NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jan 04 12:44:47 2013 +0100 (2013-01-04)
changeset 50716 e04c44dc11fc
parent 50701 054f6bf349d2
child 50717 30bcdd5c8e78
permissions -rw-r--r--
document 'locale_deps';
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    73 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    74 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    75 potentially infinite message streams.
    76 
    77 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    78 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    79 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    80 schemes.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    83 symbols.
    84 
    85 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    86 
    87 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    88 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    89 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    90 
    91 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    92 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    93 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    94 
    95 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    96 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    97 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    98 Isabelle distribution.
    99 
   100 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   101 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   102 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   103 
   104 
   105 *** Pure ***
   106 
   107 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   108 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   109 
   110 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   111 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   112 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   115 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   116 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   117 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   118 with some care where this is really required.
   119 
   120 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   121 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   122 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   123 
   124   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   125 
   126 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   127 a Hasse diagram.
   128 
   129 
   130 *** HOL ***
   131 
   132 * Sledgehammer:
   133 
   134   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   135     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   136   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   137   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   138   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   139   - Renamed options:
   140       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   141       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   142       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   143       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   144 
   145 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   146 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   147 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   148 
   149 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   150 expressions.
   151 
   152 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   153 pointfree expressions.
   154 
   155 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   156 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   157 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   158 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160 
   161 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   162 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   163 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   164 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   165 accordingly.
   166 
   167 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   168 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   171 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   176 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   177 
   178 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   179 
   180 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   181 
   182   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   183   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   184 
   185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   188 
   189   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   190   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   191 
   192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   195 
   196   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   197     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   198     output f x converges to G.
   199 
   200   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   201     infinity (at_bot).
   202 
   203   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   204     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   205 
   206   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   207     at_top".
   208 
   209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   212 lattice type classes.
   213 
   214 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   215 
   216     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   217     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   218 
   219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   222 changes as follows.
   223 
   224   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   225 
   226       prefix ~> prefixeq
   227       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   228 
   229   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   230     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   231     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   232     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   233 
   234   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   235     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   236     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   237 
   238   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   239     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   240     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   241     Library/Prefix_Order.
   242 
   243   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   244     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   245 
   246       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   247       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   248       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   249       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   250       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   251       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   252       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   253       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   254       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   255       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   256       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   257       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   258       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   259       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   260       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   261       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   262 
   263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 
   266 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   267 
   268 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   269 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   270 
   271 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   272 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   273 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   274 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   275 
   276   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   277   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   278   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   279   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   280   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   281   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   282   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   283   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   284   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   285   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   286 
   287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   290 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   291 Data").
   292 
   293 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   294 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   295 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   296 code.
   297 
   298 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   299 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   300 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   304 
   305 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   306 
   307 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   308 
   309   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   310   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   311 
   312 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   313 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   314 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   315 
   316   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   317 
   318     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   319     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   320     cart_base i  removed
   321     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   322 
   323   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   324 
   325   Renamed lemmas:
   326 
   327     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   328     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   329     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   330     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   331     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   332     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   333     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   334     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   335     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   336     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   337 
   338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   339 
   340 * HOL/Probability:
   341 
   342   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   343 
   344   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   345     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   346     (borel_measurable_induct).
   347 
   348   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   349     projective family).
   350 
   351 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   352 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   353 
   354 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   355 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   356 datatypes.
   357 
   358 
   359 *** Document preparation ***
   360 
   361 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   362 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   363 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   364 
   365 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   366 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   367 
   368 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   369 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   370 document/root.tex.
   371 
   372 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   373 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 
   376 *** ML ***
   377 
   378 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   379 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   380 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   381 
   382 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   383 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   384 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   385 
   386 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   387 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   388 necessarily printing visible text.
   389 
   390 
   391 *** System ***
   392 
   393 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   394 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   395 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   396 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   397 
   398 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   399 
   400 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   401 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   402 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   403 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   404 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   405 
   406 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   407 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   408 
   409   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   410 
   411 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   412 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   413 
   414 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   415 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   416 "isabelle usedir".
   417 
   418 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   419 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   420 
   421 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   425 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   426 version of Isabelle.
   427 
   428 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   429 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   430 
   431 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   432 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   433 for home-made settings.
   434 
   435 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   436 
   437 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   438 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   439 configuration.
   440 
   441 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   442 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   443 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   444 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   445 bundled as Isabelle component.
   446 
   447 
   448 
   449 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   450 ------------------------------
   451 
   452 *** General ***
   453 
   454 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   455 
   456   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   457     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   458   - markup for bound variables
   459   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   460   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   461   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   462     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   463 
   464 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   465 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   466 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   467 
   468 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   469 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   470 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   471 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   472 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   473 
   474   context
   475     fixes x y z :: 'a
   476     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   477   begin
   478 
   479   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   480 
   481   end
   482 
   483   thm my_trans
   484 
   485 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   486 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   487 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   488 
   489 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   490 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   491 
   492 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   493 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   494 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   495 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   496 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   497 
   498 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   499 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   500 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   501 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   502 indices of schematic variables.
   503 
   504 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   505 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   506 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   507 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   508 etc. was exploited.
   509 
   510 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   511 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   512 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   513 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   514 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   515 of the material of that old tutorial.
   516 
   517 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   518 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   519 manual.
   520 
   521 
   522 *** Pure ***
   523 
   524 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   525 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   526 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   527 
   528 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   529 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   530 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   531 undocumented feature.)
   532 
   533 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   534 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   535 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   536 
   537   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   538 
   539   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   540     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   541 
   542 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   543 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   544 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   545 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   546 
   547 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   548 
   549     num ~> num_token
   550     xnum ~> xnum_token
   551     xstr ~> str_token
   552 
   553 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   554 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   555 position information via constraints).
   556 
   557 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   558 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   559 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   560 
   561 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   562 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   563 
   564 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   565 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   566 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   569 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   570 
   571 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   572 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   573 
   574   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   575 
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   579 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   582 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   583 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   584 
   585 
   586 *** HOL ***
   587 
   588 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   589 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   590 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   591 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   592 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   593 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   594 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   595 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   596 possible.
   597 
   598 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   599 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   600 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   601 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   602 
   603 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   604 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   607 
   608 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   609 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   610 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   611 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   612 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   613 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   614 
   615   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   616     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   617 
   618   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   619     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   620     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   621 
   622   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   623     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   624 
   625   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   626     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   627     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   628 
   629   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   630     Redefine using other integer operations.
   631 
   632 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   633 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   634 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   635 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   636 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   637 
   638   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   639     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   640     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   641     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   642     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   643 
   644     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   645     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   646 
   647   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   648     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   649     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   650     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   651     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   652     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   653     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   654     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   655 
   656   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   657     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   658     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   659     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   660 
   661   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   662     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   663     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   664     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   665 
   666   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   667     from type nat to type int.
   668 
   669 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   670 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   671 
   672   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   673     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   674     type.  Example syntax:
   675 
   676     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   677       is List.insert
   678 
   679     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   680     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   681     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   682     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   683     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   684     by the package.
   685 
   686   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   687     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   688     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   689     code generation for each constant.
   690 
   691   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   692     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   693     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   694     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   695     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   696 
   697   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   698     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   699     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   700 
   701 * Quotient package:
   702 
   703   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   704     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   705 
   706   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   707     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   708 
   709   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   710     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   711     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   714     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   715 
   716 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   717 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   718 
   719 * Quickcheck:
   720 
   721   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   722     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   723     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   724     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   725     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   726 
   727     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   728     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   729     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   730 
   731     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   732     continues searching for genuine ones.
   733 
   734     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   735     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   736     show genuine counterexamples.
   737 
   738   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   739     value generators for a given type and operations.
   740 
   741     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   742     constructors of that type.
   743 
   744   - Support for multisets.
   745 
   746   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   747 
   748   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   749     conjectures in a locale context.
   750 
   751 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   752 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   753 
   754 * Sledgehammer:
   755   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   756     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   757   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   758   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   759     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   760   - Sped up the minimizer.
   761   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   762   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   763   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   764 
   765 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   766 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   767 
   768 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   769 
   770 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   773 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   774 
   775   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   776 
   777 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   778 a list and a nat.
   779 
   780 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   781 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   782 
   783 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   784 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   785 default.
   786 
   787 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   788 
   789   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   790 
   791 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   792 
   793 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   794 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   795 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   796 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   797 one_case.
   798 
   799 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   800 the result of the fact expression.
