NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Mar 14 17:32:11 2014 +0100 (2014-03-14)
changeset 56148 d94d6a9178b5
parent 56118 d3967fdc800a
parent 56135 efa24d31e595
child 56154 f0a927235162
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    44 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    45 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    46 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    47 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    48 to the system option "completion_limit").
    49 
    50 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    51 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    52 
    53 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    54 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    55 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    56 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    57 
    58 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    59 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    60 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Pure ***
    64 
    65 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    66 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    67 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    68 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    69 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    70 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    71 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    72 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    73 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    74 
    75 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    76 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    77 instantiated theorem.
    78 
    79 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    80 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    81 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    82 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    83 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    84 
    85   attribute_setup standard =
    86     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    87 
    88 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    89 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    90 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    91 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    92 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    93 
    94 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    95 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    96 differently).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** HOL ***
   100 
   101 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   102   can now deal with conjunctions.
   103   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   104   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   105   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   106 
   107 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * HOL-Word:
   110   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   111   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   112   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   113   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   114   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   115 
   116 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 
   119 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   120 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   123 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   126 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   127 
   128 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   129   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   130   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   131   Theory renamings:
   132     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   133     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   134     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   135     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   136     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   137     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   138     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   139     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   140     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   141     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   142     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   143     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   144     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   145     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   146     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   147     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   148     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   149     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   150     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   151     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   152     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   153     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   154   New theories:
   155     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   156     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   157     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   158     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   159     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   160   Discontinued theories:
   161     BNF/BNF.thy
   162     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   163   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * New (co)datatype package:
   166   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   167   * Renamed commands:
   168       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   169       primrec_new ~> primrec
   170       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   171     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   173     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   174     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   176     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Old datatype package:
   180   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   181     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   182     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   184     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   188   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   189   datatype package.
   190   Renamed constants:
   191     Option.set ~> set_option
   192     Option.map ~> map_option
   193     option_rel ~> rel_option
   194     option_rec ~> case_option
   195   Renamed theorems:
   196     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   197     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   198     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   199     option.recs ~> option.case
   200     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   201     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   202     map.simps ~> list.map
   203     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   204     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   205     the.simps ~> option.sel
   206   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   209     sum_map ~> map_sum
   210     map_pair ~> map_prod
   211     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   212     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   213     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   214     set_rel ~> rel_set
   215     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   216     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   217     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   218     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   219 
   220 * New theory:
   221     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   222 
   223 * Theory reorganizations:
   224   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   225 
   226 * SMT module:
   227   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   228     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   229     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   230     elsewhere.
   231 
   232 * Sledgehammer:
   233   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   234   - New option:
   235       smt_proofs
   236   - Renamed options:
   237       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   238       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   239     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Metis:
   242   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   243     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   246 
   247 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   250 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   251 
   252 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   253 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   254 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   255 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   256 
   257 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   261 with the given constants.
   262 
   263 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   264 
   265 Fact consolidations:
   266     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   267     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   268     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   269     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   270     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   271     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   272     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   273     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   274     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   275     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   276     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   277     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   278     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   279     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   280     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   281     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   282     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   283     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   284     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   285     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   286     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   287     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   288     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   289     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   290     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   291     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   292     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   293     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   294     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   295     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   296     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   297     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   298     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   299     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   300     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   301     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   302     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   303     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   304     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   305     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   306 
   307 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   308 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   309 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   310 
   311 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   312 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   313 
   314 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   315 
   316 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   317 
   318 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320 
   321 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   325 operations on records.
   326 
   327 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   331     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   335     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   336     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   340   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   341   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   342   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   343     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   344   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   345     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   346   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   347 INCOMPATBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   350     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   351     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   352     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   353     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Fact name consolidation:
   357     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   358     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   359     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   360     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   361     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   365 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   366 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   367 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   368 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   369 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   370 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   371 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   372 
   373 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   374 
   375 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   376 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   377 
   378 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   379 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   380 
   381 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   382 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   383 or the brute way with
   384 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   385 
   386 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   387 
   388 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   389 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   392 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   393 
   394 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   395 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   396 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY
   398 
   399 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   400 
   401 * Nitpick:
   402   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   403     infinite values.
   404   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   405     "Rep_Integ".
   406   - Removed "std" option.
   407   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   408     "hide_types".
   409 
   410 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   411   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   412   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   413     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   414     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   415     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   416     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   417     intervals.
   418 
   419 
   420 *** Scala ***
   421 
   422 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   423 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   424 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   425 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   426 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 
   429 *** ML ***
   430 
   431 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   432 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   433 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   434 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   435 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   436 of schematic variables.
   437 
   438 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   439 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   441 formal context.
   442 
   443 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   444 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   445 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   446 actually belongs to it).
   447 
   448 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   449 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   450 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   451 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   452 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   453 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   454 
   455 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations (to
   456 make it more close to the analogous Thy_Output.antiquotation).  See
   457 ML_Context.antiquotation and structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   461 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   462 
   463 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   464 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   465 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   466 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   467 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   468 
   469 
   470 *** System ***
   471 
   472 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   473 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   474 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   475 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   477 
   478 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   479 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   480 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   481 
   482 
   483 
   484 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   485 -------------------------------------
   486 
   487 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   488 
   489 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   490 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   491 
   492 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   493 after edits surrounding the command location.
   494 
   495 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   496 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   497 e.g. out-of-memory).
   498 
   499 
   500 *** System ***
   501 
   502 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   503 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   504 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   505 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   506 
   507 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   508 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   509 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   510 
   511 
   512 
   513 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   514 -------------------------------------
   515 
   516 *** General ***
   517 
   518 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   519 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   520 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   523 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   526 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   527 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   528 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   529 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   530 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   531 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   532 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   533 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   534 syntax.
   535 
   536 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   537 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   540 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   541 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   542 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   543 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   544 
   545 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   547 
   548 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   549 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   550 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   551 
   552 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   553 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   554 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   555 
   556 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   557 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   558 
   559 
   560 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   561 
   562 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   563 Documentation panel.
   564 
   565 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   566 documentation.
   567 
   568 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   569 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   570 
   571 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   572 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   573 normal editing and checking process.
   574 
   575 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   576 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   577 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   578 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   579 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   580 
   581 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   582 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   583 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   584 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   585 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   586 
   587 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   588 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   589 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   590 
   591 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   592 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   593 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   594 to resolve conflict.
   595 
   596 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   597 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   598 
   599 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   600 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   601 such command executions while editing.
   602 
   603 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   604 document content.
   605 
   606 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   607 toplevel theorem statements.
   608 
   609 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   610 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   611 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   612 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   613 
   614 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   615 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   616 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   617 
   618 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   619 / Global Options / Appearance".
   620 
   621 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   622 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   623 
   624 
   625 *** Pure ***
   626 
   627 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   628 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   629 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   630 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   631 details.
   632 
   633 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   634 
   635 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   636 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   637 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   638 
   639 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 
   642 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   643 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   644 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   645 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   648 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   649 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   652 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   653 
   654 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   655 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   656 situations.
   657 
   658 
   659 *** HOL ***
   660 
   661 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   662 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   666 
   667 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   668 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   669 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   670 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   671 
   672   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   673 
   674 * Code generator:
   675   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   676     'code_instance'.
   677   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   678     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   679 
   680 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   681 examples.
   682 
   683 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   684 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   685 to distinguish both when desired.
   686 
   687 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   688 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   689 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   690 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   693 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   694 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   695 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   696 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   697 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   700 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   701 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   702 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   703 
   704 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   705 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   706 
   707 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   708 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   709 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   710 
   711 * Lifting:
   712   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   713     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   714       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   715       transfer rules
   716     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   717       correspondence relation can be generated
   718     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   719       parametricity
   720     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   721   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   722   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   723     copies
   724   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   725     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   726     anonymous context)
   727   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   728     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   729   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   730     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   731   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   732     INCOMPATIBILITY
   733 
   734 * Transfer:
   735   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   736     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   737   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   738   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   739     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   740   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   741 
   742 * Reification and reflection:
   743   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   744     "Reification".
   745   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   746   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   750   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   751     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   752     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   753   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   754     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   755   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   756     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   757     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   758     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   759     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   760     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   761     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   762     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   763   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   764     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   765   - Fact renames:
   766       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   767       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   771 
   772 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   773 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   774 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   778 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   779 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   780 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   781 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   782 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   783 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   784 lemmas.
   785 
   786 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   787 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   788 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   791 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   792 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   793 
   794 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   795 top and bottom elements.
   796 
   797 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   798 
   799 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   800 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   801 
   802  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   803    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   804    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   805 
   806  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   807    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   808    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   809 
   810    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   811    arbitrary filter.
   812 
   813  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   814    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   815    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   816    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   817    on a compact set.
