3153 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

3155 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

3156 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

3157 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

3158 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

3159 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

3160 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

3161 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

3162 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

3163 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

3164 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

3165 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

3166 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

3167 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

3168 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

3169 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

3170 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

3171 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

3173 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

3174 mono_join ~> mono_sup

3175 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

3176 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

3177 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

3178 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

3179 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

3180 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

3181 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

3182 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

3183 meet1I ~> inf1I

3184 meet2I ~> inf2I

3185 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

3186 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

3187 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

3188 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

3189 meet1E ~> inf1E

3190 meet2E ~> inf2E

3191 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

3192 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

3193 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3194 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

3195 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3196 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

3197 join1CI ~> sup1CI

3198 join2CI ~> sup2CI

3199 join1E ~> sup1E

3200 join2E ~> sup2E

3202 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

3203 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

3204 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

3205 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

3206 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

3207 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

3209 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

3210 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

3211 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

3212 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

3214 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

3215 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

3217 meet_min ~> inf_min

3218 join_max ~> sup_max

3220 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

3221 type "'a::size ==> bool"

3223 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

3224 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

3225 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

3226 "*.size".

3228 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

3229 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3231 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

3232 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

3233 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3235 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3237 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

3238 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

3239 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

3240 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

3241 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

3242 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

3243 numerals on all operations.

3245 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

3247 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

3249 * Code generator library theories:

3250 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

3251 languages.

3252 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

3253 languages.

3254 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

3255 codes; includes Code_Integer.

3256 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

3257 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

3258 denominator).

3259 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

3260 representable by rational numbers.

3261 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

3262 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

3263 includes Code_Integer.

3264 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

3265 target-language built-in integers.

3266 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

3267 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

3269 * New package for inductive predicates

3271 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

3273 inductive

3274 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3275 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3276 where

3277 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

3278 | ...

3280 with full support for type-inference, rather than

3282 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3284 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3285 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3287 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

3288 intros

3289 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3290 ...

3292 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

3293 sets to be defined with the new package via

3295 inductive_set

3296 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3297 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3298 where

3299 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3300 | ...

3302 or

3304 inductive_set

3305 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3306 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3307 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3308 where

3309 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3310 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

3311 | ...

3313 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

3315 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

3316 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

3318 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3320 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

3321 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

3322 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

3323 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

3324 than before the actual inductive definition.

3326 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

3327 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

3328 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

3329 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

3330 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

3331 statements of the form

3333 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

3335 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

3336 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

3338 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

3340 - The format of the elimination rules is now

3342 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

3343 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

3344 ==> ... ==> P

3346 for predicates and

3348 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

3349 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

3350 ==> ... ==> P

3352 for sets rather than

3354 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

3355 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

3356 ==> ... ==> P

3358 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

3359 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

3360 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

3362 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

3363 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

3364 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

3366 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

3367 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

3368 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

3369 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

3370 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

3371 users are encouraged to use the new package.

3373 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

3374 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

3376 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

3377 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

3378 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

3379 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

3380 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

3381 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

3382 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

3383 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

3384 variable.

3386 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

3387 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

3388 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

3389 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3390 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

3391 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

3393 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

3394 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

3395 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

3396 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

3397 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

3398 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

3399 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

3400 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

3401 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

3403 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

3404 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

3405 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

3406 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

3407 rat, etc.

3409 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

3410 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

3411 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

3413 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

3415 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

3416 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

3418 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

3419 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

3421 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

3422 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

3423 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3425 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

3426 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3429 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

3431 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

3433 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

3434 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

3435 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

3436 positive/negative (in inequations).

3438 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

3439 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

3440 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

3441 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3443 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

3444 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

3445 algebraic operations.

3447 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

3448 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3450 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

3451 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3453 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

3454 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

3455 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

3456 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

3457 adapted.

3459 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

3460 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

3461 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

3462 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

3463 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

3465 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

3466 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

3467 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

3469 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

3470 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

3471 better use 'abbreviation'.

3473 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3475 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

3476 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

3477 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

3478 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

3479 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

3480 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

3481 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

3482 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

3484 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

3486 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

3487 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

3488 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

3489 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

3490 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

3491 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

3493 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

3494 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

3495 "A = B" (with priority 50).

3497 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

3498 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

3499 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

3500 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3502 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

3504 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

3505 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3507 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

3508 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

3510 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

3511 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

3512 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

3514 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

3515 True/False.

3517 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

3519 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

3521 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

3522 ``rule'' method.

