NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Apr 14 22:54:07 2015 +0200 (2015-04-14)
changeset 60072 dda1e781c7b4
parent 60025 d84b355f341f
child 60085 ef5ead433951
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
     8 ------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    13 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    14 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    15 
    16   context
    17   begin
    18 
    19   private definition ...
    20   private lemma ...
    21 
    22   qualified definition ...
    23   qualified lemma ...
    24 
    25   lemma ...
    26   theorem ...
    27 
    28   end
    29 
    30 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    31 naming policy.
    32 
    33 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    34 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    35 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    36 
    37 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    38 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    39 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    40 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    41 
    42 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    43 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    44 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    48 theory context.
    49 
    50 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    51 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    52 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    53 
    54 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    55 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    61 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    62 
    63 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    64 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    65 in the buffer.
    66 
    67 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    68 marker, SideKick parser.
    69 
    70 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    71 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    72 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    73 
    74 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    75 Options / Text Area).
    76 
    77 * Old graph browser (Java/AWT 1.1) is superseded by improved graphview
    78 panel, which also produces PDF output without external tools.
    79 
    80 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
    81 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
    82 
    83 
    84 *** Document preparation ***
    85 
    86 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
    87 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
    88 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
    89 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
    90 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
    91 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
    92 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
    93 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
    96 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
    97 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
    98 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
    99 
   100 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   101 style.
   102 
   103 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   104 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   105 
   106 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   107 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   108 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   109 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   110 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   111 
   112 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   113 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   114 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   115 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   116 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   117 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   118 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 
   121 *** Pure ***
   122 
   123 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   124 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   125 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   126 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   127 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   128 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   129 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   130 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   131 
   132 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   133 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   134 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   135 
   136 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   137 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   138 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   139 different index.
   140 
   141 * Command "class_deps" takes optional sort arguments to constrain then
   142 resulting class hierarchy.
   143 
   144 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   145 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   146 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   147 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   148 
   149 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   150 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   151 token category instead.
   152 
   153 
   154 *** HOL ***
   155 
   156 * New (co)datatype package:
   157   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   158     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   159     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   160     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   161     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   162   - Renamed theorems:
   163       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   164       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   165       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   166       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   167       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   168       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   169       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   170       sel_map ~> map_sel
   171       sel_set ~> set_sel
   172       sel_split ~> split_sel
   173       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   174       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   175       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   176     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   178     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   179     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   181     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   182     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   184     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   185     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   186     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   187     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   188     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   189     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190   - Renamed theories:
   191       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   192       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   193       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   194       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   195       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   196       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   197     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Old datatype package:
   200   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   201     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   202     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   203     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   204     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205   - Renamed theorems:
   206       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   207     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208   - Renamed theory:
   209       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   210     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * Nitpick:
   213   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   214     operations.
   215 
   216 * Sledgehammer:
   217   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   218     default.
   219   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   220     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   221   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   222     Removed sub-command:
   223       min
   224   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   225     dramatically improved.
   226   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   227 
   228 * Old and new SMT modules:
   229   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   230     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   231     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   232     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   233     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   234     point to it.
   235     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   237     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   239     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   240   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   241     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   242 
   243 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   244 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   245 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   248 
   249 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   250 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   251 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   252 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   255 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   261 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   262 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   265 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   268 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   269 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   270 
   271 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   272 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   273 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   274 needed.
   275 
   276 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   277 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   278 
   279 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   280 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   281 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   282 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   283 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   284 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   285 
   286 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   287 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   288 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   289 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   290 
   291 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   292 type class hierarchy:
   293   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   294   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   295   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   296   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   297 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   300   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   301   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   302 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   305 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   306 
   307 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   308   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   309   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   310   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   311 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   314 and part of theory Main.
   315   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320 
   321 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   322 Fact rename:
   323     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   327 
   328 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   329 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   330 
   331 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   332 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   333 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   334 
   335 * Library/Multiset:
   336   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   337   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   338     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   339   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   340       <# ~> #<#
   341       <=# ~> #<=#
   342       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   343       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   344     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   346       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   347       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   348     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349   - Renamed
   350       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   351       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   352       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   353     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   355   - Added attributes:
   356       image_mset.id [simp]
   357       image_mset_id [simp]
   358       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   359       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   360       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   361       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   362       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   363       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   364     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   367 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   368 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   369 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370 
   371 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   372 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   373 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   374 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   375 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   376 examples.
   377 
   378 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   379   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   380   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   381   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   382     projection
   383 
   384 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   385 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   386 
   387 
   388 *** ML ***
   389 
   390 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   391 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   392 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   393 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   394 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   395 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   396 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   397 
   398 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   399 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   400 
   401 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   403 
   404 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   405 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   406 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   407 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   408 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   409 nested.
   410 
   411 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   412 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   415 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   416 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   420 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   421 Thm.term_of etc.
   422 
   423 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   424 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   425 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   428 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   429 
   430 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   431 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   432 
   433 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   434 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   435 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   438 Input.source (with formal position information).
   439 
   440 
   441 *** System ***
   442 
   443 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   444 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   445 
   446 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -k and -x.
   447 
   448 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   449 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   450 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   451 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   453 
   454 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   455 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   456 
   457 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   458 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   459 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   460 
   461 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted.  Minor
   462 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_semicolons" to remove obsolete
   463 semicolons from theory sources.
   464 
   465 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   466 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   467 
   468 
   469 
   470 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   471 ---------------------------------
   472 
   473 *** General ***
   474 
   475 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   476 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   477 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   478 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   479 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   480 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   481 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   482 some examples.
   483 
   484 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   485 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   486 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   487 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   488 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   489 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   490 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   491 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   492 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   493 
   494 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   495 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   496 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   497 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   498 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   499 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   500 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   501 proof tools.
   502 
   503 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   504 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   505 supports input via ` (backquote).
   506 
   507 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   508 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   509 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   510 
   511 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   512 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   513 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   514 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   517 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   518 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   522 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   523 
   524 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   525 not check existence within the file-system.
   526 
   527 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   528 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   529 
   530 
   531 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   532 
   533 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   534 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   535 buffer.
   536 
   537 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   538 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   539 
   540 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   541 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   542 
   543 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   544 auxiliary ML files.
   545 
   546 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   547 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   548 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   549 
   550 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   551 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   552 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   553 
   554 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   555 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   556 
   557 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   558 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   559 caret".
   560 
   561 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   562 completion popup and context-menu.
   563 
   564 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   565 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   566 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   567 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   568 
   569 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   570 to highlight text via regular expression.
   571 
   572 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   573 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   574 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   575 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   576 
   577 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   578 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   579 
   580 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   581 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   582 
   583 * Improved monitor panel.
   584 
   585 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   586 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   587 
   588 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   589 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   590 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   591 
   592 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   593 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   594 within the context.
   595 
   596 
   597 *** Pure ***
   598 
   599 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   600 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   601 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   602 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   603 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   604 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   605 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   606 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   607 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   608 
   609 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   610 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   611 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   612 renaming needs to be applied:
   613 
   614   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   615   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   616   all            ~>  Pure.all
   617   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   618   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   619 
   620 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   621 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   622 old constants:
   623 
   624 setup {*
   625   fn thy => thy
   626     |> Sign.root_path
   627     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   628     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   629     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   630     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   631 *}
   632 
   633 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   634 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   635 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   636 
   637 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   638 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   639 instantiated theorem.
   640 
   641 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   642 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   643 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   644 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   645 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   646 
   647   attribute_setup standard =
   648     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   649 
   650 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   651 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   652 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   653 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   654 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   655 
   656 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   657 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   658 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   659 
   660 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   661 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   662 
   663 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   664 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   665 
   666 
   667 *** HOL ***
   668 
   669 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   670 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   679 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   680 
   681 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   685 with the given constants.
   686 
   687 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   688 operations on records.
   689 
   690 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   691 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   696 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   697 
   698 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   701 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   702 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   703 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   704 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   707 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   708 
   709 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   710   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   711   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   712   part of theory "Main".
   713 
   714   Theory renamings:
   715     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   716     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   717     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   718     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   719     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   720     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   721     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   722     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   723     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   724     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   725     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   726     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   727     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   728     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   729     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   730     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   731     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   732     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   733     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   734     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   735     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   736     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   737 
   738   New theories:
   739     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   740     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   741     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   742     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   743     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   744 
   745   Discontinued theories:
   746     BNF/BNF.thy
   747     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   748 
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * New (co)datatype package:
   752   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   753   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   754     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   755   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   756     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   757   - Renamed commands:
   758       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   759       primrec_new ~> primrec
   760       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   761     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   763     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   764     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   766     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   767     using "prim(co)rec".
   768     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   770     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   771     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   773     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   774     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   775     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Old datatype package:
   778   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   779     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   780     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   782     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   783     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   786   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   787   BNF-based datatype package.
