NEWS
author blanchet
Mon Nov 04 10:52:41 2013 +0100 (2013-11-04)
changeset 54236 e00009523727
parent 54230 b1d955791529
child 54250 7d2544dd3988
permissions -rw-r--r--
moved code around
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    10     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    11 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    14     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    15     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    16 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    17 
    18 *** HOL ***
    19 
    20 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    21     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    22     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    24 
    25 * Fact name consolidation:
    26     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    27 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    28 
    29 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    30 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    31 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    32 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    33 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    34 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    35 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    36 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    37 
    38 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    39 
    40 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    41 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    42 
    43 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    44 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    45 
    46 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    47 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    48 or the brute way with
    49 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    50 
    51 
    52 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    53 -------------------------------------
    54 
    55 *** General ***
    56 
    57 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    58 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    59 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    60 
    61 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    62 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    63 
    64 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    65 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    66 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    67 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    68 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    69 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    70 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    71 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    72 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    73 syntax.
    74 
    75 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    76 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77 
    78 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    79 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    80 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    81 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    82 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    83 
    84 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    85 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    86 
    87 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    88 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    89 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    90 
    91 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    92 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    93 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    94 
    95 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    96 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    97 
    98 
    99 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   100 
   101 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   102 Documentation panel.
   103 
   104 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   105 documentation.
   106 
   107 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   108 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   109 
   110 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   111 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   112 normal editing and checking process.
   113 
   114 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   115 timing information.
   116 
   117 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   118 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   119 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   120 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   121 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   122 
   123 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   124 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   125 such command executions while editing.
   126 
   127 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   128 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   129 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   130 
   131 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   132 document content.
   133 
   134 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   135 toplevel theorem statements.
   136 
   137 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   138 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
   139 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
   140 
   141 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   142 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
   143 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   144 
   145 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   146 / Global Options / Appearance".
   147 
   148 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   149 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   150 
   151 
   152 *** Pure ***
   153 
   154 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   155 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   156 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   157 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   158 details.
   159 
   160 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   161 
   162 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   163 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   164 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   165 
   166 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   170 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   171 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   172 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   175 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   176 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   179 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   180 
   181 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   182 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   183 situations.
   184 
   185 
   186 *** HOL ***
   187 
   188 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   189 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   193 
   194 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   195 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   196 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   197 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   198 
   199   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   200 
   201 * Code generator:
   202   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   203     'code_instance'.
   204   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   205     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   206 
   207 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   208 examples.
   209 
   210 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   211 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   212 to distinguish both when desired.
   213 
   214 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   215 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   216 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   217 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   220 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   221 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   222 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   223 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   224 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   227 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   228 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   229 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   230 
   231 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   232 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   233 
   234 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   235 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   236 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   237 
   238 * Lifting:
   239   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   240     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   241       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   242       transfer rules
   243     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   244       correspondence relation can be generated
   245     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   246       parametricity
   247     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   248   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   249   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   250     copies
   251   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   252     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   253     anonymous context)
   254   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   255     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   256   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   257     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   258   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   259     INCOMPATIBILITY
   260 
   261 * Transfer:
   262   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   263     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   264   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   265   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   266     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   267   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   268 
   269 * Reification and reflection:
   270   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   271     "Reification".
   272   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   273   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   277   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   278     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   279     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   280   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   281     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   282   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   283     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   284     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   285     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   286     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   287     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   288     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   289     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   290   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   291     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   292   - Fact renames:
   293       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   294       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   298 
   299 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   300 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   301 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   305 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   306 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   307 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   308 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   309 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   310 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   311 lemmas.
   312 
   313 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   314 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   315 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316 
   317 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   318 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   319 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   320 
   321 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   322 top and bottom elements.
   323 
   324 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   325 
   326 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   327 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   328 
   329  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   330    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   331    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   332 
   333  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   334    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   335    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   336 
   337    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   338    arbitrary filter.
   339 
   340  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   341    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   342    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   343    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   344    on a compact set.
   345 
   346  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   347    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   348    linear_continuum_topology).
   349 
   350  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   351    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   352    on all sequences converging to x.
   353 
   354  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   355    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   356    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   357    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   358    left or right.
   359 
   360  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   361 
   362      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   363 
   364  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   365    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   366 
   367  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   368    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   369    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   370    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   371    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   372    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   373 
   374  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   375 
   376    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   377 
   378    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   379      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   380 
   381    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   382 
   383    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   384      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   385 
   386    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   387 
   388    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   389 
   390  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   391 
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Nitpick:
   395   - Added option "spy"
   396   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   397 
   398 * Sledgehammer:
   399   - Renamed option:
   400       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   401     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   403   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   404   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   405 
   406 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   407 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   408 
   409 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   410   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   411   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   412     generated code.
   413   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   414   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   415   - Fact renames:
   416     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   417     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   418     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   419 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   422 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   423 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   424 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   425 
   426 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   427 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   428 
   429 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   430 
   431 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   432 
   433     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   434     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   435 
   436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   437 
   438 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   439 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   440 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   441 
   442 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   443 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   444 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   445 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * HOL-BNF:
   448   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   449     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   450     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   451     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   452   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   453     coinduct).
   454   - Renamed keywords:
   455     data ~> datatype_new
   456     codata ~> codatatype
   457     bnf_def ~> bnf
   458   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   459     discs ~> disc
   460     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   461     map_id' ~> map_id
   462     sels ~> sel
   463     set_map' ~> set_map
   464     sets ~> set
   465 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 
   468 *** ML ***
   469 
   470 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   471 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   472 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   473 Examples.thy in particular.
   474 
   475 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   476 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   477 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   478 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   479 
   480 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   481 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   482 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   483 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   487 
   488     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   489     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   490 
   491 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   494 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   495 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   496 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   497 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   498 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   499 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   500 
   501 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   502 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   503 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   504 clasets separately from the context.
   505 
   506 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   507 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   508 
   509 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   510 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   511 
   512 
   513 *** System ***
   514 
   515 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   516 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517 
   518 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   519 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   522 settings variable.
   523 
   524 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   525 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   526 always pdf.
   527 
   528 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   529 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   530 
   531 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   532 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   533 
   534 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   535 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   536 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   537 
   538 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   539 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   540 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   541 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   542 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   543 for HTML presentation of theories.
   544 
   545 
   546 
   547 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   548 -----------------------------------
   549 
   550 *** General ***
   551 
   552 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   553 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   554 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   555 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   556 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   557 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   558 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   559 
   560 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   561 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   562 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   563 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   564 
   565 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   566 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   567 
   568 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   569 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   570 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   571 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   572 dependencies properly.
   573 
   574 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   575 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   576 
   577 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   578 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   579 
   580 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   581 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   582 and "class ... context ...".
   583 
   584 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   585 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   586 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   587 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   588 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   589 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   590 
   591 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   592 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   593 
   594 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   595 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   596 
   597 
   598 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   599 
   600 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   601 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   602 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   603 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   604 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   605 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   606 
   607 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   608 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   609 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   610 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   611 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   612 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   613 
   614 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   615 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   616 browser on demand.
   617 
   618 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   619 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   620 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   621 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   622 
   623 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   624 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   625 
   626 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   627 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   628 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   629 potentially infinite message streams.
   630 
   631 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   632 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   633 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   634 schemes.
   635 
   636 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   637 symbols.
   638 
   639 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   640 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   641 
   642 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   643 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   644 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   645 
   646 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   647 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   648 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   649 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   650 
   651 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   652 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   653 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   654 
   655 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   656 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   657 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   658 Isabelle distribution.
   659 
   660 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   661 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   662 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   663 
   664 
   665 *** Pure ***
   666 
   667 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   668 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   669 
   670 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   671 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   672 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   675 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   676 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   677 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   678 with some care where this is really required.
   679 
   680 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   681 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   682 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   683 
   684   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   685 
   686 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   687 a Hasse diagram.
   688 
   689 
   690 *** HOL ***
   691 
   692 * Sledgehammer:
   693 
   694   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   695     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   696   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   697   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   698   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   699   - Renamed options:
   700       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   701       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   702       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   703       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   704 
   705 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   706 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   707 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   708 
   709 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Lifting:
   713   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   714   - quot_del attribute
   715   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   716 
   717 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   718 expressions.
   719 
   720 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   721 pointfree expressions.
   722 
   723 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   724 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   725 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   726 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   730 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   731 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   732 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   733 accordingly.
   734 
   735 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   736 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   737 
   738 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   739 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   744 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   745 
   746 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   747 
   748 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   749 
   750   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   751   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   752 
   753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   756 
   757   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   758   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   759 
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   763 
   764   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   765     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   766     output f x converges to G.
   767 
   768   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   769     infinity (at_bot).
   770 
   771   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   772     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   773 
   774   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   775     at_top".
   776 
   777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 
   779 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   780 lattice type classes.