3524 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

3525 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

3526 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

3527 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

3529 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

3530 zChaff is still supported as well.

3532 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

3533 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

3535 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

3536 Library.

3538 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

3540 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

3541 as greatest fixed-point.

3543 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

3544 association lists.

3546 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

3547 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

3548 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

3550 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

3551 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

3552 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3553 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

3554 behavior.

3556 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

3558 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

3559 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

3560 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

3561 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

3562 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

3563 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

3565 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

3566 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

3567 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

3568 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

3569 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

3570 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

3571 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

3573 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

3574 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

3576 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

3577 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

3578 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

3579 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

3580 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

3583 *** HOL-Complex ***

3585 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

3586 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

3587 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

3588 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3591 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

3592 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

3593 and norm :: 'a => real.

3595 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

3596 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

3597 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3599 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

3600 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

3602 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

3603 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

3604 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

3605 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3607 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

3608 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

3609 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

3610 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

3611 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

3612 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

3613 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

3614 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

3615 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

3616 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

3617 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

3618 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

3619 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

3620 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

3621 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

3623 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

3624 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

3625 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

3626 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3628 approx <-- capprox

3629 HFinite <-- CFinite

3630 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

3631 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

3632 monad <-- cmonad

3633 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

3634 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

3635 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

3636 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

3639 *** HOL-Algebra ***

3641 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

3643 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

3644 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3646 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

3647 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3649 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

3650 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

3651 of algebraic structures.

3653 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

3656 *** HOL-Nominal ***

3658 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

3659 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

3660 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

3661 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

3664 *** ML ***

3666 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

3667 (even on SML/NJ).

3669 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

3670 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

3671 compile-time. For example:

3673 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

3674 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

3675 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

3676 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

3677 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

3678 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

3679 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

3680 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

3681 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

3682 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

3683 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

3684 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

3685 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

3686 ML {* @{context} *}

3687 ML {* @{theory} *}

3688 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

3689 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

3690 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

3691 ML {* @{simpset} *}

3692 ML {* @{claset} *}

3693 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

3695 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

3697 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

3698 ML_Context.trace enabled.

3700 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

3701 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

3702 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

3704 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

3705 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

3707 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

3708 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

3709 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

3711 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

3712 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

3713 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

3714 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

3715 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

3716 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

3717 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

3718 declarations and definitions.

3720 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

3721 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

3722 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

3723 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

3725 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

3726 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

3727 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

3728 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3730 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

3731 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

3732 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

3733 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

3734 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

3735 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

3737 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

3738 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

3739 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

3740 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

3741 attributes, methods, etc.

3743 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

3744 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

3745 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

3746 fold_map combinators.

3748 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

3749 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

3750 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

3751 derivation.

3753 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

3754 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

3755 achieve the old behaviour.

3757 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

3758 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

3759 statements.

3761 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

3762 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

3763 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

3765 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

3766 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

3767 some popular functions from term.ML:

3769 Term.variant -> Name.variant

3770 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

3771 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

3773 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

3774 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

3776 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

3777 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

3778 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

3779 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

3780 various freeze_thaw operations.

3782 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

3783 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

3784 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

3785 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

3786 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

3787 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

3788 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

3789 in a locale context).

3791 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

3792 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

3793 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

3794 which are considered legacy and await removal.

3796 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

3797 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

3798 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

3799 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

3800 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

3801 a mere theory instead of a full context.

3803 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

3804 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

3805 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

3806 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

3807 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

3809 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

3811 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

3812 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

3813 this:

3815 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

3817 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

3818 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

3819 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

3820 -- use plain ERROR instead.

3822 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

3823 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

3825 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

3826 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

3828 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

3829 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

3830 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

3831 batch mode.

3833 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

3834 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

3835 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

3836 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3838 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

3839 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

3840 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

3841 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

3842 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

3844 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

3845 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

3846 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

3847 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

3848 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

3849 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

3851 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

3852 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

3853 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

3854 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3856 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

3857 "Trueprop" etc.

3860 *** System ***

3862 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

3863 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

3864 Isabelle installations.

3866 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

3867 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

3868 code.