   788 
   789   Renamed constants:
   790     Option.set ~> set_option
   791     Option.map ~> map_option
   792     option_rel ~> rel_option
   793 
   794   Renamed theorems:
   795     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   796     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   797     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   798     option.recs ~> option.rec
   799     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   800     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   801     map.simps ~> list.map
   802     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   803     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   804     the.simps ~> option.sel
   805 
   806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   809     sum_map ~> map_sum
   810     map_pair ~> map_prod
   811     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   812     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   813     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   814     set_rel ~> rel_set
   815     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   816     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   817     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   818     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   819 
   820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Lifting and Transfer:
   823   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   824   - stronger reflexivity prover
   825   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   826   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   827     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   828     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   829       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   830       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   831       automatically
   832     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   833     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   834       automatically for datatypes
   835   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   836     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   837       more
   838       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   839     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   840       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   841       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   842     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   843       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   844       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845   - registration of code equations is more robust
   846     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   847   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   848     form
   849     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   851     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   853     Code_Numeral.natural
   854     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   856     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   859 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   860 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   861 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   862 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   863 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   864 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   867 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   868 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   869 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   870 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   871 
   872 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   873 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   874 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   875 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   876 
   877 * Sledgehammer:
   878   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   879   - MaSh overhaul:
   880     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   881       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   882     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   883       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   884       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   885       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   886   - New option:
   887       smt_proofs
   888   - Renamed options:
   889       isar_compress ~> compress
   890       isar_try0 ~> try0
   891 
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   895 
   896 * Nitpick:
   897   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   898     take infinite values.
   899   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   900     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   901   - Removed "std" option.
   902   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   903     "hide_types".
   904 
   905 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   906 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   909 
   910 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   911   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   912   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   913     SUP instead uniformly.
   914   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   915     or SUP and Sup.
   916   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   917   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   918   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   919     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   920     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   921 
   922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923 
   924 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   925 
   926 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   927 
   928   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   929   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   930   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   931   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   932 
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   936 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   937 
   938 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   939 
   940     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   941     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   942     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   943     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   944     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   945     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   946     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   947     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   948     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   949     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   950     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   951     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   952     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   953     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   954     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   955     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   956     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   957     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   958     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   959     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   960     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   961     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   962     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   963     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   964     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   965     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   966     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   967     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   968     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   969     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   970     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   971     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   972     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   973     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   974     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   975     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   976     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   977     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   978     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   979     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   980     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   981     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   982     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   983     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   984     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   985     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   986     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   987     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   988     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   989     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   990     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   991     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   992     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   993     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   994     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   995     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   996     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   997     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   998     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   999 
  1000   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1001   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1002   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1003     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1004 
  1005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1008 
  1009   Fact consolidations:
  1010     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1011     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1012     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1013     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1014     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1015     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1016     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1017     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1018     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1019     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1020     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1021     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1022     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1023     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1024     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1025     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1026     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1027     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1028     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1029     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1030     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1031     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1032     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1033     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1034     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1035     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1036     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1037     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1038     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1039     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1040     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1041     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1042     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1043     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1044     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1045     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1046     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1047     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1048     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1049     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1050 
  1051 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1052 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1053 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1054 
  1055 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1056 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1057 
  1058 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1059 
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1063 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1069     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1070 
  1071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1074   consolidation:
  1075     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1076     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1077 
  1078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1081   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1082   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1083   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1084     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1085   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1086     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1087   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1088 
  1089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1090 
  1091 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1092 
  1093     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1094     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1095     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1096     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1097     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1098     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1099     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1100     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1101     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1102     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1103     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1104     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1105     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1106 
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1110 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1111 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1112 
  1113 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1114     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1115     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1116     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1117     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1118 
  1119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * Fact name consolidation:
  1122     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1123     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1124     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1125     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1126     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1127 
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1131 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1132 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1133 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1134 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1135 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1136 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1140 
  1141 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1142 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1143 
  1144 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1145 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1146 
  1147 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1148 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1149 or the brute way with
  1150 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1151 
  1152 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1153 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1154 stating boundedness of sets.
  1155 
  1156 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1157 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1158 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159 
  1160 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1161   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1162   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1163   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1164   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1165   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1166   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1167   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1168   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1169   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1170   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1171   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1172 
  1173   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1174 
  1175   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1176 
  1177     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1178     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1179     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1180     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1181     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1182 
  1183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1186   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1187 
  1188   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1189 
  1190   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1191 
  1192   - removed constant isDiff
  1193 
  1194   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1195     input syntax.
  1196 
  1197   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1198 
  1199   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1200 
  1201   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1202 
  1203   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1204 
  1205   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1206     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1207     has_vector_derivative.
  1208 
  1209   - Other renamings:
  1210     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1211     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1212     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1213     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1214     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1215     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1216     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1217 
  1218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1221 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1222 in continuous_intros.
  1223 
  1224 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1225 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1226 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1227 
  1228 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1229 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1230 especially removes
  1231 
  1232     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1233 
  1234 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1235     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1236 
  1237 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1238 
  1239   Renamings:
  1240     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1241     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1242     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1243     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1244     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1245     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1246     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1247     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1248     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1249     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1250     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1251     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1252 
  1253     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1254     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1255     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1256 
  1257   Removed theorems:
  1258     complex_zero_def
  1259     complex_add_def
  1260     complex_minus_def
  1261     complex_diff_def
  1262     complex_one_def
  1263     complex_mult_def
  1264     complex_inverse_def
  1265     complex_scaleR_def
  1266 
  1267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1270 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1273 
  1274 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1275 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1276 
  1277 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1278 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1279 
  1280 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1281 
  1282 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1284 
  1285 * HOL-Word:
  1286   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1287     of "word_arith_wis".
  1288   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1289     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1290     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1291 
  1292 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1293   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1294   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1295   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1296     (except the AFP)
  1297 
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1301   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1302   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1303     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1304   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1305     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1306     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1307     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1308     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1309     intervals.
  1310   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1311     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1312     - renamed theorems:
  1313         interval ~> box
  1314         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1315         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1316         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1317         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1318         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1319         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1320         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1321         open_interval ~> open_box
  1322         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1323         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1324         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1325         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1326         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1327         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1328         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1329         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1330         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1331         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1332         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1333         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1334         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1335         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1336         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1337         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1338         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1339         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1340         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1341         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1342         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1343         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1344         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1345         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1346 
  1347     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1348         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1349         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1350         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1351         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1352         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1353         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1354         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1355         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1356         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1357         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1358         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1359         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1360         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1361         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1362         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1363         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1364         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1365 
  1366   - renamed theorems:
  1367     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1368     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1369     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1370 
  1371 * HOL-Probability:
  1372   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1373 
  1374     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1375       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1376 
  1377     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1378 
  1379   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1380     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1381 
  1382     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1383     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1384     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1385     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1386     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1387     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1388     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1389     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1390     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1391     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1392     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1393     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1394     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1395     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1396     integral_indicator          ~>
  1397          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1398     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1399     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1400     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1401 
  1402     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1403          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1404 
  1405     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1406          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1407 
  1408     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1409          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1410 
  1411     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1412          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1413          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1414 
  1415     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1416          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1417 
  1418     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1419          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1420 
  1421     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1422          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1423          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1424 
  1425     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1426          nn_integral_real_affine
  1427 
  1428     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1429          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1430 
  1431     The following theorems where removed:
  1432 
  1433     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1434     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1435     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1436     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1437     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1438     integral_cmul_indicator
  1439     integral_real
  1440 
  1441   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1442     distributed random variables.
  1443 
  1444 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1445 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 
  1449 *** Scala ***
  1450 
  1451 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1452 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1453 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1454 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1455 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1458 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 
  1461 *** ML ***
  1462 
  1463 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1464 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1465 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1466 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1467 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1468 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1469 
  1470 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1471 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1472 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1473 actually belongs to it).
  1474 
  1475 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1476 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1477 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1478 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1479 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1480 of schematic variables.
  1481 
  1482 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1483 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1486 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1487 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1493 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1494 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1496 
  1497 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1498 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1500 formal context.
  1501 
  1502 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1503 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1506 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1507 
  1508 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1509 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1510 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1511 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1512 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1513 
  1514 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1515 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1516 purposes.
  1517 
  1518 
  1519 *** System ***
  1520 
  1521 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1522 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1523 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1524 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1525 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1526 
  1527 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1528 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1529 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1530 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1531 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1532 settings variable.
  1533 
  1534 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1535 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1536 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1537 
  1538 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1539 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1540 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1541 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1542 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1543 
  1544 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1545 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1546 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1547 
  1548 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1549 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1550 
  1551 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1552 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1553 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1554 
  1555 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1556 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1557 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1558 processing is started.
