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NEWS

author | haftmann |

Wed Apr 22 19:16:02 2009 +0200 (2009-04-22) | |

changeset 30965 | e0938d929bfd |

parent 30964 | e80c06577ade |

child 30971 | 7fbebf75b3ef |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

dropped duplication

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** Pure ***

9 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters are

10 formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

13 *** HOL ***

15 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of div_mult_mult1;

16 theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2, div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and

17 div_mult_mult2 have been generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former

18 theorems zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and zdiv_zmult_zmult2.

19 div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

21 * Power operations on relations and functions are now dedicated constants:

23 relpow with infix syntax "^^"

24 funpow with infix syntax "^o"

26 Power operations on algebraic structures retains syntax "^" and is now defined

27 generic in class recpower; class power disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

29 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype generated

30 by the code generator; see Predicate.thy for an example.

33 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

34 --------------------------------

36 *** General ***

38 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

39 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

41 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

42 "isatool."

44 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

45 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

47 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

48 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

50 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

51 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

52 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

54 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

55 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

56 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

57 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

58 via "isabelle emacs".

60 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

61 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

62 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

64 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

65 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

66 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

68 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

69 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

70 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

71 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

72 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

74 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

75 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

76 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

77 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

79 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

80 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

81 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

84 *** Pure ***

86 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

87 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

88 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

90 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

91 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

92 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

93 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

94 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

96 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

97 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

98 useful in locale declarations.

100 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

101 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

102 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

103 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

104 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

105 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

106 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

107 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

108 no longer generated.

110 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

111 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

112 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

114 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

115 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

116 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

117 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

118 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

120 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

121 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

122 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

123 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

124 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

125 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

126 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

127 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

129 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

130 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

131 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

132 the parameters (context element "constrains").

134 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

136 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

137 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

138 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

140 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

141 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

143 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

144 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

145 in HOL, write

147 class foo = ...

149 instead of

151 class foo = type + ...

153 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

154 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

156 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

157 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

159 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

160 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

161 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

163 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

164 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

165 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

166 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

167 directly in regular applications.

169 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

170 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

172 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

173 interface with 'setup' command instead.

175 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

176 theory context.

178 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

179 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

181 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

182 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

183 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

184 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

185 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

186 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

188 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

190 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

191 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

192 normalization.

194 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

195 addressing etc.

197 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

199 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

200 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

202 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

204 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

205 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

206 parts of the code generator framework).

208 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

209 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

210 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

212 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

214 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

215 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

217 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

218 patterns, e.g.

220 find_consts "_ => bool"

222 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

223 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

224 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

225 hyphen:

227 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

229 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

230 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

232 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

233 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

234 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

235 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

236 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

237 higher-order unification.

240 *** Document preparation ***

242 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

243 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

244 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

247 *** HOL ***

249 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

250 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

252 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

253 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

254 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

255 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

256 Main, as before.

258 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

259 experimentation due to shorter build times.

261 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

262 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

263 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

264 new entry point Hypercomplex.

266 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

267 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

268 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

269 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

270 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

271 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

273 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

274 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

275 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

276 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

278 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

279 menu.

281 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

282 (contains the empty clause).

284 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

285 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

287 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

288 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

290 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

291 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

292 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

294 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

295 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

296 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

297 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

298 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

300 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

301 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

303 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

304 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

305 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

306 are now presented as a list of individual projections

307 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

308 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

309 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

310 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

311 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

313 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

315 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

317 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

318 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

320 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

321 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

322 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

323 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

325 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

326 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

328 op Int ~> Set.Int

329 op Un ~> Set.Un

330 INTER ~> Set.INTER

331 UNION ~> Set.UNION

332 Inter ~> Set.Inter

333 Union ~> Set.Union

334 {} ~> Set.empty

335 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

337 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

338 theory Set.

340 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

341 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

343 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

345 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

346 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

348 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

349 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

350 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

351 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

352 allowed. For examples see

353 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

355 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

357 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

358 INCOMPATIBILITY.

360 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

361 structure:

363 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

364 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

365 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

366 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

367 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

368 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

369 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

370 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

371 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

372 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

373 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

374 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

375 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

376 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

377 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

378 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

379 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

380 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

381 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

382 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

383 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

384 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

385 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

386 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

387 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

388 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

389 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

390 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

391 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

392 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

393 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

394 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

395 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

397 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

398 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

399 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

400 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

401 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

402 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

403 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

404 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

405 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

406 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

408 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

409 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

410 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

411 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

412 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

413 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

415 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

416 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

417 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

419 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

420 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

421 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

423 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

424 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

426 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

427 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

429 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

430 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

431 proofs, e.g.

433 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

435 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

437 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

438 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

439 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

441 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

442 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

443 INCOMPATIBILITY.

445 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

446 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

447 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

448 INCOMPATIBILITY.

450 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

451 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

452 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

453 preorder_class.*.

455 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

456 "diag" to "Id_on".

458 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

460 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

462 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

463 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

464 fold_image.

466 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

467 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

468 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

469 the former will disappear at some point.

471 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

472 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

473 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

475 rat_power_0 -> power_0

476 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

477 realpow_0 -> power_0

478 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

479 complexpow_0 -> power_0

480 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

481 power_poly_0 -> power_0

482 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

484 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

485 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

486 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

487 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

488 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

489 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

491 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

492 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

493 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

494 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

495 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

496 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

497 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

499 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

500 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

501 rename old lemmas as follows:

503 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

504 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

505 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

506 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

507 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

508 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

509 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

510 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

511 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

512 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

513 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

514 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

515 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

516 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

517 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

518 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

519 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

520 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

521 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

522 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

523 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

524 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

525 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

526 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

527 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

528 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

529 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

530 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

531 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

532 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

533 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

534 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

535 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

536 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

537 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

538 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

539 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

540 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

541 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

542 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

543 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

544 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

545 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

546 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

547 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

549 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

551 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

552 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

554 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

555 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

556 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

557 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

559 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

560 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

561 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

562 theory RealVector.

564 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

565 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

566 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

567 and inner products are included.

569 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

570 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

571 supported.

573 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

574 first diagonalization argument.

576 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

577 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

578 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

579 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

580 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

582 hide (open) const gcd

583 abbreviation gcd where

584 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

585 notation (output)

586 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

588 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

590 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

591 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

592 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

594 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

595 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

596 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

597 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

598 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

599 instrumentalizing code generation. See

600 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

601 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

602 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

603 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

604 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

605 cases.

607 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

608 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

609 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

610 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

611 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

613 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

614 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

615 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

616 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

617 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

620 *** HOL-Algebra ***

622 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

623 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

624 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

626 * New theory of factorial domains.

628 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

629 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

630 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

632 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

634 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

635 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

636 least_carrier ~> least_closed

637 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

638 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

639 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

640 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

643 *** HOL-Nominal ***

645 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

647 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

648 theory targets.

650 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

651 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

652 'inductive' etc.

654 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

655 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

657 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

658 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

660 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

661 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

662 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

663 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

664 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

665 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

666 the algorithm W:

668 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

669 -----------------------------------------------------------------

670 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

672 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

673 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

674 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

677 *** HOLCF ***

679 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

680 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

681 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

683 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

684 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

685 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

686 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

687 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

689 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

690 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

691 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

694 *** ZF ***

696 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

699 *** ML ***

701 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

702 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

703 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

704 5.2.1!

706 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

707 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

708 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

709 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

710 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

711 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

712 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

714 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

715 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

716 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

717 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

718 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

719 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

720 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

722 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

723 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

724 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

725 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

726 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

728 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

729 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

730 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

731 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

732 Method.add_method.

734 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

735 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

736 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

737 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

738 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

739 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

741 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

742 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

743 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

744 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

745 examples.

747 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

748 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

749 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

750 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

751 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

752 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

753 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

754 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

755 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

756 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

758 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

759 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

760 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

762 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

763 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

764 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

765 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

766 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

767 resort for legacy applications.

769 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

770 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

771 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

772 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

773 explicit runtime argument.

775 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

776 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

777 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

778 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

779 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

781 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

782 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

783 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

784 theory state.

786 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

787 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

789 @{binding name} - basic name binding

790 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

791 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

792 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

793 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

794 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

795 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

796 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

797 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

798 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

801 *** System ***

803 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

804 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

805 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

806 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

807 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

809 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

810 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

811 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

812 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

814 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

816 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

817 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

818 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

819 prover operations.

823 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

824 -------------------------------

826 *** General ***

828 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

829 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

831 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

832 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

833 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

834 provides a proper context already.

836 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

837 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

838 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

840 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

841 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

842 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

843 swap theory imports.