3870 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

3872 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

3873 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

3874 independent theories, according to the given theory header

3875 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

3876 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

3877 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

3878 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

3879 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

3880 Implementation manual.

3884 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

3885 ----------------------------------

3887 *** General ***

3889 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

3891 theory <name>

3892 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

3893 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

3894 begin

3896 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

3898 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

3900 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

3901 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

3902 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

3904 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

3905 relative and absolute paths.

3907 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

3908 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

3909 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

3910 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

3911 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

3912 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

3913 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

3914 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

3915 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

3917 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

3919 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

3920 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

3921 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

3923 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

3924 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

3926 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

3927 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

3928 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

3929 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

3931 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

3932 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

3934 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

3935 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

3936 faster.

3939 *** Document preparation ***

3941 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

3942 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

3943 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

3944 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

3945 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

3946 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

3948 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

3949 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

3950 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

3951 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

3952 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

3953 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

3954 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

3955 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

3956 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

3957 \isadroptag.

3959 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

3960 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

3961 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

3962 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

3963 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

3964 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

3965 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

3966 specified above.

3968 * Several new antiquotations:

3970 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

3972 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

3974 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

3975 argument is a known logical constant;

3977 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

3978 theorem applying a "style" to it

3980 @{ML text}

3982 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

3983 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

3984 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

3985 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

3986 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

3987 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

3988 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

3990 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

3991 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

3992 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

3993 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

3995 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

3996 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

3997 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

3999 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

4000 a proof context.

4002 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

4003 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

4005 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

4006 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

4008 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

4009 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

4010 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

4013 *** Pure ***

4015 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

4016 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

4017 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

4018 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

4019 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

4020 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4021 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4023 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4024 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4025 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4026 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4027 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4028 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4029 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4030 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4032 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4033 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4034 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4036 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4037 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4038 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4040 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4041 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4042 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4043 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4044 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4046 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4047 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4048 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4049 axclasses vs. locales.

4051 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4052 instead of base 26 numbers.

4054 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4055 marks in schematic variable names.

4057 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4058 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4059 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4061 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4062 by simp

4064 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4066 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4067 annotations as "(00...)".

4069 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4070 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4071 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4072 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4073 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4074 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4075 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4077 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4078 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4079 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4080 specifications.

4082 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4083 locally fixed variables as well.

4085 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4086 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4087 Limit.

4089 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4090 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4091 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4092 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4093 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4094 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4095 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4097 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4098 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4099 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4101 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4103 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4104 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4105 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4106 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4107 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4108 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4110 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4111 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4113 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4114 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4115 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4117 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4119 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4120 theory development.

4122 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4123 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4124 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4125 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4127 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4128 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4129 quoted when used as identifier.

4132 *** Locales ***

4134 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4135 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4136 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4137 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4138 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4139 commands is a follows:

4141 (1) interpretation expr inst

4142 (2) interpretation target < expr

4143 (3) interpret expr inst

4145 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4146 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4147 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4148 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

4149 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

4150 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

4151 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

4152 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

4153 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

4154 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

4156 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

4157 'interpret' instead.

4159 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

4160 parameters.

4162 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

4163 redeclaration.

4165 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

4167 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

4168 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

4169 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

4170 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

4171 to attribute arguments as expected.

4173 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

4174 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

4175 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

4176 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

4177 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

4178 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

4179 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

4180 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

4181 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

4182 values to argument tokens explicitly.

4184 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

4185 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

4186 theorem statement in rare situations.

4188 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

4189 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

4192 *** Provers ***

4194 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

4195 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

4196 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

4197 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

4198 still available as 'simplesubst'.

4200 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

4201 and quasi orders.

4203 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

4204 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

4206 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

4207 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

4209 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

4210 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

4211 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4214 *** HOL ***

4216 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

4218 syntax (epsilon)

4219 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

4221 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

4222 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

4223 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

4224 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

4226 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

4227 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

4228 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

4229 support corresponding Isar calculations.

4231 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

4232 instead of ":".

4234 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

4236 Old New

4237 {..n(} {..<n}

4238 {)n..} {n<..}

4239 {m..n(} {m..<n}

4240 {)m..n} {m<..n}

4241 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

4243 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

4244 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

4245 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

4247 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

4248 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

4250 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

4251 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

4252 interface.

4254 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

4255 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

4256 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

4257 be a tuple pattern.

4259 Some new syntax forms are available:

4261 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

4262 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

4263 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

4264 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

4266 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

4267 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

4269 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

4270 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

4271 (insert F x)'.