   781 
   782 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   783 
   784     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   785     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   786 
   787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   790 changes as follows.
   791 
   792   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   793 
   794       prefix ~> prefixeq
   795       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   796 
   797   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   798     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   799     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   800     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   801 
   802   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   803     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   804     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   805 
   806   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   807     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   808     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   809     Library/Prefix_Order.
   810 
   811   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   812     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   813 
   814       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   815       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   816       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   817       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   818       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   819       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   820       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   821       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   822       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   823       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   824       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   825       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   826       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   827       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   828       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   829       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   830 
   831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832 
   833 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   834 
   835 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   836 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   837 
   838 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   839 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   840 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   841 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   842 
   843   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   844   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   845   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   846   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   847   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   848   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   849   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   850   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   851   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   852   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   853 
   854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   857 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   858 Data").
   859 
   860 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   861 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   862 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   863 code.
   864 
   865 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   866 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   867 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   871 
   872 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   873 
   874 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   875 
   876   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   877   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   878 
   879 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   880 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   881 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   882 
   883   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   884 
   885     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   886     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   887     cart_base i  removed
   888     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   889 
   890   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   891 
   892   Renamed lemmas:
   893 
   894     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   895     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   896     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   897     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   898     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   899     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   900     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   901     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   902     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   903     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   904 
   905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   906 
   907 * HOL/Probability:
   908 
   909   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   910 
   911   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   912     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   913     (borel_measurable_induct).
   914 
   915   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   916     projective family).
   917 
   918 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   919 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   920 
   921 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   922 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   923 datatypes.
   924 
   925 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   926 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   927 
   928 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   929 trees for the code generator.
   930 
   931 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   932 Lifting/Transfer.
   933 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937 
   938 
   939 *** Document preparation ***
   940 
   941 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   942 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   943 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   944 
   945 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   946 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   947 
   948 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   949 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   950 document/root.tex.
   951 
   952 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   953 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 
   956 *** ML ***
   957 
   958 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   959 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   960 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   961 
   962 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   963 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   964 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   965 
   966 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   967 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   968 necessarily printing visible text.
   969 
   970 
   971 *** System ***
   972 
   973 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   974 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   975 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   976 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   977 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   978 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   979 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   980 
   981 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   982 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   983 
   984   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   985 
   986 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   987 
   988 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   989 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   990 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   991 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   992 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   993 
   994 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   995 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   996 
   997 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   998 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   999 
  1000 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1004 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1005 version of Isabelle.
  1006 
  1007 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1008 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1009 
  1010 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1011 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1012 for home-made settings.
  1013 
  1014 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1015 
  1016 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1017 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1018 configuration.
  1019 
  1020 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1021 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1022 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1023 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1024 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1025 
  1026 
  1027 
  1028 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1029 ------------------------------
  1030 
  1031 *** General ***
  1032 
  1033 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1034 
  1035   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1036     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1037   - markup for bound variables
  1038   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1039   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1040   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1041     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1042 
  1043 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1044 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1045 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1046 
  1047 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1048 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1049 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1050 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1051 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1052 
  1053   context
  1054     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1055     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1056   begin
  1057 
  1058   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1059 
  1060   end
  1061 
  1062   thm my_trans
  1063 
  1064 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1065 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1066 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1067 
  1068 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1069 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1070 
  1071 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1072 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1073 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1074 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1075 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1076 
  1077 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1078 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1079 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1080 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1081 indices of schematic variables.
  1082 
  1083 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1084 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1085 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1086 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1087 etc. was exploited.
  1088 
  1089 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1090 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1091 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1092 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1093 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1094 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1095 
  1096 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1097 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1098 manual.
  1099 
  1100 
  1101 *** Pure ***
  1102 
  1103 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1104 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1105 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1106 
  1107 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1108 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1109 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1110 undocumented feature.)
  1111 
  1112 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1113 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1114 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1115 
  1116   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1117 
  1118   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1119     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1120 
  1121 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1122 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1123 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1124 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1125 
  1126 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1127 
  1128     num ~> num_token
  1129     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1130     xstr ~> str_token
  1131 
  1132 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1133 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1134 position information via constraints).
  1135 
  1136 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1137 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1138 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1141 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1142 
  1143 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1144 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1145 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1148 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1151 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1152 
  1153   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1154 
  1155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1158 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159 
  1160 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1161 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1162 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1163 
  1164 
  1165 *** HOL ***
  1166 
  1167 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1168 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1169 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1170 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1171 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1172 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1173 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1174 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1175 possible.
  1176 
  1177 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1178 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1179 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1180 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1181 
  1182 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1183 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1186 
  1187 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1188 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1189 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1190 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1191 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1192 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1193 
  1194   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1195     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1196 
  1197   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1198     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1199     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1200 
  1201   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1202     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1203 
  1204   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1205     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1206     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1207 
  1208   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1209     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1210 
  1211 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1212 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1213 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1214 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1215 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1216 
  1217   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1218     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1219     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1220     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1221     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1222 
  1223     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1224     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1225 
  1226   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1227     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1228     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1229     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1230     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1231     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1232     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1233     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1234 
  1235   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1236     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1237     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1238     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1239 
  1240   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1241     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1242     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1243     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1244 
  1245   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1246     from type nat to type int.
  1247 
  1248 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1249 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1250 
  1251   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1252     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1253     type.  Example syntax:
  1254 
  1255     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1256       is List.insert
  1257 
  1258     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1259     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1260     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1261     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1262     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1263     by the package.
  1264 
  1265   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1266     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1267     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1268     code generation for each constant.
  1269 
  1270   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1271     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1272     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1273     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1274     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1275 
  1276   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1277     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1278     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1279 
  1280 * Quotient package:
  1281 
  1282   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1283     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1284 
  1285   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1286     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1287 
  1288   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1289     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1290     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1293     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1296 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1297 
  1298 * Quickcheck:
  1299 
  1300   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1301     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1302     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1303     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1304     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1305 
  1306     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1307     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1308     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1309 
  1310     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1311     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1312 
  1313     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1314     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1315     show genuine counterexamples.
  1316 
  1317   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1318     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1319 
  1320     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1321     constructors of that type.
  1322 
  1323   - Support for multisets.
  1324 
  1325   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1326 
  1327   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1328     conjectures in a locale context.
  1329 
  1330 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1331 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1332 
  1333 * Sledgehammer:
  1334   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1335     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1336   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1337   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1338     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1339   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1340   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1341   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1342   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1343 
  1344 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1345 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1346 
  1347 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1348 
  1349 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1352 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1353 
  1354   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1355 
  1356 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1357 a list and a nat.
  1358 
  1359 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1360 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1361 
  1362 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1363 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1364 default.
  1365 
  1366 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1367 
  1368   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1369 
  1370 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1371 
  1372 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1373 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1374 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1375 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1376 one_case.
  1377 
  1378 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1379 the result of the fact expression.
  1380 
  1381 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1382 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1383 of some relation theorems:
  1384 
  1385   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1386   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1387   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1388   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1389   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1390   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1391 
  1392 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1393 
  1394 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1395 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1396 
  1397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1400 to match the constant's name:
  1401 
  1402   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1403   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1404   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1405   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1406   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1407   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1408   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1409   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1410   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1411   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1412   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1413   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1414   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1415   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1416   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1417   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1418   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1419   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1420   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1421   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1422   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1423   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1424   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1425   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1426 
  1427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1430 and corresponding theorem names:
  1431 
  1432   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1433 
  1434   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1435 
  1436   - Renamed theorems:
  1437 
  1438     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1439     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1440     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1441     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1442     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1443     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1444     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1445     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1446     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1447     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1448     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1449     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1450     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1451     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1452     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1453     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1454     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1455     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1456     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1457     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1458     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1459     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1460     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1461 
  1462     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1463 
  1464     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1465 
  1466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1467 
  1468 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1469 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1470 
  1471   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1472   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1473   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1474   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1475   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1476   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1477   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1478   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1479   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1480   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1481   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1482   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1483   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1484   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1485   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1486   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1487   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1488   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1489   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1490   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1491   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1492 
  1493 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1494 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1499 
  1500   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1501   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1502   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1503   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1504   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1505   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1506   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1507   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1508   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1509   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1510   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1511   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1512   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1513   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1514   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1515   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1516   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1517   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1518 
  1519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1522 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1523 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1524 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1525 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1526 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1527 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1529 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1530 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1531 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1532 
  1533 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1534 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1535 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1536 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1537 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1538 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1539 
  1540 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1541 through option types.
  1542 
  1543 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1544 relations.