  1559 
  1560 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1561 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1562 
  1563 
  1564 
  1565 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1566 -------------------------------------
  1567 
  1568 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1569 
  1570 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1571 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1572 
  1573 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1574 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1575 
  1576 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1577 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1578 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1579 
  1580 
  1581 *** System ***
  1582 
  1583 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1584 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1585 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1586 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1587 
  1588 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1589 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1590 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1591 
  1592 
  1593 
  1594 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1595 -------------------------------------
  1596 
  1597 *** General ***
  1598 
  1599 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1600 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1601 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1604 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1607 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1608 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1609 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1610 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1611 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1612 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1613 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1614 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1615 syntax.
  1616 
  1617 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1618 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1621 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1622 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1623 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1624 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1625 
  1626 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1630 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1631 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1632 
  1633 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1634 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1635 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1636 
  1637 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1638 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1639 
  1640 
  1641 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1642 
  1643 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1644 Documentation panel.
  1645 
  1646 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1647 documentation.
  1648 
  1649 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1650 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1651 
  1652 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1653 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1654 normal editing and checking process.
  1655 
  1656 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1657 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1658 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1659 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1660 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1661 
  1662 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1663 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1664 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1665 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1666 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1667 
  1668 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1669 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1670 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1671 
  1672 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1673 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1674 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1675 to resolve conflict.
  1676 
  1677 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1678 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1679 
  1680 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1681 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1682 such command executions while editing.
  1683 
  1684 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1685 document content.
  1686 
  1687 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1688 toplevel theorem statements.
  1689 
  1690 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1691 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1692 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1693 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1694 
  1695 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1696 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1697 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1698 
  1699 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1700 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1701 
  1702 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1703 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1704 
  1705 
  1706 *** Pure ***
  1707 
  1708 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1709 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1710 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1711 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1712 details.
  1713 
  1714 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1715 
  1716 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1717 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1718 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1719 
  1720 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1724 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1725 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1726 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1729 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1730 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1733 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1734 
  1735 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1736 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1737 situations.
  1738 
  1739 
  1740 *** HOL ***
  1741 
  1742 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1743 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1747 
  1748 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1749 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1750 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1751 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1752 
  1753   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1754 
  1755 * Code generator:
  1756   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1757     'code_instance'.
  1758   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1759     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1760 
  1761 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1762 examples.
  1763 
  1764 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1765 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1766 to distinguish both when desired.
  1767 
  1768 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1769 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1770 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1771 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1774 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1775 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1776 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1777 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1778 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1779 
  1780 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1781 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1782 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1783 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1784 
  1785 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1786 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1787 
  1788 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1789 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1790 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1791 
  1792 * Lifting:
  1793   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1794     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1795       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1796       transfer rules
  1797     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1798       correspondence relation can be generated
  1799     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1800       parametricity
  1801     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1802   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1803   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1804     copies
  1805   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1806     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1807     anonymous context)
  1808   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1809     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1810   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1811     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1812   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1813     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1814 
  1815 * Transfer:
  1816   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1817     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1818   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1819   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1820     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1821   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1822 
  1823 * Reification and reflection:
  1824   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1825     "Reification".
  1826   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1827   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1831   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1832     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1833     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1834   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1835     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1836   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1837     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1838     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1839     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1840     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1841     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1842     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1843     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1844   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1845     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1846   - Fact renames:
  1847       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1848       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1852 
  1853 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1854 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1855 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1859 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1860 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1861 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1862 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1863 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1864 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1865 lemmas.
  1866 
  1867 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1868 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1869 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870 
  1871 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1872 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1873 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1874 
  1875 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1876 top and bottom elements.
  1877 
  1878 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1879 
  1880 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1881 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1882 
  1883  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1884    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1885    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1886 
  1887  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1888    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1889    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1890 
  1891    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1892    arbitrary filter.
  1893 
  1894  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1895    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1896    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1897    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1898    on a compact set.
  1899 
  1900  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1901    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1902    linear_continuum_topology).
  1903 
  1904  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1905    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1906    on all sequences converging to x.
  1907 
  1908  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1909    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1910    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1911    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1912    left or right.
  1913 
  1914  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1915 
  1916      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1917 
  1918  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1919    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1920 
  1921  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1922    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1923    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1924    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1925    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1926    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1927 
  1928  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1929 
  1930    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1931 
  1932    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1933      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1934 
  1935    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1936 
  1937    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1938      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1939 
  1940    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1941 
  1942    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1943 
  1944  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1945 
  1946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 * Nitpick:
  1949   - Added option "spy".
  1950   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1951 
  1952 * Sledgehammer:
  1953   - Renamed option:
  1954       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1955     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1956   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1957   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1958   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1959 
  1960 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1961 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1962 
  1963 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1964   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1965   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1966     generated code.
  1967   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1968   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1969   - Fact renames:
  1970     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1971     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1972     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1973 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1976 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1977 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1978 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1979 
  1980 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1981 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1982 
  1983 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1986 
  1987     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1988     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1989 
  1990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1993 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1994 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1995 
  1996 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1997 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1998 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1999 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * HOL-BNF:
  2002   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2003     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2004     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2005     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2006   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2007     coinduct).
  2008   - Renamed keywords:
  2009     data ~> datatype_new
  2010     codata ~> codatatype
  2011     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2012   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2013     discs ~> disc
  2014     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2015     map_id' ~> map_id
  2016     sels ~> sel
  2017     set_map' ~> set_map
  2018     sets ~> set
  2019 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 
  2022 *** ML ***
  2023 
  2024 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2025 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2026 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2027 Examples.thy in particular.
  2028 
  2029 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2030 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2031 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2032 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2033 
  2034 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2035 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2036 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2037 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2041 
  2042     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2043     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2044 
  2045 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2048 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2049 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2050 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2051 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2052 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2053 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2054 
  2055 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2056 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2057 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2058 clasets separately from the context.
  2059 
  2060 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2061 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2062 
  2063 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2064 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2065 
  2066 
  2067 *** System ***
  2068 
  2069 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2070 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2071 
  2072 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2073 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2074 
  2075 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2076 settings variable.
  2077 
  2078 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2079 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2080 always pdf.
  2081 
  2082 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2083 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2084 
  2085 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2086 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2087 
  2088 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2089 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2090 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2091 
  2092 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2093 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2094 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2095 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2096 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2097 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2098 
  2099 
  2100 
  2101 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2102 -----------------------------------
  2103 
  2104 *** General ***
  2105 
  2106 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2107 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2108 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2109 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2110 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2111 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2112 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2113 
  2114 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2115 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2116 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2117 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2118 
  2119 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2120 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2121 
  2122 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2123 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2124 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2125 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2126 dependencies properly.
  2127 
  2128 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2129 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2130 
  2131 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2132 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2133 
  2134 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2135 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2136 and "class ... context ...".
  2137 
  2138 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2139 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2140 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2141 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2142 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2143 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2144 
  2145 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2146 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2147 
  2148 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2149 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2150 
  2151 
  2152 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2153 
  2154 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2155 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2156 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2157 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2158 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2159 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2160 
  2161 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2162 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2163 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2164 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2165 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2166 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2167 
  2168 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2169 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2170 browser on demand.
  2171 
  2172 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2173 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2174 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2175 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2176 
  2177 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2178 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2179 
  2180 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2181 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2182 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2183 potentially infinite message streams.
  2184 
  2185 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2186 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2187 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2188 schemes.
  2189 
  2190 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2191 symbols.
  2192 
  2193 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2194 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2195 
  2196 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2197 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2198 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2199 
  2200 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2201 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2202 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2203 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2204 
  2205 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2206 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2207 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2208 
  2209 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2210 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2211 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2212 Isabelle distribution.
  2213 
  2214 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2215 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2216 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2217 
  2218 
  2219 *** Pure ***
  2220 
  2221 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2222 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2223 
  2224 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2225 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2226 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227 
  2228 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2229 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2230 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2231 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2232 with some care where this is really required.
  2233 
  2234 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2235 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2236 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2237 
  2238   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2239 
  2240 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2241 a Hasse diagram.
  2242 
  2243 
  2244 *** HOL ***
  2245 
  2246 * Sledgehammer:
  2247 
  2248   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2249     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2250   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2251   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2252   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2253   - Renamed options:
  2254       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2255       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2256       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2257       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2258 
  2259 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2260 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2261 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2262 
  2263 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Lifting:
  2267   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2268   - quot_del attribute
  2269   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2270 
  2271 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2272 expressions.
  2273 
  2274 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2275 pointfree expressions.
  2276 
  2277 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2278 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2279 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2280 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2284 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2285 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2286 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2287 accordingly.
  2288 
  2289 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2290 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2293 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2298 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2299 
  2300 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2301 
  2302 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2303 
  2304   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2305   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2306 
  2307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2310 
  2311   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2312   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2313 
  2314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2317 
  2318   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2319     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2320     output f x converges to G.
  2321 
  2322   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2323     infinity (at_bot).
  2324 
  2325   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2326     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2327 
  2328   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2329     at_top".
  2330 
  2331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2334 lattice type classes.