4273 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

4274 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

4275 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

4277 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

4278 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

4279 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

4281 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

4282 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

4283 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

4284 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4285 in unstructured proof scripts.

4287 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

4288 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

4289 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

4290 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

4291 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

4292 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

4293 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

4294 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

4295 <record_name>_ext_type.

4297 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

4298 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

4299 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

4300 quite long.

4302 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

4303 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

4304 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

4305 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

4307 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

4308 type-variables in the term.

4310 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

4311 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

4312 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

4313 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

4314 goals than previously.

4316 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

4317 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

4318 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

4319 just like y <= x.

4321 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

4322 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

4323 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

4324 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

4325 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

4326 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

4327 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

4329 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

4331 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

4332 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

4334 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

4335 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

4336 inequalities.

4338 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4339 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4341 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

4342 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

4343 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

4344 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

4345 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

4346 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

4347 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

4348 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

4349 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

4350 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

4351 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

4353 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

4355 zero_le_square

4356 not_square_less_zero

4358 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

4360 realpow_zero_zero

4361 realpow_two

4362 realpow_less

4363 zero_le_power

4364 realpow_two_le

4365 abs_realpow_two

4366 realpow_two_abs

4368 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

4370 * Theory List:

4372 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4373 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4375 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

4376 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

4377 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

4378 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

4380 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

4381 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

4384 *** HOL-Complex ***

4386 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

4387 integers in the reals.

4389 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4390 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4392 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

4393 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4394 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4395 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4396 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4398 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

4400 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

4402 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

4403 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

4405 hypreal = real star

4406 hypnat = nat star

4407 hcomplex = complex star

4409 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

4410 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4412 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

4414 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

4415 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

4416 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

4417 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

4418 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

4420 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4421 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

4422 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

4423 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

4424 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

4426 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

4427 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4429 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

4430 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

4431 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

4432 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

4433 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

4434 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

4435 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

4436 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

4437 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

4438 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

4439 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

4440 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

4441 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

4442 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

4443 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

4444 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

4445 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

4446 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

4447 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

4448 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

4449 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

4450 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

4451 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

4452 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

4454 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

4455 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

4456 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4458 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

4459 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

4460 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

4461 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

4462 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

4463 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

4464 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

4465 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

4466 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

4467 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

4468 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

4469 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

4470 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

4471 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

4472 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

4473 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

4474 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

4475 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

4476 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

4477 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

4478 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

4479 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

4480 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

4481 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4482 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4483 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

4484 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

4485 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

4486 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

4487 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

4488 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

4489 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

4490 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

4491 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

4492 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

4493 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

4494 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

4495 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

4496 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

4497 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

4498 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

4499 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

4500 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

4501 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

4502 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

4503 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

4504 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

4505 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

4506 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

4507 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

4508 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

4509 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

4510 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

4511 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

4513 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

4514 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

4515 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

4516 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

4517 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

4518 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

4519 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

4520 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

4521 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

4522 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

4523 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

4525 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

4526 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

4527 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

4528 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

4529 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

4530 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

4531 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

4532 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

4533 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

4534 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

4535 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

4536 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

4537 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

4538 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

4539 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

4540 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

4541 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

4542 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

4543 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

4544 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

4545 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

4547 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

4548 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

4549 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

4550 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

4551 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

4552 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

4554 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

4557 *** HOLCF ***

4559 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

4560 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

4561 type-inference.

4563 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

4564 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

4565 instead of exponential time).

4567 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

4568 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

4570 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

4572 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

4573 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

4574 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

4575 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

4576 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

4577 syntax and examples.

4579 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

4580 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

4581 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

4582 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

4583 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

4585 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

4586 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4588 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

4589 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

4590 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

4591 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

4592 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

4593 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

4596 *** ZF ***

4598 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

4599 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

4600 of a homomorphism).

4602 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

4603 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

4604 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

4607 *** Cube ***

4609 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

4610 theories.

4613 *** ML ***

4615 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

4616 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

4618 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

4619 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

4620 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

4621 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

4622 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

4624 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

4625 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

4626 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

4627 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

4629 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

4630 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

4631 suggests how one can translate existing code:

4633 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

4634 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

4635 last_elem xs = List.last xs

4636 flat xss = List.concat xss

4637 seq fs = List.app fs

4638 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

4639 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

4641 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

4642 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

4644 x |> f f #> g

4645 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

4647 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

4649 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

4650 infix 2 ?;

4651 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

4652 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

4654 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

4655 infix operators.