   818 
   819  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   820    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   821    linear_continuum_topology).
   822 
   823  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   824    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   825    on all sequences converging to x.
   826 
   827  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   828    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   829    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   830    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   831    left or right.
   832 
   833  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   834 
   835      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   836 
   837  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   838    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   839 
   840  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   841    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   842    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   843    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   844    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   845    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   846 
   847  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   848 
   849    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   850 
   851    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   852      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   853 
   854    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   855 
   856    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   857      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   858 
   859    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   860 
   861    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   862 
   863  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   864 
   865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * Nitpick:
   868   - Added option "spy".
   869   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   870 
   871 * Sledgehammer:
   872   - Renamed option:
   873       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   874     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   875   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   876   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   877   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   878 
   879 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   880 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   881 
   882 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   883   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   884   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   885     generated code.
   886   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   887   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   888   - Fact renames:
   889     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   890     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   891     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   892 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   895 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   896 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   897 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   898 
   899 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   900 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   901 
   902 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   905 
   906     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   907     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   908 
   909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   912 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   913 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   914 
   915 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   916 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   917 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   918 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * HOL-BNF:
   921   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   922     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   923     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   924     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   925   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   926     coinduct).
   927   - Renamed keywords:
   928     data ~> datatype_new
   929     codata ~> codatatype
   930     bnf_def ~> bnf
   931   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   932     discs ~> disc
   933     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   934     map_id' ~> map_id
   935     sels ~> sel
   936     set_map' ~> set_map
   937     sets ~> set
   938 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940 
   941 *** ML ***
   942 
   943 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   944 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   945 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   946 Examples.thy in particular.
   947 
   948 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   949 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   950 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   951 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   952 
   953 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   954 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   955 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   956 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   960 
   961     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   962     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   963 
   964 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   967 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   968 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   969 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   970 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   971 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   972 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   973 
   974 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   975 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   976 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   977 clasets separately from the context.
   978 
   979 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   981 
   982 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   983 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   984 
   985 
   986 *** System ***
   987 
   988 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   989 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990 
   991 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   992 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   995 settings variable.
   996 
   997 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   998 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   999 always pdf.
  1000 
  1001 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1002 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1003 
  1004 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1005 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1006 
  1007 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1008 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1009 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1010 
  1011 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1012 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1013 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1014 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1015 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1016 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1017 
  1018 
  1019 
  1020 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1021 -----------------------------------
  1022 
  1023 *** General ***
  1024 
  1025 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1026 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1027 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1028 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1029 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1030 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1031 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1032 
  1033 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1034 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1035 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1036 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1037 
  1038 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1039 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1040 
  1041 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1042 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1043 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1044 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1045 dependencies properly.
  1046 
  1047 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1048 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1049 
  1050 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1051 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1052 
  1053 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1054 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1055 and "class ... context ...".
  1056 
  1057 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1058 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1059 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1060 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1061 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1062 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1063 
  1064 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1065 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1066 
  1067 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1068 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1069 
  1070 
  1071 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1072 
  1073 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1074 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1075 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1076 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1077 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1078 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1079 
  1080 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1081 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1082 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1083 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1084 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1085 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1086 
  1087 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1088 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1089 browser on demand.
  1090 
  1091 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1092 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1093 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1094 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1095 
  1096 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1097 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1098 
  1099 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1100 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1101 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1102 potentially infinite message streams.
  1103 
  1104 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1105 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1106 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1107 schemes.
  1108 
  1109 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1110 symbols.
  1111 
  1112 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1113 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1114 
  1115 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1116 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1117 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1118 
  1119 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1120 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1121 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1122 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1123 
  1124 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1125 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1126 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1127 
  1128 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1129 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1130 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1131 Isabelle distribution.
  1132 
  1133 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1134 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1135 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1136 
  1137 
  1138 *** Pure ***
  1139 
  1140 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1141 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1142 
  1143 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1144 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1145 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1148 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1149 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1150 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1151 with some care where this is really required.
  1152 
  1153 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1154 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1155 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1156 
  1157   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1158 
  1159 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1160 a Hasse diagram.
  1161 
  1162 
  1163 *** HOL ***
  1164 
  1165 * Sledgehammer:
  1166 
  1167   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1168     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1169   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1170   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1171   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1172   - Renamed options:
  1173       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1174       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1175       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1176       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1177 
  1178 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1179 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1180 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1181 
  1182 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Lifting:
  1186   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1187   - quot_del attribute
  1188   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1189 
  1190 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1191 expressions.
  1192 
  1193 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1194 pointfree expressions.
  1195 
  1196 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1197 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1198 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1199 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1203 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1204 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1205 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1206 accordingly.
  1207 
  1208 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1209 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1212 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1213 
  1214 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1215 
  1216 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1217 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1218 
  1219 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1220 
  1221 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1222 
  1223   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1224   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1225 
  1226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1229 
  1230   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1231   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1232 
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1236 
  1237   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1238     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1239     output f x converges to G.
  1240 
  1241   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1242     infinity (at_bot).
  1243 
  1244   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1245     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1246 
  1247   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1248     at_top".
  1249 
  1250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1253 lattice type classes.
  1254 
  1255 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1256 
  1257     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1258     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1259 
  1260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1263 changes as follows.
  1264 
  1265   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1266 
  1267       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1268       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1269 
  1270   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1271     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1272     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1273     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1274 
  1275   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1276     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1277     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1278 
  1279   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1280     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1281     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1282     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1283 
  1284   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1285     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1286 
  1287       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1288       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1289       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1290       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1291       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1292       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1293       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1294       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1295       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1296       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1297       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1298       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1299       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1300       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1301       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1302       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1303 
  1304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1305 
  1306 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1307 
  1308 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1309 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1310 
  1311 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1312 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1313 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1314 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1315 
  1316   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1317   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1318   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1319   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1320   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1321   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1322   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1323   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1324   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1325   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1326 
  1327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1330 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1331 Data").
  1332 
  1333 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1334 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1335 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1336 code.
  1337 
  1338 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1339 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1340 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1344 
  1345 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1346 
  1347 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1348 
  1349   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1350   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1351 
  1352 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1353 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1354 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1355 
  1356   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1357 
  1358     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1359     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1360     cart_base i  removed
  1361     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1362 
  1363   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1364 
  1365   Renamed lemmas:
  1366 
  1367     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1368     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1369     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1370     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1371     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1372     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1373     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1374     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1375     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1376     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1377 
  1378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1379 
  1380 * HOL/Probability:
  1381 
  1382   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1383 
  1384   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1385     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1386     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1387 
  1388   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1389     projective family).
  1390 
  1391 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1392 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1393 
  1394 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1395 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1396 datatypes.
  1397 
  1398 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1399 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1400 
  1401 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1402 trees for the code generator.
  1403 
  1404 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1405 Lifting/Transfer.
  1406 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1407 
  1408 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 
  1412 *** Document preparation ***
  1413 
  1414 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1415 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1416 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1417 
  1418 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1419 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1420 
  1421 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1422 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1423 document/root.tex.
  1424 
  1425 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1426 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428 
  1429 *** ML ***
  1430 
  1431 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1432 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1433 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1434 
  1435 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1436 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1437 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1438 
  1439 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1440 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1441 necessarily printing visible text.
  1442 
  1443 
  1444 *** System ***
  1445 
  1446 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1447 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1448 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1449 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1450 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1451 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1452 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1453 
  1454 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1455 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1456 
  1457   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1458 
  1459 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1460 
  1461 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1462 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1463 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1464 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1465 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1466 
  1467 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1468 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1469 
  1470 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1471 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1472 
  1473 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1477 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1478 version of Isabelle.
  1479 
  1480 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1481 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1482 
  1483 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1484 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1485 for home-made settings.
  1486 
  1487 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1488 
  1489 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1490 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1491 configuration.
  1492 
  1493 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1494 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1495 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1496 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1497 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1498 
  1499 
  1500 
  1501 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1502 ------------------------------
  1503 
  1504 *** General ***
  1505 
  1506 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1507 
  1508   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1509     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1510   - markup for bound variables
  1511   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1512   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1513   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1514     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1515 
  1516 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1517 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1518 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1519 
  1520 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1521 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1522 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1523 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1524 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1525 
  1526   context
  1527     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1528     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1529   begin
  1530 
  1531   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1532 
  1533   end
  1534 
  1535   thm my_trans
  1536 
  1537 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1538 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1539 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1540 
  1541 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1542 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1543 
  1544 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1545 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1546 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1547 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1548 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1549 
  1550 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1551 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1552 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1553 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1554 indices of schematic variables.
  1555 
  1556 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1557 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1558 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1559 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1560 etc. was exploited.