   801 
   802 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   803 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   804 of some relation theorems:
   805 
   806   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   807   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   808   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   809   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   810   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   811   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   812 
   813 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   814 
   815 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   816 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   817 
   818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   821 to match the constant's name:
   822 
   823   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   824   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   825   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   826   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   827   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   828   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   829   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   830   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   831   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   832   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   833   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   834   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   835   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   836   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   837   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   838   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   839   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   840   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   841   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   842   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   843   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   844   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   845   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   846   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   847 
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   851 and corresponding theorem names:
   852 
   853   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   854 
   855   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   856 
   857   - Renamed theorems:
   858 
   859     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   860     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   861     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   862     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   863     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   864     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   865     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   866     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   867     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   868     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   869     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   870     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   871     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   872     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   873     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   874     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   875     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   876     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   877     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   878     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   879     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   880     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   881     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   882 
   883     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   884 
   885     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   886 
   887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   891 
   892   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   893   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   894   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   895   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   896   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   897   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   898   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   899   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   900   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   901   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   902   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   903   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   904   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   905   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   906   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   907   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   908   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   909   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   910   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   911   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   912   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   913 
   914 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   915 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   920 
   921   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   922   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   923   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   924   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   925   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   926   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   927   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   928   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   929   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   930   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   931   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   932   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   933   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   934   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   935   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   936   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   937   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   938   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   939 
   940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   943 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   944 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   945 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   946 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   947 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   948 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   949 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   950 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   951 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   952 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   953 
   954 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   955 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   956 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   957 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   958 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   959 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   960 
   961 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   962 through option types.
   963 
   964 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   965 relations.
   966 
   967 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   971 
   972   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   973   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   974   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   975   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   976   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   977   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   978   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   979   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   980   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   981   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   982   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   983   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   984   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   985   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   986   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   987   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   988   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   989   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   990   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   991   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   992   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   993   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   994   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   995   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   996   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   997   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   998   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   999   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1000   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1001   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1002   zless_le ~> less_le
  1003   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1004   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1005   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1006 
  1007 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1008 
  1009   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1010 
  1011 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1012 
  1013 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1014 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1015 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1016 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1020 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1021 
  1022 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1023 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1024 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1025 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1026 follows:
  1027 
  1028   Operations:
  1029   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1030   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1031   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1032   del -> rbt_del
  1033   delete -> rbt_delete
  1034   ins -> rbt_ins
  1035   insert -> rbt_insert
  1036   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1037   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1038   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1039   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1040   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1041   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1042   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1043   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1044   union -> rbt_union
  1045   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1046   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1047 
  1048   Lemmas:
  1049   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1050   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1051   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1052   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1053   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1054   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1055   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1056   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1057   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1058   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1059   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1060   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1061   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1062   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1063   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1064   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1065   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1066   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1067   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1068   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1069   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1070   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1071   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1072   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1073   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1074   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1075   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1076   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1077   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1078   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1079   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1080   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1081   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1082   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1083   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1084   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1085   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1086   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1087   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1088   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1089   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1090   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1091   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1092   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1093   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1094   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1095   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1096   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1097   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1098   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1099   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1100   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1101   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1102   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1103   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1104   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1105   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1106   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1107   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1108   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1109   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1110   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1111   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1112   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1113   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1114   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1115   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1116   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1117   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1118   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1119   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1120   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1121   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1122   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1123   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1124   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1125   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1126   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1127   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1128   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1129   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1130   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1131   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1132 
  1133 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1134 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1135 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137   Changed Operations:
  1138   float_abs -> abs
  1139   float_nprt -> nprt
  1140   float_pprt -> pprt
  1141   pow2 -> use powr
  1142   round_down -> float_round_down
  1143   round_up -> float_round_up
  1144   scale -> exponent
  1145 
  1146   Removed Operations:
  1147   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1148 
  1149   Renamed Lemmas:
  1150   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1151   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1152   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1153   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1154   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1155   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1156   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1157   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1158   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1159   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1160   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1161   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1162   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1163   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1164   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1165   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1166   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1167   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1168   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1169   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1170   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1171   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1172   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1173   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1174   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1175   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1176   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1177   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1178   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1179   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1180   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1181   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1182   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1183   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1184   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1185   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1186 
  1187   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1188   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1189   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1190   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1191   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1192   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1193   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1194   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1195   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1196   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1197 
  1198 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1199 association lists with distinct keys.
  1200 
  1201 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1202 annotated commands.
  1203 
  1204 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1205 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1206 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1207 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1210 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1211 instead.
  1212 
  1213   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1214   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1215   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1216   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1217   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1218   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1219   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1220   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1221   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1222   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1223   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1224   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1225   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1226   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1227   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1228   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1229   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1230   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1231   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1232   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1233   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1234   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1235   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1236   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1237   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1238   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1239   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1240   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1241   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1242   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1243   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1244   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1245   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1246   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1247   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1248   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1249   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1250   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1251   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1252   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1253   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1254 
  1255 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1256 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1257 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1258 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1259 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1260 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1261 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1262 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1263 
  1264 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1265 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1266 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1267 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1268 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1269 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1270 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1271 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1272 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1273 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1274 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1275 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277   Renamed constants:
  1278   measure -> emeasure
  1279   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1280   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1281   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1282   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1283 
  1284   Removed locales:
  1285   completeable_measure_space
  1286   finite_measure_space
  1287   finite_prob_space
  1288   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1289   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1290   finite_sigma_algebra
  1291   measure_space
  1292   pair_finite_prob_space
  1293   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1294   pair_finite_space
  1295   pair_sigma_algebra
  1296   product_sigma_algebra
  1297 
  1298   Removed constants:
  1299   conditional_space
  1300   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1301   image_space
  1302   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1303   pair_measure_generator
  1304   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1305   subvimage
  1306 
  1307   Replacement theorems:
  1308   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1309   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1310   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1311   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1312   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1313   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1314   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1315   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1316   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1317   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1318   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1319   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1320   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1321   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1322   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1323   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1324   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1325   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1326   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1327   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1328   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1329   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1330   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1331   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1332   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1333   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1334   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1335   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1336   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1337   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1338   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1339   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1340   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1341   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1342   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1343   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1344   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1345   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1346   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1347   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1348   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1349   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1350   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1351   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1352   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1353   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1354   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1355   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1356   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1357   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1358   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1359   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1360   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1361   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1362   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1363   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1364   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1365   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1366   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1367   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1368   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1369   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1370   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1371   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1372   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1373   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1374   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1375   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1376   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1377   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1378   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1379   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1380   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1381   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1382   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1383   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1384   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1385   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1386   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1387   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1388   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1389   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1390   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1391   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1392   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1393   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1394   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1395   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1396   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1397   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1398   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1399   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1400   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1401   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1402   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1403   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1404   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1405   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1406   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1407   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1408   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1409   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1410   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1411   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1412   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1413   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1414   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1415   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1416   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1417   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1418   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1419   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1420   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1421   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1422   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1423   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1424   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1425   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1426   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1427   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1428   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1429   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1430   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1431   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1432   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1433   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1434   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1435   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1436 
  1437 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1438 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1439 
  1440 
  1441 *** FOL ***
  1442 
  1443 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1444 
  1445 
  1446 *** ZF ***
  1447 
  1448 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1449 analysis.
  1450 
  1451 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1452 
  1453 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 
  1456 *** ML ***
  1457 
  1458 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1459 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1460 
  1461 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1462 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1463 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1464 
  1465 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1466 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1467 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1468 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1469 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1470 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1471 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1472 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1473 
  1474 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1475 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1476 
  1477 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1478 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1479 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1480 
  1481 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1482 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1485 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1486 context as well.
  1487 
  1488 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1489 
  1490   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1491   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1492   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1493   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1494   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1495   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1496   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1497   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1498   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1499   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1500   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1501   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1502 
  1503 
  1504 *** System ***
  1505 
  1506 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1507 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1508 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1509 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1510 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1511 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1512 the generic user home was intended.
  1513 
  1514 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1515 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1516 
  1517 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1518 (not just JRE).
  1519 
  1520 
  1521 
  1522 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1523 ------------------------------------
  1524 
  1525 *** General ***
  1526 
  1527 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1528 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1529 
  1530   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1531     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1532     files for checking).
  1533 
  1534   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1535     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1536     positions.
  1537 
  1538   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1539     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1540     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1541 
  1542   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1543     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1544     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1545 
  1546   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1547     cores.
  1548 
  1549   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1550     versions (garbage collection).
  1551 
  1552 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1553 including some remaining limitations.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1556 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1557 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1558 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1559 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1563 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1564 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1565 
  1566 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1567 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1568 usedir option -Q.
  1569 
  1570 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1571 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1572 
  1573   long_names   ~> names_long
  1574   short_names  ~> names_short
  1575   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1576 
  1577 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1578 
  1579   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1580 
  1581 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1582 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1583 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1584 
  1585 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1586 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1587 
  1588 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1589   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1590   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1591   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1592     "Classical Reasoner".