4657 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

4658 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

4659 example:

4661 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

4662 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

4664 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

4665 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

4667 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

4668 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

4670 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

4671 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

4673 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

4674 available:

4676 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

4677 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

4678 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

4679 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

4681 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

4682 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

4683 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

4684 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

4685 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

4687 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

4688 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

4689 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

4691 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

4693 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

4694 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

4696 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

4697 Naive rewrites:

4699 make_keylist = AList.make

4700 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

4702 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

4703 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

4705 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

4706 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

4708 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

4709 Naive rewrites:

4711 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

4712 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

4714 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

4715 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

4716 lists.

4718 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

4719 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

4720 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

4721 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

4723 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

4724 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

4725 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

4726 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

4727 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

4728 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

4729 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

4730 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

4731 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

4732 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

4733 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

4734 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

4735 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

4736 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

4737 Output.raw have no effect.

4739 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

4740 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

4741 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

4743 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

4744 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

4745 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

4746 internal and external process view of file names are different.

4748 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

4749 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

4750 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

4751 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

4752 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

4753 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

4754 Library.sort_strings on result).

4756 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

4757 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

4758 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

4759 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

4761 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

4762 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

4763 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

4764 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

4765 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

4766 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

4767 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

4768 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

4769 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

4770 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

4771 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

4773 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

4774 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

4775 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

4776 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

4777 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

4778 with earlier declarations.

4780 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

4781 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

4782 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

4784 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

4785 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

4786 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

4787 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

4788 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

4789 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

4791 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

4792 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

4794 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

4795 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

4797 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

4798 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

4799 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

4800 Theory.merge, etc.)

4802 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

4803 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

4804 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

4806 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

4808 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

4809 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

4810 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

4811 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

4813 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

4814 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

4815 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

4816 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

4817 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

4818 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

4819 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

4820 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

4822 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

4823 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

4824 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4826 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

4827 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

4828 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

4830 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

4831 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

4833 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

4834 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

4835 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

4836 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

4838 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

4840 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

4841 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

4842 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

4843 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

4844 (both increase the runtime).

4846 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

4847 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

4848 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

4850 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

4851 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

4852 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

4853 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

4854 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

4855 for further details.

4857 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

4858 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

4859 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

4860 scripts for the time being.

4862 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

4863 generated HTML files. For example:

4865 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

4866 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

4869 *** System ***

4871 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

4872 isabelle, isatool etc.).

4874 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

4875 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

4877 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

4878 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

4880 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

4881 distribution being used.

4883 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

4884 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

4885 theories.

4889 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

4890 --------------------------------

4892 *** General ***

4894 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

4895 Replaces linorder.ML.

4897 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

4898 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

4899 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

4900 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

4901 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

4902 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

4903 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

4904 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

4905 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

4906 existing theory and ML files.

4908 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

4910 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

4911 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

4912 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

4913 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

4915 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

4916 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

4917 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

4918 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

4920 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

4921 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

4922 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

4924 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

4925 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

4926 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

4927 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

4928 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

4930 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

4931 (i.e. intersections of classes),

4933 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

4934 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

4935 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

4938 *** Isar ***

4940 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

4941 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

4942 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

4943 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

4944 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

4945 emulations.

4946 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

4947 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

4948 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

4950 * Attributes "where" and "of":

4951 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

4952 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

4953 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

4954 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

4956 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

4957 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

4958 and derived forms.

4960 * Locales:

4961 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

4962 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

4963 "_axioms") in the premise.

4964 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

4965 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

4966 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

4967 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

4968 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

4969 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

4970 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

4971 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

4972 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

4973 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

4974 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

4975 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

4976 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

4977 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

4978 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

4979 with "locale (open)".

4980 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

4982 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

4983 (Isar) contexts.

4986 *** HOL ***

4988 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

4989 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

4990 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

4991 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

4992 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

4994 * Simplifier:

4995 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

4996 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

4997 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

4998 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

4999 to solve goals from the assumptions.

5000 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

5001 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

5002 is solved by simplification already.

5004 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

5005 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

5007 * Numerics:

5008 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

5009 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

5010 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

5011 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

5012 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

5013 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

5014 exponentiation).