  1545 
  1546 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1549 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1550 
  1551   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1552   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1553   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1554   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1555   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1556   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1557   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1558   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1559   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1560   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1561   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1562   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1563   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1564   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1565   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1566   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1567   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1568   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1569   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1570   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1571   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1572   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1573   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1574   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1575   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1576   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1577   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1578   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1579   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1580   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1581   zless_le ~> less_le
  1582   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1583   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1584   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1585 
  1586 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1587 
  1588   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1589 
  1590 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1591 
  1592 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1593 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1594 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1595 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1599 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1600 
  1601 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1602 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1603 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1604 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1605 follows:
  1606 
  1607   Operations:
  1608   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1609   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1610   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1611   del -> rbt_del
  1612   delete -> rbt_delete
  1613   ins -> rbt_ins
  1614   insert -> rbt_insert
  1615   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1616   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1617   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1618   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1619   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1620   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1621   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1622   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1623   union -> rbt_union
  1624   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1625   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1626 
  1627   Lemmas:
  1628   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1629   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1630   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1631   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1632   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1633   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1634   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1635   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1636   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1637   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1638   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1639   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1640   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1641   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1642   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1643   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1644   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1645   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1646   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1647   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1648   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1649   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1650   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1651   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1652   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1653   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1654   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1655   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1656   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1657   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1658   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1659   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1660   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1661   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1662   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1663   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1664   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1665   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1666   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1667   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1668   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1669   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1670   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1671   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1672   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1673   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1674   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1675   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1676   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1677   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1678   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1679   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1680   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1681   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1682   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1683   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1684   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1685   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1686   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1687   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1688   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1689   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1690   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1691   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1692   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1693   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1694   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1695   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1696   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1697   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1698   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1699   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1700   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1701   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1702   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1703   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1704   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1705   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1706   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1707   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1708   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1709   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1710   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1711 
  1712 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1713 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1714 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716   Changed Operations:
  1717   float_abs -> abs
  1718   float_nprt -> nprt
  1719   float_pprt -> pprt
  1720   pow2 -> use powr
  1721   round_down -> float_round_down
  1722   round_up -> float_round_up
  1723   scale -> exponent
  1724 
  1725   Removed Operations:
  1726   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1727 
  1728   Renamed Lemmas:
  1729   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1730   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1731   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1732   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1733   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1734   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1735   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1736   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1737   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1738   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1739   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1740   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1741   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1742   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1743   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1744   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1745   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1746   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1747   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1748   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1749   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1750   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1751   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1752   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1753   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1754   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1755   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1756   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1757   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1758   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1759   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1760   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1761   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1762   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1763   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1764   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1765 
  1766   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1767   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1768   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1769   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1770   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1771   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1772   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1773   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1774   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1775   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1776 
  1777 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1778 association lists with distinct keys.
  1779 
  1780 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1781 annotated commands.
  1782 
  1783 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1784 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1785 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1786 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1789 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1790 instead.
  1791 
  1792   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1793   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1794   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1795   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1796   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1797   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1798   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1799   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1800   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1801   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1802   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1803   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1804   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1805   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1806   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1807   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1808   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1809   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1810   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1811   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1812   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1813   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1814   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1815   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1816   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1817   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1818   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1819   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1820   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1821   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1822   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1823   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1824   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1825   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1826   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1827   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1828   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1829   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1830   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1831   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1832   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1833 
  1834 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1835 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1836 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1837 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1838 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1839 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1840 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1841 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1842 
  1843 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1844 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1845 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1846 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1847 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1848 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1849 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1850 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1851 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1852 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1853 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1854 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855 
  1856   Renamed constants:
  1857   measure -> emeasure
  1858   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1859   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1860   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1861   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1862 
  1863   Removed locales:
  1864   completeable_measure_space
  1865   finite_measure_space
  1866   finite_prob_space
  1867   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1868   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1869   finite_sigma_algebra
  1870   measure_space
  1871   pair_finite_prob_space
  1872   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1873   pair_finite_space
  1874   pair_sigma_algebra
  1875   product_sigma_algebra
  1876 
  1877   Removed constants:
  1878   conditional_space
  1879   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1880   image_space
  1881   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1882   pair_measure_generator
  1883   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1884   subvimage
  1885 
  1886   Replacement theorems:
  1887   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1888   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1889   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1890   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1891   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1892   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1893   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1894   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1895   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1896   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1897   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1898   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1899   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1900   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1901   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1902   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1903   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1904   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1905   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1906   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1907   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1908   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1909   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1910   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1911   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1912   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1913   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1914   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1915   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1916   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1917   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1918   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1919   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1920   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1921   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1922   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1923   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1924   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1925   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1926   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1927   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1928   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1929   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1930   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1931   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1932   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1933   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1934   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1935   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1936   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1937   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1938   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1939   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1940   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1941   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1942   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1943   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1944   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1945   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1946   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1947   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1948   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1949   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1950   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1951   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1952   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1953   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1954   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1955   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1956   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1957   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1958   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1959   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1960   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1961   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1962   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1963   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1964   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1965   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1966   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1967   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1968   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1969   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1970   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1971   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1972   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1973   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1974   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1975   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1976   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1977   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1978   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1979   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1980   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1981   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1982   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1983   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1984   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1985   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1986   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1987   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1988   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1989   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1990   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1991   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1992   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1993   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1994   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1995   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1996   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1997   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1998   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1999   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2000   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2001   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2002   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2003   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2004   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2005   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2006   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2007   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2008   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2009   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2010   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2011   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2012   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2013   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2014   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2015 
  2016 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2017 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2018 
  2019 
  2020 *** FOL ***
  2021 
  2022 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2023 
  2024 
  2025 *** ZF ***
  2026 
  2027 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2028 analysis.
  2029 
  2030 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2031 
  2032 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2033 
  2034 
  2035 *** ML ***
  2036 
  2037 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2038 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2039 
  2040 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2041 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2042 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2043 
  2044 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2045 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2046 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2047 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2048 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2049 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2050 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2051 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2052 
  2053 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2054 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2055 
  2056 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2057 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2058 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2059 
  2060 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2061 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2062 
  2063 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2064 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2065 context as well.
  2066 
  2067 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2068 
  2069   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2070   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2071   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2072   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2073   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2074   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2075   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2076   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2077   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2078   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2079   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2080   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2081 
  2082 
  2083 *** System ***
  2084 
  2085 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2086 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2087 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2088 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2089 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2090 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2091 the generic user home was intended.
  2092 
  2093 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2094 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2095 
  2096 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2097 (not just JRE).
  2098 
  2099 
  2100 
  2101 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2102 ------------------------------------
  2103 
  2104 *** General ***
  2105 
  2106 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2107 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2108 
  2109   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2110     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2111     files for checking).
  2112 
  2113   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2114     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2115     positions.
  2116 
  2117   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2118     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2119     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2120 
  2121   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2122     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2123     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2124 
  2125   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2126     cores.
  2127 
  2128   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2129     versions (garbage collection).
  2130 
  2131 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2132 including some remaining limitations.
  2133 
  2134 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2135 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2136 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2137 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2138 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2142 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2143 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2144 
  2145 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2146 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2147 usedir option -Q.
  2148 
  2149 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2150 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2151 
  2152   long_names   ~> names_long
  2153   short_names  ~> names_short
  2154   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2155 
  2156 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2157 
  2158   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2159 
  2160 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2161 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2162 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2163 
  2164 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2165 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2166 
  2167 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2168   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2169   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2170   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2171     "Classical Reasoner".
  2172 
  2173 
  2174 *** HOL ***
  2175 
  2176 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2177 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2180 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2181 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2182 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2183 class complete_linorder.
  2184 
  2185 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2186 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2187 
  2188 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2189 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2190 
  2191   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2192   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2193   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2194   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2195   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2196   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2197   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2198   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2199   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2200   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2201   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2202 
  2203 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2204 
  2205   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2206   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2207   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2208   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2209   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2210   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2211   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2212   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2213   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2214   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2215   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2216   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2217   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2218   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2219   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2220   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2221 
  2222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2228 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2229 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2230 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2233 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2234 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2238 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2239 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2240 
  2241 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2242 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2243 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2246 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2247 
  2248 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2249 
  2250     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2251     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2252 
  2253 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2254 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2257 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2260 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2261 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2262 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263 
  2264   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2265   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2266   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2267   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2268   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2269   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2270   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2271 
  2272 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2273 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2276   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2277   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2278   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2279   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2280   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2281   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2282   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2283   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2284   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2285   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2286   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2287   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2288   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2289   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2290   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2291   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2292   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2293   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2294   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2295   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2296   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2297   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2298   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2299   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2300   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2301   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2302   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2303   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2304   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2305   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2306   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2307   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2308   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2309   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2310   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2311   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2312   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2313   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2314   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2315   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2316   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2317   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2318   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2319   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2320   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2321   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2322   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2323   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2324   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2325   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2326   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2327   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2328   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2329   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2330   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2331   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2332   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2333   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2334   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2335   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2336   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2337   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2338   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2339   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2340   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2341   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2342   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2343   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2344   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2345   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2346   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2347   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2348   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2349   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2350   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2351   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2352   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2353   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2354   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2355   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2356   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2357 
  2358 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2359 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2360 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2361 
  2362 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2363 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2364 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2365 
  2366 * Code generation:
  2367 
  2368   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2369     characters in the target language.