  2335 
  2336 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2337 
  2338     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2339     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2340 
  2341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2344 changes as follows.
  2345 
  2346   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2347 
  2348       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2349       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2350 
  2351   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2352     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2353     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2354     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2355 
  2356   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2357     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2358     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2359 
  2360   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2361     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2362     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2363     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2364 
  2365   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2366     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2367 
  2368       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2369       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2370       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2371       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2372       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2373       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2374       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2375       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2376       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2377       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2378       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2379       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2380       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2381       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2382       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2383       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2384 
  2385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2388 
  2389 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2390 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2391 
  2392 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2393 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2394 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2395 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2396 
  2397   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2398   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2399   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2400   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2401   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2402   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2403   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2404   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2405   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2406   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2407 
  2408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2411 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2412 Data").
  2413 
  2414 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2415 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2416 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2417 code.
  2418 
  2419 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2420 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2421 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2425 
  2426 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2427 
  2428 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2429 
  2430   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2431   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2432 
  2433 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2434 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2435 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2436 
  2437   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2438 
  2439     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2440     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2441     cart_base i  removed
  2442     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2443 
  2444   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2445 
  2446   Renamed lemmas:
  2447 
  2448     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2449     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2450     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2451     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2452     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2453     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2454     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2455     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2456     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2457     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2458 
  2459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * HOL/Probability:
  2462 
  2463   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2464 
  2465   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2466     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2467     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2468 
  2469   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2470     projective family).
  2471 
  2472 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2473 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2474 
  2475 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2476 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2477 datatypes.
  2478 
  2479 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2480 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2481 
  2482 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2483 trees for the code generator.
  2484 
  2485 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2486 Lifting/Transfer.
  2487 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2491 
  2492 
  2493 *** Document preparation ***
  2494 
  2495 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2496 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2497 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2498 
  2499 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2500 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2501 
  2502 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2503 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2504 document/root.tex.
  2505 
  2506 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2507 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 
  2510 *** ML ***
  2511 
  2512 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2513 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2514 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2515 
  2516 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2517 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2518 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2519 
  2520 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2521 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2522 necessarily printing visible text.
  2523 
  2524 
  2525 *** System ***
  2526 
  2527 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2528 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2529 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2530 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2531 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2532 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2533 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2534 
  2535 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2536 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2537 
  2538   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2539 
  2540 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2541 
  2542 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2543 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2544 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2545 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2546 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2547 
  2548 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2549 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2550 
  2551 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2552 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2553 
  2554 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2558 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2559 version of Isabelle.
  2560 
  2561 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2562 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2563 
  2564 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2565 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2566 for home-made settings.
  2567 
  2568 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2569 
  2570 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2571 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2572 configuration.
  2573 
  2574 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2575 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2576 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2577 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2578 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2579 
  2580 
  2581 
  2582 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2583 ------------------------------
  2584 
  2585 *** General ***
  2586 
  2587 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2588 
  2589   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2590     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2591   - markup for bound variables
  2592   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2593   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2594   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2595     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2596 
  2597 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2598 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2599 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2600 
  2601 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2602 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2603 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2604 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2605 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2606 
  2607   context
  2608     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2609     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2610   begin
  2611 
  2612   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2613 
  2614   end
  2615 
  2616   thm my_trans
  2617 
  2618 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2619 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2620 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2621 
  2622 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2623 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2624 
  2625 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2626 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2627 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2628 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2629 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2630 
  2631 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2632 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2633 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2634 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2635 indices of schematic variables.
  2636 
  2637 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2638 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2639 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2640 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2641 etc. was exploited.
  2642 
  2643 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2644 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2645 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2646 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2647 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2648 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2649 
  2650 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2651 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2652 manual.
  2653 
  2654 
  2655 *** Pure ***
  2656 
  2657 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2658 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2659 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2660 
  2661 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2662 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2663 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2664 undocumented feature.)
  2665 
  2666 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2667 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2668 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2669 
  2670   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2671 
  2672   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2673     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2674 
  2675 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2676 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2677 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2678 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2679 
  2680 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2681 
  2682     num ~> num_token
  2683     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2684     xstr ~> str_token
  2685 
  2686 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2687 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2688 position information via constraints).
  2689 
  2690 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2691 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2692 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2695 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2696 
  2697 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2698 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2699 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2700 
  2701 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2702 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2705 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2706 
  2707   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2708 
  2709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710 
  2711 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2712 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2715 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2716 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2717 
  2718 
  2719 *** HOL ***
  2720 
  2721 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2722 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2723 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2724 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2725 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2726 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2727 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2728 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2729 possible.
  2730 
  2731 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2732 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2733 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2734 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2735 
  2736 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2737 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2740 
  2741 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2742 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2743 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2744 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2745 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2746 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2747 
  2748   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2749     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2750 
  2751   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2752     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2753     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2754 
  2755   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2756     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2757 
  2758   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2759     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2760     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2761 
  2762   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2763     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2764 
  2765 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2766 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2767 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2768 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2769 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2770 
  2771   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2772     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2773     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2774     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2775     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2776 
  2777     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2778     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2779 
  2780   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2781     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2782     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2783     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2784     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2785     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2786     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2787     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2788 
  2789   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2790     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2791     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2792     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2793 
  2794   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2795     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2796     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2797     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2798 
  2799   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2800     from type nat to type int.
  2801 
  2802 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2803 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2804 
  2805   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2806     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2807     type.  Example syntax:
  2808 
  2809     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2810       is List.insert
  2811 
  2812     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2813     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2814     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2815     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2816     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2817     by the package.
  2818 
  2819   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2820     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2821     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2822     code generation for each constant.
  2823 
  2824   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2825     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2826     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2827     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2828     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2829 
  2830   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2831     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2832     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2833 
  2834 * Quotient package:
  2835 
  2836   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2837     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2838 
  2839   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2840     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2841 
  2842   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2843     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2844     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2847     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2850 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2851 
  2852 * Quickcheck:
  2853 
  2854   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2855     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2856     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2857     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2858     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2859 
  2860     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2861     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2862     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2863 
  2864     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2865     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2866 
  2867     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2868     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2869     show genuine counterexamples.
  2870 
  2871   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2872     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2873 
  2874     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2875     constructors of that type.
  2876 
  2877   - Support for multisets.
  2878 
  2879   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2880 
  2881   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2882     conjectures in a locale context.
  2883 
  2884 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2885 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2886 
  2887 * Sledgehammer:
  2888   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2889     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2890   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2891   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2892     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2893   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2894   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2895   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2896   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2897 
  2898 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2899 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2900 
  2901 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2902 
  2903 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2906 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2907 
  2908   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2909 
  2910 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2911 a list and a nat.
  2912 
  2913 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2914 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2915 
  2916 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2917 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2918 default.
  2919 
  2920 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2921 
  2922   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2923 
  2924 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2925 
  2926 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2927 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2928 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2929 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2930 one_case.
  2931 
  2932 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2933 the result of the fact expression.
  2934 
  2935 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2936 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2937 of some relation theorems:
  2938 
  2939   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2940   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2941   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2942   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2943   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2944   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2945 
  2946 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2947 
  2948 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2949 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2950 
  2951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2954 to match the constant's name:
  2955 
  2956   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2957   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2958   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2959   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2960   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2961   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2962   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2963   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2964   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2965   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2966   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2967   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2968   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2969   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2970   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2971   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2972   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2973   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2974   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2975   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2976   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2977   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2978   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2979   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2980 
  2981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2984 and corresponding theorem names:
  2985 
  2986   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2987 
  2988   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2989 
  2990   - Renamed theorems:
  2991 
  2992     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2993     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2994     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2995     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2996     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2997     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2998     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2999     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3000     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3001     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3002     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3003     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3004     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3005     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3006     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3007     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3008     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3009     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3010     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3011     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3012     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3013     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3014     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3015 
  3016     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3017 
  3018     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3019 
  3020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3023 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3024 
  3025   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3026   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3027   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3028   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3029   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3030   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3031   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3032   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3033   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3034   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3035   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3036   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3037   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3038   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3039   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3040   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3041   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3042   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3043   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3044   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3045   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3046 
  3047 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3048 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3053 
  3054   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3055   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3056   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3057   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3058   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3059   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3060   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3061   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3062   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3063   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3064   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3065   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3066   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3067   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3068   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3069   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3070   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3071   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3072 
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3076 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3077 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3078 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3079 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3080 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3081 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3082 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3083 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3084 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3085 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3086 
  3087 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3088 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3089 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3090 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3091 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3092 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3093 
  3094 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3095 through option types.
  3096 
  3097 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3098 relations.
