NEWS
author haftmann
Fri Sep 07 08:20:18 2012 +0200 (2012-09-07)
changeset 49190 e1e1d427747d
parent 49189 3f85cd15a0cc
child 49243 ded41f584938
permissions -rw-r--r--
lattice instances for option type
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    10 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    11 
    12 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    13 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    14 
    15 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    16 in old "ref" manual.
    17 
    18 
    19 *** Pure ***
    20 
    21 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    22 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    23 
    24 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    25 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    26 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    27 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    28 
    29 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    30 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    31 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    32 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    33 with some care where this is really required.
    34 
    35 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    36 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    37 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    38 
    39   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    40 
    41 
    42 *** HOL ***
    43 
    44 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    45 to lattice type classes.
    46 
    47 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a option".
    48 
    49 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    51 
    52   - Renamed constants:
    53 
    54       prefix ~> prefixeq
    55       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    56 
    57     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    60     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    61     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    62     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    63 
    64   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
    65     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
    66 
    67   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
    68     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
    69     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
    70     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
    73     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
    74 
    75       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
    76       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
    77       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
    78       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
    79       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
    80       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
    81       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
    82       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
    83       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
    84       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
    85       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
    86       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
    87       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
    88       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
    89       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
    90       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
    91 
    92     INCOMPATIBILITY.
    93 
    94 * HOL/Codatatype: New (co)datatype package with support for mixed,
    95 nested recursion and interesting non-free datatypes.
    96 
    97 * HOL/Ordinals_and_Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
    98 (supersedes the AFP entry of the same name).
    99 
   100 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   101 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   102 
   103 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   104 expressions.
   105 
   106 * Quickcheck:
   107 
   108   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   109     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   110     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   111 
   112 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   113 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   114 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   115 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   116 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   117 
   118 * Sledgehammer:
   119 
   120   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   121     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   122   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   123   - Renamed options:
   124       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   125       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   126 
   127 
   128 *** Document preparation ***
   129 
   130 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   131 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   132 
   133 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   134 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   135 document/root.tex.
   136 
   137 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   138 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 
   141 *** ML ***
   142 
   143 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   144 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   145 necessarily printing visible text.
   146 
   147 
   148 *** System ***
   149 
   150 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   151 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   152 for home-made configurations.
   153 
   154 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   155 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   156 
   157 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   158 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   159 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   160 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   161 
   162 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   163 
   164 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   165 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   166 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   167 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   168 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   169 
   170 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   171 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   172 
   173   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   174 
   175 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   176 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   177 
   178 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   179 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   180 "isabelle usedir".
   181 
   182 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   183 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   184 version of Isabelle.
   185 
   186 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   187 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   188 configuration.
   189 
   190 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   191 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   192 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   193 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   194 bundled as Isabelle component.
   195 
   196 
   197 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   198 ------------------------------
   199 
   200 *** General ***
   201 
   202 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   203 
   204   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   205     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   206   - markup for bound variables
   207   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   208   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   209   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   210     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   211 
   212 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   213 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   214 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   215 
   216 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   217 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   218 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   219 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   220 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   221 
   222   context
   223     fixes x y z :: 'a
   224     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   225   begin
   226 
   227   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   228 
   229   end
   230 
   231   thm my_trans
   232 
   233 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   234 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   235 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   236 
   237 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   238 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   239 
   240 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   241 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   242 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   243 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   244 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   245 
   246 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   247 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   248 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   249 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   250 indices of schematic variables.
   251 
   252 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   253 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   254 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   255 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   256 etc. was exploited.
   257 
   258 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   259 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   260 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   261 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   262 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   263 of the material of that old tutorial.
   264 
   265 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   266 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   267 manual.
   268 
   269 
   270 *** Pure ***
   271 
   272 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   273 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   274 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   275 
   276 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   277 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   278 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   279 undocumented feature.)