  1593 
  1594 
  1595 *** HOL ***
  1596 
  1597 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1598 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1601 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1602 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1603 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1604 class complete_linorder.
  1605 
  1606 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1607 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1608 
  1609 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1610 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1611 
  1612   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1613   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1614   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1615   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1616   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1617   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1618   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1619   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1620   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1621   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1622   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1623 
  1624 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1625 
  1626   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1627   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1628   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1629   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1630   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1631   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1632   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1633   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1634   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1635   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1636   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1637   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1638   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1639   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1640   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1641   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1642 
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647 
  1648 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1649 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1650 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1651 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1654 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1655 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1659 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1660 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1661 
  1662 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1663 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1664 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1667 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1668 
  1669 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1670 
  1671     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1672     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1673 
  1674 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1675 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1678 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1681 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1682 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1683 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1686   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1687   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1688   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1689   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1690   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1691   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1692 
  1693 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1694 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1697   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1698   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1699   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1700   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1701   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1702   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1703   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1704   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1705   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1706   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1707   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1708   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1709   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1710   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1711   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1712   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1713   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1714   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1715   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1716   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1717   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1718   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1719   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1720   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1721   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1722   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1723   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1724   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1725   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1726   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1727   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1728   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1729   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1730   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1731   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1732   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1733   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1734   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1735   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1736   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1737   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1738   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1739   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1740   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1741   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1742   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1743   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1744   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1745   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1746   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1747   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1748   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1749   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1750   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1751   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1752   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1753   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1754   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1755   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1756   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1757   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1758   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1759   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1760   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1761   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1762   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1763   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1764   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1765   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1766   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1767   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1768   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1769   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1770   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1771   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1772   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1773   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1774   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1775   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1776   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1777   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1778 
  1779 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1780 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1781 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1782 
  1783 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1784 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1785 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1786 
  1787 * Code generation:
  1788 
  1789   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1790     characters in the target language.
  1791 
  1792   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1793     instead.
  1794 
  1795   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1796 
  1797   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1798     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1799 
  1800       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1801 
  1802 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803 
  1804 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1805 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1806 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1807 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1808 syntax.
  1809 
  1810 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1811 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1812 
  1813 * Nitpick:
  1814   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1815   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1816   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1817     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * Sledgehammer:
  1820   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1821   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1822     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1823   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1824     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1825   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1826     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1828     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1829   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1830     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832 * Metis:
  1833   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1835     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Command 'try':
  1838   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1839     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1841     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1842 
  1843 * Quickcheck:
  1844   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1845     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1846   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1847     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1848   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1849     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1850     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1851     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1852   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1853     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1854 
  1855 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1856 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1857 
  1858 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1859 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1860 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1861 
  1862 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1863 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1867 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868 
  1869 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1870 arithmetic.
  1871 
  1872 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1873 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1874 and lattice type classes.
  1875 
  1876 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1877 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1878 
  1879 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1880 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1881 
  1882 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1883 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1884 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1885 
  1886   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1887   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1888   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1889   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1890 
  1891 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1892 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1893 constants:
  1894 
  1895   type inat   ~> type enat
  1896   Fin         ~> enat
  1897   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1898   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1899   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1900 
  1901 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1902 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1905 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1906 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1907 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1908 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1909 
  1910 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1911 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1912 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1913 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1914 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1915 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1916 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1917 
  1918   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1919   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1920   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1921   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1922 
  1923 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1924 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1925 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1928   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1929   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1930   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1931   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1932   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1933   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1934   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1935   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1936   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1937   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1938   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1939   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1940   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1941   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1942   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1943   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1944   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1945   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1946   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1947   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1948   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1949   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1950   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1951   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1952   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1953   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1954   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1955   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1956   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1957   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1958   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1959   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1960   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1961   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1962   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1963   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1964   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1965   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1966   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1967   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1968   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1969   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1970   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1971   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1972   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1973   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1974   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1975   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1976   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1977   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1978 
  1979 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1980   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1981   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1982   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1983   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1984     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1989   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1990   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1991   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1992   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1993   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1994   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1995   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1996   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1997   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1998   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1999   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2000   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2001   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2002   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2003   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2004   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2005   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2006   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2007   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2008   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2009   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2010   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2011   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2012   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 *** Document preparation ***
  2016 
  2017 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2018 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2019 same.
  2020 
  2021 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2022 result.
  2023 
  2024 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2025 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2026 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2027 
  2028 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2029 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2030 
  2031 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2032 like this:
  2033 
  2034   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2035   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2036 
  2037 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2038 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2039 layouts.
  2040 
  2041 
  2042 *** ML ***
  2043 
  2044 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2045 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2046 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2047 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2048 under external program control.
  2049 
  2050 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2051 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2052 
  2053 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2054 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2055 (better known as Proof General).
  2056 
  2057 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2058 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2059 
  2060 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2061 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2062 
  2063 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2064 (including quotes etc.).
  2065 
  2066 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2067 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2068 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2069 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2070 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2071 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2072 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2073 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2074 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2075 
  2076 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2077 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2078 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2079 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2080 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2081 
  2082 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2083 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2084 
  2085 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2086 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2087 
  2088 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2089 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2090 
  2091 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2092 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2093 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2094 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2095 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2096 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2097 proper Proof.context.
  2098 
  2099 
  2100 *** System ***
  2101 
  2102 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2103 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2104 
  2105 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2106 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2107 
  2108 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2109 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2110 
  2111   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2112   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2113   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2114   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2115   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2116 
  2117 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2118 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2121 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2122 example:
  2123 
  2124   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2125 
  2126 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2127 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2128 
  2129 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2130 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2131 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2132 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2133 
  2134 
  2135 
  2136 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2137 ----------------------------------
  2138 
  2139 *** General ***
  2140 
  2141 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2142 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2143 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2144 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2145 like this:
  2146 
  2147   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2148 
  2149 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2150 
  2151 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2152 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2153 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2154 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2155 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2156 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2157 
  2158 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2159 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2160 the following package declarations:
  2161 
  2162   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2163   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2164 
  2165 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2166 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2167 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2168 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2169 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2170 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2171 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2172 
  2173 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2174 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2175 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2176 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2177 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2178 
  2179 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2180 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2181 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2182 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2183 
  2184 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2185 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2186 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2187 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2188 
  2189   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2190 
  2191   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2192   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2193   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2194   show_types                    show_types
  2195   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2196   show_consts                   show_consts
  2197   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2198 
  2199   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2200   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2201   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2202 
  2203   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2204   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2205 
  2206   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2207 
  2208   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2209   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2210   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2211   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2212   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2213 
  2214 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2215 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2216 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2217 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2218 
  2219 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2223   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2224 
  2225 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2226 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2227 float_token.
  2228 
  2229 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2230 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2234 DejaVu Sans.
  2235 
  2236 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2237 
  2238 
  2239 *** Pure ***
  2240 
  2241 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2242 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2243 time.
  2244 
  2245 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2246 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2249 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2252 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2253 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2254 command already provided this functionality.
  2255 
  2256 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2257 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2258 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2259 without interpretations.
  2260 
  2261 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2262 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2263 
  2264 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2265 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2266 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2267 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2268 
  2269 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2270 'definition' instead.
  2271 
  2272 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2273 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2274 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2275 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2276 
  2277 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2278 constructors.
  2279 
  2280 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2281 the local file system.
  2282 
  2283 
  2284 *** HOL ***
  2285 
  2286 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2287 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2288 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2289 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2290 
  2291   declare [[coercion f]]
  2292 
  2293 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2294 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2295 
  2296   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2297 
  2298 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2299 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2300 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2301 other theories like this:
  2302 
  2303   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2304 
  2305 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2306 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2307 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2308 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2309 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2310 for examples.
  2311 
  2312 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2313 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2316 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2317 
  2318 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2319 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2320 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2321 
  2322 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2323 functorial structure of types.
  2324 
  2325 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2326 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2327 
  2328 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2329 languages.
  2330 
  2331 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2332 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2336 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2339 combinators any longer.
  2340 
  2341 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2342 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2343 
  2344 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2345 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2346 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2347 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2348 
  2349   record 'a foo = ...
  2350   ...
  2351   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2352 
  2353 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2354 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2358 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2359 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2360 
  2361 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2362 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2363 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2364 
  2365 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2366 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2369 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2370 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2371 independently.
  2372 
  2373 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2374 counter example search.
  2375 
  2376 * Sledgehammer:
  2377   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2378     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2379     sledgehammer").