845 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

846 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

848 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

849 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

850 white space without escapes.

852 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

853 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

854 "foo_bar".

857 *** Pure ***

859 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

860 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

862 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

863 There are three ways of invoking it:

865 (1) unused_thms

866 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

868 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

869 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

870 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

872 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

873 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

874 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

875 their ancestors.

877 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

878 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

879 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

880 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

881 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

882 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

883 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

885 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

886 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

887 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

889 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

890 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

891 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

892 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

893 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

895 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

897 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

898 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

899 update of theories within ML code.

901 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

902 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

903 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

904 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

906 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

907 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

908 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

909 INCOMPATIBILITY.

911 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

913 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

914 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

915 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

916 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

917 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

919 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

920 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

921 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

922 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

923 situations.

925 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

926 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

927 proof text.

929 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

930 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

932 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

933 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

934 predicates.

937 *** Document preparation ***

939 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

940 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

941 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

942 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

943 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

944 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

946 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

947 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

948 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

951 *** HOL ***

953 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

954 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

955 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

956 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

957 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

958 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

960 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

961 with multithreading.

963 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

964 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

965 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

967 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

968 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

969 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

970 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

972 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

973 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

974 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

975 and makes them available separately. See

976 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

978 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

979 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

980 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

981 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

982 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

983 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

984 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

985 the declared rules.

987 This setup also deals with rules like

989 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

991 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

992 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

994 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

996 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

998 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

999 definitions on => and bool.

1001 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

1002 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

1003 the following theorems have been renamed:

1005 subset_def -> subset_eq

1006 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

1007 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

1008 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

1009 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

1010 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

1011 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

1012 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

1014 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

1015 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

1016 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

1018 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

1019 The proof pattern

1021 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1022 then have "EX S. P S" ..

1024 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

1025 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

1027 have "EX S. P S"

1028 proof

1029 show "P S" <...>

1030 qed

1032 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

1033 The proof pattern

1035 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1036 also have "S = T" <...>

1037 finally have "P T" .

1039 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

1040 must be replaced by something like

1042 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1043 moreover have "S = T" <...>

1044 ultimately have "P T" by simp

1046 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

1047 Code performing pattern matching on types via

1049 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

1051 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

1052 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

1053 type of the form

1055 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

1057 rather than

1059 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

1061 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

1062 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

1064 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1066 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

1067 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

1068 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1070 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

1071 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1073 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

1074 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1076 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

1077 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

1078 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1080 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

1081 the same name in theory Orderings:

1083 less_trans

1084 less_linear

1085 le_imp_less_or_eq

1086 le_less_trans

1087 less_le_trans

1088 less_not_sym

1089 less_asym

1091 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

1092 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

1093 and different variable names.

1095 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

1097 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

1098 finite maps.

1100 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

1102 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

1103 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

1104 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

1105 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

1106 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

1107 accordingly.

1109 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

1110 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

1111 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

1112 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

1114 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

1115 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

1116 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

1117 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

1118 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

1119 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1121 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

1122 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1124 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

1125 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

1126 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

1128 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

1129 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1131 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

1132 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

1134 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

1135 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1137 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

1138 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1140 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

1141 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

1142 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1144 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

1145 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1147 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

1148 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

1149 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

1150 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

1151 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

1152 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1154 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

1155 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

1156 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

1158 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

1160 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

1162 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

1163 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

1164 well-orders on sets and on types.

1167 *** ZF ***

1169 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

1170 same session:

1172 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

1173 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

1174 Int -> Int_ZF

1175 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

1176 Nat -> Nat_ZF

1177 List -> List_ZF

1178 Main -> Main_ZF

1180 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

1181 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

1182 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

1185 *** ML ***

1187 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

1188 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

1190 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

1191 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

1193 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

1195 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

1196 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

1197 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

1198 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

1199 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1201 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

1202 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

1203 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

1206 *** System ***

1208 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

1209 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

1211 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

1212 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

1213 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

1215 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

1216 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

1218 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

1219 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

1220 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

1222 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

1223 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

1224 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

1226 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

1227 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

1229 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

1230 way of changing the user's settings is via

1231 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

1232 script.

1234 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

1235 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

1236 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

1237 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

1238 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

1240 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

1241 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

1242 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

1246 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

1247 -----------------------------------

1249 *** General ***

1251 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

1252 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

1253 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

1254 legacy features will disappear eventually.

1256 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

1257 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

1258 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1260 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

1261 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

1262 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

1263 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1265 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

1266 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

1267 quotes.

1269 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

1270 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

1271 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

1272 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

1273 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

1274 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

1275 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

1276 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

1277 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

1279 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

1280 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

1281 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

1282 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

1283 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

1284 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

1286 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

1287 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

1288 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

1289 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

1291 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

1292 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

1293 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

1294 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

1295 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

1296 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

1298 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

1299 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

1300 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

1301 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

1302 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

1303 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

1304 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

1305 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

1307 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

1308 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

1309 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

1310 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

1311 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

1312 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

1313 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

1315 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

1316 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

1317 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

1319 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

1320 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

1321 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

1322 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

1323 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

1324 limit is imposed.

1326 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

1327 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

1328 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

1329 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

1330 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

1331 and scalability.

1333 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

1334 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

1337 *** Document preparation ***

1339 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

1340 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

1341 current context.

1343 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

1344 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

1346 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

1347 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

1348 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

1351 *** Pure ***

1353 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

1354 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

1355 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

1356 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

1357 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

1358 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

1359 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

1360 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

1361 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

1362 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

1364 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

1365 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

1366 sketch:

1368 internal compilation:

1369 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

1370 writing SML code to a file:

1371 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

1372 writing OCaml code to a file:

1373 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

1374 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

1375 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

1377 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

1378 method ``eval''

1380 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

1382 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

1384 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1385 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1386 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1387 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1389 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

1391 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

1392 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

1394 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

1395 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

1397 code_instance <and-list of instances>

1398 {(target)}+

1399 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

1401 code_class <and_list of classes>

1402 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

1403 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

1405 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

1407 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

1408 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

1409 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

1410 codegen".

1412 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

1413 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

1414 annotations).

1416 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

1417 syntax.

1419 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

1420 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

1421 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

1422 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

1423 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

1424 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

1426 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

1427 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

1428 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

1429 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

1430 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

1431 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

1432 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

1433 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

1434 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

1435 equations, see section "definitions".

1437 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

1438 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

1439 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

1440 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

1441 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

1442 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

1443 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

1444 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

1445 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

1446 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

1448 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

1449 configuration options:

1451 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

1452 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

1453 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

1454 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

1455 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

1456 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

1457 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

1458 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

1459 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

1461 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

1462 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

1463 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

1464 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

1465 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

1466 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

1467 order.

1469 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

1470 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

1471 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

1472 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

1473 context encountered later on.

1475 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

1476 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

1477 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

1478 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

1480 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

1481 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

1482 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

1483 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

1484 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

1485 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

1487 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

1488 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

1489 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

1490 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

1491 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

1492 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

1493 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

1494 more permissive.

1496 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

1497 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

1498 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

1499 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

1500 maintainability of proof texts.

1502 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

1503 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

1505 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

1506 then guess x and y by clarify

1508 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

1509 proof tools being involved here.

1511 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

1512 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

1513 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

1514 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

1515 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

1516 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

1517 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

1518 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

1520 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

1521 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

1522 certain special cases of literal facts:

1524 have "A" by fact == note `A`

1525 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

1526 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

1527 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

1529 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

1530 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

1531 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

1533 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

1534 both named and unnamed ones.

1536 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

1538 def x == "t" and y == "u"

1540 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

1541 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

1542 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

1543 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

1545 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

1546 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

1547 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

1548 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

1549 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

1551 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

1552 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

1554 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

1555 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

1556 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

1557 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

1558 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

1559 originally first one.

1561 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

1562 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

1563 expected.

1565 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

1566 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

1567 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

1568 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

1569 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

1571 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1572 assumes "EX x. P x"

1573 obtains x where "P x"

1575 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1576 assumes "A & B"

1577 obtains A and B

1579 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1580 assumes "A | B"

1581 obtains

1582 A

1583 | B

1585 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

1586 explicitly:

1588 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1589 obtains "~ thesis"

1591 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1592 obtains "thesis ==> something"

1594 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

1595 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

1596 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

1597 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

1598 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

1599 case_names).

1601 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

1602 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

1603 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

1604 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

1606 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

1607 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

1608 top-level lemma.

1610 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

1611 introduction rule (default "that").

1613 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1614 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

1615 to occur.