  2370 
  2371   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2372     instead.
  2373 
  2374   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2375 
  2376   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2377     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2378 
  2379       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2380 
  2381 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2384 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2385 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2386 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2387 syntax.
  2388 
  2389 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2390 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2391 
  2392 * Nitpick:
  2393   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2394   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2395   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2396     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Sledgehammer:
  2399   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2400   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2401     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2402   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2403     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2404   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2405     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2407     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2408   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2409     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2410 
  2411 * Metis:
  2412   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2414     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 * Command 'try':
  2417   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2418     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2419   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2420     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2421 
  2422 * Quickcheck:
  2423   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2424     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2425   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2426     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2427   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2428     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2429     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2430     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2431   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2432     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2433 
  2434 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2435 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2436 
  2437 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2438 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2439 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2440 
  2441 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2442 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2446 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2449 arithmetic.
  2450 
  2451 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2452 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2453 and lattice type classes.
  2454 
  2455 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2456 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2457 
  2458 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2459 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2460 
  2461 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2462 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2463 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2466   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2467   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2468   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2469 
  2470 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2471 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2472 constants:
  2473 
  2474   type inat   ~> type enat
  2475   Fin         ~> enat
  2476   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2477   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2478   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2479 
  2480 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2481 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482 
  2483 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2484 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2485 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2486 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2487 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2488 
  2489 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2490 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2491 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2492 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2493 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2494 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2495 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2496 
  2497   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2498   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2499   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2500   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2501 
  2502 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2503 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2504 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2507   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2508   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2509   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2510   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2511   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2512   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2513   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2514   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2515   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2516   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2517   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2518   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2519   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2520   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2521   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2522   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2523   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2524   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2525   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2526   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2527   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2528   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2529   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2530   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2531   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2532   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2533   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2534   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2535   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2536   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2537   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2538   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2539   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2540   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2541   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2542   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2543   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2544   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2545   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2546   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2547   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2548   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2549   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2550   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2551   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2552   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2553   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2554   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2555   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2556   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2557 
  2558 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2559   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2560   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2561   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2562   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2563     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2564 
  2565 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2568   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2569   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2570   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2571   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2572   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2573   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2574   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2575   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2576   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2577   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2578   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2579   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2580   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2581   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2582   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2583   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2584   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2585   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2586   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2587   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2588   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2589   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2590   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2591   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2592 
  2593 
  2594 *** Document preparation ***
  2595 
  2596 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2597 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2598 same.
  2599 
  2600 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2601 result.
  2602 
  2603 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2604 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2605 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2606 
  2607 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2608 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2609 
  2610 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2611 like this:
  2612 
  2613   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2614   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2615 
  2616 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2617 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2618 layouts.
  2619 
  2620 
  2621 *** ML ***
  2622 
  2623 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2624 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2625 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2626 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2627 under external program control.
  2628 
  2629 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2630 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2631 
  2632 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2633 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2634 (better known as Proof General).
  2635 
  2636 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2637 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2638 
  2639 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2640 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2641 
  2642 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2643 (including quotes etc.).
  2644 
  2645 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2646 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2647 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2648 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2649 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2650 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2651 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2652 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2653 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2654 
  2655 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2656 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2657 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2658 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2659 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2660 
  2661 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2662 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2663 
  2664 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2665 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2666 
  2667 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2668 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2669 
  2670 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2671 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2672 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2673 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2674 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2675 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2676 proper Proof.context.
  2677 
  2678 
  2679 *** System ***
  2680 
  2681 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2682 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2683 
  2684 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2685 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2686 
  2687 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2688 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2689 
  2690   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2691   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2692   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2693   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2694   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2695 
  2696 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2697 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2700 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2701 example:
  2702 
  2703   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2704 
  2705 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2706 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2707 
  2708 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2709 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2710 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2711 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2712 
  2713 
  2714 
  2715 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2716 ----------------------------------
  2717 
  2718 *** General ***
  2719 
  2720 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2721 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2722 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2723 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2724 like this:
  2725 
  2726   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2727 
  2728 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2729 
  2730 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2731 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2732 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2733 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2734 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2735 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2736 
  2737 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2738 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2739 the following package declarations:
  2740 
  2741   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2742   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2743 
  2744 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2745 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2746 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2747 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2748 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2749 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2750 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2751 
  2752 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2753 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2754 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2755 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2756 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2757 
  2758 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2759 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2760 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2761 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2762 
  2763 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2764 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2765 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2766 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2767 
  2768   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2769 
  2770   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2771   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2772   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2773   show_types                    show_types
  2774   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2775   show_consts                   show_consts
  2776   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2777 
  2778   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2779   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2780   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2781 
  2782   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2783   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2784 
  2785   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2786 
  2787   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2788   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2789   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2790   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2791   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2792 
  2793 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2794 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2795 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2796 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2797 
  2798 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2802   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2803 
  2804 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2805 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2806 float_token.
  2807 
  2808 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2809 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2813 DejaVu Sans.
  2814 
  2815 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2816 
  2817 
  2818 *** Pure ***
  2819 
  2820 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2821 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2822 time.
  2823 
  2824 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2825 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2828 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2831 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2832 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2833 command already provided this functionality.
  2834 
  2835 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2836 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2837 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2838 without interpretations.
  2839 
  2840 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2841 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2842 
  2843 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2844 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2845 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2846 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2847 
  2848 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2849 'definition' instead.
  2850 
  2851 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2852 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2853 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2854 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2855 
  2856 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2857 constructors.
  2858 
  2859 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2860 the local file system.
  2861 
  2862 
  2863 *** HOL ***
  2864 
  2865 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2866 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2867 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2868 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2869 
  2870   declare [[coercion f]]
  2871 
  2872 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2873 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2874 
  2875   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2876 
  2877 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2878 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2879 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2880 other theories like this:
  2881 
  2882   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2883 
  2884 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2885 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2886 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2887 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2888 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2889 for examples.
  2890 
  2891 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2892 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2895 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2896 
  2897 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2898 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2899 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2900 
  2901 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2902 functorial structure of types.
  2903 
  2904 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2905 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2906 
  2907 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2908 languages.
  2909 
  2910 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2911 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2913 
  2914 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2915 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2918 combinators any longer.
  2919 
  2920 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2921 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2922 
  2923 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2924 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2925 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2926 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2927 
  2928   record 'a foo = ...
  2929   ...
  2930   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2931 
  2932 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2933 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2937 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2938 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2939 
  2940 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2941 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2942 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2943 
  2944 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2945 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2948 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2949 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2950 independently.
  2951 
  2952 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2953 counter example search.
  2954 
  2955 * Sledgehammer:
  2956   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2957     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2958     sledgehammer").
  2959   - Renamed commands:
  2960     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2961     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2962     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2963     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964   - Renamed options:
  2965     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2966     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2967     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2968     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2969     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * Nitpick:
  2972   - Renamed options:
  2973     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2974     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2975     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2977   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2978   - Added "whack" option.
  2979   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2980   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2981   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2982   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2983     higher cardinalities.
  2984   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2985 
  2986 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2987 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2988 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2989 
  2990     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2991 
  2992 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2993 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2994 
  2995 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2996 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2997 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2998 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2999 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3000 "smt_solver".
  3001 
  3002 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3003 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3004 
  3005 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3006 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3007 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3008 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3011   - Renamed:
  3012     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3013     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3014     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015   - Added:
  3016     smt_verbose
  3017     smt_random_seed
  3018     smt_datatypes
  3019     smt_infer_triggers
  3020     smt_monomorph_limit
  3021     cvc3_options
  3022     remote_cvc3_options
  3023     remote_z3_options
  3024     yices_options
  3025 
  3026 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3027 header.
  3028 
  3029 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3030 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3031 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3032 
  3033   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3034 
  3035 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3038 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3041 
  3042 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3043 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3046 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3047 
  3048 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3049 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3052 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3053 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054 
  3055 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3061 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3064 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3065 for congruent(2)).
  3066 
  3067 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3068 
  3069   types
  3070     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3071     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3072 
  3073   constants
  3074     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3075     True ~> HOL.True
  3076     False ~> HOL.False
  3077     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3078     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3079     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3080     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3081     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3082     The ~> HOL.The
  3083     All ~> HOL.All
  3084     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3085     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3086     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3087     If ~> HOL.If
  3088     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3089     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3090     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3091     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3092     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3093     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3094     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3095     op : ~> Set.member
  3096     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3097 
  3098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3101 
  3102     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3103     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3104     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3105     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3106     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3107     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3108     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3109     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3110 
  3111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * More stylized fact names:
  3114 
  3115   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3116   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3117   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3118   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3119 
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3123 
  3124   constants
  3125     null ~> List.null
  3126 
  3127   facts
  3128     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3129     null_empty ~> null_def
  3130 
  3131 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3132 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3133 generation.