5016 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

5018 * Records:

5019 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

5020 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5021 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5022 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5023 (not enabled by default).

5024 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5025 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5026 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5028 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5029 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5030 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5032 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5034 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5036 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5037 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5039 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5040 matrix theory to linear programming.

5042 * Unions and Intersections:

5043 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5044 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5045 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5046 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5048 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5049 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5050 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5051 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5053 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5054 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5056 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5057 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5059 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5060 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5061 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5063 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5064 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5065 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5066 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5067 for examples.

5070 *** HOLCF ***

5072 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5076 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5077 ------------------------------

5079 *** General ***

5081 * Provers/simplifier:

5083 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5084 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5085 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5086 the order of assumptions.

5088 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5090 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5091 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5093 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5095 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5097 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5099 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5100 kind of problem.

5102 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5103 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5104 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5105 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5106 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5107 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5108 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5110 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5112 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5113 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5114 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5115 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5116 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5117 the simplifier would diverge.

5119 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5121 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5122 congruence is ignored.

5124 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5125 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5126 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5128 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5129 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5130 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5131 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5133 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5134 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5135 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5136 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5137 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5138 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5139 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5141 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5142 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5143 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5144 assumption failed.

5146 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5147 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5148 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

5149 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

5150 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

5151 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

5152 on the old view without predicates;

5154 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

5155 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

5156 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

5158 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

5159 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

5160 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

5161 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

5162 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

5163 be given (the default is 40);

5165 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

5166 (batch-mode only);

5168 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

5169 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

5170 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

5172 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

5173 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

5174 for slight decrease in efficiency;

5176 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

5177 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

5179 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

5180 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

5183 *** HOL ***

5185 * arith(_tac)

5187 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

5188 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

5189 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

5190 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

5192 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

5194 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

5195 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

5196 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

5198 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

5199 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

5201 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

5202 are distributed over a sum of terms;

5204 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

5205 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

5206 "<=", "<" and "=").

5208 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

5209 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

5211 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

5212 definition;

5214 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

5215 Finite_Set);

5217 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

5218 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

5220 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

5221 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

5223 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

5224 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

5225 of the empty set.

5227 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

5228 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

5229 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

5230 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

5232 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

5234 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

5235 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

5236 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

5238 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

5240 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

5241 Fleuriot);

5243 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

5245 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

5246 Gray and Kramer);

5248 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

5250 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

5251 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

5253 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

5254 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

5255 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

5256 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

5257 assignment, exceptions.

5260 *** ZF ***

5262 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

5263 universe, etc.);

5265 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

5268 *** ML ***

5270 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

5271 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

5272 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

5274 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

5276 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

5277 up simprocs;

5280 *** Document preparation ***

5282 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

5283 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

5284 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

5286 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

5287 other packages

5289 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

5290 broke \Rightarrow)

5292 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

5293 textcomp package)

5297 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

5298 --------------------------------

5300 *** Document preparation ***

5302 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

5303 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

5304 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

5305 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

5306 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

5307 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

5309 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

5310 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

5311 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

5313 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

5314 blocks after section headings;

5316 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

5317 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

5319 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

5320 better in printed text;

5322 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

5323 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

5324 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

5326 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

5327 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

5328 location;

5331 *** Isar ***

5333 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

5334 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

5335 "case (Suc n)");

5336 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

5337 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

5338 instantiation of cases;

5339 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

5340 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

5341 rules without further ado;

5342 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

5343 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

5344 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

5345 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

5346 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

5347 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

5348 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

5349 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

5350 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

5351 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

5352 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

5353 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

5354 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

5355 below);

5356 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

5357 success (no backtracking);

5358 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

5359 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

5360 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

5361 General versions);

5362 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

5363 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

5365 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

5366 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

5367 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

5368 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

5369 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

5370 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

5371 fails:

5373 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

5375 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

5376 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

5378 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

5379 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

5380 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

5381 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

5382 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

5383 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

5384 some examples;

5386 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

5387 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

5388 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

5389 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

5390 qualified by the locale name);

5392 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

5393 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

5394 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

5395 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

5396 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

5398 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

5399 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

5400 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

5401 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

5402 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

5404 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

5406 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

5407 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

5408 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

5410 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

5412 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

5414 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

5416 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

5417 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

5418 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

5420 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

5421 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

5422 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

5423 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

5424 proof *scripts*;