  2380   - Renamed commands:
  2381     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2382     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2383     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2384     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385   - Renamed options:
  2386     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2387     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2388     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2389     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2390     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * Nitpick:
  2393   - Renamed options:
  2394     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2395     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2396     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2398   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2399   - Added "whack" option.
  2400   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2401   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2402   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2403   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2404     higher cardinalities.
  2405   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2406 
  2407 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2408 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2409 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2410 
  2411     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2412 
  2413 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2414 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2415 
  2416 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2417 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2418 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2419 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2420 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2421 "smt_solver".
  2422 
  2423 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2424 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2425 
  2426 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2427 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2428 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2429 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2432   - Renamed:
  2433     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2434     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2435     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436   - Added:
  2437     smt_verbose
  2438     smt_random_seed
  2439     smt_datatypes
  2440     smt_infer_triggers
  2441     smt_monomorph_limit
  2442     cvc3_options
  2443     remote_cvc3_options
  2444     remote_z3_options
  2445     yices_options
  2446 
  2447 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2448 header.
  2449 
  2450 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2451 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2452 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2453 
  2454   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2455 
  2456 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2459 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2464 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2467 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2468 
  2469 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2470 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2473 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2474 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2482 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2483 
  2484 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2485 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2486 for congruent(2)).
  2487 
  2488 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2489 
  2490   types
  2491     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2492     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2493 
  2494   constants
  2495     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2496     True ~> HOL.True
  2497     False ~> HOL.False
  2498     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2499     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2500     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2501     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2502     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2503     The ~> HOL.The
  2504     All ~> HOL.All
  2505     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2506     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2507     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2508     If ~> HOL.If
  2509     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2510     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2511     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2512     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2513     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2514     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2515     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2516     op : ~> Set.member
  2517     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2518 
  2519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2522 
  2523     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2524     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2525     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2526     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2527     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2528     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2529     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2530     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2531 
  2532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2533 
  2534 * More stylized fact names:
  2535 
  2536   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2537   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2538   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2539   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2540 
  2541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542 
  2543 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2544 
  2545   constants
  2546     null ~> List.null
  2547 
  2548   facts
  2549     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2550     null_empty ~> null_def
  2551 
  2552 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2553 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2554 generation.
  2555 
  2556 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2557 Haskell code.
  2558 
  2559 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2560 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2561 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2564 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2567 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2568 
  2569 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2570 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2571 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2574 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2575 
  2576 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2580 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2581 referred to by its qualified name.
  2582 
  2583   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2584   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2585   product ~>  Enum.product
  2586 
  2587 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2588 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2592 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2593 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2597 sort_key.
  2598 
  2599 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2603 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2604 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2605 
  2606   types
  2607     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2608               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2609               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2610         (depends on your needs)
  2611 
  2612   constants
  2613      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2614      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2615      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2616 
  2617 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2618 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2619 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2620 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2623 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2624 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2625 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2626 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2632 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2633 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2634 
  2635 
  2636 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2637 
  2638 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2639 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2640 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2641 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2642 compatibility.
  2643 
  2644 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2645 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2646 
  2647 
  2648 *** HOLCF ***
  2649 
  2650 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2651 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2652 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2656 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2657 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2660   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2661   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2662 
  2663 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2664 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2665 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2668 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2669 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2670 domain definition now works:
  2671 
  2672   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2673 
  2674 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2675 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2676 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2677 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2678 
  2679   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2680     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2681 
  2682   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2683 
  2684 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2685 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2686 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2689 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2692 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2693 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2694 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2695 
  2696 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2697 
  2698 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2706 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2707 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2708 
  2709 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2710 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2711 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2714 still supported as an input translation.
  2715 
  2716 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2717 
  2718   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2719   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2720   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2721   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2722   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2723   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2724   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2725 
  2726 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2727 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2730   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2731   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2732   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2733   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2734   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2735 
  2736 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2737 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2740 
  2741   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2742   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2743   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2744   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2745 
  2746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2749 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2752 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2755   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2756   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2757   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2758   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2759   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2760   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2761   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2762   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2763   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2764   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2765   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2766   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2767   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2768   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2769   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2770   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2771   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2772   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2773   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2774 
  2775 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2778   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2779   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2780   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2781   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2782   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2783   box_less             ~> box_below
  2784   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2785   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2786   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2787   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2788   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2789   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2790   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2791   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2792   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2793   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2794   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2795   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2796   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2797   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2798   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2799   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2800   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2801   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2802   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2803   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2804   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2805   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2806   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2807   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2808   up_less              ~> up_below
  2809   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2810   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2811   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2812   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2813   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2814   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2815   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2816   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2817   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2818   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2819   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2820   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2821   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2822 
  2823 
  2824 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2825 
  2826 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2827 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 
  2830 *** ML ***
  2831 
  2832 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2833 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2834 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2835 
  2836 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2837 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2838 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2839 
  2840 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2841 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2842 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2843 
  2844 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2845 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2846 
  2847 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2848 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2849 
  2850 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2851 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2852 
  2853 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2854 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2855 
  2856 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2857 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2858 almost all situations.
  2859 
  2860 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2861 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2862 Isabelle/ML.
  2863 
  2864 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2865 meaning.
  2866 
  2867 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2868 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2869 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2870 
  2871 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2872 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2873 
  2874 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2875 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2876 
  2877 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2878 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2879 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2880 
  2881 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2882 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2883 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2884 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2885 configuration options.
  2886 
  2887 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2888 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2889 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2890 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2891 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2892 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2893 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2894 
  2895 
  2896 
  2897 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2898 ---------------------------------
  2899 
  2900 *** General ***
  2901 
  2902 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2903 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2904 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2905 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2906 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2907 their full internal name.
  2908 
  2909 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2910 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2911 Some hints on upgrading:
  2912 
  2913   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2914     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2915     which are independent of this issue.
  2916 
  2917   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2918     provides the following special forms:
  2919 
  2920       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2921       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2922       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2923 
  2924     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2925     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2926     extra variables".
  2927 
  2928     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2929     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2930     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2931     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2932     "logic".
  2933 
  2934   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2935     antiquotations:
  2936 
  2937       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2938       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2939       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2940       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2941 
  2942   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2943     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2944     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2945     antiquotations.
  2946 
  2947 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2948 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2949 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2950 diagnose syntax problems.
  2951 
  2952 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2953 
  2954 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2955 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2956 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2957 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2958 
  2959 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2960 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2961 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2962 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2965 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2966 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2967 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2968 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2971 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2972 
  2973 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2974 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2975 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2976 
  2977   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2978 
  2979 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2980 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2981 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2982 
  2983 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2984 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2988 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2989 
  2990 
  2991 *** Pure ***
  2992 
  2993 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2994 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2995 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2996 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2997 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2998 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2999 inspect proof terms.
  3000 
  3001 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3002 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3003 are added internally.  For example:
  3004 
  3005   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3006 
  3007 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3008 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3013 'class' instead.
  3014 
  3015 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3016 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3020 invariants.
  3021 
  3022 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3023 user space functionality any longer.
  3024 
  3025 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3026 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3030 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3031 
  3032 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3033 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3034 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3035 
  3036 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3037 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3038 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3039 
  3040 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3041 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 
  3044 *** HOL ***
  3045 
  3046 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3047 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3048 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3049 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3050 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3051 
  3052 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3053 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3054 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3055 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3056 
  3057   fun
  3058     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3059   where
  3060     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3061 
  3062   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3063     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3064 
  3065   quotient_definition
  3066     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3067 
  3068 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3069 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3070 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3071 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3072 
  3073 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3074 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3075 
  3076 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3077 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3078 
  3079 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3083 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3084 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3085 
  3086 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3087 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3096 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3099 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3100 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3103   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3104   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3105   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3106   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3107   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3108   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3109   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3110   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3111   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3112   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3113   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3114   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3115   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3116   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3117   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3118   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3119   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3120   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3121   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3122   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3123   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3124   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3125   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3126   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3127   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3128   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3129   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3130   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3131   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3132 
  3133 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3134 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3135 
  3136 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3137 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3138 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3141 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3142 
  3143 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3144 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3147 
  3148 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3149 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3152 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155 
  3156 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3157 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3158 
  3159 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3160 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3161 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3162 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3165   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3166   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3167   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3171 lattices):
  3172 
  3173     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3174     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3175 
  3176     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3177 
  3178     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3179     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3180     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3181     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3182     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3183     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3184     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3185     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3186     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3187     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3188     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3189     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3190     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3191 
  3192     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3193     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3194     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3195     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3196     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3197     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3198     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3199     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3200     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3201     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3202     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3203     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3204     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3205     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3206     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3207     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3208     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3209     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3210 
  3211   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3212   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3213 
  3214     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3215     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3216     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3217     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3218     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3219 
  3220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222 * Refined field classes:
  3223   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3224     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3225     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3226   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3230   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3231   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3232   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3233     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3234   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3235     equal_neg_zero.