   280 
   281 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   282 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   283 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   284 
   285   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   286 
   287   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   288     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   289 
   290 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   291 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   292 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   293 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   294 
   295 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   296 
   297     num ~> num_token
   298     xnum ~> xnum_token
   299     xstr ~> str_token
   300 
   301 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   302 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   303 position information via constraints).
   304 
   305 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   306 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   307 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   310 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   311 
   312 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   313 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   314 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   317 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   320 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   321 
   322   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   323 
   324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   327 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   330 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   331 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   332 
   333 
   334 *** HOL ***
   335 
   336 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   337 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   338 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   339 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   340 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   341 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   342 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   343 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   344 possible.
   345 
   346 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   347 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   348 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   349 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   350 
   351 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   352 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 
   354 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   355 
   356 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   357 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   358 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   359 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   360 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   361 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   362 
   363   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   364     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   365 
   366   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   367     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   368     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   369 
   370   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   371     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   372 
   373   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   374     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   375     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   376 
   377   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   378     Redefine using other integer operations.
   379 
   380 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   381 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   382 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   383 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   384 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   385 
   386   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   387     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   388     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   389     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   390     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   391 
   392     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   393     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   394 
   395   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   396     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   397     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   398     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   399     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   400     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   401     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   402     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   403 
   404   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   405     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   406     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   407     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   408 
   409   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   410     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   411     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   412     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   413 
   414   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   415     from type nat to type int.
   416 
   417 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   418 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   419 
   420   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   421     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   422     type.  Example syntax:
   423 
   424     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   425       is List.insert
   426 
   427     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   428     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   429     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   430     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   431     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   432     by the package.
   433 
   434   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   435     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   436     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   437     code generation for each constant.
   438 
   439   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   440     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   441     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   442     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   443     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   444 
   445   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   446     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   447     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   448 
   449 * Quotient package:
   450 
   451   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   452     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   453 
   454   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   455     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   456 
   457   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   458     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   459     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   462     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   465 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   466 
   467 * Quickcheck:
   468 
   469   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   470     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   471     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   472     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   473     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   474 
   475     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   476     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   477     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   478 
   479     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   480     continues searching for genuine ones.
   481 
   482     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   483     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   484     show genuine counterexamples.
   485 
   486   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   487     value generators for a given type and operations.
   488 
   489     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   490     constructors of that type.
   491 
   492   - Support for multisets.
   493 
   494   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   495 
   496   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   497     conjectures in a locale context.
   498 
   499 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   500 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   501 
   502 * Sledgehammer:
   503   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   504     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   505   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   506   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   507     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   508   - Sped up the minimizer.
   509   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   510   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   511   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   512 
   513 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   514 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   515 
   516 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   517 
   518 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519 
   520 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   521 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   522 
   523   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   524 
   525 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   526 a list and a nat.
   527 
   528 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   529 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   530 
   531 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   532 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   533 default.
   534 
   535 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   536 
   537   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   538 
   539 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   540 
   541 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   542 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   543 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   544 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   545 one_case.
   546 
   547 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   548 the result of the fact expression.
   549 
   550 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   551 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   552 of some relation theorems:
   553 
   554   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   555   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   556   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   557   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   558   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   559   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   560 
   561 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   562 
   563 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   564 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   565 
   566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   569 to match the constant's name:
   570 
   571   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   572   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   573   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   574   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   575   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   576   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   577   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   578   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   579   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   580   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   581   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   582   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   583   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   584   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   585   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   586   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   587   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   588   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   589   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   590   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   591   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   592   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   593   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   594   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   595 
   596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   597 
   598 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   599 and corresponding theorem names:
   600 
   601   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   602 
   603   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   604 
   605   - Renamed theorems:
   606 
   607     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   608     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   609     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   610     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   611     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   612     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   613     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   614     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   615     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   616     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   617     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   618     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   619     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   620     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   621     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   622     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   623     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   624     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   625     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   626     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   627     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   628     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   629     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   630 
   631     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   632 
   633     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   634 
   635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   638 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   639 
   640   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   641   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   642   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   643   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   644   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   645   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   646   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   647   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   648   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   649   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   650   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   651   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   652   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   653   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   654   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   655   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   656   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   657   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   658   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   659   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   660   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   661 
   662 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   663 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   668 
   669   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   670   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   671   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   672   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   673   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   674   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   675   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   676   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   677   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   678   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   679   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   680   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   681   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   682   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   683   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   684   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   685   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   686   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   687 
   688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   691 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   692 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   693 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   694 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   695 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   696 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   697 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   698 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   699 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   700 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   701 
   702 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   703 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   704 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   705 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   706 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   707 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   708 
   709 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   710 through option types.