1617 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

1618 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

1619 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

1620 representations independently of name spaces.

1622 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

1623 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

1624 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1626 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

1627 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

1628 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

1629 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

1630 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

1631 current context.

1633 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

1634 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

1635 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

1636 isar-ref manual. Examples:

1638 axiomatization

1639 eq (infix "===" 50) where

1640 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

1642 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

1643 definition g where "g x = f x x"

1645 abbreviation

1646 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

1647 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

1649 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

1650 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

1651 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

1652 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

1653 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

1654 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

1655 entities from a monomorphic theory.

1657 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

1658 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

1659 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

1660 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

1661 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

1663 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

1664 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

1665 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

1666 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

1668 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

1669 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

1670 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

1672 definition "K x _ = x"

1674 inductive conj for A B

1675 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

1677 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

1678 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

1679 abbreviations on output.

1681 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

1682 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

1683 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

1684 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

1686 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

1687 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

1688 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

1689 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

1690 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

1691 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

1692 `unfold_locales'; see below.

1694 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

1695 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

1696 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

1697 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

1698 unfold predicates to assumptions.

1700 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

1701 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

1702 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

1704 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

1705 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

1706 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

1707 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

1708 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

1710 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

1711 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

1713 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

1714 definition specification element in the context of locale

1715 partial_order.

1717 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

1718 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

1719 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

1720 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

1721 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

1722 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

1723 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

1724 examples.

1726 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

1727 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

1728 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

1729 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

1730 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

1732 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

1733 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

1734 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

1735 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

1736 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

1738 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

1739 (induct set: foo bar)

1740 (induct pred: foo bar)

1741 (induct type: foo bar)

1743 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

1744 new format.

1746 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

1747 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

1749 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

1750 considered a legacy feature.

1752 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

1753 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1755 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

1756 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

1757 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

1758 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

1760 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

1761 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

1762 manipulating the claset.

1764 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

1765 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

1766 least one premise.

1768 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

1769 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

1770 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

1771 rule steps.

1773 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

1774 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

1775 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

1776 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

1777 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

1778 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

1780 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

1781 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

1782 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

1784 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

1785 the graph browser tool.

1787 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

1788 default; use '!' option for full details.

1791 *** HOL ***

1793 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

1794 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

1795 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

1796 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

1797 multi-threading.

1799 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

1800 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

1801 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

1802 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

1803 work with multi-threading.

1805 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

1806 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

1807 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

1808 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

1809 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

1811 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

1813 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

1814 equality.

1816 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

1817 the new 'class' package:

1819 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1820 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

1821 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

1822 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

1823 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1824 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1825 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1826 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1827 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1828 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1829 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

1830 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

1831 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

1832 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

1833 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

1834 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

1835 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

1836 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

1837 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

1838 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

1840 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1842 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

1843 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

1844 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

1845 names.

1847 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1848 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1850 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1851 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1852 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

1853 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1854 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1856 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1857 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

1858 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

1859 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

1861 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

1863 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

1864 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

1865 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

1866 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

1867 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1869 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

1870 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1872 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

1873 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

1874 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1876 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

1877 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

1879 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

1880 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

1881 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

1882 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

1883 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

1884 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

1885 in the current context.

1887 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

1888 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

1889 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1891 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

1892 with new class dense_linear_order.

1894 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

1896 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

1897 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

1899 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

1900 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

1901 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

1902 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

1904 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

1905 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

1907 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

1909 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

1910 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

1911 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

1912 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

1913 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

1914 le_meetI ~> le_infI

1915 join_leI ~> le_supI

1916 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

1917 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

1918 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

1919 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

1920 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

1921 join_comm ~> sup_commute

1922 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

1923 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

1924 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

1925 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

1926 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

1927 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

1928 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

1929 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

1930 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

1931 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

1932 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

1933 join_aci ~> sup_aci

1934 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

1935 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

1936 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

1937 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

1938 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

1939 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

1940 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

1941 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

1942 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

1943 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

1945 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

1946 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

1947 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

1948 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

1949 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

1950 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

1951 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

1952 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

1953 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

1954 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

1955 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

1956 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

1957 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

1958 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

1959 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

1960 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

1961 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

1963 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

1964 mono_join ~> mono_sup

1965 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

1966 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

1967 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

1968 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

1969 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

1970 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

1971 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

1972 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

1973 meet1I ~> inf1I

1974 meet2I ~> inf2I

1975 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

1976 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

1977 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

1978 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

1979 meet1E ~> inf1E

1980 meet2E ~> inf2E

1981 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

1982 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

1983 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1984 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

1985 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1986 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

1987 join1CI ~> sup1CI

1988 join2CI ~> sup2CI

1989 join1E ~> sup1E

1990 join2E ~> sup2E

1992 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

1993 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

1994 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

1995 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

1996 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

1997 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

1999 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

2000 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

2001 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

2002 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

2004 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

2005 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

2007 meet_min ~> inf_min

2008 join_max ~> sup_max

2010 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

2011 type "'a::size ==> bool"

2013 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

2014 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

2015 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

2016 "*.size".

2018 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

2019 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2021 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

2022 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

2023 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2025 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2027 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

2028 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

2029 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

2030 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

2031 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

2032 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

2033 numerals on all operations.

2035 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

2037 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

2039 * Code generator library theories:

2040 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

2041 languages.

2042 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

2043 languages.

2044 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

2045 codes; includes Code_Integer.

2046 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

2047 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

2048 denominator).

2049 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

2050 representable by rational numbers.

2051 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

2052 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

2053 includes Code_Integer.

2054 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

2055 target-language built-in integers.

2056 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

2057 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

2059 * New package for inductive predicates

2061 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

2063 inductive

2064 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2065 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2066 where

2067 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2068 | ...

2070 with full support for type-inference, rather than

2072 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2074 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2075 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2077 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

2078 intros

2079 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2080 ...

2082 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

2083 sets to be defined with the new package via

2085 inductive_set

2086 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2087 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2088 where

2089 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2090 | ...

2092 or

2094 inductive_set

2095 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2096 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2097 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2098 where

2099 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2100 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2101 | ...

2103 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

2105 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

2106 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

2108 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2110 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

2111 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

2112 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

2113 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

2114 than before the actual inductive definition.

2116 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

2117 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

2118 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

2119 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

2120 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

2121 statements of the form

2123 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

2125 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

2126 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

2128 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

2130 - The format of the elimination rules is now

2132 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

2133 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2134 ==> ... ==> P

2136 for predicates and

2138 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2139 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2140 ==> ... ==> P

2142 for sets rather than

2144 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2145 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

2146 ==> ... ==> P

2148 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

2149 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

2150 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

2152 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

2153 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

2154 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

2156 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

2157 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

2158 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

2159 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

2160 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

2161 users are encouraged to use the new package.

2163 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

2164 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

2166 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

2167 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

2168 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

2169 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

2170 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

2171 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

2172 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

2173 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

2174 variable.

2176 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

2177 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

2178 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

2179 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2180 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

2181 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

2183 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

2184 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

2185 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

2186 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

2187 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

2188 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

2189 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

2190 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

2191 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

2193 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

2194 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

2195 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

2196 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

2197 rat, etc.

2199 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

2200 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

2201 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

2203 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

2205 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

2206 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

2208 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

2209 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

2211 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

2212 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

2213 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2215 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

2216 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2219 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

2221 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

2223 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

2224 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

2225 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

2226 positive/negative (in inequations).

2228 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

2229 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

2230 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

2231 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2233 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

2234 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

2235 algebraic operations.

2237 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

2238 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2240 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

2241 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2243 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

2244 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

2245 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

2246 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

2247 adapted.

2249 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

2250 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

2251 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

2252 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

2253 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

2255 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

2256 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

2257 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

2259 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

2260 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

2261 better use 'abbreviation'.

2263 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2265 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

2266 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

2267 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

2268 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

2269 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

2270 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

2271 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

2272 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

2274 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

2276 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

2277 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

2278 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

2279 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

2280 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

2281 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

2283 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

2284 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

2285 "A = B" (with priority 50).

2287 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

2288 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

2289 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

2290 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2292 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

2294 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

2295 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2297 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

2298 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

2300 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

2301 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

2302 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

2304 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

2305 True/False.

2307 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

2309 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

2311 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

2312 ``rule'' method.

2314 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

2315 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

2316 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

2317 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

2319 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

2320 zChaff is still supported as well.

2322 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

2323 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

2325 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

2326 Library.

2328 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

2330 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

2331 as greatest fixed-point.

2333 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

2334 association lists.

2336 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

2337 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

2338 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

2340 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

2341 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

2342 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2343 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

2344 behavior.