  3134 
  3135 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3136 Haskell code.
  3137 
  3138 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3139 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3140 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3143 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3146 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3147 
  3148 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3149 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3150 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3153 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3159 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3160 referred to by its qualified name.
  3161 
  3162   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3163   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3164   product ~>  Enum.product
  3165 
  3166 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3167 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3171 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3172 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3176 sort_key.
  3177 
  3178 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3182 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3183 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3184 
  3185   types
  3186     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3187               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3188               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3189         (depends on your needs)
  3190 
  3191   constants
  3192      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3193      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3194      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3195 
  3196 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3197 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3198 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3199 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3202 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3203 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3204 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3205 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3211 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3212 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3213 
  3214 
  3215 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3216 
  3217 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3218 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3219 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3220 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3221 compatibility.
  3222 
  3223 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3224 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3225 
  3226 
  3227 *** HOLCF ***
  3228 
  3229 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3230 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3231 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3235 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3236 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237 
  3238   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3239   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3240   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3241 
  3242 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3243 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3244 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3247 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3248 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3249 domain definition now works:
  3250 
  3251   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3252 
  3253 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3254 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3255 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3256 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3257 
  3258   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3259     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3260 
  3261   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3262 
  3263 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3264 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3265 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3268 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3271 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3272 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3273 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3274 
  3275 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3276 
  3277 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3285 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3286 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3287 
  3288 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3289 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3290 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3293 still supported as an input translation.
  3294 
  3295 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3296 
  3297   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3298   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3299   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3300   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3301   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3302   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3303   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3304 
  3305 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3306 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3309   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3310   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3311   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3312   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3313   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3314 
  3315 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3316 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3319 
  3320   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3321   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3322   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3323   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3324 
  3325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3328 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3331 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3334   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3335   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3336   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3337   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3338   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3339   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3340   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3341   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3342   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3343   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3344   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3345   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3346   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3347   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3348   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3349   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3350   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3351   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3352   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3353 
  3354 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3357   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3358   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3359   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3360   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3361   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3362   box_less             ~> box_below
  3363   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3364   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3365   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3366   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3367   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3368   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3369   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3370   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3371   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3372   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3373   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3374   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3375   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3376   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3377   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3378   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3379   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3380   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3381   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3382   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3383   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3384   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3385   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3386   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3387   up_less              ~> up_below
  3388   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3389   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3390   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3391   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3392   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3393   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3394   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3395   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3396   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3397   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3398   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3399   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3400   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3401 
  3402 
  3403 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3404 
  3405 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3406 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 
  3409 *** ML ***
  3410 
  3411 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3412 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3413 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3414 
  3415 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3416 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3417 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3418 
  3419 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3420 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3421 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3422 
  3423 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3424 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3425 
  3426 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3427 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3428 
  3429 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3430 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3431 
  3432 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3433 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3434 
  3435 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3436 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3437 almost all situations.
  3438 
  3439 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3440 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3441 Isabelle/ML.
  3442 
  3443 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3444 meaning.
  3445 
  3446 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3447 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3448 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3449 
  3450 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3451 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3452 
  3453 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3454 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3455 
  3456 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3457 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3458 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3459 
  3460 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3461 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3462 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3463 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3464 configuration options.
  3465 
  3466 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3467 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3468 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3469 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3470 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3471 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3472 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3473 
  3474 
  3475 
  3476 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3477 ---------------------------------
  3478 
  3479 *** General ***
  3480 
  3481 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3482 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3483 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3484 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3485 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3486 their full internal name.
  3487 
  3488 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3489 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3490 Some hints on upgrading:
  3491 
  3492   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3493     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3494     which are independent of this issue.
  3495 
  3496   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3497     provides the following special forms:
  3498 
  3499       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3500       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3501       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3502 
  3503     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3504     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3505     extra variables".
  3506 
  3507     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3508     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3509     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3510     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3511     "logic".
  3512 
  3513   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3514     antiquotations:
  3515 
  3516       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3517       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3518       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3519       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3520 
  3521   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3522     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3523     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3524     antiquotations.
  3525 
  3526 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3527 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3528 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3529 diagnose syntax problems.
  3530 
  3531 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3532 
  3533 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3534 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3535 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3536 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3537 
  3538 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3539 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3540 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3541 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3544 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3545 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3546 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3547 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3550 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3551 
  3552 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3553 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3554 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3555 
  3556   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3557 
  3558 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3559 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3560 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3561 
  3562 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3563 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3567 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3568 
  3569 
  3570 *** Pure ***
  3571 
  3572 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3573 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3574 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3575 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3576 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3577 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3578 inspect proof terms.
  3579 
  3580 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3581 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3582 are added internally.  For example:
  3583 
  3584   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3585 
  3586 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3587 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3592 'class' instead.
  3593 
  3594 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3595 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3599 invariants.
  3600 
  3601 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3602 user space functionality any longer.
  3603 
  3604 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3605 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3609 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3610 
  3611 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3612 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3613 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3614 
  3615 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3616 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3617 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3618 
  3619 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3620 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622 
  3623 *** HOL ***
  3624 
  3625 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3626 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3627 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3628 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3629 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3630 
  3631 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3632 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3633 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3634 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3635 
  3636   fun
  3637     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3638   where
  3639     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3640 
  3641   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3642     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3643 
  3644   quotient_definition
  3645     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3646 
  3647 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3648 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3649 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3650 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3651 
  3652 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3653 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3654 
  3655 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3656 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3657 
  3658 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3662 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3663 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3664 
  3665 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3666 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3670 
  3671 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3675 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3678 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3679 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3682   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3683   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3684   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3685   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3686   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3687   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3688   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3689   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3690   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3691   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3692   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3693   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3694   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3695   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3696   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3697   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3698   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3699   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3700   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3701   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3702   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3703   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3704   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3705   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3706   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3707   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3708   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3709   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3710   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3711 
  3712 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3713 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3714 
  3715 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3716 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3717 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3718 
  3719 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3720 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3721 
  3722 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3723 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3726 
  3727 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3728 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3731 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3734 
  3735 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3736 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3737 
  3738 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3739 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3740 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3741 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3744   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3745   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3746   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3750 lattices):
  3751 
  3752     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3753     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3754 
  3755     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3756 
  3757     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3758     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3759     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3760     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3761     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3762     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3763     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3764     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3765     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3766     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3767     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3768     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3769     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3770 
  3771     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3772     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3773     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3774     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3775     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3776     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3777     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3778     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3779     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3780     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3781     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3782     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3783     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3784     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3785     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3786     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3787     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3788     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3789 
  3790   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3791   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3792 
  3793     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3794     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3795     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3796     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3797     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3798 
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Refined field classes:
  3802   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3803     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3804     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3805   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3809   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3810   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3811   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3812     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3813   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3814     equal_neg_zero.
  3815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3818 sets to lattices:
  3819 
  3820   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3821   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3822   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3823   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3824   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3825   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3826   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3827   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3828   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3829   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3830 
  3831 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3832 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3833 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3834 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3835 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3836 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3839 multiset order:
  3840 
  3841   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3842     <= and <;
  3843   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3844     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3845     multiset_order;
  3846   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3847     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3848     generation;
  3849   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3850     if needed.
  3851 
  3852 Renamed:
  3853 
  3854   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3855   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3856   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3857 
  3858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3861 
  3862 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3863 
  3864 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3865 
  3866 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3867 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3868 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870   Constants:
  3871   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3872   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3873   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3874   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3875   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3876   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3877   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3878   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3879   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3880   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3881   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3882   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3883   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3884 
  3885   Lemmas:
  3886   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3887   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3888   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3889   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3890   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3891   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3892   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3893   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3894   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3895   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3896   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3897   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3898   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3899 
  3900 * Sledgehammer:
  3901   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3902     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3903     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3904     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3905     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3906     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3907     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3909   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3910     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3911   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3912     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3913     is still experimental.)
  3914   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3915     full-typed mode.
  3916   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3917 
  3918 * Nitpick:
  3919   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3920   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3921   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3922     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3923   - Added support for quotient types.
  3924   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3925     constructs.
  3926   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3927     "termination" proofs).
  3928   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3929   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3930   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3931   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3932     record getters.
  3933   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3934   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3935   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3936   - Added "atoms" option.
  3937   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3938     problems.