  3236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237 
  3238 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3239 sets to lattices:
  3240 
  3241   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3242   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3243   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3244   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3245   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3246   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3247   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3248   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3249   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3250   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3251 
  3252 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3253 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3254 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3255 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3256 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3257 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3260 multiset order:
  3261 
  3262   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3263     <= and <;
  3264   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3265     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3266     multiset_order;
  3267   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3268     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3269     generation;
  3270   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3271     if needed.
  3272 
  3273 Renamed:
  3274 
  3275   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3276   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3277   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3278 
  3279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3282 
  3283 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3286 
  3287 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3288 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3289 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291   Constants:
  3292   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3293   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3294   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3295   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3296   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3297   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3298   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3299   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3300   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3301   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3302   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3303   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3304   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3305 
  3306   Lemmas:
  3307   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3308   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3309   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3310   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3311   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3312   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3313   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3314   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3315   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3316   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3317   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3318   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3319   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3320 
  3321 * Sledgehammer:
  3322   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3323     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3324     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3325     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3326     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3327     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3328     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3330   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3331     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3332   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3333     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3334     is still experimental.)
  3335   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3336     full-typed mode.
  3337   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3338 
  3339 * Nitpick:
  3340   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3341   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3342   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3343     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3344   - Added support for quotient types.
  3345   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3346     constructs.
  3347   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3348     "termination" proofs).
  3349   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3350   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3351   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3352   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3353     record getters.
  3354   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3355   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3356   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3357   - Added "atoms" option.
  3358   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3359     problems.
  3360   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3361     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3362     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3364     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3365   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3368   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3369   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3370   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3371   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3372   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3373   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3374   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3375   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3376   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 
  3379 *** HOLCF ***
  3380 
  3381 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3382 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3383 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3386 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3387 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3388 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3391 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3392 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3393 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3394 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3397 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3398 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3401 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3404   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3405 
  3406 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3407 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3410   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3411   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3412   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3413   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3414 
  3415 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3416 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3419   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3420   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3421 
  3422 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3423 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3427 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3432 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 
  3435 *** ML ***
  3436 
  3437 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3438 
  3439     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3440     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3441 
  3442     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3443     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3444     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3445     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3446 
  3447     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3448     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3449     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3450 
  3451 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3452 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3453 
  3454 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3455 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3456 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3457 
  3458 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3459 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3460 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3461 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3462 
  3463 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3464 the context or even global references.
  3465 
  3466 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3467 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3468 
  3469 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3470 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3471 
  3472   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3473   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3474   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3475   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3476   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3477   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3478   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3479   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3480   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3481   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3482 
  3483 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3484 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3485 
  3486 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3487 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3488 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3489 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3490 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3491 
  3492 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3493 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3494 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3495 Theory_Data version.
  3496 
  3497 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3498 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3499 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3500 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3501 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3502 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3503 explicitly in rare situations.
  3504 
  3505 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3506 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3510 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3513 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3514 quite rare).
  3515 
  3516 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3517 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3520 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3521 terms.
  3522 
  3523 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3524 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3525 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3526 
  3527 
  3528 *** System ***
  3529 
  3530 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3531 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3532 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3533 
  3534 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3535 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3536 respectively.
  3537 
  3538 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3539 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3540 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3541 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3542 
  3543   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3544 
  3545 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3546 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3547 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3548 component.
  3549 
  3550 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3551 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3552 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3553 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3554 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3555 the user for manual installation.
  3556 
  3557 
  3558 
  3559 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3560 -------------------------------------
  3561 
  3562 *** General ***
  3563 
  3564 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3565 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3566 
  3567 
  3568 *** Pure ***
  3569 
  3570 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3571 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3572 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3573 
  3574 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3575 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3576 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3577 
  3578 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3579 interpretation.
  3580 
  3581 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3582 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 
  3585 *** Document preparation ***
  3586 
  3587 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3588 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3589 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3590 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3591 
  3592 
  3593 *** HOL ***
  3594 
  3595 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3596 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3597 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3598 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3599 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3600 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3601 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3602 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3603 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3604 
  3605 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3606 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3607 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3608 
  3609 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3610 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3611 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3612 
  3613 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3614 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3615 
  3616 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3617 
  3618 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3619 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3620 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3621 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3622 
  3623 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3624 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3625 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3626 "mirabelle" utility.
  3627 
  3628 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3629 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3630 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3631 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3632 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3633 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3634 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3635 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3636 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3637 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3638 
  3639 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3640 procedure only.
  3641 
  3642 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3643 
  3644 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3645 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3646 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3647 that fail later.
  3648 
  3649 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3650 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3651 
  3652 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3653 the same method as the approximation method.
  3654 
  3655 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3656 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3657 series expansion.
  3658 
  3659 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3660 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3661 
  3662 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3663 reals.
  3664 
  3665 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3666 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3667 
  3668 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3669 fixpoint theorem.
  3670 
  3671 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3672   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3673     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3674   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3675     accordingly
  3676   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3677     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3678   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3679     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3680 
  3681 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3682 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3683 lattice.
  3684 
  3685 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3686 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3687 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3688 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3689 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3690 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3694   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3695     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3696   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3697     le_inf_iff
  3698   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3699     sup_aci)
  3700   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3701   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3702   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3703     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3704     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3705     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3706     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3707     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3708     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3709     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3710     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3711     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3712     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3713   - authentic syntax for
  3714     Set.Pow
  3715     Set.image
  3716   - mere abbreviations:
  3717     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3718     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3719     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3720     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3721     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3722     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3723     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3724     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3725   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3726 
  3727 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3728 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3729 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3730 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3731 
  3732 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3733 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3734 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3737 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3740 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3741 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3742 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3745 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3746 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3747 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3748 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3749 
  3750 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3751 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3755 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3758 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3759 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3760 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3761 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3762 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3763 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3767     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3768     code_post       replaces    code post
  3769     etc.
  3770   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Renamed methods:
  3773     sizechange -> size_change
  3774     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3775   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3779 
  3780 * Renamed theorems:
  3781     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3782     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3783     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3784     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3785     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3786   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 
  3795 *** HOLCF ***
  3796 
  3797 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3798 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3799 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3800 
  3801 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3802 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3803 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3804 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3805 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3806 
  3807 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3808 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3809 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3810 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3811 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3812 
  3813 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3814 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3815 constructor are pre-configured.
  3816 
  3817 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3818 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3819 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3820 
  3821 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3822 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3823 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3824 as well.)
  3825 
  3826 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3827 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3828 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3829 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3830 examples.
  3831 
  3832 
  3833 *** ML ***
  3834 
  3835 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3836 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3837 
  3838 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3839 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3840 position, logical grouping etc.
  3841 
  3842 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3843 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3844 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3845 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3846 
  3847 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3848 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3849 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3850 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3851 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3852 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3853 
  3854 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3855 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3856 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3857 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3858 experiments with references.
  3859 
  3860 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3861 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3862 
  3863 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3864 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3865 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3866 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3867 
  3868 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3869 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3870 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3871 
  3872 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3873 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3874 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3882 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3883 
  3884 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3885 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3886 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3887 
  3888 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3889 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3890 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3893 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3894 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3898 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3899 instead of global theory.
  3900 
  3901 
  3902 *** System ***
  3903 
  3904 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3905 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3906 usedir option -q.
  3907 
  3908 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3909 also the system manual.
  3910 
  3911 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3912 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3913 
  3914 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3915 this is always enabled.
  3916 
  3917 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3918 
  3919 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3920 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3921 currently supported on Linux only.
  3922 
  3923 
  3924 
  3925 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3926 --------------------------------
  3927 
  3928 *** General ***
  3929 
  3930 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3931 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3932 
  3933   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3934     "isatool."
  3935 
  3936   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3937     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3938 
  3939   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3940     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3941 
  3942 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3943 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3944 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3945 
  3946 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3947 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3948 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3949 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3950 via "isabelle emacs".
  3951 
  3952 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3953 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3954 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3955 
  3956 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3957 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3958 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3959 
  3960 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3961 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3962 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3963 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3964 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3965 
  3966 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3967 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3968 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3969 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3970 
  3971 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3972 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3973 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3974 
  3975 
  3976 *** Pure ***
  3977 
  3978 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3979 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3980 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3981 
  3982 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3983 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3984 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3985 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3986 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3987 
  3988 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3989 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3990 useful in locale declarations.