2346 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

2348 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

2349 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

2350 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

2351 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

2352 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

2353 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

2355 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

2356 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

2357 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

2358 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

2359 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

2360 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

2361 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

2363 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

2364 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

2366 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

2367 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

2368 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

2369 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

2370 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

2373 *** HOL-Complex ***

2375 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

2376 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

2377 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

2378 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

2379 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2381 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

2382 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

2383 and norm :: 'a => real.

2385 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

2386 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

2387 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2389 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

2390 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

2392 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

2393 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

2394 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

2395 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2397 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2398 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2399 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2400 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

2401 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2402 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2403 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2404 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2405 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2406 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2407 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

2408 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2409 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

2410 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

2411 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

2413 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

2414 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

2415 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

2416 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2418 approx <-- capprox

2419 HFinite <-- CFinite

2420 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

2421 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

2422 monad <-- cmonad

2423 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

2424 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

2425 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

2426 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

2429 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2431 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

2433 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

2434 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2436 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

2437 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2439 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

2440 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

2441 of algebraic structures.

2443 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

2446 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2448 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

2449 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

2450 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

2451 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

2454 *** ML ***

2456 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

2457 (even on SML/NJ).

2459 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

2460 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

2461 compile-time. For example:

2463 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

2464 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

2465 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

2466 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

2467 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

2468 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

2469 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

2470 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

2471 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

2472 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

2473 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

2474 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

2475 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

2476 ML {* @{context} *}

2477 ML {* @{theory} *}

2478 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

2479 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

2480 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

2481 ML {* @{simpset} *}

2482 ML {* @{claset} *}

2483 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

2485 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

2487 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

2488 ML_Context.trace enabled.

2490 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

2491 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

2492 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

2494 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

2495 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

2497 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

2498 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

2499 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

2501 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

2502 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

2503 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

2504 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

2505 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

2506 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

2507 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

2508 declarations and definitions.

2510 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

2511 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

2512 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

2513 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

2515 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

2516 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

2517 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

2518 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2520 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

2521 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

2522 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

2523 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

2524 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

2525 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

2527 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

2528 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

2529 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

2530 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

2531 attributes, methods, etc.

2533 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

2534 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

2535 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

2536 fold_map combinators.

2538 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

2539 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

2540 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

2541 derivation.

2543 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

2544 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

2545 achieve the old behaviour.

2547 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

2548 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

2549 statements.

2551 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

2552 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

2553 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

2555 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

2556 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

2557 some popular functions from term.ML:

2559 Term.variant -> Name.variant

2560 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

2561 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

2563 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

2564 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

2566 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

2567 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

2568 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

2569 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

2570 various freeze_thaw operations.

2572 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

2573 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

2574 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

2575 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

2576 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

2577 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

2578 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

2579 in a locale context).

2581 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

2582 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

2583 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

2584 which are considered legacy and await removal.

2586 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

2587 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

2588 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

2589 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

2590 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

2591 a mere theory instead of a full context.

2593 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

2594 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

2595 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

2596 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

2597 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

2599 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

2601 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

2602 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

2603 this:

2605 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

2607 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

2608 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

2609 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

2610 -- use plain ERROR instead.

2612 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

2613 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

2615 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

2616 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

2618 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

2619 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

2620 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

2621 batch mode.

2623 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

2624 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

2625 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

2626 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2628 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

2629 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

2630 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

2631 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

2632 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

2634 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

2635 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

2636 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

2637 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

2638 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

2639 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

2641 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

2642 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

2643 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

2644 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2646 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

2647 "Trueprop" etc.

2650 *** System ***

2652 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

2653 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

2654 Isabelle installations.

2656 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

2657 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

2658 code.

2660 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

2662 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

2663 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

2664 independent theories, according to the given theory header

2665 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

2666 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

2667 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

2668 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

2669 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

2670 Implementation manual.

2674 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

2675 ----------------------------------

2677 *** General ***

2679 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

2681 theory <name>

2682 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

2683 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

2684 begin

2686 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

2688 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

2690 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

2691 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

2692 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

2694 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

2695 relative and absolute paths.

2697 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

2698 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

2699 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

2700 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

2701 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

2702 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

2703 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

2704 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

2705 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

2707 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

2709 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

2710 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

2711 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

2713 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

2714 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

2716 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

2717 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

2718 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

2719 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

2721 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

2722 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

2724 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

2725 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

2726 faster.

2729 *** Document preparation ***

2731 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

2732 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

2733 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

2734 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

2735 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

2736 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

2738 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

2739 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

2740 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

2741 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

2742 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

2743 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

2744 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

2745 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

2746 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

2747 \isadroptag.

2749 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

2750 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

2751 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

2752 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

2753 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

2754 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

2755 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

2756 specified above.

2758 * Several new antiquotations:

2760 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

2762 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

2764 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

2765 argument is a known logical constant;

2767 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

2768 theorem applying a "style" to it

2770 @{ML text}

2772 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

2773 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

2774 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

2775 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

2776 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

2777 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

2778 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

2780 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

2781 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

2782 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

2783 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

2785 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

2786 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

2787 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

2789 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

2790 a proof context.

2792 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

2793 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

2795 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

2796 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

2798 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

2799 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

2800 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

2803 *** Pure ***

2805 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

2806 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

2807 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

2808 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

2809 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

2810 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

2811 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

2813 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

2814 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

2815 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

2816 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

2817 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

2818 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

2819 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

2820 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

2822 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

2823 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

2824 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

2826 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

2827 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

2828 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

2830 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

2831 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

2832 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

2833 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

2834 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2836 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

2837 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

2838 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

2839 axclasses vs. locales.

2841 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

2842 instead of base 26 numbers.

2844 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

2845 marks in schematic variable names.

2847 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

2848 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

2849 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

2851 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

2852 by simp

2854 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

2856 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

2857 annotations as "(00...)".

2859 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

2860 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

2861 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

2862 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

2863 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

2864 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

2865 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

2867 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

2868 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

2869 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

2870 specifications.

2872 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

2873 locally fixed variables as well.

2875 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

2876 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

2877 Limit.

2879 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

2880 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

2881 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

2882 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

2883 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

2884 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

2885 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

2887 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

2888 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

2889 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

2891 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2893 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

2894 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

2895 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

2896 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

2897 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

2898 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

2900 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

2901 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

2903 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

2904 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

2905 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

2907 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

2909 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

2910 theory development.

2912 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

2913 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

2914 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

2915 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

2917 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

2918 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

2919 quoted when used as identifier.

2922 *** Locales ***

2924 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

2925 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

2926 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

2927 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

2928 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

2929 commands is a follows:

2931 (1) interpretation expr inst

2932 (2) interpretation target < expr

2933 (3) interpret expr inst

2935 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

2936 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

2937 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

2938 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

2939 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

2940 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

2941 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

2942 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

2943 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

2944 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

2946 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

2947 'interpret' instead.

2949 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

2950 parameters.

2952 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

2953 redeclaration.

2955 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

2957 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

2958 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

2959 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

2960 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

2961 to attribute arguments as expected.

2963 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

2964 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

2965 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

2966 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

2967 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

2968 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

2969 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

2970 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

2971 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

2972 values to argument tokens explicitly.

2974 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

2975 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

2976 theorem statement in rare situations.

2978 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

2979 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

2982 *** Provers ***

2984 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

2985 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

2986 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

2987 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

2988 still available as 'simplesubst'.

2990 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

2991 and quasi orders.

2993 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

2994 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

2996 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

2997 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

2999 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

3000 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

3001 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3004 *** HOL ***

3006 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

3008 syntax (epsilon)

3009 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

3011 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

3012 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

3013 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

3014 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

3016 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

3017 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

3018 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

3019 support corresponding Isar calculations.

3021 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

3022 instead of ":".

3024 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

3026 Old New

3027 {..n(} {..<n}

3028 {)n..} {n<..}

3029 {m..n(} {m..<n}

3030 {)m..n} {m<..n}

3031 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

3033 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

3034 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

3035 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

3037 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

3038 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

3040 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

3041 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

3042 interface.

3044 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

3045 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

3046 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

3047 be a tuple pattern.

3049 Some new syntax forms are available:

3051 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

3052 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

3053 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

3054 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

3056 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

3057 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

3059 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

3060 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

3061 (insert F x)'.

3063 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

3064 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

3065 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

3067 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

3068 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

3069 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

3071 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

3072 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

3073 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

3074 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3075 in unstructured proof scripts.

3077 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

3078 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

3079 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

3080 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

3081 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

3082 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

3083 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

3084 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

3085 <record_name>_ext_type.