   711 
   712 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   713 relations.
   714 
   715 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   718 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   719 
   720   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   721   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   722   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   723   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   724   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   725   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   726   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   727   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   728   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   729   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   730   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   731   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   732   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   733   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   734   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   735   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   736   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   737   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   738   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   739   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   740   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   741   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   742   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   743   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   744   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   745   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   746   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   747   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   748   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   749   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   750   zless_le ~> less_le
   751   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   752   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   753   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   754 
   755 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   756 
   757   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   758 
   759 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   760 
   761 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   762 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   763 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   764 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   768 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   769 
   770 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   771 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   772 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   773 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   774 follows:
   775 
   776   Operations:
   777   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   778   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   779   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   780   del -> rbt_del
   781   delete -> rbt_delete
   782   ins -> rbt_ins
   783   insert -> rbt_insert
   784   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   785   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   786   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   787   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   788   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   789   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   790   tree_less -> rbt_less
   791   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   792   union -> rbt_union
   793   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   794   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   795 
   796   Lemmas:
   797   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   798   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   799   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   800   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   801   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   802   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   803   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   804   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   805   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   806   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   807   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   808   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   809   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   810   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   811   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   812   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   813   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   814   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   815   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   816   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   817   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   818   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   819   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   820   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   821   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   822   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   823   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   824   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   825   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   826   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   827   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   828   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   829   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   830   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   831   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   832   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   833   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   834   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   835   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   836   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   837   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   838   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   839   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   840   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   841   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   842   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   843   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   844   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   845   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   846   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   847   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   848   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   849   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   850   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   851   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   852   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   853   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   854   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   855   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   856   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   857   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   858   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   859   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   860   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   861   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   862   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   863   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   864   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   865   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   866   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   867   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   868   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   869   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   870   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   871   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   872   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   873   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   874   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   875   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   876   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   877   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   878   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   879   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   880 
   881 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   882 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   883 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885   Changed Operations:
   886   float_abs -> abs
   887   float_nprt -> nprt
   888   float_pprt -> pprt
   889   pow2 -> use powr
   890   round_down -> float_round_down
   891   round_up -> float_round_up
   892   scale -> exponent
   893 
   894   Removed Operations:
   895   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   896 
   897   Renamed Lemmas:
   898   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   899   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   900   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   901   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   902   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   903   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   904   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   905   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   906   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   907   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   908   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   909   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   910   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   911   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   912   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   913   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   914   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   915   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   916   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   917   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   918   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   919   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   920   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   921   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   922   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   923   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   924   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   925   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   926   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   927   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   928   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   929   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   930   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   931   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   932   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   933   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   934 
   935   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   936   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   937   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   938   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   939   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   940   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   941   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   942   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   943   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   944   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   945 
   946 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   947 association lists with distinct keys.
   948 
   949 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   950 annotated commands.
   951 
   952 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   953 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   954 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   955 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   958 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   959 instead.