  3939   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3940     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3941     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3943     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3947   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3948   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3949   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3950   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3951   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3952   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3953   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3954   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3955   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 
  3958 *** HOLCF ***
  3959 
  3960 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3961 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3962 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3965 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3966 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3967 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3970 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3971 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3972 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3973 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3976 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3977 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3980 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3983   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3984 
  3985 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3986 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3989   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3990   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3991   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3992   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3993 
  3994 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3995 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3998   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3999   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4000 
  4001 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4002 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4006 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4011 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 
  4014 *** ML ***
  4015 
  4016 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4017 
  4018     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4019     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4020 
  4021     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4022     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4023     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4024     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4025 
  4026     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4027     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4028     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4029 
  4030 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4031 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4032 
  4033 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4034 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4035 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4036 
  4037 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4038 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4039 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4040 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4041 
  4042 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4043 the context or even global references.
  4044 
  4045 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4046 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4047 
  4048 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4049 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4050 
  4051   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4052   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4053   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4054   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4055   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4056   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4057   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4058   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4059   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4060   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4061 
  4062 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4063 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4064 
  4065 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4066 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4067 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4068 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4069 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4070 
  4071 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4072 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4073 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4074 Theory_Data version.
  4075 
  4076 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4077 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4078 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4079 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4080 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4081 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4082 explicitly in rare situations.
  4083 
  4084 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4085 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4089 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4092 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4093 quite rare).
  4094 
  4095 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4096 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4099 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4100 terms.
  4101 
  4102 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4103 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4104 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4105 
  4106 
  4107 *** System ***
  4108 
  4109 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4110 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4111 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4112 
  4113 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4114 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4115 respectively.
  4116 
  4117 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4118 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4119 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4120 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4121 
  4122   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4123 
  4124 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4125 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4126 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4127 component.
  4128 
  4129 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4130 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4131 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4132 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4133 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4134 the user for manual installation.
  4135 
  4136 
  4137 
  4138 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4139 -------------------------------------
  4140 
  4141 *** General ***
  4142 
  4143 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4144 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4145 
  4146 
  4147 *** Pure ***
  4148 
  4149 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4150 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4151 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4152 
  4153 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4154 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4155 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4156 
  4157 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4158 interpretation.
  4159 
  4160 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4161 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 
  4164 *** Document preparation ***
  4165 
  4166 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4167 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4168 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4169 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4170 
  4171 
  4172 *** HOL ***
  4173 
  4174 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4175 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4176 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4177 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4178 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4179 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4180 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4181 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4182 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4183 
  4184 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4185 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4186 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4187 
  4188 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4189 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4190 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4191 
  4192 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4193 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4194 
  4195 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4196 
  4197 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4198 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4199 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4200 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4201 
  4202 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4203 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4204 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4205 "mirabelle" utility.
  4206 
  4207 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4208 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4209 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4210 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4211 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4212 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4213 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4214 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4215 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4216 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4217 
  4218 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4219 procedure only.
  4220 
  4221 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4222 
  4223 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4224 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4225 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4226 that fail later.
  4227 
  4228 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4229 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4230 
  4231 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4232 the same method as the approximation method.
  4233 
  4234 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4235 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4236 series expansion.
  4237 
  4238 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4239 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4240 
  4241 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4242 reals.
  4243 
  4244 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4245 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4246 
  4247 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4248 fixpoint theorem.
  4249 
  4250 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4251   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4252     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4253   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4254     accordingly
  4255   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4256     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4257   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4258     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4259 
  4260 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4261 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4262 lattice.
  4263 
  4264 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4265 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4266 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4267 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4268 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4269 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4271 
  4272 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4273   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4274     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4275   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4276     le_inf_iff
  4277   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4278     sup_aci)
  4279   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4280   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4281   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4282     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4283     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4284     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4285     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4286     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4287     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4288     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4289     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4290     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4291     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4292   - authentic syntax for
  4293     Set.Pow
  4294     Set.image
  4295   - mere abbreviations:
  4296     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4297     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4298     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4299     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4300     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4301     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4302     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4303     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4304   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4305 
  4306 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4307 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4308 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4309 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4310 
  4311 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4312 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4313 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4316 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4319 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4320 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4321 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4324 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4325 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4326 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4327 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4328 
  4329 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4330 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4334 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4335 
  4336 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4337 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4338 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4339 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4340 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4341 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4342 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4346     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4347     code_post       replaces    code post
  4348     etc.
  4349   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * Renamed methods:
  4352     sizechange -> size_change
  4353     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4355 
  4356 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4357 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4358 
  4359 * Renamed theorems:
  4360     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4361     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4362     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4363     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4364     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4365   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 
  4374 *** HOLCF ***
  4375 
  4376 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4377 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4378 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4379 
  4380 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4381 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4382 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4383 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4384 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4385 
  4386 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4387 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4388 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4389 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4390 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4391 
  4392 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4393 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4394 constructor are pre-configured.
  4395 
  4396 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4397 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4398 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4399 
  4400 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4401 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4402 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4403 as well.)
  4404 
  4405 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4406 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4407 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4408 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4409 examples.
  4410 
  4411 
  4412 *** ML ***
  4413 
  4414 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4415 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4416 
  4417 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4418 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4419 position, logical grouping etc.
  4420 
  4421 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4422 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4423 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4424 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4425 
  4426 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4427 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4428 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4429 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4430 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4431 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4432 
  4433 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4434 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4435 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4436 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4437 experiments with references.
  4438 
  4439 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4440 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4441 
  4442 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4443 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4444 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4445 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4446 
  4447 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4448 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4449 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4450 
  4451 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4452 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4453 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4461 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4462 
  4463 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4464 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4465 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4466 
  4467 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4468 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4469 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4470 
  4471 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4472 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4473 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4475 
  4476 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4477 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4478 instead of global theory.
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 *** System ***
  4482 
  4483 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4484 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4485 usedir option -q.
  4486 
  4487 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4488 also the system manual.
  4489 
  4490 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4491 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4492 
  4493 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4494 this is always enabled.
  4495 
  4496 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4497 
  4498 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4499 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4500 currently supported on Linux only.
  4501 
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4505 --------------------------------
  4506 
  4507 *** General ***
  4508 
  4509 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4510 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4511 
  4512   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4513     "isatool."
  4514 
  4515   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4516     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4517 
  4518   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4519     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4520 
  4521 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4522 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4523 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4524 
  4525 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4526 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4527 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4528 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4529 via "isabelle emacs".
  4530 
  4531 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4532 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4533 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4534 
  4535 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4536 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4537 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4538 
  4539 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4540 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4541 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4542 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4543 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4544 
  4545 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4546 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4547 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4548 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4549 
  4550 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4551 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4552 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4553 
  4554 
  4555 *** Pure ***
  4556 
  4557 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4558 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4559 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4560 
  4561 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4562 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4563 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4564 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4565 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4566 
  4567 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4568 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4569 useful in locale declarations.
  4570 
  4571 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4572 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4573 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4574 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4575 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4576 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4577 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4578 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4579 no longer generated.
  4580 
  4581 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4582 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4583 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4584 
  4585 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4586 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4587 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4588 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4589 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4590 
  4591 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4593 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4594 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4595 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4596 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4597 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4598 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4599 
  4600 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4601 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4602 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4603 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4604 
  4605 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4608 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4609 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4610 
  4611 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4612 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4615 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4616 in HOL, write
  4617 
  4618     class foo = ...
  4619 
  4620 instead of
  4621 
  4622     class foo = type + ...
  4623 
  4624 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4625 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4628 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4629 
  4630 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4631 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4632 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4633 
  4634 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4635 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4636 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4637 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4638 directly in regular applications.
  4639 
  4640 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4641 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4642 
  4643 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4644 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4645 
  4646 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4647 theory context.
  4648 
  4649 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4650 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4653 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4654 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4655 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4656 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4657 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4658 
  4659   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4660 
  4661 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4662 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4663 normalization.
  4664 
  4665 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4666 addressing etc.
  4667 
  4668 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4669 
  4670   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4671   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4672 
  4673 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4674 
  4675   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4676      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4677      parts of the code generator framework).
  4678 
  4679   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4680      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4681      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4682 
  4683 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4686 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4689 patterns, e.g.
  4690 
  4691     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4692 
  4693 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4694 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4695 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4696 hyphen:
  4697 
  4698     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4699 
  4700 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4701 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4702 
  4703 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4704 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4705 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4706 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4707 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4708 higher-order unification.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 *** Document preparation ***
  4712 
  4713 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4714 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4715 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4716 
  4717 
  4718 *** HOL ***
  4719 
  4720 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4721 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4722 
  4723 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4724 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4725 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4726 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4727 Main, as before.
  4728 
  4729 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4730 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4731 
  4732 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4733 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4734 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4735 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4736 
  4737 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4738 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4739 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4740 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4741 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4742 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4743 
  4744 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4745 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4746 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4747 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4748 
  4749 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4750 menu.
  4751 
  4752 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4753 (contains the empty clause).