  3991 
  3992 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3993 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3994 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3995 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3996 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3997 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3998 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3999 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4000 no longer generated.
  4001 
  4002 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4003 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4004 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4005 
  4006 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4007 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4008 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4009 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4010 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4011 
  4012 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4014 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4015 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4016 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4017 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4018 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4019 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4020 
  4021 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4022 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4023 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4024 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4025 
  4026 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4030 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4031 
  4032 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4033 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4036 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4037 in HOL, write
  4038 
  4039     class foo = ...
  4040 
  4041 instead of
  4042 
  4043     class foo = type + ...
  4044 
  4045 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4046 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4049 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4050 
  4051 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4052 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4053 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4054 
  4055 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4056 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4057 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4058 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4059 directly in regular applications.
  4060 
  4061 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4062 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4063 
  4064 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4065 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4066 
  4067 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4068 theory context.
  4069 
  4070 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4071 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072 
  4073 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4074 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4075 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4076 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4077 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4078 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4079 
  4080   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4081 
  4082 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4083 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4084 normalization.
  4085 
  4086 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4087 addressing etc.
  4088 
  4089 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4090 
  4091   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4092   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4093 
  4094 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4095 
  4096   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4097      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4098      parts of the code generator framework).
  4099 
  4100   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4101      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4102      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4103 
  4104 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4107 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4110 patterns, e.g.
  4111 
  4112     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4113 
  4114 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4115 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4116 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4117 hyphen:
  4118 
  4119     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4120 
  4121 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4122 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4123 
  4124 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4125 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4126 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4127 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4128 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4129 higher-order unification.
  4130 
  4131 
  4132 *** Document preparation ***
  4133 
  4134 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4135 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4136 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4137 
  4138 
  4139 *** HOL ***
  4140 
  4141 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4142 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4143 
  4144 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4145 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4146 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4147 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4148 Main, as before.
  4149 
  4150 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4151 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4152 
  4153 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4154 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4155 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4156 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4157 
  4158 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4159 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4160 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4161 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4162 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4163 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4164 
  4165 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4166 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4167 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4168 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4169 
  4170 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4171 menu.
  4172 
  4173 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4174 (contains the empty clause).
  4175 
  4176 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4177 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4178 
  4179 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4180 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4181 
  4182 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4183 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4184 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4187 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4188 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4189 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4190 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4191 
  4192 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4193 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4194 
  4195 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4196 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4197 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4198 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4199 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4200 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4201 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4202 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4203 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4204 
  4205 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4206 
  4207 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4208 
  4209 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4210 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4211 
  4212 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4213 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4214 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4215 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4216 
  4217 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4218 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4219 
  4220     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4221     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4222     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4223     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4224     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4225     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4226     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4227     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4228 
  4229 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4230 theory Set.
  4231 
  4232 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4233 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4234 
  4235 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4236 
  4237 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4238 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4239 
  4240 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4241 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4242 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4243 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4244 allowed. For examples see
  4245 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4246 
  4247 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4248 
  4249 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4253 structure:
  4254 
  4255     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4256     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4257     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4258     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4259     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4260     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4261     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4262     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4263     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4264     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4265     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4266     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4267     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4268     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4269     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4270     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4271     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4272     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4273     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4274     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4275     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4276     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4277     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4278     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4279     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4280     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4281     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4282     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4283     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4284     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4285     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4286     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4287     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4288 
  4289     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4290     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4291     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4292     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4293     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4294     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4295     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4296     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4297     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4298     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4299 
  4300     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4301     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4302     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4303     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4304     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4305     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4306 
  4307 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4308 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4309 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4310 
  4311 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4312 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4313 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4314 
  4315 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4316 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4319 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4320 
  4321 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4322 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4323 proofs, e.g.
  4324 
  4325   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4326 
  4327 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4328 
  4329 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4330 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4331 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4334 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4338 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4339 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4343 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4344 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4345 preorder_class.*.
  4346 
  4347 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4348 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4349 
  4350 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4351 
  4352   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4353 
  4354 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4355 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4356 fold_image.
  4357 
  4358 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4359 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4360 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4361 the former will disappear at some point.
  4362 
  4363 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4364 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4365 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4366 
  4367 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4368 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4369 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4370 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4371 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4372 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4373 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4374 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4375 
  4376 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4377 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4378 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4379 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4380 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4381 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4382 
  4383     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4384     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4385     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4386     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4387     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4388     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4389     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4390 
  4391 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4392 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4393 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4394 
  4395 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4396 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4397 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4398 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4399 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4400 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4401 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4402 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4403 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4404 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4405 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4406 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4407 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4408 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4409 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4410 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4411 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4412 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4413 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4414 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4415 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4416 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4417 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4418 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4419 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4420 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4421 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4422 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4423 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4424 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4425 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4426 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4427 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4428 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4429 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4430 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4431 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4432 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4433 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4434 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4435 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4436 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4437 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4438 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4439 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4440 
  4441 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442 
  4443 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4444 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4445 
  4446 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4447 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4448 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4449 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4450 
  4451 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4452 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4453 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4454 theory RealVector.
  4455 
  4456 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4457 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4458 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4459 and inner products are included.
  4460 
  4461 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4462 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4463 supported.
  4464 
  4465 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4466 first diagonalization argument.
  4467 
  4468 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4469 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4470 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4471 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4472 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4473 
  4474     hide (open) const gcd
  4475     abbreviation gcd where
  4476       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4477     notation (output)
  4478       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4479 
  4480 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4481 
  4482 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4483 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4484 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4485 
  4486 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4487 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4488 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4489 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4490 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4491 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4492 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4493 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4494 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4495 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4496 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4497 cases.
  4498 
  4499 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4500 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4501 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4502 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4503 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4504 
  4505     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4506     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4507     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4508     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4509     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4510 
  4511 
  4512 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4513 
  4514 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4515 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4516 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4517 
  4518 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4519 
  4520 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4521 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4522 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4523 
  4524 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4525 
  4526 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4527 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4528 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4529 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4530 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4531 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4532 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4533 
  4534 
  4535 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4536 
  4537 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4538 
  4539 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4540 theory targets.
  4541 
  4542 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4543 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4544 'inductive' etc.
  4545 
  4546 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4547 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4548 
  4549 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4550 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4551 
  4552 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4553 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4554 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4555 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4556 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4557 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4558 the algorithm W:
  4559 
  4560  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4561  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4562          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4563 
  4564 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4565 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4566 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4567 
  4568 
  4569 *** HOLCF ***
  4570 
  4571 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4572 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4573 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4574 
  4575 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4576 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4577 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4578 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4579 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4582 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4583 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 
  4586 *** ZF ***
  4587 
  4588 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4589 
  4590 
  4591 *** ML ***
  4592 
  4593 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4594 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4595 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4596 5.2.1!
  4597 
  4598 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4599 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4600 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4601 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4602 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4603 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4604 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4605 
  4606 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4607 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4608 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4609 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4610 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4611 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4612 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4613 
  4614 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4615 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4616 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4617 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4618 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4619 
  4620 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4621 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4622 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4623 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4624 Method.add_method.
  4625 
  4626 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4627 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4628 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4629 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4630 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4631 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4632 
  4633 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4634 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4635 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4636 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4637 examples.
  4638 
  4639 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4640 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4641 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4642 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4643 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4644 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4645 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4646 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4647 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4648 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4649 
  4650 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4651 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4652 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4653 
  4654 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4655 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4656 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4657 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4658 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4659 resort for legacy applications.
  4660 
  4661 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4662 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4663 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4664 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4665 explicit runtime argument.
  4666 
  4667 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4668 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4669 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4670 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4671 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4674 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4675 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4676 theory state.
  4677 
  4678 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4679 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4680 
  4681   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4682   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4683   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4684   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4685   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4686   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4687   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4688   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4689   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4690   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4691 
  4692 
  4693 *** System ***
  4694 
  4695 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4696 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4697 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4698 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4699 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4700 
  4701 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4702 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4703 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4704 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4705 
  4706 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4707 
  4708 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4709 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4710 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4711 prover operations.
  4712 
  4713 
  4714 
  4715 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4716 -------------------------------
  4717 
  4718 *** General ***
  4719 
  4720 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4721 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4722 
  4723 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4724 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4725 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4726 provides a proper context already.
  4727 
  4728 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4729 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4730 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4731 
  4732 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4733 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4734 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4735 swap theory imports.
  4736 
  4737 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4738 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4739 
  4740 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4741 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4742 white space without escapes.
  4743 
  4744 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4745 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4746 "foo_bar".
  4747 
  4748 
  4749 *** Pure ***
  4750 
  4751 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4752 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4753 
  4754 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4755 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4756 
  4757 (1) unused_thms
  4758      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4759 
  4760 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4761      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4762      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4763 
  4764 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4765      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4766      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4767      their ancestors.