  1561 
  1562 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1563 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1564 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1565 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1566 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1567 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1568 
  1569 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1570 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1571 manual.
  1572 
  1573 
  1574 *** Pure ***
  1575 
  1576 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1577 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1578 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1579 
  1580 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1581 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1582 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1583 undocumented feature.)
  1584 
  1585 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1586 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1587 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1588 
  1589   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1590 
  1591   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1592     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1593 
  1594 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1595 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1596 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1597 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1598 
  1599 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1600 
  1601     num ~> num_token
  1602     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1603     xstr ~> str_token
  1604 
  1605 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1606 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1607 position information via constraints).
  1608 
  1609 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1610 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1611 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1614 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1615 
  1616 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1617 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1618 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1621 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1624 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1625 
  1626   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1627 
  1628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1631 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1634 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1635 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1636 
  1637 
  1638 *** HOL ***
  1639 
  1640 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1641 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1642 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1643 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1644 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1645 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1646 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1647 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1648 possible.
  1649 
  1650 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1651 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1652 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1653 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1654 
  1655 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1656 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1659 
  1660 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1661 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1662 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1663 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1664 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1665 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1666 
  1667   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1668     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1669 
  1670   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1671     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1672     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1673 
  1674   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1675     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1676 
  1677   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1678     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1679     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1680 
  1681   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1682     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1683 
  1684 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1685 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1686 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1687 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1688 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1689 
  1690   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1691     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1692     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1693     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1694     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1695 
  1696     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1697     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1698 
  1699   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1700     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1701     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1702     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1703     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1704     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1705     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1706     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1707 
  1708   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1709     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1710     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1711     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1712 
  1713   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1714     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1715     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1716     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1717 
  1718   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1719     from type nat to type int.
  1720 
  1721 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1722 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1723 
  1724   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1725     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1726     type.  Example syntax:
  1727 
  1728     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1729       is List.insert
  1730 
  1731     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1732     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1733     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1734     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1735     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1736     by the package.
  1737 
  1738   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1739     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1740     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1741     code generation for each constant.
  1742 
  1743   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1744     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1745     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1746     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1747     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1748 
  1749   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1750     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1751     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1752 
  1753 * Quotient package:
  1754 
  1755   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1756     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1757 
  1758   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1759     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1760 
  1761   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1762     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1763     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1766     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1767 
  1768 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1769 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1770 
  1771 * Quickcheck:
  1772 
  1773   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1774     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1775     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1776     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1777     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1778 
  1779     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1780     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1781     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1782 
  1783     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1784     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1785 
  1786     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1787     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1788     show genuine counterexamples.
  1789 
  1790   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1791     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1792 
  1793     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1794     constructors of that type.
  1795 
  1796   - Support for multisets.
  1797 
  1798   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1799 
  1800   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1801     conjectures in a locale context.
  1802 
  1803 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1804 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1805 
  1806 * Sledgehammer:
  1807   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1808     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1809   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1810   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1811     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1812   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1813   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1814   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1815   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1816 
  1817 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1818 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1819 
  1820 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1821 
  1822 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1825 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1826 
  1827   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1828 
  1829 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1830 a list and a nat.
  1831 
  1832 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1833 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1834 
  1835 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1836 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1837 default.
  1838 
  1839 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1840 
  1841   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1842 
  1843 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1844 
  1845 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1846 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1847 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1848 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1849 one_case.
  1850 
  1851 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1852 the result of the fact expression.
  1853 
  1854 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1855 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1856 of some relation theorems:
  1857 
  1858   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1859   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1860   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1861   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1862   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1863   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1864 
  1865 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1866 
  1867 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1868 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1869 
  1870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1873 to match the constant's name:
  1874 
  1875   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1876   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1877   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1878   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1879   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1880   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1881   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1882   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1883   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1884   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1885   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1886   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1887   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1888   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1889   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1890   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1891   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1892   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1893   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1894   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1895   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1896   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1897   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1898   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1899 
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1903 and corresponding theorem names:
  1904 
  1905   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1906 
  1907   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1908 
  1909   - Renamed theorems:
  1910 
  1911     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1912     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1913     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1914     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1915     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1916     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1917     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1918     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1919     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1920     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1921     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1922     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1923     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1924     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1925     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1926     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1927     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1928     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1929     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1930     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1931     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1932     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1933     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1934 
  1935     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1936 
  1937     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1938 
  1939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1942 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1943 
  1944   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1945   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1946   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1947   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1948   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1949   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1950   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1951   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1952   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1953   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1954   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1955   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1956   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1957   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1958   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1959   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1960   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1961   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1962   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1963   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1964   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1965 
  1966 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1967 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1970 
  1971 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1972 
  1973   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1974   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1975   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1976   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1977   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1978   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1979   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1980   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1981   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1982   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1983   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1984   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1985   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1986   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1987   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1988   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1989   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1990   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1991 
  1992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1995 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1996 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1997 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1998 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1999 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2000 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2001 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2002 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2003 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2004 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2005 
  2006 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2007 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2008 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2009 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2010 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2011 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2012 
  2013 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2014 through option types.
  2015 
  2016 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2017 relations.
  2018 
  2019 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2022 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2023 
  2024   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2025   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2026   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2027   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2028   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2029   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2030   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2031   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2032   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2033   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2034   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2035   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2036   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2037   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2038   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2039   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2040   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2041   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2042   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2043   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2044   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2045   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2046   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2047   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2048   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2049   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2050   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2051   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2052   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2053   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2054   zless_le ~> less_le
  2055   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2056   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2057   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2058 
  2059 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2060 
  2061   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2062 
  2063 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2064 
  2065 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2066 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2067 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2068 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2072 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2073 
  2074 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2075 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2076 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2077 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2078 follows:
  2079 
  2080   Operations:
  2081   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2082   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2083   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2084   del -> rbt_del
  2085   delete -> rbt_delete
  2086   ins -> rbt_ins
  2087   insert -> rbt_insert
  2088   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2089   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2090   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2091   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2092   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2093   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2094   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2095   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2096   union -> rbt_union
  2097   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2098   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2099 
  2100   Lemmas:
  2101   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2102   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2103   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2104   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2105   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2106   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2107   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2108   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2109   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2110   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2111   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2112   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2113   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2114   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2115   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2116   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2117   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2118   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2119   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2120   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2121   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2122   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2123   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2124   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2125   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2126   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2127   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2128   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2129   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2130   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2131   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2132   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2133   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2134   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2135   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2136   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2137   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2138   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2139   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2140   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2141   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2142   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2143   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2144   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2145   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2146   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2147   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2148   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2149   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2150   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2151   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2152   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2153   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2154   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2155   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2156   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2157   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2158   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2159   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2160   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2161   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2162   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2163   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2164   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2165   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2166   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2167   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2168   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2169   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2170   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2171   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2172   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2173   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2174   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2175   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2176   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2177   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2178   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2179   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2180   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2181   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2182   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2183   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2184 
  2185 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2186 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2187 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189   Changed Operations:
  2190   float_abs -> abs
  2191   float_nprt -> nprt
  2192   float_pprt -> pprt
  2193   pow2 -> use powr
  2194   round_down -> float_round_down
  2195   round_up -> float_round_up
  2196   scale -> exponent
  2197 
  2198   Removed Operations:
  2199   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2200 
  2201   Renamed Lemmas:
  2202   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2203   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2204   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2205   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2206   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2207   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2208   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2209   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2210   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2211   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2212   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2213   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2214   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2215   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2216   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2217   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2218   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2219   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2220   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2221   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2222   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2223   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2224   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2225   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2226   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2227   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2228   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2229   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2230   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2231   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2232   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2233   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2234   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2235   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2236   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2237   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2238 
  2239   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2240   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2241   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2242   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2243   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2244   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2245   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2246   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2247   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2248   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2249 
  2250 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2251 association lists with distinct keys.
  2252 
  2253 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2254 annotated commands.
  2255 
  2256 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2257 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2258 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2259 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2260 
  2261 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2262 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2263 instead.