  4754 
  4755 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4756 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4757 
  4758 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4759 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4760 
  4761 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4762 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4763 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4766 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4767 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4768 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4769 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4770 
  4771 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4772 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4773 
  4774 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4775 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4776 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4777 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4778 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4779 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4780 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4781 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4782 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4783 
  4784 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4785 
  4786 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4787 
  4788 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4789 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4792 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4793 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4794 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4795 
  4796 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4797 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4798 
  4799     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4800     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4801     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4802     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4803     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4804     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4805     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4806     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4807 
  4808 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4809 theory Set.
  4810 
  4811 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4812 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4813 
  4814 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4815 
  4816 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4817 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4818 
  4819 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4820 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4821 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4822 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4823 allowed. For examples see
  4824 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4825 
  4826 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4827 
  4828 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4832 structure:
  4833 
  4834     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4835     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4836     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4837     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4838     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4839     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4840     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4841     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4842     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4843     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4844     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4845     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4846     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4847     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4848     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4849     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4850     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4851     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4852     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4853     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4854     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4855     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4856     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4857     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4858     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4859     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4860     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4861     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4862     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4863     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4864     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4865     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4866     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4867 
  4868     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4869     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4870     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4871     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4872     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4873     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4874     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4875     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4876     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4877     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4878 
  4879     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4880     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4881     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4882     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4883     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4884     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4885 
  4886 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4887 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4888 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4889 
  4890 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4891 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4892 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4893 
  4894 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4895 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4898 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4899 
  4900 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4901 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4902 proofs, e.g.
  4903 
  4904   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4905 
  4906 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4907 
  4908 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4909 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4910 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4911 
  4912 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4913 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4915 
  4916 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4917 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4918 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4922 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4923 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4924 preorder_class.*.
  4925 
  4926 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4927 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4928 
  4929 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4930 
  4931   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4932 
  4933 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4934 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4935 fold_image.
  4936 
  4937 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4938 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4939 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4940 the former will disappear at some point.
  4941 
  4942 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4943 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4944 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4945 
  4946 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4947 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4948 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4949 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4950 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4951 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4952 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4953 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4954 
  4955 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4956 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4957 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4958 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4959 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4960 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4961 
  4962     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4963     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4964     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4965     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4966     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4967     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4968     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4969 
  4970 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4971 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4972 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4973 
  4974 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4975 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4976 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4977 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4978 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4979 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4980 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4981 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4982 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4983 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4984 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4985 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4986 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4987 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4988 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4989 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4990 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4991 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4992 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4993 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4994 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4995 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4996 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4997 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4998 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4999 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5000 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5001 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5002 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5003 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5004 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5005 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5006 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5007 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5008 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5009 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5010 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5011 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5012 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5013 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5014 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5015 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5016 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5017 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5018 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5019 
  5020 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5023 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5024 
  5025 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5026 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5027 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5028 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5029 
  5030 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5031 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5032 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5033 theory RealVector.
  5034 
  5035 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5036 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5037 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5038 and inner products are included.
  5039 
  5040 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5041 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5042 supported.
  5043 
  5044 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5045 first diagonalization argument.
  5046 
  5047 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5048 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5049 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5050 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5051 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5052 
  5053     hide (open) const gcd
  5054     abbreviation gcd where
  5055       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5056     notation (output)
  5057       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5058 
  5059 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5060 
  5061 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5062 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5063 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5066 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5067 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5068 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5069 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5070 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5071 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5072 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5073 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5074 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5075 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5076 cases.
  5077 
  5078 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5079 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5080 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5081 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5082 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5083 
  5084     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5085     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5086     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5087     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5088     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5089 
  5090 
  5091 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5092 
  5093 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5094 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5095 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5096 
  5097 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5098 
  5099 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5100 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5101 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5102 
  5103 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5104 
  5105 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5106 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5107 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5108 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5109 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5110 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5111 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5112 
  5113 
  5114 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5115 
  5116 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5117 
  5118 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5119 theory targets.
  5120 
  5121 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5122 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5123 'inductive' etc.
  5124 
  5125 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5126 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5127 
  5128 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5129 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5130 
  5131 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5132 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5133 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5134 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5135 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5136 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5137 the algorithm W:
  5138 
  5139  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5140  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5141          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5142 
  5143 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5144 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5145 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5146 
  5147 
  5148 *** HOLCF ***
  5149 
  5150 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5151 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5152 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5153 
  5154 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5155 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5156 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5157 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5158 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5161 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5162 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5163 
  5164 
  5165 *** ZF ***
  5166 
  5167 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5168 
  5169 
  5170 *** ML ***
  5171 
  5172 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5173 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5174 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5175 5.2.1!
  5176 
  5177 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5178 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5179 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5180 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5181 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5182 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5183 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5184 
  5185 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5186 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5187 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5188 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5189 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5190 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5191 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5192 
  5193 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5194 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5195 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5196 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5197 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5198 
  5199 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5200 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5201 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5202 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5203 Method.add_method.
  5204 
  5205 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5206 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5207 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5208 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5209 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5210 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5211 
  5212 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5213 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5214 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5215 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5216 examples.
  5217 
  5218 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5219 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5220 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5221 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5222 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5223 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5224 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5225 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5226 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5227 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5228 
  5229 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5230 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5231 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5232 
  5233 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5234 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5235 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5236 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5237 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5238 resort for legacy applications.
  5239 
  5240 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5241 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5242 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5243 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5244 explicit runtime argument.
  5245 
  5246 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5247 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5248 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5249 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5250 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5253 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5254 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5255 theory state.
  5256 
  5257 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5258 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5259 
  5260   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5261   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5262   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5263   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5264   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5265   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5266   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5267   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5268   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5269   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5270 
  5271 
  5272 *** System ***
  5273 
  5274 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5275 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5276 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5277 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5278 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5279 
  5280 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5281 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5282 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5283 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5284 
  5285 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5286 
  5287 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5288 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5289 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5290 prover operations.
  5291 
  5292 
  5293 
  5294 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5295 -------------------------------
  5296 
  5297 *** General ***
  5298 
  5299 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5300 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5301 
  5302 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5303 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5304 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5305 provides a proper context already.
  5306 
  5307 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5308 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5309 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5310 
  5311 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5312 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5313 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5314 swap theory imports.
  5315 
  5316 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5317 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5318 
  5319 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5320 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5321 white space without escapes.
  5322 
  5323 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5324 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5325 "foo_bar".
  5326 
  5327 
  5328 *** Pure ***
  5329 
  5330 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5331 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5332 
  5333 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5334 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5335 
  5336 (1) unused_thms
  5337      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5338 
  5339 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5340      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5341      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5342 
  5343 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5344      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5345      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5346      their ancestors.
  5347 
  5348 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5349 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5350 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5351 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5352 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5353 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5354 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5355 
  5356 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5357 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5358 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5359 
  5360 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5361 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5362 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5363 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5364 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5365 
  5366 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5367 
  5368 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5369 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5370 update of theories within ML code.
  5371 
  5372 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5373 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5374 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5375 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5376 
  5377 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5378 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5379 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5383 
  5384 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5385 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5386 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5387 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5388 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5389 
  5390 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5391 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5392 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5393 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5394 situations.
  5395 
  5396 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5397 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5398 proof text.
  5399 
  5400 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5401 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5402 
  5403 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5404 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5405 predicates.
  5406 
  5407 
  5408 *** Document preparation ***
  5409 
  5410 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5411 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5412 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5413 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5414 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5415 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5416 
  5417 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5418 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5419 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5420 
  5421 
  5422 *** HOL ***
  5423 
  5424 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5425 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5426 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5427 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5428 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5429 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5430 
  5431 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5432 with multithreading.
  5433 
  5434 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5435 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5436 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5437 
  5438 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5439 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5440 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5441 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 
  5443 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5444 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5445 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5446 and makes them available separately.  See
  5447 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5448 
  5449 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5450 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5451 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5452 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5453 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5454 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5455 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5456 the declared rules.
  5457 
  5458 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5459 
  5460   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5461 
  5462 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5463 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5464 
  5465 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5466 
  5467   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5468 
  5469   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5470     definitions on => and bool.
  5471 
  5472   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5473     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5474     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5475 
  5476       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5477       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5478       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5479       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5480       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5481       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5482       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5483       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5484 
  5485   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5486     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5487     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5488 
  5489   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5490     The proof pattern
  5491 
  5492       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5493       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5494 
  5495     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5496     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5497 
  5498       have "EX S. P S"
  5499       proof
  5500         show "P S" <...>
  5501       qed
  5502 
  5503   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5504     The proof pattern
  5505 
  5506       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5507       also have "S = T" <...>
  5508       finally have "P T" .