  3099 
  3100 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3103 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3104 
  3105   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3106   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3107   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3108   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3109   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3110   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3111   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3112   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3113   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3114   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3115   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3116   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3117   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3118   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3119   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3120   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3121   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3122   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3123   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3124   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3125   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3126   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3127   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3128   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3129   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3130   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3131   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3132   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3133   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3134   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3135   zless_le ~> less_le
  3136   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3137   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3138   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3141 
  3142   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3143 
  3144 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3145 
  3146 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3147 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3148 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3149 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3153 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3156 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3157 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3158 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3159 follows:
  3160 
  3161   Operations:
  3162   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3163   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3164   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3165   del -> rbt_del
  3166   delete -> rbt_delete
  3167   ins -> rbt_ins
  3168   insert -> rbt_insert
  3169   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3170   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3171   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3172   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3173   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3174   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3175   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3176   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3177   union -> rbt_union
  3178   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3179   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3180 
  3181   Lemmas:
  3182   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3183   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3184   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3185   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3186   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3187   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3188   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3189   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3190   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3191   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3192   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3193   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3194   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3195   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3196   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3197   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3198   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3199   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3200   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3201   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3202   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3203   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3204   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3205   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3206   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3207   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3208   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3209   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3210   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3211   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3212   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3213   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3214   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3215   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3216   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3217   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3218   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3219   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3220   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3221   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3222   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3223   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3224   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3225   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3226   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3227   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3228   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3229   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3230   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3231   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3232   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3233   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3234   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3235   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3236   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3237   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3238   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3239   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3240   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3241   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3242   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3243   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3244   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3245   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3246   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3247   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3248   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3249   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3250   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3251   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3252   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3253   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3254   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3255   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3256   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3257   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3258   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3259   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3260   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3261   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3262   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3263   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3264   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3265 
  3266 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3267 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3268 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270   Changed Operations:
  3271   float_abs -> abs
  3272   float_nprt -> nprt
  3273   float_pprt -> pprt
  3274   pow2 -> use powr
  3275   round_down -> float_round_down
  3276   round_up -> float_round_up
  3277   scale -> exponent
  3278 
  3279   Removed Operations:
  3280   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3281 
  3282   Renamed Lemmas:
  3283   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3284   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3285   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3286   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3287   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3288   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3289   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3290   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3291   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3292   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3293   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3294   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3295   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3296   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3297   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3298   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3299   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3300   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3301   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3302   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3303   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3304   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3305   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3306   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3307   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3308   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3309   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3310   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3311   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3312   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3313   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3314   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3315   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3316   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3317   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3318   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3319 
  3320   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3321   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3322   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3323   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3324   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3325   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3326   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3327   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3328   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3329   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3330 
  3331 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3332 association lists with distinct keys.
  3333 
  3334 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3335 annotated commands.
  3336 
  3337 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3338 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3339 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3340 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3343 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3344 instead.
  3345 
  3346   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3347   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3348   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3349   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3350   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3351   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3352   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3353   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3354   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3355   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3356   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3357   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3358   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3359   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3360   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3361   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3362   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3363   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3364   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3365   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3366   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3367   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3368   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3369   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3370   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3371   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3372   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3373   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3374   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3375   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3376   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3377   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3378   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3379   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3380   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3381   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3382   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3383   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3384   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3385   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3386   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3387 
  3388 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3389 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3390 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3391 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3392 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3393 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3394 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3395 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3396 
  3397 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3398 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3399 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3400 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3401 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3402 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3403 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3404 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3405 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3406 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3407 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3408 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410   Renamed constants:
  3411   measure -> emeasure
  3412   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3413   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3414   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3415   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3416 
  3417   Removed locales:
  3418   completeable_measure_space
  3419   finite_measure_space
  3420   finite_prob_space
  3421   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3422   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3423   finite_sigma_algebra
  3424   measure_space
  3425   pair_finite_prob_space
  3426   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3427   pair_finite_space
  3428   pair_sigma_algebra
  3429   product_sigma_algebra
  3430 
  3431   Removed constants:
  3432   conditional_space
  3433   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3434   image_space
  3435   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3436   pair_measure_generator
  3437   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3438   subvimage
  3439 
  3440   Replacement theorems:
  3441   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3442   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3443   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3444   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3445   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3446   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3447   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3448   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3449   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3450   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3451   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3452   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3453   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3454   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3455   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3456   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3457   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3458   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3459   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3460   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3461   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3462   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3463   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3464   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3465   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3466   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3467   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3468   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3469   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3470   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3471   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3472   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3473   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3474   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3475   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3476   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3477   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3478   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3479   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3480   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3481   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3482   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3483   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3484   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3485   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3486   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3487   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3488   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3489   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3490   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3491   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3492   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3493   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3494   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3495   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3496   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3497   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3498   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3499   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3500   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3501   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3502   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3503   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3504   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3505   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3506   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3507   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3508   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3509   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3510   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3511   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3512   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3513   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3514   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3515   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3516   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3517   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3518   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3519   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3520   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3521   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3522   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3523   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3524   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3525   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3526   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3527   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3528   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3529   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3530   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3531   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3532   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3533   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3534   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3535   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3536   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3537   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3538   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3539   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3540   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3541   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3542   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3543   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3544   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3545   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3546   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3547   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3548   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3549   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3550   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3551   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3552   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3553   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3554   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3555   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3556   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3557   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3558   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3559   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3560   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3561   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3562   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3563   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3564   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3565   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3566   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3567   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3568   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3569 
  3570 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3571 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3572 
  3573 
  3574 *** FOL ***
  3575 
  3576 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3577 
  3578 
  3579 *** ZF ***
  3580 
  3581 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3582 analysis.
  3583 
  3584 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3585 
  3586 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 
  3589 *** ML ***
  3590 
  3591 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3592 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3593 
  3594 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3595 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3596 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3597 
  3598 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3599 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3600 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3601 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3602 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3603 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3605 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3606 
  3607 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3608 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3609 
  3610 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3611 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3612 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3613 
  3614 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3615 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3616 
  3617 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3618 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3619 context as well.
  3620 
  3621 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3622 
  3623   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3624   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3625   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3626   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3627   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3628   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3629   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3630   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3631   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3632   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3633   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3634   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3635 
  3636 
  3637 *** System ***
  3638 
  3639 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3640 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3641 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3642 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3643 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3644 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3645 the generic user home was intended.
  3646 
  3647 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3648 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3649 
  3650 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3651 (not just JRE).
  3652 
  3653 
  3654 
  3655 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3656 ------------------------------------
  3657 
  3658 *** General ***
  3659 
  3660 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3661 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3662 
  3663   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3664     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3665     files for checking).
  3666 
  3667   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3668     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3669     positions.
  3670 
  3671   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3672     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3673     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3674 
  3675   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3676     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3677     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3678 
  3679   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3680     cores.
  3681 
  3682   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3683     versions (garbage collection).
  3684 
  3685 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3686 including some remaining limitations.
  3687 
  3688 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3689 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3690 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3691 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3692 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3696 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3697 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3698 
  3699 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3700 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3701 usedir option -Q.
  3702 
  3703 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3704 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3705 
  3706   long_names   ~> names_long
  3707   short_names  ~> names_short
  3708   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3709 
  3710 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3711 
  3712   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3713 
  3714 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3715 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3716 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3717 
  3718 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3719 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3720 
  3721 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3722   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3723   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3724   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3725     "Classical Reasoner".
  3726 
  3727 
  3728 *** HOL ***
  3729 
  3730 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3731 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3734 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3735 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3736 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3737 class complete_linorder.
  3738 
  3739 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3740 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3741 
  3742 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3743 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3744 
  3745   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3746   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3747   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3748   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3749   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3750   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3751   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3752   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3753   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3754   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3755   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3756 
  3757 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3758 
  3759   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3760   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3761   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3762   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3763   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3764   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3765   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3766   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3767   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3768   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3769   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3770   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3771   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3772   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3773   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3774   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3775 
  3776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3782 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3783 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3784 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3787 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3788 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3792 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3793 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3794 
  3795 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3796 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3797 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3800 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3801 
  3802 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3803 
  3804     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3805     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3806 
  3807 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3808 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3811 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3814 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3815 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3816 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817 
  3818   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3819   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3820   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3821   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3822   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3823   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3824   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3825 
  3826 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3827 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3830   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3831   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3832   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3833   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3834   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3835   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3836   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3837   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3838   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3839   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3840   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3841   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3842   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3843   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3844   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3845   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3846   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3847   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3848   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3849   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3850   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3851   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3852   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3853   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3854   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3855   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3856   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3857   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3858   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3859   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3860   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3861   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3862   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3863   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3864   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3865   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3866   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3867   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3868   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3869   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3870   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3871   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3872   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3873   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3874   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3875   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3876   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3877   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3878   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3879   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3880   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3881   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3882   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3883   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3884   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3885   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3886   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3887   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3888   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3889   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3890   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3891   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3892   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3893   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3894   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3895   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3896   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3897   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3898   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3899   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3900   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3901   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3902   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3903   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3904   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3905   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3906   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3907   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3908   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3909   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3910   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3911 
  3912 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3913 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3914 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3915 
  3916 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3917 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3918 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3919 
  3920 * Code generation:
  3921 
  3922   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3923     characters in the target language.