3087 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

3088 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

3089 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

3090 quite long.

3092 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

3093 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

3094 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

3095 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

3097 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

3098 type-variables in the term.

3100 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

3101 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

3102 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

3103 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

3104 goals than previously.

3106 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

3107 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

3108 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

3109 just like y <= x.

3111 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

3112 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

3113 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

3114 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

3115 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

3116 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

3117 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

3119 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

3121 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

3122 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

3124 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

3125 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

3126 inequalities.

3128 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3129 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3131 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

3132 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

3133 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

3134 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

3135 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

3136 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

3137 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

3138 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

3139 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

3140 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

3141 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

3143 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

3145 zero_le_square

3146 not_square_less_zero

3148 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

3150 realpow_zero_zero

3151 realpow_two

3152 realpow_less

3153 zero_le_power

3154 realpow_two_le

3155 abs_realpow_two

3156 realpow_two_abs

3158 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

3160 * Theory List:

3162 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3163 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3165 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

3166 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

3167 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

3168 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

3170 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

3171 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

3174 *** HOL-Complex ***

3176 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

3177 integers in the reals.

3179 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3180 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3182 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

3183 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3184 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3185 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3186 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3188 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

3190 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

3192 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

3193 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

3195 hypreal = real star

3196 hypnat = nat star

3197 hcomplex = complex star

3199 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

3200 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3202 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

3204 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

3205 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

3206 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

3207 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

3208 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

3210 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3211 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

3212 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

3213 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

3214 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

3216 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

3217 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3219 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

3220 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

3221 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

3222 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

3223 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

3224 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

3225 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

3226 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

3227 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

3228 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

3229 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

3230 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

3231 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

3232 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

3233 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

3234 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

3235 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

3236 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

3237 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

3238 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

3239 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

3240 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

3241 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

3242 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

3244 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

3245 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

3246 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3248 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

3249 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

3250 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

3251 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

3252 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

3253 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

3254 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

3255 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

3256 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

3257 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

3258 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

3259 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

3260 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

3261 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

3262 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

3263 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

3264 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

3265 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

3266 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

3267 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

3268 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

3269 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

3270 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

3271 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3272 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3273 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

3274 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

3275 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

3276 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

3277 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

3278 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

3279 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

3280 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

3281 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

3282 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

3283 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

3284 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

3285 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

3286 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

3287 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

3288 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

3289 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

3290 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

3291 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

3292 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

3293 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

3294 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

3295 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

3296 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

3297 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

3298 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

3299 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

3300 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

3301 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

3303 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

3304 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

3305 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

3306 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

3307 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

3308 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

3309 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

3310 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

3311 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

3312 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

3313 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

3315 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

3316 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

3317 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

3318 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

3319 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

3320 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

3321 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

3322 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

3323 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

3324 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

3325 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

3326 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

3327 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

3328 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

3329 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

3330 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

3331 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

3332 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

3333 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

3334 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

3335 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

3337 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

3338 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

3339 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

3340 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

3341 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

3342 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

3344 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

3347 *** HOLCF ***

3349 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

3350 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

3351 type-inference.

3353 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

3354 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

3355 instead of exponential time).

3357 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

3358 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

3360 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

3362 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

3363 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

3364 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

3365 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

3366 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3367 syntax and examples.

3369 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

3370 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

3371 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

3372 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

3373 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

3375 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

3376 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3378 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

3379 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

3380 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

3381 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

3382 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

3383 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

3386 *** ZF ***

3388 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

3389 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

3390 of a homomorphism).

3392 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

3393 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

3394 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

3397 *** Cube ***

3399 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

3400 theories.

3403 *** ML ***

3405 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

3406 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

3408 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

3409 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

3410 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

3411 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

3412 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

3414 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

3415 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

3416 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

3417 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

3419 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

3420 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

3421 suggests how one can translate existing code:

3423 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

3424 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

3425 last_elem xs = List.last xs

3426 flat xss = List.concat xss

3427 seq fs = List.app fs

3428 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

3429 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

3431 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

3432 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

3434 x |> f f #> g

3435 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

3437 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

3439 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

3440 infix 2 ?;

3441 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

3442 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

3444 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

3445 infix operators.

3447 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

3448 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

3449 example:

3451 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

3452 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

3454 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

3455 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

3457 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

3458 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

3460 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

3461 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

3463 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

3464 available:

3466 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

3467 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

3468 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

3469 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

3471 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3472 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

3473 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

3474 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

3475 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

3477 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

3478 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

3479 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

3481 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3483 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

3484 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

3486 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

3487 Naive rewrites:

3489 make_keylist = AList.make

3490 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

3492 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

3493 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

3495 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

3496 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

3498 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

3499 Naive rewrites:

3501 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

3502 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

3504 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

3505 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

3506 lists.

3508 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

3509 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

3510 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

3511 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

3513 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

3514 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

3515 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

3516 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

3517 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

3518 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

3519 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

3520 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

3521 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

3522 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

3523 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

3524 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

3525 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

3526 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

3527 Output.raw have no effect.

3529 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

3530 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

3531 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

3533 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

3534 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

3535 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

3536 internal and external process view of file names are different.

3538 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

3539 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

3540 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

3541 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

3542 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

3543 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

3544 Library.sort_strings on result).

3546 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

3547 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

3548 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

3549 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

3551 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

3552 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

3553 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

3554 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

3555 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

3556 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

3557 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

3558 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

3559 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

3560 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

3561 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

3563 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

3564 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

3565 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

3566 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

3567 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

3568 with earlier declarations.

3570 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

3571 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

3572 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3574 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

3575 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

3576 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

3577 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

3578 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

3579 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

3581 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

3582 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

3584 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

3585 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

3587 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

3588 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

3589 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

3590 Theory.merge, etc.)

3592 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

3593 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

3594 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

3596 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

3598 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

3599 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

3600 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

3601 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

3603 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

3604 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

3605 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

3606 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

3607 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

3608 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

3609 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

3610 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

3612 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

3613 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

3614 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3616 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

3617 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

3618 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

3620 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

3621 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

3623 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3624 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3625 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3626 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3628 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

3630 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

3631 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

3632 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

3633 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

3634 (both increase the runtime).

3636 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

3637 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

3638 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

3640 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

3641 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

3642 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

3643 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

3644 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

3645 for further details.

3647 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

3648 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

3649 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

3650 scripts for the time being.

3652 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

3653 generated HTML files. For example:

3655 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

3656 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

3659 *** System ***

3661 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

3662 isabelle, isatool etc.).

3664 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

3665 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

3667 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

3668 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

3670 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

3671 distribution being used.

3673 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

3674 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

3675 theories.

3679 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

3680 --------------------------------

3682 *** General ***

3684 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

3685 Replaces linorder.ML.

3687 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

3688 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

3689 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

3690 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

3691 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

3692 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

3693 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

3694 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

3695 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

3696 existing theory and ML files.

3698 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

3700 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

3701 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

3702 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

3703 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

3705 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

3706 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

3707 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

3708 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

3710 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

3711 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

3712 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

3714 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

3715 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

3716 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

3717 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

3718 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

3720 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

3721 (i.e. intersections of classes),

3723 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

3724 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

3725 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

3728 *** Isar ***

3730 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

3731 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

3732 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

3733 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

3734 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

3735 emulations.

3736 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

3737 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

3738 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

3740 * Attributes "where" and "of":

3741 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

3742 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

3743 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

3744 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

3746 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

3747 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

3748 and derived forms.

3750 * Locales:

3751 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

3752 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

3753 "_axioms") in the premise.

3754 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

3755 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

3756 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

3757 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

3758 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

3759 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

3760 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

3761 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

3762 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

3763 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

3764 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

3765 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

3766 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

3767 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

3768 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

3769 with "locale (open)".

3770 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

3772 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

3773 (Isar) contexts.

3776 *** HOL ***

3778 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

3779 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

3780 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

3781 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

3782 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

3784 * Simplifier:

3785 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

3786 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

3787 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

3788 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

3789 to solve goals from the assumptions.

3790 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

3791 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

3792 is solved by simplification already.

3794 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

3795 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

3797 * Numerics:

3798 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

3799 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

3800 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

3801 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

3802 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

3803 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

3804 exponentiation).

3806 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

3808 * Records:

3809 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

3810 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

3811 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

3812 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

3813 (not enabled by default).

3814 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

3815 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

3816 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

3818 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

3819 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

3820 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

3822 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

3824 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

3826 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

3827 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

3829 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

3830 matrix theory to linear programming.