  2264 
  2265   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2266   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2267   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2268   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2269   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2270   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2271   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2272   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2273   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2274   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2275   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2276   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2277   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2278   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2279   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2280   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2281   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2282   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2283   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2284   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2285   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2286   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2287   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2288   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2289   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2290   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2291   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2292   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2293   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2294   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2295   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2296   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2297   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2298   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2299   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2300   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2301   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2302   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2303   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2304   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2305   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2306 
  2307 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2308 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2309 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2310 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2311 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2312 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2313 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2314 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2315 
  2316 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2317 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2318 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2319 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2320 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2321 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2322 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2323 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2324 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2325 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2326 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2327 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329   Renamed constants:
  2330   measure -> emeasure
  2331   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2332   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2333   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2334   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2335 
  2336   Removed locales:
  2337   completeable_measure_space
  2338   finite_measure_space
  2339   finite_prob_space
  2340   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2341   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2342   finite_sigma_algebra
  2343   measure_space
  2344   pair_finite_prob_space
  2345   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2346   pair_finite_space
  2347   pair_sigma_algebra
  2348   product_sigma_algebra
  2349 
  2350   Removed constants:
  2351   conditional_space
  2352   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2353   image_space
  2354   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2355   pair_measure_generator
  2356   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2357   subvimage
  2358 
  2359   Replacement theorems:
  2360   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2361   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2362   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2363   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2364   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2365   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2366   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2367   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2368   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2369   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2370   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2371   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2372   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2373   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2374   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2375   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2376   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2377   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2378   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2379   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2380   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2381   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2382   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2383   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2384   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2385   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2386   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2387   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2388   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2389   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2390   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2391   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2392   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2393   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2394   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2395   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2396   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2397   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2398   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2399   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2400   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2401   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2402   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2403   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2404   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2405   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2406   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2407   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2408   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2409   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2410   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2411   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2412   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2413   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2414   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2415   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2416   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2417   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2418   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2419   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2420   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2421   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2422   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2423   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2424   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2425   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2426   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2427   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2428   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2429   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2430   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2431   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2432   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2433   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2434   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2435   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2436   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2437   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2438   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2439   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2440   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2441   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2442   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2443   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2444   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2445   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2446   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2447   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2448   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2449   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2450   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2451   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2452   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2453   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2454   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2455   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2456   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2457   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2458   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2459   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2460   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2461   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2462   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2463   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2464   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2465   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2466   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2467   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2468   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2469   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2470   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2471   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2472   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2473   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2474   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2475   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2476   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2477   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2478   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2479   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2480   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2481   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2482   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2483   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2484   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2485   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2486   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2487   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2488 
  2489 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2490 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2491 
  2492 
  2493 *** FOL ***
  2494 
  2495 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2496 
  2497 
  2498 *** ZF ***
  2499 
  2500 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2501 analysis.
  2502 
  2503 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2504 
  2505 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 
  2508 *** ML ***
  2509 
  2510 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2511 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2512 
  2513 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2514 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2515 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2516 
  2517 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2518 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2519 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2520 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2521 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2522 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2523 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2524 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2525 
  2526 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2527 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2528 
  2529 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2530 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2531 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2532 
  2533 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2534 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2537 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2538 context as well.
  2539 
  2540 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2541 
  2542   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2543   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2544   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2545   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2546   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2547   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2548   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2549   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2550   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2551   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2552   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2553   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2554 
  2555 
  2556 *** System ***
  2557 
  2558 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2559 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2560 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2561 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2562 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2563 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2564 the generic user home was intended.
  2565 
  2566 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2567 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2568 
  2569 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2570 (not just JRE).
  2571 
  2572 
  2573 
  2574 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2575 ------------------------------------
  2576 
  2577 *** General ***
  2578 
  2579 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2580 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2581 
  2582   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2583     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2584     files for checking).
  2585 
  2586   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2587     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2588     positions.
  2589 
  2590   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2591     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2592     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2593 
  2594   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2595     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2596     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2597 
  2598   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2599     cores.
  2600 
  2601   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2602     versions (garbage collection).
  2603 
  2604 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2605 including some remaining limitations.
  2606 
  2607 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2608 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2609 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2610 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2611 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2615 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2616 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2617 
  2618 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2619 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2620 usedir option -Q.
  2621 
  2622 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2623 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2624 
  2625   long_names   ~> names_long
  2626   short_names  ~> names_short
  2627   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2628 
  2629 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2630 
  2631   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2632 
  2633 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2634 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2635 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2636 
  2637 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2638 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2639 
  2640 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2641   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2642   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2643   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2644     "Classical Reasoner".
  2645 
  2646 
  2647 *** HOL ***
  2648 
  2649 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2650 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2653 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2654 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2655 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2656 class complete_linorder.
  2657 
  2658 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2659 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2660 
  2661 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2662 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2663 
  2664   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2665   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2666   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2667   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2668   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2669   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2670   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2671   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2672   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2673   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2674   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2675 
  2676 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2677 
  2678   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2679   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2680   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2681   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2682   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2683   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2684   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2685   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2686   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2687   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2688   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2689   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2690   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2691   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2692   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2693   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2694 
  2695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2701 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2702 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2703 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2706 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2707 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709 
  2710 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2711 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2712 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2713 
  2714 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2715 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2716 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2719 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2720 
  2721 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2722 
  2723     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2724     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2725 
  2726 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2727 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2730 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2733 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2734 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2735 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2738   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2739   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2740   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2741   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2742   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2743   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2744 
  2745 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2746 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2749   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2750   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2751   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2752   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2753   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2754   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2755   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2756   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2757   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2758   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2759   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2760   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2761   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2762   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2763   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2764   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2765   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2766   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2767   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2768   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2769   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2770   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2771   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2772   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2773   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2774   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2775   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2776   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2777   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2778   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2779   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2780   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2781   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2782   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2783   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2784   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2785   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2786   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2787   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2788   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2789   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2790   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2791   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2792   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2793   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2794   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2795   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2796   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2797   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2798   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2799   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2800   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2801   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2802   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2803   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2804   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2805   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2806   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2807   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2808   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2809   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2810   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2811   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2812   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2813   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2814   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2815   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2816   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2817   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2818   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2819   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2820   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2821   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2822   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2823   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2824   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2825   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2826   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2827   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2828   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2829   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2830 
  2831 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2832 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2833 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2834 
  2835 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2836 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2837 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2838 
  2839 * Code generation:
  2840 
  2841   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2842     characters in the target language.
  2843 
  2844   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2845     instead.
  2846 
  2847   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2848 
  2849   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2850     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2851 
  2852       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2853 
  2854 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2857 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2858 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2859 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2860 syntax.
  2861 
  2862 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2863 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2864 
  2865 * Nitpick:
  2866   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2867   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2868   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2869     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Sledgehammer:
  2872   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2873   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2874     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2875   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2876     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2877   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2878     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2880     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2881   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2882     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2883 
  2884 * Metis:
  2885   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2887     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Command 'try':
  2890   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2891     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2893     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2894 
  2895 * Quickcheck:
  2896   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2897     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2898   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2899     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2900   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2901     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2902     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2903     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2904   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2905     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2906 
  2907 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2908 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2909 
  2910 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2911 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2912 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2913 
  2914 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2915 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2919 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2922 arithmetic.
  2923 
  2924 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2925 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2926 and lattice type classes.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2929 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2930 
  2931 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2932 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2933 
  2934 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2935 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2936 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2939   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2940   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2941   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2942 
  2943 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2944 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2945 constants:
  2946 
  2947   type inat   ~> type enat
  2948   Fin         ~> enat
  2949   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2950   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2951   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2952 
  2953 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2954 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2957 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2958 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2959 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2960 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2961 
  2962 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2963 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2964 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2965 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2966 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2967 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2968 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2969 
  2970   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2971   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2972   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2973   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2974 
  2975 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2976 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2977 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978 
  2979   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2980   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2981   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2982   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2983   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2984   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2985   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2986   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2987   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2988   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2989   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2990   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2991   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2992   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2993   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2994   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2995   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2996   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2997   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2998   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2999   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3000   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3001   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3002   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3003   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3004   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3005   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3006   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3007   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3008   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3009   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3010   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3011   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3012   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3013   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3014   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3015   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3016   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3017   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3018   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3019   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3020   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3021   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3022   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3023   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3024   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3025   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3026   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3027   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3028   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3029   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3030 
  3031 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3032   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3033   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3034   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3035   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3036     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3041   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3042   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3043   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3044   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3045   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3046   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3047   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3048   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3049   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3050   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3051   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3052   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3053   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3054   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3055   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3056   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3057   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3058   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3059   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3060   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3061   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3062   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3063   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3064   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3065 
  3066 
  3067 *** Document preparation ***
  3068 
  3069 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3070 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3071 same.
  3072 
  3073 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3074 result.
  3075 
  3076 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3077 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3078 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3079 
  3080 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3081 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3082 
  3083 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3084 like this:
  3085 
  3086   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3087   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3088 
  3089 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3090 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3091 layouts.
  3092 
  3093 
  3094 *** ML ***
  3095 
  3096 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3097 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3098 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3099 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3100 under external program control.
  3101 
  3102 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3103 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3104 
  3105 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3106 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3107 (better known as Proof General).
  3108 
  3109 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3110 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3111 
  3112 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3113 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3114 
  3115 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3116 (including quotes etc.).