5426 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

5427 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

5428 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

5429 especially important for locales);

5431 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

5432 mode;

5434 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

5435 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

5436 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

5437 situations;

5439 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

5440 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

5442 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

5443 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

5444 discontinued;

5446 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

5447 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

5448 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

5450 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

5451 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

5452 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

5453 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

5454 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

5455 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

5456 INCOMPATIBILITY;

5458 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

5459 of introduction rules;

5461 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

5462 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

5463 conditional rules;

5465 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

5467 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

5468 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

5470 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

5471 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

5473 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

5474 wf_induct_rule;

5477 *** HOL ***

5479 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

5480 follows:

5482 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

5483 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

5485 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

5486 binary representation internally;

5488 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

5489 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

5491 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

5492 are some hints on converting existing sources:

5494 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

5495 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

5496 to be spaced properly;

5498 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

5499 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

5501 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

5503 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

5505 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

5506 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

5508 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

5510 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

5511 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

5512 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

5513 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

5514 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

5516 * HOL/record package improvements:

5517 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

5518 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

5519 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

5520 declared as simp by default;

5521 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

5522 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

5523 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

5524 INCOMPATIBILITY;

5525 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5526 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

5527 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

5528 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

5529 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

5530 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

5532 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

5533 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

5534 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

5535 via 'generate_code' theory section;

5537 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

5539 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

5540 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

5541 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

5543 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

5544 (beware of argument permutation!);

5546 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

5548 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

5550 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

5551 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5552 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

5554 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

5555 in this (rare) case use:

5557 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

5558 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

5560 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

5561 MAY FAIL;

5563 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

5564 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

5565 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

5566 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

5568 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

5569 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

5570 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

5572 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

5573 expressions;

5575 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

5576 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5578 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5579 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

5580 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

5582 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

5584 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

5585 the "cases" method);

5587 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

5588 Florian Kammller);

5590 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

5591 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

5592 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

5594 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

5596 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

5599 *** HOLCF ***

5601 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

5602 operations;

5604 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

5605 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

5607 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

5608 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

5609 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

5611 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

5614 *** ZF ***

5616 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

5617 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

5618 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

5619 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

5621 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

5622 your theory on Main_ZFC;

5624 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

5625 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

5627 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

5628 typeless version of the formalism;

5630 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

5631 format;

5633 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

5634 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

5635 new-style theory format;

5637 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

5640 *** General ***

5642 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

5643 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

5644 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

5645 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

5647 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

5648 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

5650 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

5651 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

5652 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

5653 properly;

5655 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

5656 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

5658 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

5659 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

5660 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

5661 type variable);

5663 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

5664 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

5665 "type_brackets";

5667 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

5668 tokens into AST constants;

5670 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

5671 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

5672 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

5674 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

5675 practice);

5677 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

5678 addSafter;

5680 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

5681 as well;

5683 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

5684 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

5685 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

5686 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

5687 support requires further installations, e.g. from

5688 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

5690 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

5692 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

5693 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

5695 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

5696 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

5698 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

5699 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

5700 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

5702 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

5703 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

5704 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

5705 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

5706 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

5708 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

5709 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

5710 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

5711 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

5713 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

5714 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

5715 terminal);

5719 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

5720 -----------------------------------

5722 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

5724 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

5725 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

5726 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

5728 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

5729 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

5730 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

5731 'split_rule (complete)';

5733 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

5734 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

5736 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

5738 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

5739 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

5740 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

5742 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

5743 operation;

5745 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

5747 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

5749 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

5750 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

5751 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

5753 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

5754 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

5757 *** Document preparation ***

5759 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

5760 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

5761 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

5762 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

5763 type-writer);

5765 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

5766 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

5768 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

5769 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

5771 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

5772 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

5773 definitions);

5775 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

5776 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

5777 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

5778 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

5780 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

5781 fonts;

5783 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

5784 generation;

5786 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

5789 *** Isar ***

5791 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

5792 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

5793 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

5794 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

5795 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

5797 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

5798 rules as well;

5800 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

5801 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

5802 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

5803 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

5805 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

5806 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

5808 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

5809 statements as well;

5811 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

5813 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

5814 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

5816 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

5817 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

5819 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

5821 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

5823 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

5824 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

5826 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

5827 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

5828 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

5830 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

5831 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

5832 the result to be shown in each case;