3832 * Unions and Intersections:

3833 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

3834 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

3835 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

3836 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

3838 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

3839 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

3840 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

3841 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

3843 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

3844 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

3846 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

3847 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

3849 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

3850 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

3851 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

3853 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

3854 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

3855 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

3856 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

3857 for examples.

3860 *** HOLCF ***

3862 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

3866 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

3867 ------------------------------

3869 *** General ***

3871 * Provers/simplifier:

3873 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

3874 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

3875 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

3876 the order of assumptions.

3878 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3880 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

3881 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

3883 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

3885 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

3887 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

3889 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

3890 kind of problem.

3892 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

3893 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

3894 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

3895 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

3896 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

3897 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

3898 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

3900 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

3902 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

3903 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

3904 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

3905 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

3906 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

3907 the simplifier would diverge.

3909 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

3911 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

3912 congruence is ignored.

3914 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

3915 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

3916 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

3918 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

3919 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

3920 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

3921 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

3923 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

3924 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

3925 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

3926 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

3927 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

3928 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

3929 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

3931 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

3932 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

3933 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

3934 assumption failed.

3936 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

3937 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

3938 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

3939 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

3940 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

3941 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

3942 on the old view without predicates;

3944 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

3945 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

3946 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

3948 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

3949 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

3950 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

3951 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

3952 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

3953 be given (the default is 40);

3955 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

3956 (batch-mode only);

3958 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

3959 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

3960 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

3962 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

3963 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

3964 for slight decrease in efficiency;

3966 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

3967 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

3969 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

3970 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

3973 *** HOL ***

3975 * arith(_tac)

3977 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

3978 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

3979 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

3980 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

3982 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

3984 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

3985 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

3986 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

3988 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

3989 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

3991 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

3992 are distributed over a sum of terms;

3994 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

3995 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

3996 "<=", "<" and "=").

3998 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

3999 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

4001 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

4002 definition;

4004 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

4005 Finite_Set);

4007 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

4008 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

4010 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

4011 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

4013 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

4014 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

4015 of the empty set.

4017 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

4018 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

4019 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

4020 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

4022 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

4024 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

4025 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

4026 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

4028 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

4030 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

4031 Fleuriot);

4033 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

4035 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

4036 Gray and Kramer);

4038 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

4040 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

4041 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

4043 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

4044 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

4045 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

4046 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

4047 assignment, exceptions.

4050 *** ZF ***

4052 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

4053 universe, etc.);

4055 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

4058 *** ML ***

4060 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

4061 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

4062 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

4064 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

4066 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

4067 up simprocs;

4070 *** Document preparation ***

4072 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

4073 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

4074 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

4076 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

4077 other packages

4079 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

4080 broke \Rightarrow)

4082 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

4083 textcomp package)

4087 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

4088 --------------------------------

4090 *** Document preparation ***

4092 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

4093 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

4094 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

4095 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

4096 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

4097 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

4099 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

4100 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

4101 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

4103 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

4104 blocks after section headings;

4106 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

4107 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

4109 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

4110 better in printed text;

4112 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

4113 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

4114 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

4116 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

4117 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

4118 location;

4121 *** Isar ***

4123 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

4124 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

4125 "case (Suc n)");

4126 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

4127 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

4128 instantiation of cases;

4129 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

4130 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

4131 rules without further ado;

4132 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

4133 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

4134 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

4135 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

4136 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

4137 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

4138 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

4139 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

4140 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

4141 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

4142 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

4143 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

4144 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

4145 below);

4146 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

4147 success (no backtracking);

4148 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

4149 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

4150 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

4151 General versions);

4152 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

4153 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

4155 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

4156 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

4157 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

4158 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

4159 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

4160 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

4161 fails:

4163 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

4165 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

4166 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

4168 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

4169 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

4170 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

4171 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

4172 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

4173 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

4174 some examples;

4176 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

4177 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

4178 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

4179 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

4180 qualified by the locale name);

4182 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

4183 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

4184 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

4185 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

4186 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

4188 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

4189 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

4190 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

4191 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

4192 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

4194 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

4196 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

4197 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

4198 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

4200 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

4202 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

4204 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

4206 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

4207 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

4208 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

4210 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

4211 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

4212 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

4213 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

4214 proof *scripts*;

4216 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

4217 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

4218 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

4219 especially important for locales);

4221 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

4222 mode;

4224 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

4225 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

4226 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

4227 situations;

4229 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

4230 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

4232 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

4233 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

4234 discontinued;

4236 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

4237 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

4238 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

4240 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

4241 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

4242 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

4243 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

4244 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

4245 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

4246 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4248 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

4249 of introduction rules;

4251 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

4252 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

4253 conditional rules;

4255 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

4257 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

4258 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

4260 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

4261 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

4263 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

4264 wf_induct_rule;

4267 *** HOL ***

4269 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

4270 follows:

4272 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

4273 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

4275 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

4276 binary representation internally;

4278 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

4279 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

4281 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

4282 are some hints on converting existing sources:

4284 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

4285 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

4286 to be spaced properly;

4288 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

4289 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

4291 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

4293 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

4295 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

4296 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

4298 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

4300 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

4301 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

4302 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

4303 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

4304 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

4306 * HOL/record package improvements:

4307 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

4308 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

4309 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

4310 declared as simp by default;

4311 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

4312 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

4313 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

4314 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4315 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4316 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

4317 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

4318 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

4319 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

4320 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

4322 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

4323 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

4324 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

4325 via 'generate_code' theory section;

4327 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

4329 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

4330 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

4331 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

4333 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

4334 (beware of argument permutation!);

4336 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

4338 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

4340 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

4341 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4342 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

4344 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

4345 in this (rare) case use:

4347 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

4348 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

4350 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

4351 MAY FAIL;

4353 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

4354 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

4355 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

4356 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

4358 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

4359 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

4360 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

4362 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

4363 expressions;

4365 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

4366 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4368 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4369 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

4370 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

4372 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

4374 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

4375 the "cases" method);

4377 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

4378 Florian Kammller);

4380 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

4381 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

4382 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

4384 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

4386 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

4389 *** HOLCF ***

4391 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

4392 operations;

4394 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

4395 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

4397 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

4398 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

4399 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

4401 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

4404 *** ZF ***

4406 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

4407 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

4408 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

4409 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

4411 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

4412 your theory on Main_ZFC;

4414 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

4415 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

4417 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

4418 typeless version of the formalism;

4420 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

4421 format;

4423 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

4424 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

4425 new-style theory format;

4427 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

4430 *** General ***

4432 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

4433 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

4434 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

4435 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

4437 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

4438 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

4440 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

4441 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

4442 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

4443 properly;

4445 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

4446 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

4448 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

4449 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

4450 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

4451 type variable);

4453 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

4454 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

4455 "type_brackets";

4457 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

4458 tokens into AST constants;

4460 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

4461 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

4462 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

4464 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

4465 practice);

4467 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

4468 addSafter;

4470 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

4471 as well;

4473 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

4474 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

4475 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

4476 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

4477 support requires further installations, e.g. from

4478 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

4480 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

4482 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

4483 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

4485 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

4486 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

4488 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

4489 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

4490 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

4492 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

4493 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

4494 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

4495 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

4496 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

4498 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

4499 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

4500 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

4501 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

4503 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

4504 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

4505 terminal);

4509 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

4510 -----------------------------------

4512 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4514 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

4515 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

4516 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

4518 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

4519 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

4520 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

4521 'split_rule (complete)';

4523 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

4524 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

4526 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

4528 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

4529 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

4530 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

4532 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

4533 operation;

4535 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

4537 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

4539 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

4540 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

4541 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

4543 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

4544 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

4547 *** Document preparation ***

4549 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

4550 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

4551 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

4552 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

4553 type-writer);

4555 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

4556 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

4558 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

4559 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

4561 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

4562 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

4563 definitions);

4565 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

4566 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

4567 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

4568 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

4570 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

4571 fonts;

4573 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

4574 generation;

4576 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

4579 *** Isar ***

4581 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

4582 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

4583 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

4584 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

4585 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

4587 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

4588 rules as well;

4590 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

4591 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

4592 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

4593 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

4595 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

4596 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

4598 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

4599 statements as well;

4601 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

4603 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

4604 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

4606 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

4607 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

4609 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

4611 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

4613 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

4614 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

4616 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

4617 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

4618 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

4620 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

4621 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

4622 the result to be shown in each case;

4624 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

4626 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

4629 *** HOL ***

4631 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

4632 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

4633 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

4634 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

4635 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

4637 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

4638 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

4639 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

4641 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

4642 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

4643 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

4644 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

4645 literature;

4647 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

4648 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

4649 operator \<Sum>;