  3117 
  3118 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3119 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3120 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3121 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3122 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3123 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3124 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3125 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3126 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3127 
  3128 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3129 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3130 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3131 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3132 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3133 
  3134 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3135 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3136 
  3137 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3138 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3139 
  3140 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3141 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3142 
  3143 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3144 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3145 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3146 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3147 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3148 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3149 proper Proof.context.
  3150 
  3151 
  3152 *** System ***
  3153 
  3154 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3155 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3156 
  3157 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3158 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3159 
  3160 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3161 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3162 
  3163   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3164   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3165   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3166   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3167   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3168 
  3169 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3170 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3173 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3174 example:
  3175 
  3176   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3177 
  3178 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3179 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3180 
  3181 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3182 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3183 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3184 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3185 
  3186 
  3187 
  3188 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3189 ----------------------------------
  3190 
  3191 *** General ***
  3192 
  3193 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3194 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3195 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3196 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3197 like this:
  3198 
  3199   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3200 
  3201 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3202 
  3203 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3204 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3205 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3206 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3207 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3208 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3209 
  3210 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3211 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3212 the following package declarations:
  3213 
  3214   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3215   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3216 
  3217 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3218 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3219 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3220 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3221 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3222 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3223 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3224 
  3225 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3226 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3227 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3228 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3229 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3230 
  3231 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3232 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3233 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3234 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3235 
  3236 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3237 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3238 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3239 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3240 
  3241   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3242 
  3243   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3244   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3245   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3246   show_types                    show_types
  3247   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3248   show_consts                   show_consts
  3249   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3250 
  3251   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3252   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3253   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3254 
  3255   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3256   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3257 
  3258   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3259 
  3260   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3261   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3262   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3263   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3264   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3265 
  3266 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3267 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3268 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3269 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3270 
  3271 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3275   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3276 
  3277 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3278 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3279 float_token.
  3280 
  3281 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3282 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3286 DejaVu Sans.
  3287 
  3288 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3289 
  3290 
  3291 *** Pure ***
  3292 
  3293 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3294 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3295 time.
  3296 
  3297 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3298 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3301 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3302 
  3303 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3304 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3305 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3306 command already provided this functionality.
  3307 
  3308 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3309 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3310 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3311 without interpretations.
  3312 
  3313 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3314 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3315 
  3316 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3317 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3318 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3319 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3320 
  3321 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3322 'definition' instead.
  3323 
  3324 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3325 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3326 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3327 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3328 
  3329 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3330 constructors.
  3331 
  3332 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3333 the local file system.
  3334 
  3335 
  3336 *** HOL ***
  3337 
  3338 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3339 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3340 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3341 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3342 
  3343   declare [[coercion f]]
  3344 
  3345 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3346 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3347 
  3348   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3349 
  3350 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3351 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3352 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3353 other theories like this:
  3354 
  3355   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3356 
  3357 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3358 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3359 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3360 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3361 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3362 for examples.
  3363 
  3364 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3365 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3368 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3369 
  3370 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3371 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3372 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3373 
  3374 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3375 functorial structure of types.
  3376 
  3377 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3378 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3379 
  3380 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3381 languages.
  3382 
  3383 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3384 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3388 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3391 combinators any longer.
  3392 
  3393 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3394 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3395 
  3396 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3397 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3398 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3399 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3400 
  3401   record 'a foo = ...
  3402   ...
  3403   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3404 
  3405 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3406 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3410 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3411 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3412 
  3413 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3414 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3415 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3416 
  3417 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3418 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3421 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3422 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3423 independently.
  3424 
  3425 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3426 counter example search.
  3427 
  3428 * Sledgehammer:
  3429   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3430     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3431     sledgehammer").
  3432   - Renamed commands:
  3433     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3434     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3435     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3436     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437   - Renamed options:
  3438     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3439     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3440     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3441     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Nitpick:
  3445   - Renamed options:
  3446     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3447     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3448     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3450   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3451   - Added "whack" option.
  3452   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3453   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3454   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3455   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3456     higher cardinalities.
  3457   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3458 
  3459 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3460 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3461 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3462 
  3463     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3464 
  3465 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3466 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3467 
  3468 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3469 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3470 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3471 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3472 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3473 "smt_solver".
  3474 
  3475 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3476 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3477 
  3478 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3479 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3480 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3481 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3484   - Renamed:
  3485     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3486     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3487     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488   - Added:
  3489     smt_verbose
  3490     smt_random_seed
  3491     smt_datatypes
  3492     smt_infer_triggers
  3493     smt_monomorph_limit
  3494     cvc3_options
  3495     remote_cvc3_options
  3496     remote_z3_options
  3497     yices_options
  3498 
  3499 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3500 header.
  3501 
  3502 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3503 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3504 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3505 
  3506   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3507 
  3508 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3511 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3516 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3519 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3520 
  3521 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3522 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3525 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3526 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3534 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3537 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3538 for congruent(2)).
  3539 
  3540 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3541 
  3542   types
  3543     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3544     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3545 
  3546   constants
  3547     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3548     True ~> HOL.True
  3549     False ~> HOL.False
  3550     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3551     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3552     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3553     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3554     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3555     The ~> HOL.The
  3556     All ~> HOL.All
  3557     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3558     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3559     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3560     If ~> HOL.If
  3561     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3562     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3563     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3564     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3565     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3566     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3567     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3568     op : ~> Set.member
  3569     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3570 
  3571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3574 
  3575     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3576     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3577     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3578     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3579     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3580     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3581     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3582     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3583 
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * More stylized fact names:
  3587 
  3588   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3589   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3590   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3591   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3592 
  3593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3596 
  3597   constants
  3598     null ~> List.null
  3599 
  3600   facts
  3601     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3602     null_empty ~> null_def
  3603 
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3605 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3606 generation.
  3607 
  3608 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3609 Haskell code.
  3610 
  3611 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3612 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3613 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3616 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3619 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3620 
  3621 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3622 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3623 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3626 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3632 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3633 referred to by its qualified name.
  3634 
  3635   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3636   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3637   product ~>  Enum.product
  3638 
  3639 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3640 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3644 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3645 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3647 
  3648 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3649 sort_key.
  3650 
  3651 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3655 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3656 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3657 
  3658   types
  3659     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3660               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3661               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3662         (depends on your needs)
  3663 
  3664   constants
  3665      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3666      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3667      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3668 
  3669 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3670 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3671 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3672 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3675 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3676 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3677 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3678 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3684 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3685 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3686 
  3687 
  3688 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3689 
  3690 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3691 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3692 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3693 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3694 compatibility.
  3695 
  3696 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3697 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3698 
  3699 
  3700 *** HOLCF ***
  3701 
  3702 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3703 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3704 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3708 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3709 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3712   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3713   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3714 
  3715 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3716 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3717 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3720 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3721 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3722 domain definition now works:
  3723 
  3724   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3725 
  3726 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3727 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3728 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3729 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3730 
  3731   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3732     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3733 
  3734   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3735 
  3736 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3737 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3738 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3741 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3744 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3745 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3746 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3747 
  3748 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3749 
  3750 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3758 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3759 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3760 
  3761 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3762 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3763 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3766 still supported as an input translation.
  3767 
  3768 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3769 
  3770   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3771   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3772   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3773   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3774   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3775   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3776   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3777 
  3778 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3779 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3782   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3783   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3784   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3785   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3786   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3787 
  3788 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3789 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3792 
  3793   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3794   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3795   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3796   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3797 
  3798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3801 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3804 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3807   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3808   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3809   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3810   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3811   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3812   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3813   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3814   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3815   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3816   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3817   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3818   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3819   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3820   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3821   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3822   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3823   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3824   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3825   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3826 
  3827 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3830   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3831   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3832   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3833   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3834   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3835   box_less             ~> box_below
  3836   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3837   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3838   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3839   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3840   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3841   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3842   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3843   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3844   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3845   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3846   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3847   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3848   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3849   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3850   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3851   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3852   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3853   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3854   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3855   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3856   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3857   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3858   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3859   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3860   up_less              ~> up_below
  3861   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3862   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3863   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3864   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3865   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3866   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3867   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3868   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3869   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3870   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3871   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3872   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3873   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3874 
  3875 
  3876 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3877 
  3878 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3879 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 
  3882 *** ML ***
  3883 
  3884 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3885 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3886 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3887 
  3888 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3889 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3890 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3891 
  3892 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3893 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3894 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3895 
  3896 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3897 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3898 
  3899 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3900 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3901 
  3902 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3903 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3904 
  3905 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3906 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3907 
  3908 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3909 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3910 almost all situations.
  3911 
  3912 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3913 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3914 Isabelle/ML.
  3915 
  3916 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3917 meaning.
  3918 
  3919 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3920 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3921 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3922 
  3923 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3924 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3925 
  3926 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3927 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3928 
  3929 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3931 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3932 
  3933 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3934 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3935 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3936 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3937 configuration options.