5834 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

5836 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

5839 *** HOL ***

5841 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

5842 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

5843 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

5844 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

5845 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

5847 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

5848 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

5849 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

5851 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

5852 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

5853 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

5854 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

5855 literature;

5857 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

5858 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

5859 operator \<Sum>;

5861 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

5862 HOL/subset.thy);

5864 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

5865 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

5866 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

5868 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

5869 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

5871 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

5872 rules with string literals);

5874 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

5875 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

5876 functions for the reals;

5878 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

5881 *** CTT ***

5883 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

5884 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

5886 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

5887 and Arith);

5890 *** General ***

5892 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

5893 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

5894 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

5895 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

5897 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

5898 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

5900 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

5901 as assumptions as well;

5903 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

5905 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

5909 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

5910 ----------------------------------

5912 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

5914 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

5915 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

5916 issue the following ML commands:

5918 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

5919 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

5921 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

5922 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

5924 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

5926 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

5927 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

5929 select_equality -> some_equality

5930 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

5931 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

5932 selectI2 -> someI2

5933 selectI -> someI

5934 select1_equality -> some1_equality

5935 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

5936 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

5938 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

5940 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

5941 instead);

5943 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

5944 f.simps instead of f.rules;

5946 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

5948 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

5949 sometimes be needed;

5951 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

5953 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

5955 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

5956 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

5957 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

5959 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

5960 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

5962 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

5963 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

5965 syntax (symbols)

5966 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

5967 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

5969 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

5971 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

5972 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

5973 internally;

5975 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

5976 changed from A/r to A//r;

5978 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

5979 proofs;

5981 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

5982 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

5984 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

5985 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

5986 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

5987 "rule del";

5989 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

5991 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

5993 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

5994 lib/texinputs);

5997 *** Document preparation ***

5999 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

6000 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

6001 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

6002 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

6004 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

6005 including proper document sources;

6007 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

6008 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

6009 of isatool usedir;

6011 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

6012 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

6013 LaTeX debugging;

6015 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

6017 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

6018 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

6019 graph for 'all sessions';

6021 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

6022 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

6023 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

6026 *** Isar ***

6028 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

6029 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

6030 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

6032 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

6033 generalized existence reasoning;

6035 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

6036 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

6037 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

6038 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

6039 premises;

6041 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

6042 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

6043 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

6044 to theorems as "tags";

6046 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

6047 class/type/const name spaces;

6049 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

6050 indicate potential overloading;

6052 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

6054 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

6055 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

6057 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

6058 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

6059 with the version in Provers/classical;

6061 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

6062 case name 'antecedent';

6064 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

6065 to the current context is now done automatically);

6067 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

6068 for definining proof methods in ML;

6070 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

6071 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

6072 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

6073 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

6075 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

6076 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

6078 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

6079 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

6080 well (including splits);

6082 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

6083 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

6085 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

6086 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

6088 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

6089 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

6090 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

6092 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

6093 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

6094 calculations;

6096 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

6097 method anyway;

6099 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

6100 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

6101 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

6103 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

6104 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

6105 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

6106 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

6108 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

6110 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

6112 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

6113 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

6114 proof states;

6116 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

6117 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

6118 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

6120 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

6121 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

6122 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

6123 (for HOL datatypes);

6125 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

6126 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

6127 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

6129 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

6131 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

6132 should instead use individual commands for printing items

6133 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

6135 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

6138 *** HOL ***

6140 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

6141 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

6142 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

6143 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

6144 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

6145 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

6147 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

6148 Clemens Ballarin;

6150 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

6151 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

6152 Rasmussen;

6154 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

6155 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

6156 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

6157 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

6158 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

6159 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

6161 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

6162 von Oheimb;

6164 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

6165 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

6167 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

6169 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

6170 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

6171 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

6173 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

6174 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

6175 well; admit "r" as field name;

6177 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

6178 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

6180 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

6181 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

6183 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

6184 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

6185 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

6186 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

6187 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

6188 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

6189 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

6191 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

6192 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

6193 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

6195 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

6196 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

6197 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

6199 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

6200 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

6201 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

6202 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

6203 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

6205 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

6206 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

6207 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

6208 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

6209 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

6210 each equation;

6212 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

6213 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

6214 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

6215 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

6217 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

6218 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

6220 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

6222 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

6223 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

6224 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

6226 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

6228 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

6229 main HOL, but was unused);

6231 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

6232 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);