  3924 
  3925   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3926     instead.
  3927 
  3928   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3929 
  3930   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3931     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3932 
  3933       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3934 
  3935 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3938 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3939 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3940 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3941 syntax.
  3942 
  3943 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3944 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3945 
  3946 * Nitpick:
  3947   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3948   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3949   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3950     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Sledgehammer:
  3953   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3954   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3955     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3956   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3957     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3958   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3959     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3961     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3962   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3963     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Metis:
  3966   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3968     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * Command 'try':
  3971   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3972     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3974     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3975 
  3976 * Quickcheck:
  3977   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3978     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3979   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3980     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3981   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3982     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3983     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3984     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3985   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3986     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3987 
  3988 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3989 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3990 
  3991 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3992 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3993 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3994 
  3995 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3996 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4000 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4003 arithmetic.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4006 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4007 and lattice type classes.
  4008 
  4009 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4010 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4011 
  4012 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4013 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4014 
  4015 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4016 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4017 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4020   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4021   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4022   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4023 
  4024 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4025 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4026 constants:
  4027 
  4028   type inat   ~> type enat
  4029   Fin         ~> enat
  4030   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4031   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4032   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4033 
  4034 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4035 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036 
  4037 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4038 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4039 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4040 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4041 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4042 
  4043 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4044 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4045 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4046 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4047 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4048 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4049 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4050 
  4051   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4052   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4053   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4054   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4055 
  4056 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4057 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4058 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4061   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4062   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4063   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4064   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4065   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4066   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4067   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4068   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4069   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4070   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4071   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4072   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4073   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4074   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4075   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4076   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4077   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4078   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4079   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4080   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4081   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4082   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4083   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4084   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4085   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4086   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4087   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4088   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4089   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4090   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4091   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4092   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4093   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4094   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4095   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4096   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4097   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4098   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4099   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4100   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4101   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4102   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4103   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4104   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4105   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4106   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4107   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4108   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4109   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4110   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4111 
  4112 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4113   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4114   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4115   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4116   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4117     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4118 
  4119 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4122   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4123   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4124   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4125   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4126   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4127   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4128   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4129   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4130   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4131   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4132   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4133   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4134   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4135   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4136   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4137   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4138   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4139   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4140   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4141   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4142   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4143   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4144   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4145   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4146 
  4147 
  4148 *** Document preparation ***
  4149 
  4150 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4151 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4152 same.
  4153 
  4154 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4155 result.
  4156 
  4157 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4158 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4159 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4160 
  4161 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4162 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4163 
  4164 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4165 like this:
  4166 
  4167   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4168   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4169 
  4170 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4171 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4172 layouts.
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 *** ML ***
  4176 
  4177 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4178 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4179 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4180 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4181 under external program control.
  4182 
  4183 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4184 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4185 
  4186 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4187 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4188 (better known as Proof General).
  4189 
  4190 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4191 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4192 
  4193 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4194 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4195 
  4196 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4197 (including quotes etc.).
  4198 
  4199 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4200 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4201 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4202 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4203 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4204 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4205 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4206 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4207 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4208 
  4209 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4210 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4211 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4212 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4213 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4214 
  4215 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4216 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4217 
  4218 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4219 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4220 
  4221 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4222 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4223 
  4224 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4225 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4226 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4227 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4228 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4229 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4230 proper Proof.context.
  4231 
  4232 
  4233 *** System ***
  4234 
  4235 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4236 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4237 
  4238 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4239 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4240 
  4241 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4242 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4243 
  4244   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4245   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4246   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4247   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4248   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4249 
  4250 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4251 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4254 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4255 example:
  4256 
  4257   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4258 
  4259 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4260 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4261 
  4262 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4263 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4264 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4265 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4266 
  4267 
  4268 
  4269 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4270 ----------------------------------
  4271 
  4272 *** General ***
  4273 
  4274 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4275 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4276 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4277 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4278 like this:
  4279 
  4280   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4281 
  4282 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4283 
  4284 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4285 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4286 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4287 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4288 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4289 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4290 
  4291 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4292 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4293 the following package declarations:
  4294 
  4295   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4296   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4297 
  4298 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4299 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4300 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4301 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4302 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4303 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4304 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4305 
  4306 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4307 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4308 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4309 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4310 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4311 
  4312 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4313 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4314 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4315 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4318 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4319 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4320 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4321 
  4322   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4323 
  4324   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4325   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4326   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4327   show_types                    show_types
  4328   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4329   show_consts                   show_consts
  4330   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4331 
  4332   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4333   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4334   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4335 
  4336   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4337   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4338 
  4339   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4340 
  4341   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4342   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4343   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4344   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4345   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4346 
  4347 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4348 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4349 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4350 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4351 
  4352 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4354 
  4355   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4356   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4357 
  4358 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4359 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4360 float_token.
  4361 
  4362 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4363 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4367 DejaVu Sans.
  4368 
  4369 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 *** Pure ***
  4373 
  4374 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4375 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4376 time.
  4377 
  4378 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4379 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4382 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4385 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4386 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4387 command already provided this functionality.
  4388 
  4389 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4390 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4391 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4392 without interpretations.
  4393 
  4394 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4395 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4396 
  4397 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4398 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4399 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4400 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4401 
  4402 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4403 'definition' instead.
  4404 
  4405 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4406 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4407 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4408 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4409 
  4410 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4411 constructors.
  4412 
  4413 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4414 the local file system.
  4415 
  4416 
  4417 *** HOL ***
  4418 
  4419 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4420 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4421 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4422 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4423 
  4424   declare [[coercion f]]
  4425 
  4426 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4427 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4428 
  4429   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4430 
  4431 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4432 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4433 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4434 other theories like this:
  4435 
  4436   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4437 
  4438 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4439 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4440 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4441 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4442 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4443 for examples.
  4444 
  4445 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4446 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4449 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4450 
  4451 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4452 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4453 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4454 
  4455 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4456 functorial structure of types.
  4457 
  4458 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4459 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4460 
  4461 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4462 languages.
  4463 
  4464 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4465 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4469 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4470 
  4471 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4472 combinators any longer.
  4473 
  4474 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4475 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4476 
  4477 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4478 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4479 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4480 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4481 
  4482   record 'a foo = ...
  4483   ...
  4484   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4485 
  4486 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4487 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4491 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4492 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4493 
  4494 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4495 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4496 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4497 
  4498 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4499 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4502 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4503 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4504 independently.
  4505 
  4506 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4507 counter example search.
  4508 
  4509 * Sledgehammer:
  4510   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4511     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4512     sledgehammer").
  4513   - Renamed commands:
  4514     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4515     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4516     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4517     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518   - Renamed options:
  4519     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4520     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4521     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4522     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4523     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * Nitpick:
  4526   - Renamed options:
  4527     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4528     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4529     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4530   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4531   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4532   - Added "whack" option.
  4533   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4534   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4535   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4536   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4537     higher cardinalities.
  4538   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4539 
  4540 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4541 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4542 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4543 
  4544     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4545 
  4546 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4547 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4548 
  4549 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4550 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4551 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4552 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4553 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4554 "smt_solver".
  4555 
  4556 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4557 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4558 
  4559 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4560 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4561 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4562 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4565   - Renamed:
  4566     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4567     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4568     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569   - Added:
  4570     smt_verbose
  4571     smt_random_seed
  4572     smt_datatypes
  4573     smt_infer_triggers
  4574     smt_monomorph_limit
  4575     cvc3_options
  4576     remote_cvc3_options
  4577     remote_z3_options
  4578     yices_options
  4579 
  4580 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4581 header.
  4582 
  4583 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4584 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4585 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4586 
  4587   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4588 
  4589 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4592 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4597 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4600 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4601 
  4602 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4603 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4606 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4607 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4615 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4618 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4619 for congruent(2)).
  4620 
  4621 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4622 
  4623   types
  4624     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4625     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4626 
  4627   constants
  4628     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4629     True ~> HOL.True
  4630     False ~> HOL.False
  4631     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4632     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4633     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4634     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4635     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4636     The ~> HOL.The
  4637     All ~> HOL.All
  4638     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4639     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4640     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4641     If ~> HOL.If
  4642     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4643     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4644     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4645     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4646     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4647     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4648     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4649     op : ~> Set.member
  4650     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4651 
  4652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4655 
  4656     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4657     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4658     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4659     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4660     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4661     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4662     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4663     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4664 
  4665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * More stylized fact names:
  4668 
  4669   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4670   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4671   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4672   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4673 
  4674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4677 
  4678   constants
  4679     null ~> List.null
  4680 
  4681   facts
  4682     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4683     null_empty ~> null_def
  4684 
  4685 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4686 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4687 generation.
  4688 
  4689 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4690 Haskell code.