  5509 
  5510     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5511     must be replaced by something like
  5512 
  5513       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5514       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5515       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5516 
  5517   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5518     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5519 
  5520       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5521 
  5522     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5523     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5524     type of the form
  5525 
  5526       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5527 
  5528     rather than
  5529 
  5530       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5531 
  5532 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5533 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5534 
  5535 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5536 
  5537 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5538 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5542 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5545 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5548 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5549 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5550 
  5551 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5552 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5553 
  5554   less_trans
  5555   less_linear
  5556   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5557   le_less_trans
  5558   less_le_trans
  5559   less_not_sym
  5560   less_asym
  5561 
  5562 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5563 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5564 and different variable names.
  5565 
  5566 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5567 
  5568 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5569 finite maps.
  5570 
  5571 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5572 
  5573 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5574 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5575 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5576 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5577 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5578 accordingly.
  5579 
  5580 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5581 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5582 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5583 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5584 
  5585 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5586 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5587 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5588 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5589 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5593 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5594 
  5595 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5596 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5597 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5598 
  5599 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5601 
  5602 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5603 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5604 
  5605 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5606 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5607 
  5608 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5609 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5612 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5614 
  5615 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5616 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5617 
  5618 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5619 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5620 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5621 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5622 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5623 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5624 
  5625 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5626 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5627 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5628 
  5629 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5630 
  5631 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5632 
  5633 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5634 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5635 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5636 
  5637 
  5638 *** ZF ***
  5639 
  5640 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5641 same session:
  5642 
  5643   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5644   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5645   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5646   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5647   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5648   List      -> List_ZF
  5649   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5650 
  5651 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5652 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5653 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5654 
  5655 
  5656 *** ML ***
  5657 
  5658 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5659 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5660 
  5661 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5662 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5663 
  5664 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5665 
  5666 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5667 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5668 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5669 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5670 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5673 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5674 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5675 
  5676 
  5677 *** System ***
  5678 
  5679 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5680 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5681 
  5682 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5683 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5684 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5685 
  5686 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5687 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5688 
  5689 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5690 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5691 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5692 
  5693 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5694 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5695 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5696 
  5697 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5698 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5699 
  5700 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5701 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5702 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5703 script.
  5704 
  5705 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5706 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5707 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5708 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5709 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5710 
  5711 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5712 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5713 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5714 
  5715 
  5716 
  5717 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5718 -----------------------------------
  5719 
  5720 *** General ***
  5721 
  5722 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5723 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5724 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5725 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5726 
  5727 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5728 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5729 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5732 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5733 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5734 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5735 
  5736 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5737 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5738 quotes.
  5739 
  5740 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5741 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5742 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5743 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5744 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5745 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5746 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5747 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5748 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5749 
  5750 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5751 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5752 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5753 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5754 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5755 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5756 
  5757 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5758 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5759 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5760 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5761 
  5762 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5763 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5764 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5765 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5766 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5767 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5768 
  5769 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5770 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5771 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5772 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5773 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5774 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5775 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5776 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5777 
  5778 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5779 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5780 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5781 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5782 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5783 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5784 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5785 
  5786 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5787 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5788 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5789 
  5790 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5791 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5792 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5793 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5794 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5795 limit is imposed.
  5796 
  5797 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5798 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5799 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5800 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5801 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5802 and scalability.
  5803 
  5804 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5805 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5806 
  5807 
  5808 *** Document preparation ***
  5809 
  5810 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5811 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5812 current context.
  5813 
  5814 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5815 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5816 
  5817 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5818 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5819 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5820 
  5821 
  5822 *** Pure ***
  5823 
  5824 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5825 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5826 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5827 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5828 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5829 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5830 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5831 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5832 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5833 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5834 
  5835 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5836 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5837 sketch:
  5838 
  5839     internal compilation:
  5840         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5841     writing SML code to a file:
  5842         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5843     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5844         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5845     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5846         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5847 
  5848     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5849         method ``eval''
  5850 
  5851 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5852 
  5853 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5854 
  5855     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5856     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5857     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5858     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5859 
  5860 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5861 
  5862     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5863       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5864 
  5865     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5866       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5867 
  5868     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5869       {(target)}+
  5870         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5871 
  5872     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5873       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5874         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5875 
  5876 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5877 
  5878 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5879 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5880 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5881 codegen".
  5882 
  5883 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5884 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5885 annotations).
  5886 
  5887 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5888 syntax.
  5889 
  5890 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5891 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5892 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5893 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5894 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5895 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5896 
  5897 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5898 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5899 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5900 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5901 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5902 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5903 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5904 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5905 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5906 equations, see section "definitions".
  5907 
  5908 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5909 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5910 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5911 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5912 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5913 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5914 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5915 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5916 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5917 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5918 
  5919 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5920 configuration options:
  5921 
  5922   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5923   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5924   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5925   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5926   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5927   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5928   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5929   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5930   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5931 
  5932 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5933 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5934 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5935 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5936 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5937 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5938 order.
  5939 
  5940 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5941 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5942 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5943 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5944 context encountered later on.
  5945 
  5946 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5947 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5948 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5949 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5950 
  5951 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5952 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5953 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5954 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5955 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5956 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5957 
  5958 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5959 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5960 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5961 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5962 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5963 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5964 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5965 more permissive.
  5966 
  5967 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5968 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5969 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5970 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5971 maintainability of proof texts.
  5972 
  5973 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5974 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5975 
  5976   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5977   then guess x and y by clarify
  5978 
  5979 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5980 proof tools being involved here.
  5981 
  5982 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5983 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5984 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5985 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5986 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5987 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5988 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5989 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5990 
  5991 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5992 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5993 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5994 
  5995   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5996   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5997   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5998   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5999 
  6000 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6001 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6002 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6003 
  6004 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6005 both named and unnamed ones.
  6006 
  6007 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6008 
  6009   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6010 
  6011 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6012 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6013 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6014 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6015 
  6016 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6017 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6018 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6019 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6020 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6021 
  6022 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6023 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6024 
  6025 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6026 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6027 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6028 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6029 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6030 originally first one.
  6031 
  6032 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6033 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6034 expected.
  6035 
  6036 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6037 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6038 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6039 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6040 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6041 
  6042   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6043     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6044     obtains x where "P x"
  6045 
  6046   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6047     assumes "A & B"
  6048     obtains A and B
  6049 
  6050   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6051     assumes "A | B"
  6052     obtains
  6053       A
  6054     | B
  6055 
  6056 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6057 explicitly:
  6058 
  6059   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6060     obtains "~ thesis"
  6061 
  6062   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6063     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6064 
  6065 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6066 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6067 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6068 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6069 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6070 case_names).
  6071 
  6072 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6073 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6074 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6075 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6076 
  6077 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6078 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6079 top-level lemma.
  6080 
  6081 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6082 introduction rule (default "that").
  6083 
  6084 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6085 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6086 to occur.
  6087 
  6088 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6089 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6090 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6091 representations independently of name spaces.
  6092 
  6093 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6094 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6095 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6098 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6099 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6100 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6101 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6102 current context.
  6103 
  6104 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6105 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6106 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6107 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6108 
  6109   axiomatization
  6110     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6111     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6112 
  6113   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6114   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6115 
  6116   abbreviation
  6117     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6118     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6119 
  6120 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6121 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6122 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6123 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6124 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6125 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6126 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6127 
  6128 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6129 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6130 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6131 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6132 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6133 
  6134 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6135 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6136 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6137 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6138 
  6139 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6140 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6141 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6142 
  6143   definition "K x _ = x"
  6144 
  6145   inductive conj for A B
  6146   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6147 
  6148 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6149 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6150 abbreviations on output.
  6151 
  6152 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6153 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6154 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6155 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6156 
  6157 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6158 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6159 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6160 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6161 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6162 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6163 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6164 
  6165 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6166 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6167 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6168 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6169 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6170 
  6171 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6172 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6173 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6174 
  6175 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6176 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6177 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6178 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6179 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6180 
  6181   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6182     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6183 
  6184 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6185 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6186 partial_order.
  6187 
  6188 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6189 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6190 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6191 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6192 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6193 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6194 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6195 examples.
  6196 
  6197 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6198 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6199 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6200 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6201 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6202 
  6203 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6204 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6205 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6206 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6207 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6208 
  6209   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6210   (induct set: foo bar)
  6211   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6212   (induct type: foo bar)
  6213 
  6214 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6215 new format.
  6216 
  6217 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6218 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6219 
  6220 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6221 considered a legacy feature.
  6222 
  6223 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6224 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6225 
  6226 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6227 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6228 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6229 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6230   
  6231 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6232 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6233 manipulating the claset.
  6234 
  6235 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6236 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6237 least one premise.
  6238 
  6239 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6240 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6241 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6242 rule steps.
  6243 
  6244 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6245 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6246 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6247 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6248 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6249 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6250 
  6251 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6252 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6253 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6254 
  6255 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using