  3938 
  3939 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3940 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3941 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3942 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3943 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3944 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3945 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3946 
  3947 
  3948 
  3949 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3950 ---------------------------------
  3951 
  3952 *** General ***
  3953 
  3954 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3955 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3956 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3957 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3958 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3959 their full internal name.
  3960 
  3961 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3962 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3963 Some hints on upgrading:
  3964 
  3965   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3966     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3967     which are independent of this issue.
  3968 
  3969   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3970     provides the following special forms:
  3971 
  3972       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3973       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3974       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3975 
  3976     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3977     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3978     extra variables".
  3979 
  3980     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3981     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3982     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3983     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3984     "logic".
  3985 
  3986   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3987     antiquotations:
  3988 
  3989       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3990       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3991       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3992       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3993 
  3994   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3995     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3996     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3997     antiquotations.
  3998 
  3999 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4000 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4001 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4002 diagnose syntax problems.
  4003 
  4004 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4005 
  4006 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4007 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4008 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4009 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4010 
  4011 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4012 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4013 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4014 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4017 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4018 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4019 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4020 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4023 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4024 
  4025 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4026 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4027 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4028 
  4029   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4030 
  4031 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4032 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4033 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4034 
  4035 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4036 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4040 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4041 
  4042 
  4043 *** Pure ***
  4044 
  4045 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4046 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4047 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4048 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4049 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4050 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4051 inspect proof terms.
  4052 
  4053 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4054 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4055 are added internally.  For example:
  4056 
  4057   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4058 
  4059 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4060 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4065 'class' instead.
  4066 
  4067 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4068 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4072 invariants.
  4073 
  4074 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4075 user space functionality any longer.
  4076 
  4077 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4078 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4082 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4083 
  4084 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4085 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4086 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4087 
  4088 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4089 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4090 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4091 
  4092 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4093 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 
  4096 *** HOL ***
  4097 
  4098 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4099 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4100 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4101 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4102 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4103 
  4104 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4105 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4106 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4107 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4108 
  4109   fun
  4110     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4111   where
  4112     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4113 
  4114   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4115     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4116 
  4117   quotient_definition
  4118     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4119 
  4120 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4121 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4122 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4123 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4124 
  4125 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4126 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4127 
  4128 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4129 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4130 
  4131 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4135 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4136 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4137 
  4138 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4139 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4143 
  4144 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4148 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4149 
  4150 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4151 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4152 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4155   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4156   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4157   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4158   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4159   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4160   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4161   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4162   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4163   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4164   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4165   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4166   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4167   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4168   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4169   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4170   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4171   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4172   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4173   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4174   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4175   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4176   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4177   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4178   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4179   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4180   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4181   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4182   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4183   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4184 
  4185 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4186 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4187 
  4188 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4189 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4190 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4191 
  4192 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4193 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4194 
  4195 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4196 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4199 
  4200 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4201 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4202 
  4203 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4204 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4207 
  4208 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4209 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4210 
  4211 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4212 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4213 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4214 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4217   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4218   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4219   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4223 lattices):
  4224 
  4225     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4226     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4227 
  4228     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4229 
  4230     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4231     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4232     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4233     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4234     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4235     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4236     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4237     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4238     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4239     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4240     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4241     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4242     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4243 
  4244     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4245     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4246     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4247     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4248     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4249     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4250     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4251     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4252     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4253     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4254     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4255     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4256     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4257     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4258     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4259     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4260     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4261     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4262 
  4263   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4264   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4265 
  4266     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4267     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4268     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4269     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4270     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4271 
  4272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274 * Refined field classes:
  4275   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4276     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4277     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4278   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4282   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4283   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4284   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4285     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4286   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4287     equal_neg_zero.
  4288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4291 sets to lattices:
  4292 
  4293   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4294   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4295   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4296   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4297   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4298   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4299   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4300   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4301   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4302   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4303 
  4304 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4305 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4306 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4307 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4308 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4309 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4312 multiset order:
  4313 
  4314   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4315     <= and <;
  4316   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4317     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4318     multiset_order;
  4319   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4320     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4321     generation;
  4322   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4323     if needed.
  4324 
  4325 Renamed:
  4326 
  4327   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4328   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4329   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4330 
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4334 
  4335 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4336 
  4337 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4338 
  4339 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4340 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4341 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4342 
  4343   Constants:
  4344   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4345   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4346   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4347   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4348   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4349   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4350   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4351   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4352   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4353   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4354   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4355   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4356   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4357 
  4358   Lemmas:
  4359   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4360   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4361   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4362   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4363   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4364   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4365   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4366   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4367   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4368   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4369   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4370   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4371   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4372 
  4373 * Sledgehammer:
  4374   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4375     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4376     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4377     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4378     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4379     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4380     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4382   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4383     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4384   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4385     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4386     is still experimental.)
  4387   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4388     full-typed mode.
  4389   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4390 
  4391 * Nitpick:
  4392   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4393   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4394   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4395     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4396   - Added support for quotient types.
  4397   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4398     constructs.
  4399   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4400     "termination" proofs).
  4401   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4402   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4403   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4404   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4405     record getters.
  4406   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4407   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4408   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4409   - Added "atoms" option.
  4410   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4411     problems.
  4412   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4413     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4414     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4416     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4420   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4421   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4422   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4423   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4424   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4425   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4426   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4427   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4428   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 
  4431 *** HOLCF ***
  4432 
  4433 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4434 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4435 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4438 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4439 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4440 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4443 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4444 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4445 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4446 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4449 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4450 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4451 
  4452 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4453 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4456   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4457 
  4458 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4459 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4462   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4463   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4464   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4465   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4466 
  4467 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4468 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4471   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4472   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4473 
  4474 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4475 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4477 
  4478 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4479 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4480 
  4481 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4484 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4485 
  4486 
  4487 *** ML ***
  4488 
  4489 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4490 
  4491     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4492     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4493 
  4494     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4495     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4496     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4497     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4498 
  4499     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4500     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4501     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4502 
  4503 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4504 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4505 
  4506 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4507 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4508 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4509 
  4510 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4511 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4512 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4513 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4514 
  4515 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4516 the context or even global references.
  4517 
  4518 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4519 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4520 
  4521 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4522 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4523 
  4524   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4525   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4526   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4527   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4528   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4529   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4530   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4531   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4532   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4533   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4534 
  4535 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4536 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4537 
  4538 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4539 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4540 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4541 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4542 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4543 
  4544 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4545 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4546 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4547 Theory_Data version.
  4548 
  4549 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4550 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4551 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4552 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4553 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4554 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4555 explicitly in rare situations.
  4556 
  4557 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4558 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4562 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4565 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4566 quite rare).
  4567 
  4568 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4569 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4572 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4573 terms.
  4574 
  4575 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4576 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4577 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4578 
  4579 
  4580 *** System ***
  4581 
  4582 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4583 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4584 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4585 
  4586 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4587 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4588 respectively.
  4589 
  4590 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4591 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4592 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4593 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4594 
  4595   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4596 
  4597 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4598 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4599 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4600 component.
  4601 
  4602 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4603 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4604 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4605 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4606 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4607 the user for manual installation.
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 
  4611 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4612 -------------------------------------
  4613 
  4614 *** General ***
  4615 
  4616 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4617 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4618 
  4619 
  4620 *** Pure ***
  4621 
  4622 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4623 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4624 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4625 
  4626 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4627 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4628 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4629 
  4630 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4631 interpretation.
  4632 
  4633 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4634 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 
  4637 *** Document preparation ***
  4638 
  4639 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4640 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4641 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4642 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4643 
  4644 
  4645 *** HOL ***
  4646 
  4647 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4648 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4649 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4650 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4651 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4652 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4653 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4654 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4655 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4656 
  4657 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4658 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4659 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4660 
  4661 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4662 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4663 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4664 
  4665 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4666 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4667 
  4668 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4669 
  4670 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4671 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4672 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4673 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4674 
  4675 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4676 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4677 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4678 "mirabelle" utility.
  4679 
  4680 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4681 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4682 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4683 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4684 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4685 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4686 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4687 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4688 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4689 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4690 
  4691 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4692 procedure only.
  4693 
  4694 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4695 
  4696 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4697 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4698 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4699 that fail later.
  4700 
  4701 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4702 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4703 
  4704 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4705 the same method as the approximation method.
  4706 
  4707 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4708 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4709 series expansion.
  4710 
  4711 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4712 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4713 
  4714 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4715 reals.
  4716 
  4717 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4718 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4719 
  4720 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4721 fixpoint theorem.
  4722 
  4723 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4724   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4725     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4726   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4727     accordingly
  4728   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4729     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4730   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4731     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4732 
  4733 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4734 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4735 lattice.