  4768 
  4769 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4770 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4771 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4772 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4773 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4774 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4775 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4776 
  4777 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4778 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4779 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4780 
  4781 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4782 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4783 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4784 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4785 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4786 
  4787 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4788 
  4789 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4790 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4791 update of theories within ML code.
  4792 
  4793 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4794 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4795 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4796 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4797 
  4798 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4799 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4800 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4804 
  4805 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4806 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4807 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4808 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4809 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4810 
  4811 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4812 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4813 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4814 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4815 situations.
  4816 
  4817 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4818 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4819 proof text.
  4820 
  4821 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4822 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4823 
  4824 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4825 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4826 predicates.
  4827 
  4828 
  4829 *** Document preparation ***
  4830 
  4831 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4832 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4833 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4834 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4835 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4836 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4837 
  4838 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4839 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4840 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4841 
  4842 
  4843 *** HOL ***
  4844 
  4845 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4846 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4847 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4848 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4849 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4850 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4851 
  4852 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4853 with multithreading.
  4854 
  4855 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4856 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4857 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4858 
  4859 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4860 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4861 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4862 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4863 
  4864 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4865 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4866 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4867 and makes them available separately.  See
  4868 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4869 
  4870 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4871 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4872 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4873 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4874 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4875 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4876 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4877 the declared rules.
  4878 
  4879 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4880 
  4881   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4882 
  4883 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4884 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4885 
  4886 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4887 
  4888   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4889 
  4890   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4891     definitions on => and bool.
  4892 
  4893   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4894     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4895     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4896 
  4897       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4898       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4899       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4900       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4901       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4902       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4903       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4904       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4905 
  4906   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4907     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4908     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4909 
  4910   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4911     The proof pattern
  4912 
  4913       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4914       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4915 
  4916     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4917     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4918 
  4919       have "EX S. P S"
  4920       proof
  4921         show "P S" <...>
  4922       qed
  4923 
  4924   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4925     The proof pattern
  4926 
  4927       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4928       also have "S = T" <...>
  4929       finally have "P T" .
  4930 
  4931     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4932     must be replaced by something like
  4933 
  4934       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4935       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4936       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4937 
  4938   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4939     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4940 
  4941       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4942 
  4943     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4944     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4945     type of the form
  4946 
  4947       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4948 
  4949     rather than
  4950 
  4951       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4952 
  4953 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4954 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4955 
  4956 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4959 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4963 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4966 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4969 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4970 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4973 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4974 
  4975   less_trans
  4976   less_linear
  4977   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4978   le_less_trans
  4979   less_le_trans
  4980   less_not_sym
  4981   less_asym
  4982 
  4983 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4984 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4985 and different variable names.
  4986 
  4987 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4988 
  4989 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4990 finite maps.
  4991 
  4992 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4993 
  4994 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4995 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4996 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4997 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4998 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4999 accordingly.
  5000 
  5001 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5002 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5003 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5004 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5005 
  5006 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5007 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5008 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5009 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5010 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5014 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5017 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5018 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5019 
  5020 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5022 
  5023 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5024 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5025 
  5026 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5027 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5030 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5033 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5037 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5040 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5041 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5042 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5043 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5044 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5045 
  5046 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5047 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5048 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5049 
  5050 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5051 
  5052 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5053 
  5054 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5055 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5056 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5057 
  5058 
  5059 *** ZF ***
  5060 
  5061 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5062 same session:
  5063 
  5064   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5065   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5066   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5067   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5068   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5069   List      -> List_ZF
  5070   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5071 
  5072 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5073 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5074 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5075 
  5076 
  5077 *** ML ***
  5078 
  5079 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5080 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5081 
  5082 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5083 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5084 
  5085 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5086 
  5087 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5088 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5089 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5090 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5091 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5092 
  5093 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5094 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5095 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5096 
  5097 
  5098 *** System ***
  5099 
  5100 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5101 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5102 
  5103 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5104 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5105 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5106 
  5107 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5108 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5109 
  5110 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5111 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5112 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5113 
  5114 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5115 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5116 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5117 
  5118 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5119 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5120 
  5121 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5122 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5123 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5124 script.
  5125 
  5126 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5127 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5128 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5129 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5130 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5131 
  5132 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5133 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5134 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5135 
  5136 
  5137 
  5138 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5139 -----------------------------------
  5140 
  5141 *** General ***
  5142 
  5143 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5144 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5145 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5146 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5147 
  5148 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5149 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5150 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5153 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5154 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5155 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5158 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5159 quotes.
  5160 
  5161 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5162 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5163 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5164 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5165 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5166 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5167 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5169 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5170 
  5171 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5172 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5173 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5174 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5175 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5176 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5177 
  5178 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5179 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5180 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5181 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5182 
  5183 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5184 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5185 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5186 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5187 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5188 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5189 
  5190 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5191 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5192 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5193 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5194 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5195 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5196 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5197 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5198 
  5199 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5200 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5201 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5202 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5203 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5204 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5205 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5206 
  5207 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5208 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5209 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5210 
  5211 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5212 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5213 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5214 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5215 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5216 limit is imposed.
  5217 
  5218 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5219 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5220 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5221 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5222 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5223 and scalability.
  5224 
  5225 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5226 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5227 
  5228 
  5229 *** Document preparation ***
  5230 
  5231 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5232 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5233 current context.
  5234 
  5235 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5236 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5237 
  5238 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5239 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5240 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5241 
  5242 
  5243 *** Pure ***
  5244 
  5245 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5246 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5247 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5248 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5249 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5250 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5251 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5252 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5253 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5254 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5255 
  5256 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5257 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5258 sketch:
  5259 
  5260     internal compilation:
  5261         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5262     writing SML code to a file:
  5263         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5264     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5265         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5266     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5267         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5268 
  5269     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5270         method ``eval''
  5271 
  5272 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5273 
  5274 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5275 
  5276     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5277     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5278     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5279     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5280 
  5281 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5282 
  5283     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5284       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5285 
  5286     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5287       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5288 
  5289     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5290       {(target)}+
  5291         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5292 
  5293     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5294       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5295         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5296 
  5297 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5298 
  5299 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5300 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5301 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5302 codegen".
  5303 
  5304 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5305 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5306 annotations).
  5307 
  5308 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5309 syntax.
  5310 
  5311 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5312 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5313 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5314 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5315 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5316 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5317 
  5318 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5319 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5320 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5321 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5322 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5323 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5324 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5325 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5326 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5327 equations, see section "definitions".
  5328 
  5329 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5330 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5331 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5332 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5333 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5334 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5335 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5336 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5337 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5338 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5339 
  5340 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5341 configuration options:
  5342 
  5343   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5344   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5345   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5346   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5347   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5348   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5349   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5350   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5351   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5352 
  5353 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5354 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5355 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5356 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5357 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5358 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5359 order.
  5360 
  5361 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5362 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5363 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5364 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5365 context encountered later on.
  5366 
  5367 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5368 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5369 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5370 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5371 
  5372 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5373 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5374 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5375 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5376 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5377 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5378 
  5379 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5380 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5381 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5382 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5383 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5384 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5385 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5386 more permissive.
  5387 
  5388 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5389 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5390 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5391 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5392 maintainability of proof texts.
  5393 
  5394 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5395 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5396 
  5397   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5398   then guess x and y by clarify
  5399 
  5400 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5401 proof tools being involved here.
  5402 
  5403 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5404 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5405 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5406 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5407 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5408 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5409 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5410 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5411 
  5412 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5413 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5414 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5415 
  5416   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5417   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5418   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5419   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5420 
  5421 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5422 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5423 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5426 both named and unnamed ones.
  5427 
  5428 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5429 
  5430   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5431 
  5432 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5433 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5434 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5435 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5436 
  5437 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5438 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5439 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5440 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5441 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5442 
  5443 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5444 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5445 
  5446 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5447 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5448 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5449 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5450 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5451 originally first one.
  5452 
  5453 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5454 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5455 expected.
  5456 
  5457 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5458 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5459 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5460 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5461 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5462 
  5463   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5464     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5465     obtains x where "P x"
  5466 
  5467   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5468     assumes "A & B"
  5469     obtains A and B
  5470 
  5471   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5472     assumes "A | B"
  5473     obtains
  5474       A
  5475     | B
  5476 
  5477 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5478 explicitly:
  5479 
  5480   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5481     obtains "~ thesis"
  5482 
  5483   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5484     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5485 
  5486 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5487 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5488 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5489 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5490 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5491 case_names).