4651 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

4652 HOL/subset.thy);

4654 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

4655 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

4656 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

4658 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

4659 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

4661 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

4662 rules with string literals);

4664 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

4665 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

4666 functions for the reals;

4668 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

4671 *** CTT ***

4673 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

4674 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

4676 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

4677 and Arith);

4680 *** General ***

4682 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

4683 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

4684 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

4685 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

4687 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

4688 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

4690 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

4691 as assumptions as well;

4693 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

4695 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

4699 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

4700 ----------------------------------

4702 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4704 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

4705 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

4706 issue the following ML commands:

4708 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

4709 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

4711 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

4712 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

4714 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

4716 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

4717 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

4719 select_equality -> some_equality

4720 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

4721 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

4722 selectI2 -> someI2

4723 selectI -> someI

4724 select1_equality -> some1_equality

4725 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

4726 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

4728 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

4730 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

4731 instead);

4733 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

4734 f.simps instead of f.rules;

4736 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

4738 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

4739 sometimes be needed;

4741 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

4743 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

4745 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

4746 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

4747 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

4749 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

4750 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

4752 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

4753 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

4755 syntax (symbols)

4756 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

4757 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

4759 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4761 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

4762 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

4763 internally;

4765 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

4766 changed from A/r to A//r;

4768 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

4769 proofs;

4771 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

4772 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

4774 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4775 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

4776 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

4777 "rule del";

4779 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

4781 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

4783 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

4784 lib/texinputs);

4787 *** Document preparation ***

4789 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

4790 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

4791 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

4792 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

4794 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

4795 including proper document sources;

4797 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

4798 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

4799 of isatool usedir;

4801 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

4802 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

4803 LaTeX debugging;

4805 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

4807 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

4808 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

4809 graph for 'all sessions';

4811 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

4812 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

4813 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

4816 *** Isar ***

4818 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

4819 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

4820 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

4822 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

4823 generalized existence reasoning;

4825 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

4826 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

4827 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

4828 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

4829 premises;

4831 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

4832 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

4833 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

4834 to theorems as "tags";

4836 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

4837 class/type/const name spaces;

4839 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

4840 indicate potential overloading;

4842 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

4844 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

4845 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

4847 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

4848 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

4849 with the version in Provers/classical;

4851 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

4852 case name 'antecedent';

4854 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

4855 to the current context is now done automatically);

4857 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

4858 for definining proof methods in ML;

4860 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4861 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

4862 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

4863 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

4865 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

4866 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

4868 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

4869 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

4870 well (including splits);

4872 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

4873 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

4875 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

4876 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

4878 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

4879 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

4880 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

4882 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

4883 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

4884 calculations;

4886 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

4887 method anyway;

4889 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

4890 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

4891 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

4893 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

4894 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

4895 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

4896 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

4898 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

4900 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

4902 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

4903 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

4904 proof states;

4906 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

4907 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

4908 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

4910 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

4911 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

4912 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

4913 (for HOL datatypes);

4915 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

4916 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

4917 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

4919 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

4921 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

4922 should instead use individual commands for printing items

4923 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

4925 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

4928 *** HOL ***

4930 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

4931 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

4932 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

4933 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

4934 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

4935 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

4937 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

4938 Clemens Ballarin;

4940 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

4941 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

4942 Rasmussen;

4944 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

4945 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

4946 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

4947 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

4948 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

4949 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

4951 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

4952 von Oheimb;

4954 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

4955 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

4957 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

4959 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

4960 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

4961 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

4963 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

4964 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

4965 well; admit "r" as field name;

4967 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

4968 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

4970 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

4971 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

4973 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

4974 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

4975 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

4976 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

4977 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

4978 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

4979 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

4981 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

4982 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

4983 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

4985 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

4986 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

4987 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

4989 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

4990 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

4991 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

4992 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

4993 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

4995 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

4996 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

4997 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

4998 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

4999 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

5000 each equation;

5002 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

5003 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

5004 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

5005 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

5007 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

5008 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

5010 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

5012 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

5013 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

5014 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

5016 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

5018 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

5019 main HOL, but was unused);

5021 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

5022 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

5024 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

5025 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

5026 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

5027 bogus);

5030 *** ZF ***

5032 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

5033 expressions over nat and int;

5035 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

5036 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

5037 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

5039 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

5040 using the function intify;

5042 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

5043 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

5045 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

5046 simplification;

5048 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

5049 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5052 *** General ***

5054 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

5055 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

5057 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

5058 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

5060 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

5061 explicit make_elim);

5063 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

5064 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5065 use instead the strong form,

5066 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5067 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

5068 from destruct-rules;

5070 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

5071 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

5073 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

5075 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

5076 for hiding of names;

5078 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

5079 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

5080 situations;

5082 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

5083 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

5084 Poly/ML);

5086 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

5087 useful for remote X11);

5089 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

5091 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

5092 order;

5094 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

5095 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

5097 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

5098 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

5100 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

5101 overloading (usually false);

5103 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

5104 results;

5108 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

5109 --------------------------------

5111 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5113 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

5114 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

5115 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

5117 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

5119 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

5120 complement;

5122 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

5124 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

5125 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

5127 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5128 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5130 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

5131 to constants declared in the same theory;

5133 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

5134 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

5135 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

5137 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5139 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

5140 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

5141 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

5142 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

5143 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

5144 where the string argument is only a comment.

5147 *** Proof tools ***

5149 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

5150 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

5151 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

5152 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

5154 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

5155 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

5156 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

5157 matching.

5160 *** General ***

5162 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

5163 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

5164 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

5165 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

5166 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

5167 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

5169 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

5170 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

5171 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

5172 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

5173 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

5175 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

5176 Isabelle/Isar;

5178 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

5179 using the graph browser tool;

5181 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

5183 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

5184 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

5185 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

5186 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

5187 isatool doc ref);

5189 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

5190 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

5192 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

5193 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

5195 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

5196 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

5197 Isabelle;

5199 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

5201 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

5202 empty;

5204 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

5205 long arrows);

5207 * new print_mode "HTML";

5209 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

5210 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

5212 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

5213 mode and goal output format:

5215 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

5216 244c244

5217 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

5218 ---

5219 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

5220 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

5221 181c181

5222 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

5223 ---

5224 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

5226 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

5228 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

5230 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

5231 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

5232 result still apply;

5234 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

5235 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

5238 *** HOL ***

5240 ** HOL arithmetic **

5242 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

5243 int:

5245 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

5246 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

5247 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

5248 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

5249 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

5250 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

5251 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

5252 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

5254 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

5255 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

5256 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

5257 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

5258 simplifier.

5260 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

5261 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

5262 int(m) < int(n)'.

5264 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

5265 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

5266 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

5267 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

5268 type constraints;

5270 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

5271 arguments;

5273 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

5274 are now available;

5276 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

5277 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

5278 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

5279 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

5280 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

5281 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

5283 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

5286 ** HOL misc **

5288 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

5289 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

5291 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

5292 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

5294 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

5295 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

5296 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

5297 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

5299 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

5300 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

5301 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

5302 "mono" attribute);

5304 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

5305 (using function types) such as

5307 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

5309 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

5310 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

5311 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

5312 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

5314 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

5315 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

5317 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5318 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5320 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

5321 names rather than an ML expression;

5323 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

5324 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

5325 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

5326 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

5328 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5329 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

5330 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

5332 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

5333 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

5334 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

5336 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

5337 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

5339 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

5340 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

5341 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

5343 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

5345 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

5346 thus available for user theories;

5348 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

5349 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

5350 time;

5352 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

5353 several times and then mp;

5356 *** LK ***

5358 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

5359 formulas;

5361 * the simplifier is now installed

5363 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

5365 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

5368 *** ZF ***

5370 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

5371 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5373 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

5374 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5376 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

5378 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

5379 constructors;

5381 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

5382 type-checking rules;

5384 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

5385 to the claset;

5387 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

5388 if(P,x,y);

5391 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5393 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

5395 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

5396 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

5398 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

5400 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

5401 printing empty lines;

5403 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

5404 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

5405 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

5406 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

5408 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

5409 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

5410 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

5412 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

5413 now of type real instead of int;

5415 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

5416 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

5417 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

5418 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

5420 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

5421 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

5422 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

5423 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

5424 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

5428 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

5429 ----------------------------------

5431 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5433 * several changes of automated proof tools;

5435 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

5436 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

5438 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

5439 called `inj_on';

5441 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

5442 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

5443 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

5445 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

5446 required);

5448 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

5449 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

5450 now taken as an integer constant.