  4736 
  4737 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4738 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4739 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4740 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4741 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4742 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744 
  4745 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4746   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4747     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4748   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4749     le_inf_iff
  4750   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4751     sup_aci)
  4752   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4753   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4754   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4755     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4756     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4757     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4758     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4759     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4760     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4761     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4762     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4763     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4764     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4765   - authentic syntax for
  4766     Set.Pow
  4767     Set.image
  4768   - mere abbreviations:
  4769     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4770     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4771     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4772     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4773     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4774     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4775     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4776     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4777   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4778 
  4779 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4780 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4781 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4782 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4783 
  4784 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4785 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4786 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4789 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4792 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4793 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4794 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4795 
  4796 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4797 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4798 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4799 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4800 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4801 
  4802 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4803 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4807 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4810 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4811 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4812 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4813 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4814 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4815 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4819     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4820     code_post       replaces    code post
  4821     etc.
  4822   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Renamed methods:
  4825     sizechange -> size_change
  4826     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4827   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4828 
  4829 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4830 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4831 
  4832 * Renamed theorems:
  4833     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4834     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4835     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4836     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4837     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4838   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846 
  4847 *** HOLCF ***
  4848 
  4849 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4850 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4851 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4852 
  4853 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4854 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4855 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4856 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4857 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4858 
  4859 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4860 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4861 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4862 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4863 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4864 
  4865 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4866 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4867 constructor are pre-configured.
  4868 
  4869 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4870 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4871 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4872 
  4873 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4874 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4875 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4876 as well.)
  4877 
  4878 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4879 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4880 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4881 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4882 examples.
  4883 
  4884 
  4885 *** ML ***
  4886 
  4887 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4888 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4889 
  4890 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4891 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4892 position, logical grouping etc.
  4893 
  4894 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4895 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4896 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4897 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4898 
  4899 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4900 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4901 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4902 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4903 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4904 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4905 
  4906 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4907 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4908 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4909 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4910 experiments with references.
  4911 
  4912 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4913 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4914 
  4915 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4916 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4917 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4918 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4919 
  4920 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4921 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4922 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4923 
  4924 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4925 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4926 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4934 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4935 
  4936 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4937 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4938 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4939 
  4940 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4941 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4942 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4945 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4946 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4950 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4951 instead of global theory.
  4952 
  4953 
  4954 *** System ***
  4955 
  4956 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4957 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4958 usedir option -q.
  4959 
  4960 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4961 also the system manual.
  4962 
  4963 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4964 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4965 
  4966 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4967 this is always enabled.
  4968 
  4969 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4970 
  4971 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4972 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4973 currently supported on Linux only.
  4974 
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4978 --------------------------------
  4979 
  4980 *** General ***
  4981 
  4982 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4983 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4984 
  4985   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4986     "isatool."
  4987 
  4988   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4989     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4990 
  4991   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4992     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4993 
  4994 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4995 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4996 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4997 
  4998 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4999 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5000 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5001 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5002 via "isabelle emacs".
  5003 
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5005 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5006 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5007 
  5008 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5009 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5010 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5011 
  5012 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5013 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5014 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5015 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5016 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5017 
  5018 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5019 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5020 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5021 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5022 
  5023 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5024 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5025 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5026 
  5027 
  5028 *** Pure ***
  5029 
  5030 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5031 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5032 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5033 
  5034 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5035 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5036 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5037 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5038 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5039 
  5040 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5041 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5042 useful in locale declarations.
  5043 
  5044 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5045 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5046 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5047 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5048 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5049 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5050 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5051 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5052 no longer generated.
  5053 
  5054 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5055 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5056 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5057 
  5058 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5059 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5060 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5061 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5062 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5063 
  5064 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5065 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5066 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5067 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5068 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5069 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5070 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5071 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5072 
  5073 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5074 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5075 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5076 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5077 
  5078 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 
  5080 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5082 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5083 
  5084 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5085 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5086 
  5087 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5088 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5089 in HOL, write
  5090 
  5091     class foo = ...
  5092 
  5093 instead of
  5094 
  5095     class foo = type + ...
  5096 
  5097 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5098 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5099 
  5100 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5101 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5102 
  5103 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5104 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5105 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5106 
  5107 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5108 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5109 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5110 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5111 directly in regular applications.
  5112 
  5113 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5114 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5115 
  5116 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5117 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5118 
  5119 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5120 theory context.
  5121 
  5122 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5123 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5126 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5127 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5128 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5129 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5130 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5131 
  5132   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5133 
  5134 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5135 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5136 normalization.
  5137 
  5138 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5139 addressing etc.
  5140 
  5141 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5142 
  5143   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5144   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5145 
  5146 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5147 
  5148   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5149      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5150      parts of the code generator framework).
  5151 
  5152   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5153      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5154      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5155 
  5156 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5157 
  5158 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5159 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5162 patterns, e.g.
  5163 
  5164     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5165 
  5166 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5167 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5168 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5169 hyphen:
  5170 
  5171     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5172 
  5173 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5174 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5175 
  5176 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5177 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5178 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5179 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5180 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5181 higher-order unification.
  5182 
  5183 
  5184 *** Document preparation ***
  5185 
  5186 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5187 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5188 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5189 
  5190 
  5191 *** HOL ***
  5192 
  5193 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5194 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5195 
  5196 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5197 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5198 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5199 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5200 Main, as before.
  5201 
  5202 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5203 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5204 
  5205 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5206 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5207 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5208 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5209 
  5210 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5211 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5212 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5213 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5214 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5215 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5216 
  5217 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5218 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5219 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5220 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5221 
  5222 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5223 menu.
  5224 
  5225 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5226 (contains the empty clause).
  5227 
  5228 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5229 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5230 
  5231 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5232 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5233 
  5234 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5235 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5236 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5237 
  5238 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5239 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5240 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5241 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5242 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5243 
  5244 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5245 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5246 
  5247 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5248 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5249 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5250 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5251 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5252 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5253 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5254 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5255 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5256 
  5257 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5258 
  5259 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5260 
  5261 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5262 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5263 
  5264 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5265 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5266 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5267 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5268 
  5269 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5270 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5271 
  5272     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5273     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5274     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5275     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5276     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5277     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5278     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5279     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5280 
  5281 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5282 theory Set.
  5283 
  5284 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5285 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5286 
  5287 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5288 
  5289 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5290 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5291 
  5292 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5293 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5294 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5295 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5296 allowed. For examples see
  5297 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5298 
  5299 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5300 
  5301 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5305 structure:
  5306 
  5307     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5308     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5309     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5310     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5311     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5312     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5313     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5314     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5315     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5316     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5317     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5318     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5319     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5320     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5321     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5322     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5323     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5324     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5325     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5326     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5327     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5328     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5329     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5330     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5331     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5332     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5333     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5334     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5335     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5336     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5337     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5338     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5339     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5340 
  5341     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5342     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5343     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5344     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5345     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5346     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5347     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5348     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5349     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5350     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5351 
  5352     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5353     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5354     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5355     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5356     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5357     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5358 
  5359 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5360 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5361 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5362 
  5363 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5364 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5365 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5366 
  5367 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5368 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5371 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5372 
  5373 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5374 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5375 proofs, e.g.
  5376 
  5377   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5378 
  5379 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5380 
  5381 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5382 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5383 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5386 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5388 
  5389 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5390 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5391 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5393 
  5394 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5395 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5396 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5397 preorder_class.*.
  5398 
  5399 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5400 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5401 
  5402 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5403 
  5404   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5405 
  5406 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5407 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5408 fold_image.
  5409 
  5410 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5411 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5412 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5413 the former will disappear at some point.
  5414 
  5415 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5416 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5417 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5418 
  5419 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5420 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5421 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5422 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5423 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5424 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5425 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5426 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5427 
  5428 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5429 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5430 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5431 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5432 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5433 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5434 
  5435     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5436     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5437     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5438     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5439     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5440     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5441     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5442 
  5443 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5444 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5445 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5446 
  5447 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5448 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5449 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5450 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5451 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5452 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5453 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5454 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5455 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5456 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5457 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5458 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5459 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5460 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5461 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5462 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5463 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5464 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5465 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5466 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5467 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5468 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5469 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5470 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5471 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5472 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5473 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5474 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5475 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5476 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5477 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5478 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5479 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5480 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5481 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5482 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5483 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5484 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5485 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5486 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5487 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5488 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5489 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5490 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5491 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5492 
  5493 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5494 
  5495 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5496 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5499 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5500 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5501 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5504 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5505 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5506 theory RealVector.
  5507 
  5508 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5509 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5510 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5511 and inner products are included.
  5512 
  5513 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5514 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5515 supported.
  5516 
  5517 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5518 first diagonalization argument.