  5492 
  5493 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5494 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5495 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5496 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5497 
  5498 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5499 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5500 top-level lemma.
  5501 
  5502 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5503 introduction rule (default "that").
  5504 
  5505 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5506 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5507 to occur.
  5508 
  5509 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5510 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5511 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5512 representations independently of name spaces.
  5513 
  5514 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5515 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5516 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5519 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5520 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5521 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5522 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5523 current context.
  5524 
  5525 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5526 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5527 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5528 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5529 
  5530   axiomatization
  5531     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5532     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5533 
  5534   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5535   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5536 
  5537   abbreviation
  5538     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5539     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5540 
  5541 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5542 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5543 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5544 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5545 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5546 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5547 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5548 
  5549 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5550 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5551 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5552 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5553 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5554 
  5555 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5556 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5557 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5558 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5559 
  5560 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5561 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5562 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5563 
  5564   definition "K x _ = x"
  5565 
  5566   inductive conj for A B
  5567   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5568 
  5569 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5570 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5571 abbreviations on output.
  5572 
  5573 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5574 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5575 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5576 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5577 
  5578 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5579 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5580 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5581 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5582 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5583 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5584 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5585 
  5586 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5587 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5588 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5589 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5590 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5591 
  5592 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5593 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5594 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5595 
  5596 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5597 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5598 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5599 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5600 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5601 
  5602   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5603     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5604 
  5605 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5606 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5607 partial_order.
  5608 
  5609 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5610 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5611 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5612 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5613 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5614 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5615 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5616 examples.
  5617 
  5618 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5619 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5620 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5621 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5622 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5623 
  5624 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5625 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5626 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5627 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5628 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5629 
  5630   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5631   (induct set: foo bar)
  5632   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5633   (induct type: foo bar)
  5634 
  5635 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5636 new format.
  5637 
  5638 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5639 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5640 
  5641 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5642 considered a legacy feature.
  5643 
  5644 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5645 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5648 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5649 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5650 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5651   
  5652 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5653 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5654 manipulating the claset.
  5655 
  5656 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5657 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5658 least one premise.
  5659 
  5660 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5661 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5662 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5663 rule steps.
  5664 
  5665 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5666 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5667 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5668 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5670 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5671 
  5672 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5673 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5674 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5675 
  5676 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5677 the graph browser tool.
  5678 
  5679 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5680 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5681 
  5682 
  5683 *** HOL ***
  5684 
  5685 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5686 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5687 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5688 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5689 multi-threading.
  5690   
  5691 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5692 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5693 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5694 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5695 work with multi-threading.
  5696 
  5697 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5698 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5699 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5700 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5701 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5702 
  5703 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5704 
  5705 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5706 equality.
  5707 
  5708 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5709 the new 'class' package:
  5710 
  5711     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5712     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5713     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5714     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5715     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5716     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5717     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5718     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5719     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5720     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5721     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5722     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5723     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5724     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5725     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5726     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5727     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5728     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5729     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5730     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5731 
  5732 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5733 
  5734 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5735 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5736 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5737 names.
  5738 
  5739 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5741 
  5742 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5743 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5744 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5745 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5746 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5747 
  5748 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5749 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5750 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5751 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5752 
  5753 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5754 
  5755 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5756 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5757 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5758 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5760 
  5761 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5762 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5763 
  5764 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5765 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5766 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5767 
  5768 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5769 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5770 
  5771 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5772 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5773 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5774 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5775 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5776 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5777 in the current context.
  5778 
  5779 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5780 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5782 
  5783 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5784 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5785 
  5786 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5787 
  5788     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5789     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5790 
  5791     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5792       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5793     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5794     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5795 
  5796     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5797     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5798 
  5799   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5800 
  5801     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5802     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5803     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5804     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5805     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5806     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5807     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5808     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5809     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5810     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5811     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5812     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5813     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5814     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5815     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5816     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5817     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5818     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5819     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5820     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5821     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5822     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5823     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5824     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5825     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5826     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5827     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5828     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5829     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5830     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5831     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5832     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5833     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5834     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5835     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5836 
  5837     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5838     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5839     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5840     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5841     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5842     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5843     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5844     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5845     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5846     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5847     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5848     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5849     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5850     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5851     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5852     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5853     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5854 
  5855     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5856     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5857     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5858     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5859     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5860     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5861     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5862     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5863     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5864     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5865     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5866     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5867     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5868     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5869     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5870     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5871     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5872     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5873     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5874     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5875     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5876     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5877     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5878     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5879     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5880     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5881     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5882     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5883 
  5884     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5885     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5886     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5887     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5888     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5889     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5890 
  5891     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5892     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5893     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5894     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5895 
  5896     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5897     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5898 
  5899     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5900     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5901 
  5902 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5903 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5904 
  5905 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5906 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5907 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5908 "*.size".
  5909 
  5910 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5912 
  5913 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5914 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5915 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5916 
  5917 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5918 
  5919 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5920 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5921 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5922 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5923 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5924 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5925 numerals on all operations.
  5926 
  5927 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5928 
  5929 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5930 
  5931 * Code generator library theories:
  5932   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5933     languages.
  5934   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5935     languages.
  5936   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5937     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5938   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5939   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5940     denominator).
  5941   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5942     representable by rational numbers.
  5943   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5944     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5945     includes Code_Integer.
  5946   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5947     target-language built-in integers.
  5948   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5949     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5950 
  5951 * New package for inductive predicates
  5952 
  5953   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5954 
  5955     inductive
  5956       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5957       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5958     where
  5959       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5960     | ...
  5961 
  5962   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5963 
  5964     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5965 
  5966     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5967     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5968 
  5969     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5970     intros
  5971       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5972       ...
  5973 
  5974   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5975   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5976 
  5977     inductive_set
  5978       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5979       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5980     where
  5981       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5982     | ...
  5983 
  5984   or
  5985 
  5986     inductive_set
  5987       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5988       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5989       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5990     where
  5991       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5992     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5993     | ...
  5994 
  5995   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5996 
  5997   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5998   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5999 
  6000   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6001 
  6002   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6003     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6004     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6005     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6006     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6007 
  6008   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6009     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6010     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6011     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6012     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6013     statements of the form
  6014 
  6015       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6016 
  6017     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6018     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6019 
  6020       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6021 
  6022   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6023 
  6024       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6025         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6026         ==> ... ==> P
  6027 
  6028     for predicates and
  6029 
  6030       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6031         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6032         ==> ... ==> P
  6033 
  6034     for sets rather than
  6035 
  6036       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6037         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6038         ==> ... ==> P
  6039 
  6040     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6041     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6042     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6043 
  6044   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6045     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6046     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6047 
  6048 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6049 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6050 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6051 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6052 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6053 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6054 
  6055 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6056 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6057 
  6058 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6059 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6060 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6061 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6062 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6063 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6064 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6065 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6066 variable.
  6067 
  6068 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6069 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6070 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6071 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6072   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6073   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6074 
  6075 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6076 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6077 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6078 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6079 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6080 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6081 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6082 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6083 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6084 
  6085 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6086 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6087 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6088 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6089 rat, etc.
  6090 
  6091 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6092 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6093 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6094 
  6095 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6096 
  6097 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6098 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6099 
  6100 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6101 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6102 
  6103 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6104 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6105 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6106 
  6107 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6108 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6112 
  6113 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6114 
  6115 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6116 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6117 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6118 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6119 
  6120 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6121 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6122 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6123 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6126 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6127 algebraic operations.
  6128 
  6129 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6136 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6137 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6138 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6139 adapted.
  6140  
  6141 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6142 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6143 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6144 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6145 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6146 
  6147 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6148 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6149 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6150 
  6151 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6152 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6153 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6154 
  6155 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6158 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6159 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6160   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6161       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6162   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6163   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6164   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6165 
  6166 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6167 
  6168 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6169 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6170 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6171 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6172 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6173 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6174 
  6175 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6176 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6177 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6178 
  6179 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6180 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6181 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6183 
  6184 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6185 
  6186 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6187 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6188 
  6189 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6190 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6191 
  6192 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6193 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6194 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6195 
  6196 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6197 True/False.
  6198 
  6199 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6200 
  6201 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6202 
  6203 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6204 ``rule'' method.
  6205 
  6206 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6207 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6208 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6209 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6210 
  6211 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6212 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6213 
  6214 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6215 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6216 
  6217 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6218 Library.
  6219 
  6220 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6221 
  6222 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6223 as greatest fixed-point.
  6224 
  6225 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6226 association lists.
  6227 
  6228 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6229 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6230 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6231 
  6232 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6233 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6234 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6236 behavior.
  6237 
  6238 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6239 
  6240 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6241 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6242 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6243 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. T