5452 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

5455 *** Proof tools ***

5457 * Simplifier:

5458 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

5459 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

5460 simplify.

5461 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

5462 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

5463 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

5464 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

5465 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

5467 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

5468 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

5469 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

5470 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

5471 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

5472 one (emitting a warning).

5473 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

5474 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

5475 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

5476 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

5477 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

5479 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

5480 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

5481 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

5482 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

5483 by Force_tac;

5485 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

5486 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

5488 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

5489 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

5490 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

5491 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

5492 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

5493 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

5494 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

5495 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

5496 split_all_tac for record fields.

5498 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

5499 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

5500 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

5501 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

5503 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

5504 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

5505 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

5506 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

5507 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

5508 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

5509 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

5510 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

5511 t is the name of the datatype).

5513 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

5514 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

5515 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

5516 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

5519 *** General ***

5521 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

5522 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

5523 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

5524 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

5525 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

5526 (backup your sources first!);

5528 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

5529 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

5531 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

5532 definitions that have local scope;

5534 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

5536 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

5537 (e.g. package initialization);

5539 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

5540 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

5542 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

5543 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

5545 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

5547 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

5549 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

5551 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

5554 *** HOL ***

5556 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

5558 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

5559 definitions such as

5561 inductive EVEN ODD

5562 intrs

5563 null "0 : EVEN"

5564 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

5565 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

5567 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

5568 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

5569 correctly (also ZF);

5571 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

5572 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

5573 contained in "induct";

5576 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

5577 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

5579 datatype

5580 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5581 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5582 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5583 | NUM 'a

5584 and

5585 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5586 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5587 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5589 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

5591 datatype

5592 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

5593 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

5595 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

5596 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

5598 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

5599 <function_name>.simps.

5601 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5603 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

5604 ancestor.

5605 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

5606 generic induct_tac instead.

5607 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

5608 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

5609 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

5610 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

5611 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

5612 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

5613 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

5614 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

5615 sort constraints.

5616 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

5617 of recursive argument.

5619 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

5620 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

5623 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

5624 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

5625 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

5626 support is as follows:

5628 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

5629 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

5631 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

5632 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

5634 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

5635 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

5637 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

5638 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

5639 the name of your record type.

5641 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

5643 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

5645 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

5646 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

5647 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

5648 solve record problems automatically.

5651 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

5652 default; theory Main includes everything;

5654 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

5656 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

5658 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

5660 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

5662 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

5663 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

5664 with add/delsplits);

5666 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

5667 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

5668 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

5669 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

5670 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

5671 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

5672 %u.f();

5674 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

5675 makes more sense);

5677 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5678 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5679 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5681 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

5682 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

5683 literature);

5685 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

5686 the well-founded relation;

5688 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

5689 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

5690 release ONLY.

5692 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

5693 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

5694 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5696 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

5698 * HOL/List:

5699 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

5700 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

5701 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

5702 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

5703 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

5704 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

5706 * HOL/Arith:

5707 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

5708 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

5709 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

5710 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

5712 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

5713 instead of "inverse";

5715 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

5716 of the multiset ordering;

5718 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

5719 (not included by default);

5721 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

5723 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

5724 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

5726 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5727 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5728 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5731 *** ZF ***

5733 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

5734 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

5736 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5737 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5738 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5740 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

5741 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

5742 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5744 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

5746 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5747 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5748 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5750 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

5751 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

5754 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5756 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

5757 also src/Pure/README;

5759 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

5760 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

5761 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

5762 print_data function becomes basically useless;

5764 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

5765 are qualified by default;

5767 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

5768 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

5769 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

5771 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

5772 cterm -> thm;

5774 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

5775 subgoal;

5777 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

5779 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

5780 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

5781 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

5782 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

5783 for example;

5787 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

5788 --------------------------------

5790 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5792 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

5793 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

5795 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

5796 simpset / simpset_ref;

5798 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

5799 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

5801 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

5803 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

5806 *** General Changes ***

5808 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

5809 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

5810 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

5811 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

5812 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

5813 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

5814 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

5815 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

5816 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

5817 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

5818 section;

5820 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

5821 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

5822 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

5823 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

5824 to patch your ML files accordingly;

5826 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

5827 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

5828 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

5830 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

5831 conditional equations;

5833 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

5835 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

5836 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

5837 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

5838 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

5840 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

5841 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

5843 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

5844 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

5846 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

5847 show_types);

5849 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

5851 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

5853 * removed old README and Makefiles;

5855 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

5857 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

5859 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

5860 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

5862 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

5863 (which abbreviates $HOME);

5865 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

5866 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

5867 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

5869 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

5870 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

5873 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5875 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

5876 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

5877 splitting it into several subgoals;

5879 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

5882 *** Simplifier ***

5884 * added simplification meta rules:

5885 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

5887 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

5888 logics (again);

5890 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

5892 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

5893 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

5894 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

5897 *** Syntax ***

5899 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

5901 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

5903 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

5905 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

5908 *** HOL ***

5910 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5911 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5913 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

5915 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

5916 protocol TLS;

5918 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

5920 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

5921 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

5922 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

5923 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

5924 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

5925 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

5927 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

5928 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

5929 are rewritten to

5930 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

5931 and those of the form

5932 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

5933 are rewritten to

5934 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

5936 * HOL/datatype

5937 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

5939 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5940 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

5941 ...

5942 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5943 )

5945 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

5947 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5948 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

5949 ...

5950 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5951 )

5952 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

5953 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

5954 split_list_case and split_option_case.

5956 * HOL/Arithmetic:

5957 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

5958 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

5959 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

5960 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

5961 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

5962 `standard'.

5964 * HOL/Lists:

5965 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

5966 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

5967 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

5969 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

5971 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

5972 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

5974 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

5975 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

5976 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

5979 *** HOLCF ***

5981 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

5983 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

5984 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

5986 * domain package:

5987 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

5988 . creates hierachical name space,

5989 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

5990 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

5991 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

5992 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

5993 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

5994 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

5996 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

5998 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

5999 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

6002 *** FOL and ZF ***

6004 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

6005 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

6007 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

6008 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

6012 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

6013 ------------------------------

6015 *** General Changes ***

6017 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

6018 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

6020 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

6022 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

6024 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

6025 messages and clean internal interface;

6027 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

6028 setting goals_limit);

6031 *** Syntax ***

6033 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

6034 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

6036 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

6037 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

6038 "symbols" syntax table;

6040 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

6041 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

6042 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

6043 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

6044 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

6046 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

6047 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

6048 version of xterm);

6050 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

6052 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

6053 access type of constant);

6056 *** Classical Reasoner ***

6058 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

6059 some limitations. Blast_tac...

6060 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

6061 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

6062 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

6063 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

6064 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

6065 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

6066 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

6068 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

6069 assumptions;

6071 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

6072 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

6073 (and access functions for it);

6075 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

6076 + functions for handling clasimpsets

6077 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

6078 safe steps.

6079 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

6080 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

6081 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

6083 *** Simplifier ***

6085 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

6086 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

6087 redex);

6089 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

6091 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

6093 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

6094 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

6095 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

6096 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

6099 *** HOL ***

6101 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

6102 also for type `nat';

6104 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

6105 datatypes and also for type `nat';

6107 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

6109 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

6110 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

6112 * primrec now also works with type nat;

6114 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

6115 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

6117 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

6118 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

6120 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

6121 infinite lists;

6123 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

6125 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

6126 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

6128 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

6130 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

6132 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

6134 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

6136 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

6137 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

6138 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

6139 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

6140 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

6141 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

6142 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

6143 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

6144 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

6147 *** ZF ***

6149 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

6150 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

6151 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

6155 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

6156 ---------------------------------

6158 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

6160 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

6162 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

6163 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

6164 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

6165 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

6167 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

6169 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

6170 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

6172 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

6174 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

6175 examples on HOL/Auth);

6177 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

6178 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

6180 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

6181 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

6185 New in Isabelle94-6

6186 -------------------

6188 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

6189 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

6191 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

6193 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

6195 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

6197 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

6199 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

6203 New in Isabelle94-5

6204 -------------------

6206 * reduced space requirements;

6208 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

6210 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

6212 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

6214 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

6218 New in Isabelle94-4

6219 -------------------

6221 * greatly reduced space requirements;

6223 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

6225 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

6226 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

6228 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

6229 Axiom of Choice;

6231 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

6233 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

6234 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

6236 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

6238 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

6239 translates to the operator "split";

6243 New in Isabelle94-3

6244 -------------------

6246 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

6247 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

6248 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

6250 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

6251 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

6252 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

6254 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

6256 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

6257 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

6259 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

6260 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;