  4691 
  4692 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4693 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4694 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4697 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4700 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4701 
  4702 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4703 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4704 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4707 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4713 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4714 referred to by its qualified name.
  4715 
  4716   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4717   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4718   product ~>  Enum.product
  4719 
  4720 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4721 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4723 
  4724 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4725 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4726 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4730 sort_key.
  4731 
  4732 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4734 
  4735 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4736 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4737 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4738 
  4739   types
  4740     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4741               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4742               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4743         (depends on your needs)
  4744 
  4745   constants
  4746      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4747      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4748      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4749 
  4750 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4751 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4752 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4753 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4756 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4757 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4758 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4759 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4765 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4766 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4767 
  4768 
  4769 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4770 
  4771 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4772 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4773 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4774 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4775 compatibility.
  4776 
  4777 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4778 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4779 
  4780 
  4781 *** HOLCF ***
  4782 
  4783 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4784 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4785 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4789 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4790 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4791 
  4792   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4793   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4794   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4795 
  4796 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4797 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4798 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4801 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4802 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4803 domain definition now works:
  4804 
  4805   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4806 
  4807 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4808 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4809 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4810 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4811 
  4812   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4813     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4814 
  4815   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4816 
  4817 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4818 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4819 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4820 
  4821 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4822 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4825 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4826 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4827 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4828 
  4829 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4830 
  4831 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4832 
  4833 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4839 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4840 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4841 
  4842 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4843 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4844 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4847 still supported as an input translation.
  4848 
  4849 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4850 
  4851   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4852   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4853   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4854   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4855   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4856   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4857   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4858 
  4859 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4860 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4861 
  4862   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4863   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4864   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4865   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4866   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4867   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4868 
  4869 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4870 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4873 
  4874   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4875   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4876   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4877   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4878 
  4879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4882 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4885 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4886 
  4887   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4888   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4889   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4890   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4891   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4892   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4893   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4894   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4895   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4896   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4897   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4898   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4899   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4900   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4901   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4902   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4903   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4904   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4905   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4906   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4907 
  4908 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4911   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4912   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4913   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4914   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4915   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4916   box_less             ~> box_below
  4917   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4918   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4919   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4920   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4921   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4922   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4923   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4924   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4925   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4926   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4927   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4928   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4929   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4930   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4931   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4932   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4933   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4934   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4935   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4936   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4937   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4938   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4939   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4940   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4941   up_less              ~> up_below
  4942   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4943   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4944   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4945   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4946   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4947   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4948   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4949   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4950   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4951   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4952   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4953   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4954   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4955 
  4956 
  4957 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4958 
  4959 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4960 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 
  4963 *** ML ***
  4964 
  4965 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4966 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4967 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4968 
  4969 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4970 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4971 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4972 
  4973 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4974 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4975 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4976 
  4977 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4978 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4979 
  4980 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4981 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4982 
  4983 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4984 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4985 
  4986 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4987 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4988 
  4989 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4990 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4991 almost all situations.
  4992 
  4993 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4994 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4995 Isabelle/ML.
  4996 
  4997 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4998 meaning.
  4999 
  5000 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5001 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5002 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5003 
  5004 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5005 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5006 
  5007 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5008 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5009 
  5010 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5011 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5012 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5013 
  5014 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5015 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5016 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5017 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5018 configuration options.
  5019 
  5020 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5021 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5022 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5023 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5024 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5025 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5026 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5027 
  5028 
  5029 
  5030 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5031 ---------------------------------
  5032 
  5033 *** General ***
  5034 
  5035 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5036 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5037 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5038 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5039 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5040 their full internal name.
  5041 
  5042 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5043 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5044 Some hints on upgrading:
  5045 
  5046   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5047     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5048     which are independent of this issue.
  5049 
  5050   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5051     provides the following special forms:
  5052 
  5053       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5054       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5055       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5056 
  5057     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5058     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5059     extra variables".
  5060 
  5061     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5062     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5063     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5064     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5065     "logic".
  5066 
  5067   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5068     antiquotations:
  5069 
  5070       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5071       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5072       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5073       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5074 
  5075   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5076     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5077     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5078     antiquotations.
  5079 
  5080 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5081 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5082 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5083 diagnose syntax problems.
  5084 
  5085 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5086 
  5087 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5088 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5089 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5090 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5091 
  5092 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5093 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5094 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5095 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5096 
  5097 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5098 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5099 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5100 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5101 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5104 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5105 
  5106 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5107 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5108 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5109 
  5110   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5111 
  5112 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5113 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5114 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5115 
  5116 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5117 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5121 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5122 
  5123 
  5124 *** Pure ***
  5125 
  5126 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5127 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5128 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5129 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5130 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5131 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5132 inspect proof terms.
  5133 
  5134 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5135 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5136 are added internally.  For example:
  5137 
  5138   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5139 
  5140 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5141 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5146 'class' instead.
  5147 
  5148 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5149 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5153 invariants.
  5154 
  5155 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5156 user space functionality any longer.
  5157 
  5158 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5159 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5161 
  5162 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5163 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5164 
  5165 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5166 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5167 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5168 
  5169 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5170 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5171 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5172 
  5173 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5174 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5175 
  5176 
  5177 *** HOL ***
  5178 
  5179 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5180 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5181 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5182 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5183 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5184 
  5185 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5186 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5187 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5188 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5189 
  5190   fun
  5191     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5192   where
  5193     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5194 
  5195   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5196     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5197 
  5198   quotient_definition
  5199     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5200 
  5201 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5202 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5203 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5204 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5205 
  5206 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5207 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5208 
  5209 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5210 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5211 
  5212 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5216 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5217 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5218 
  5219 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5220 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5221 
  5222 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5224 
  5225 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5227 
  5228 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5229 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5232 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5233 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5234 
  5235   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5236   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5237   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5238   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5239   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5240   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5241   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5242   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5243   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5244   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5245   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5246   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5247   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5248   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5249   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5250   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5251   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5252   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5253   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5254   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5255   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5256   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5257   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5258   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5259   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5260   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5261   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5262   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5263   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5264   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5265 
  5266 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5267 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5268 
  5269 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5270 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5271 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 
  5273 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5274 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5275 
  5276 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5277 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5278 
  5279 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5280 
  5281 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5282 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5283 
  5284 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5285 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5286 
  5287 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5288 
  5289 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5290 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5291 
  5292 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5293 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5294 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5295 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5296 
  5297 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5298   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5299   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5300   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5304 lattices):
  5305 
  5306     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5307     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5308 
  5309     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5310 
  5311     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5312     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5313     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5314     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5315     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5316     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5317     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5318     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5319     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5320     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5321     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5322     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5323     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5324 
  5325     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5326     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5327     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5328     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5329     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5330     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5331     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5332     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5333     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5334     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5335     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5336     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5337     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5338     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5339     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5340     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5341     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5342     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5343 
  5344   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5345   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5346 
  5347     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5348     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5349     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5350     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5351     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5352 
  5353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * Refined field classes:
  5356   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5357     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5358     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5359   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5361 
  5362 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5363   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5364   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5365   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5366     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5367   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5368     equal_neg_zero.
  5369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5370 
  5371 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5372 sets to lattices:
  5373 
  5374   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5375   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5376   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5377   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5378   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5379   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5380   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5381   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5382   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5383   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5384 
  5385 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5386 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5387 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5388 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5389 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5390 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5391 
  5392 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5393 multiset order:
  5394 
  5395   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5396     <= and <;
  5397   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5398     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5399     multiset_order;
  5400   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5401     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5402     generation;
  5403   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5404     if needed.
  5405 
  5406 Renamed:
  5407 
  5408   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5409   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5410   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5411 
  5412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5413 
  5414 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5415 
  5416 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5417 
  5418 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5419 
  5420 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5421 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5422 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5423 
  5424   Constants:
  5425   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5426   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5427   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5428   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5429   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5430   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5431   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5432   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5433   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5434   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5435   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5436   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5437   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5438 
  5439   Lemmas:
  5440   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5441   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5442   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5443   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5444   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5445   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5446   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5447   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5448   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5449   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5450   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5451   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5452   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5453 
  5454 * Sledgehammer:
  5455   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5456     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5457     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5458     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5459     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5460     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5461     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5462   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5463   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5464     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5465   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5466     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5467     is still experimental.)
  5468   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5469     full-typed mode.
  5470   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5471 
  5472 * Nitpick:
  5473   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5474   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5475   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5476     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5477   - Added support for quotient types.
  5478   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5479     constructs.
  5480   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5481     "termination" proofs).
  5482   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5483   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5484   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5485   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5486     record getters.
  5487   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5488   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5489   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5490   - Added "atoms" option.
  5491   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5492     problems.