  5519 
  5520 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5521 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5522 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5523 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5524 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5525 
  5526     hide (open) const gcd
  5527     abbreviation gcd where
  5528       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5529     notation (output)
  5530       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5531 
  5532 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5533 
  5534 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5535 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5536 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5539 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5540 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5541 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5542 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5543 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5544 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5545 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5546 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5547 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5548 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5549 cases.
  5550 
  5551 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5552 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5553 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5554 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5555 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5556 
  5557     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5558     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5559     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5560     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5561     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5562 
  5563 
  5564 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5565 
  5566 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5567 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5568 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5569 
  5570 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5571 
  5572 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5573 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5574 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5575 
  5576 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5577 
  5578 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5579 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5580 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5581 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5582 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5583 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5584 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5585 
  5586 
  5587 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5588 
  5589 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5590 
  5591 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5592 theory targets.
  5593 
  5594 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5595 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5596 'inductive' etc.
  5597 
  5598 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5599 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5600 
  5601 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5602 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5603 
  5604 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5605 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5606 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5607 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5608 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5609 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5610 the algorithm W:
  5611 
  5612  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5613  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5614          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5615 
  5616 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5617 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5618 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5619 
  5620 
  5621 *** HOLCF ***
  5622 
  5623 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5624 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5625 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5626 
  5627 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5628 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5629 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5630 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5631 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5634 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5635 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 
  5638 *** ZF ***
  5639 
  5640 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5641 
  5642 
  5643 *** ML ***
  5644 
  5645 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5646 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5647 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5648 5.2.1!
  5649 
  5650 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5651 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5652 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5653 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5654 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5655 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5656 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5657 
  5658 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5659 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5660 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5661 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5662 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5663 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5664 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5665 
  5666 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5667 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5668 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5669 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5670 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5671 
  5672 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5673 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5674 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5675 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5676 Method.add_method.
  5677 
  5678 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5679 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5680 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5681 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5682 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5683 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5684 
  5685 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5686 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5687 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5688 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5689 examples.
  5690 
  5691 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5692 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5693 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5694 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5695 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5696 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5697 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5698 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5699 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5700 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5701 
  5702 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5703 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5704 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5705 
  5706 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5707 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5708 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5709 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5710 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5711 resort for legacy applications.
  5712 
  5713 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5714 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5715 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5716 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5717 explicit runtime argument.
  5718 
  5719 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5720 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5721 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5722 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5723 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5724 
  5725 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5726 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5727 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5728 theory state.
  5729 
  5730 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5731 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5732 
  5733   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5734   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5735   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5736   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5737   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5738   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5739   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5740   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5741   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5742   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5743 
  5744 
  5745 *** System ***
  5746 
  5747 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5748 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5749 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5750 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5751 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5752 
  5753 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5754 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5755 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5756 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5757 
  5758 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5759 
  5760 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5761 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5762 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5763 prover operations.
  5764 
  5765 
  5766 
  5767 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5768 -------------------------------
  5769 
  5770 *** General ***
  5771 
  5772 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5773 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5774 
  5775 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5776 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5777 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5778 provides a proper context already.
  5779 
  5780 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5781 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5782 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5783 
  5784 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5785 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5786 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5787 swap theory imports.
  5788 
  5789 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5790 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5791 
  5792 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5793 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5794 white space without escapes.
  5795 
  5796 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5797 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5798 "foo_bar".
  5799 
  5800 
  5801 *** Pure ***
  5802 
  5803 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5804 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5805 
  5806 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5807 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5808 
  5809 (1) unused_thms
  5810      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5811 
  5812 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5813      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5814      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5815 
  5816 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5817      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5818      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5819      their ancestors.
  5820 
  5821 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5822 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5823 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5824 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5825 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5826 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5827 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5828 
  5829 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5830 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5831 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5832 
  5833 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5834 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5835 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5836 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5837 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5838 
  5839 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5840 
  5841 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5842 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5843 update of theories within ML code.
  5844 
  5845 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5846 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5847 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5848 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5849 
  5850 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5851 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5852 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5854 
  5855 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5856 
  5857 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5858 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5859 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5860 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5861 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5862 
  5863 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5864 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5865 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5866 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5867 situations.
  5868 
  5869 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5870 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5871 proof text.
  5872 
  5873 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5874 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5875 
  5876 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5877 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5878 predicates.
  5879 
  5880 
  5881 *** Document preparation ***
  5882 
  5883 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5884 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5885 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5886 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5887 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5888 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5889 
  5890 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5891 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5892 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5893 
  5894 
  5895 *** HOL ***
  5896 
  5897 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5898 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5899 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5900 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5901 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5902 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5903 
  5904 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5905 with multithreading.
  5906 
  5907 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5908 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5909 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5910 
  5911 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5912 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5913 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5914 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5917 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5918 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5919 and makes them available separately.  See
  5920 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5921 
  5922 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5923 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5924 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5925 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5926 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5927 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5928 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5929 the declared rules.
  5930 
  5931 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5932 
  5933   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5934 
  5935 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5936 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5937 
  5938 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5939 
  5940   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5941 
  5942   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5943     definitions on => and bool.
  5944 
  5945   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5946     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5947     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5948 
  5949       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5950       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5951       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5952       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5953       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5954       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5955       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5956       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5957 
  5958   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5959     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5960     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5961 
  5962   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5963     The proof pattern
  5964 
  5965       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5966       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5967 
  5968     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5969     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5970 
  5971       have "EX S. P S"
  5972       proof
  5973         show "P S" <...>
  5974       qed
  5975 
  5976   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5977     The proof pattern
  5978 
  5979       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5980       also have "S = T" <...>
  5981       finally have "P T" .
  5982 
  5983     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5984     must be replaced by something like
  5985 
  5986       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5987       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5988       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5989 
  5990   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5991     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5992 
  5993       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5994 
  5995     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5996     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5997     type of the form
  5998 
  5999       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6000 
  6001     rather than
  6002 
  6003       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6004 
  6005 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6006 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6007 
  6008 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6011 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6015 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6018 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6019 
  6020 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6021 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6022 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6025 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6026 
  6027   less_trans
  6028   less_linear
  6029   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6030   le_less_trans
  6031   less_le_trans
  6032   less_not_sym
  6033   less_asym
  6034 
  6035 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6036 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6037 and different variable names.
  6038 
  6039 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6040 
  6041 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6042 finite maps.
  6043 
  6044 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6045 
  6046 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6047 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6048 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6049 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6050 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6051 accordingly.
  6052 
  6053 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6054 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6055 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6056 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6057 
  6058 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6059 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6060 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6061 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6062 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6064 
  6065 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6066 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6067 
  6068 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6069 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6070 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6071 
  6072 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6076 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6077 
  6078 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6079 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6080 
  6081 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6082 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6083 
  6084 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6085 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6087 
  6088 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6089 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6092 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6093 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6094 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6095 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6096 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 
  6098 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6099 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6100 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6101 
  6102 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6103 
  6104 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6105 
  6106 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6107 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6108 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 *** ZF ***
  6112 
  6113 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6114 same session:
  6115 
  6116   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6117   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6118   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6119   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6120   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6121   List      -> List_ZF
  6122   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6123 
  6124 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6125 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6126 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6127 
  6128 
  6129 *** ML ***
  6130 
  6131 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6132 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6133 
  6134 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6135 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6136 
  6137 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6138 
  6139 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6140 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6141 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6142 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6143 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6144 
  6145 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6146 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6147 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6148 
  6149 
  6150 *** System ***
  6151 
  6152 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6153 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6154 
  6155 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6156 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6157 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6158 
  6159 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6160 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6161 
  6162 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6163 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6164 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6165 
  6166 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6167 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6168 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6169 
  6170 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6171 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6172 
  6173 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6174 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6175 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6176 script.
  6177 
  6178 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6179 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6180 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6181 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6182 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6183 
  6184 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6185 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6186 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6187 
  6188 
  6189 
  6190 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6191 -----------------------------------
  6192 
  6193 *** General ***
  6194 
  6195 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6196 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6197 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6198 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6199 
  6200 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6201 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6202 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 
  6204 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6205 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6206 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6207 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6210 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6211 quotes.
  6212 
  6213 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6214 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6215 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6216 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6217 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6218 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6219 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6220 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6221 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6222 
  6223 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6224 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6225 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6226 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6227 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6228 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6229 
  6230 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6231 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6232 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6233 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6234 
  6235 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6236 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6237 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6238 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6239 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6240 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6241 
  6242 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6243 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6244 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6245 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6246 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6247 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6248 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6249 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6250 
  6251 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6252 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6253 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6254 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6255 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6256 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6257 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6258 
  6259 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6260 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6261 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6262 
  6263 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6264 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6265 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6266 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persis