  5493   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5494     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5495     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5497     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499 
  5500 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5501   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5502   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5503   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5504   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5505   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5506   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5507   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5508   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5509   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 
  5512 *** HOLCF ***
  5513 
  5514 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5515 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5516 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5519 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5520 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5521 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5522 
  5523 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5524 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5525 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5526 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5527 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5528 
  5529 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5530 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5531 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5534 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5535 
  5536   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5537   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5538 
  5539 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5540 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5543   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5544   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5545   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5546   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5547 
  5548 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5549 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5550 
  5551   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5552   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5553   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5554 
  5555 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5556 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5560 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5565 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5566 
  5567 
  5568 *** ML ***
  5569 
  5570 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5571 
  5572     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5573     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5574 
  5575     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5576     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5577     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5578     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5579 
  5580     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5581     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5582     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5583 
  5584 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5585 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5586 
  5587 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5588 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5589 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5590 
  5591 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5592 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5593 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5594 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5595 
  5596 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5597 the context or even global references.
  5598 
  5599 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5600 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5601 
  5602 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5603 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5604 
  5605   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5606   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5607   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5608   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5609   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5610   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5611   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5612   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5613   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5614   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5615 
  5616 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5617 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5618 
  5619 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5620 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5621 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5622 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5623 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5624 
  5625 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5626 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5627 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5628 Theory_Data version.
  5629 
  5630 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5631 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5632 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5633 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5634 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5635 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5636 explicitly in rare situations.
  5637 
  5638 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5639 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5641 
  5642 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5643 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5646 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5647 quite rare).
  5648 
  5649 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5650 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5651 
  5652 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5653 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5654 terms.
  5655 
  5656 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5657 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5658 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5659 
  5660 
  5661 *** System ***
  5662 
  5663 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5664 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5665 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5666 
  5667 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5668 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5669 respectively.
  5670 
  5671 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5672 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5673 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5674 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5675 
  5676   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5677 
  5678 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5679 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5680 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5681 component.
  5682 
  5683 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5684 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5685 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5686 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5687 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5688 the user for manual installation.
  5689 
  5690 
  5691 
  5692 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5693 -------------------------------------
  5694 
  5695 *** General ***
  5696 
  5697 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5698 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5699 
  5700 
  5701 *** Pure ***
  5702 
  5703 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5704 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5705 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5706 
  5707 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5708 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5709 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5710 
  5711 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5712 interpretation.
  5713 
  5714 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5715 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5716 
  5717 
  5718 *** Document preparation ***
  5719 
  5720 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5721 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5722 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5723 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5724 
  5725 
  5726 *** HOL ***
  5727 
  5728 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5729 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5730 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5731 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5732 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5733 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5734 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5735 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5736 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5737 
  5738 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5739 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5740 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5741 
  5742 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5743 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5744 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5745 
  5746 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5747 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5748 
  5749 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5750 
  5751 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5752 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5753 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5754 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5755 
  5756 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5757 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5758 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5759 "mirabelle" utility.
  5760 
  5761 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5762 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5763 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5764 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5765 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5766 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5767 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5768 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5769 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5770 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5771 
  5772 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5773 procedure only.
  5774 
  5775 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5776 
  5777 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5778 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5779 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5780 that fail later.
  5781 
  5782 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5783 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5784 
  5785 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5786 the same method as the approximation method.
  5787 
  5788 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5789 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5790 series expansion.
  5791 
  5792 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5793 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5794 
  5795 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5796 reals.
  5797 
  5798 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5799 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5800 
  5801 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5802 fixpoint theorem.
  5803 
  5804 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5805   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5806     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5807   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5808     accordingly
  5809   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5810     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5811   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5812     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5813 
  5814 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5815 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5816 lattice.
  5817 
  5818 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5819 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5820 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5821 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5822 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5823 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5827   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5828     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5829   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5830     le_inf_iff
  5831   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5832     sup_aci)
  5833   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5834   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5835   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5836     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5837     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5838     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5839     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5840     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5841     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5842     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5843     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5844     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5845     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5846   - authentic syntax for
  5847     Set.Pow
  5848     Set.image
  5849   - mere abbreviations:
  5850     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5851     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5852     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5853     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5854     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5855     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5856     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5857     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5858   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5859 
  5860 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5861 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5862 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5863 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5864 
  5865 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5866 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5867 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5870 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5873 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5874 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5875 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5876 
  5877 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5878 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5879 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5880 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5881 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5882 
  5883 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5884 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5888 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889 
  5890 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5891 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5892 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5893 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5894 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5895 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5896 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5898 
  5899 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5900     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5901     code_post       replaces    code post
  5902     etc.
  5903   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5904 
  5905 * Renamed methods:
  5906     sizechange -> size_change
  5907     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5908   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5911 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5912 
  5913 * Renamed theorems:
  5914     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5915     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5916     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5917     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5918     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5919   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5920 
  5921 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 
  5928 *** HOLCF ***
  5929 
  5930 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5931 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5932 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5933 
  5934 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5935 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5936 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5937 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5938 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5939 
  5940 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5941 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5942 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5943 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5944 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5945 
  5946 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5947 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5948 constructor are pre-configured.
  5949 
  5950 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5951 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5952 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5953 
  5954 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5955 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5956 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5957 as well.)
  5958 
  5959 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5960 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5961 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5962 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5963 examples.
  5964 
  5965 
  5966 *** ML ***
  5967 
  5968 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5969 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5970 
  5971 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5972 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5973 position, logical grouping etc.
  5974 
  5975 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5976 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5977 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5978 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5979 
  5980 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5981 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5982 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5983 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5984 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5985 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5986 
  5987 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5988 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5989 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5990 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5991 experiments with references.
  5992 
  5993 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5994 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5995 
  5996 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5997 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5998 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5999 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6000 
  6001 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6002 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6003 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6004 
  6005 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6006 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6007 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6008 
  6009 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6010 
  6011 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6015 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6016 
  6017 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6018 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6019 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6020 
  6021 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6022 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6023 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6024 
  6025 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6026 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6027 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6031 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6032 instead of global theory.
  6033 
  6034 
  6035 *** System ***
  6036 
  6037 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6038 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6039 usedir option -q.
  6040 
  6041 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6042 also the system manual.
  6043 
  6044 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6045 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6046 
  6047 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6048 this is always enabled.
  6049 
  6050 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6051 
  6052 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6053 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6054 currently supported on Linux only.
  6055 
  6056 
  6057 
  6058 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6059 --------------------------------
  6060 
  6061 *** General ***
  6062 
  6063 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6064 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6065 
  6066   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6067     "isatool."
  6068 
  6069   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6070     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6071 
  6072   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6073     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6074 
  6075 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6076 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6077 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6078 
  6079 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6080 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6081 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6082 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6083 via "isabelle emacs".
  6084 
  6085 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6086 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6087 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6088 
  6089 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6090 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6091 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6092 
  6093 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6094 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6095 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6096 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6097 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6098 
  6099 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6100 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6101 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6102 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6103 
  6104 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6105 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6106 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6107 
  6108 
  6109 *** Pure ***
  6110 
  6111 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6112 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6113 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6114 
  6115 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6116 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6117 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6118 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6119 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6120 
  6121 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6122 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6123 useful in locale declarations.
  6124 
  6125 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6126 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6127 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6128 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6129 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6130 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6131 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6132 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6133 no longer generated.
  6134 
  6135 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6136 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6137 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6138 
  6139 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6140 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6141 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6142 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6143 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6144 
  6145 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6146 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6147 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6148 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6149 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6150 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6151 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6152 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6153 
  6154 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6155 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6156 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6157 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6158 
  6159 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6162 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6163 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6164 
  6165 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6166 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6167 
  6168 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6169 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6170 in HOL, write
  6171 
  6172     class foo = ...
  6173 
  6174 instead of
  6175 
  6176     class foo = type + ...
  6177 
  6178 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6179 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6182 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6183 
  6184 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6185 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6186 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6187 
  6188 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6189 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6190 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6191 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6192 directly in regular applications.
  6193 
  6194 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6195 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6196 
  6197 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6198 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6199 
  6200 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6201 theory context.
  6202 
  6203 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6204 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6205 
  6206 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6207 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6208 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6209 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6210 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6211 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6212 
  6213   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6214 
  6215 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6216 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6217 normalization.
  6218 
  6219 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6220 addressing etc.
  6221 
  6222 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6223 
  6224   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6225   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6226 
  6227 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6228 
  6229   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6230      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6231      parts of the code generator framework).
  6232 
  6233   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6234      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6235      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6236 
  6237 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6238 
  6239 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6240 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6241 
  6242 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6243 patterns, e.g.
  6244 
  6245     find_consts "_ => bool"
  6246 
  6247 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  6248 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  6249 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  6250 hyphen:
  6251 
  6252     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  6253 
  6254 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  6255 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  6256 
  6257 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  6258 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  6259 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  6260 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  6261 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  6262 higher-order unification.
  6263 
  6264 
  6265 *** Document preparation ***
  6266 
  6267 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  6268 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  6269 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  6270 
  6271 
  6272 *** HOL ***