   960 
   961   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   962   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   963   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   964   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   965   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   966   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   967   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   968   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   969   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   970   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   971   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   972   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   973   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   974   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   975   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   976   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   977   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   978   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   979   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   980   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   981   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   982   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   983   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   984   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   985   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   986   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   987   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   988   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   989   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   990   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   991   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   992   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   993   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   994   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   995   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   996   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   997   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   998   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   999   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1000   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1001   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1002 
  1003 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1004 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1005 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1006 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1007 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1008 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1009 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1010 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1011 
  1012 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1013 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1014 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1015 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1016 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1017 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1018 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1019 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1020 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1021 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1022 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1023 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024 
  1025   Renamed constants:
  1026   measure -> emeasure
  1027   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1028   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1029   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1030   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1031 
  1032   Removed locales:
  1033   completeable_measure_space
  1034   finite_measure_space
  1035   finite_prob_space
  1036   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1037   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1038   finite_sigma_algebra
  1039   measure_space
  1040   pair_finite_prob_space
  1041   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1042   pair_finite_space
  1043   pair_sigma_algebra
  1044   product_sigma_algebra
  1045 
  1046   Removed constants:
  1047   conditional_space
  1048   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1049   image_space
  1050   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1051   pair_measure_generator
  1052   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1053   subvimage
  1054 
  1055   Replacement theorems:
  1056   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1057   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1058   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1059   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1060   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1061   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1062   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1063   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1064   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1065   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1066   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1067   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1068   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1069   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1070   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1071   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1072   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1073   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1074   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1075   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1076   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1077   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1078   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1079   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1080   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1081   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1082   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1083   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1084   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1085   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1086   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1087   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1088   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1089   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1090   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1091   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1092   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1093   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1094   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1095   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1096   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1097   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1098   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1099   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1100   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1101   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1102   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1103   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1104   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1105   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1106   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1107   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1108   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1109   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1110   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1111   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1112   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1113   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1114   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1115   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1116   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1117   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1118   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1119   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1120   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1121   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1122   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1123   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1124   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1125   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1126   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1127   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1128   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1129   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1130   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1131   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1132   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1133   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1134   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1135   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1136   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1137   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1138   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1139   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1140   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1141   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1142   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1143   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1144   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1145   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1146   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1147   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1148   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1149   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1150   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1151   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1152   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1153   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1154   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1155   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1156   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1157   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1158   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1159   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1160   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1161   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1162   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1163   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1164   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1165   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1166   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1167   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1168   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1169   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1170   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1171   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1172   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1173   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1174   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1175   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1176   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1177   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1178   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1179   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1180   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1181   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1182   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1183   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1184 
  1185 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1186 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1187 
  1188 
  1189 *** FOL ***
  1190 
  1191 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1192 
  1193 
  1194 *** ZF ***
  1195 
  1196 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1197 analysis.
  1198 
  1199 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1200 
  1201 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1202 
  1203 
  1204 *** ML ***
  1205 
  1206 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1207 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1208 
  1209 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1210 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1211 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1212 
  1213 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1214 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1215 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1216 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1217 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1218 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1219 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1220 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1221 
  1222 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1223 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1224 
  1225 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1226 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1227 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1228 
  1229 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1230 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1233 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1234 context as well.
  1235 
  1236 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1237 
  1238   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1239   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1240   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1241   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1242   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1243   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1244   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1245   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1246   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1247   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1248   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1249   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1250 
  1251 
  1252 *** System ***
  1253 
  1254 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1255 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1256 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1257 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1258 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1259 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1260 the generic user home was intended.
  1261 
  1262 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1263 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1264 
  1265 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1266 (not just JRE).
  1267 
  1268 
  1269 
  1270 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1271 ------------------------------------
  1272 
  1273 *** General ***
  1274 
  1275 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1276 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1277 
  1278   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1279     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1280     files for checking).
  1281 
  1282   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1283     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1284     positions.
  1285 
  1286   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1287     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1288     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1289 
  1290   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1291     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1292     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1293 
  1294   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1295     cores.
  1296 
  1297   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1298     versions (garbage collection).
  1299 
  1300 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1301 including some remaining limitations.
  1302 
  1303 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1304 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1305 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1306 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1307 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1309 
  1310 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1311 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1312 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1313 
  1314 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1315 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1316 usedir option -Q.
  1317 
  1318 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1319 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1320 
  1321   long_names   ~> names_long
  1322   short_names  ~> names_short
  1323   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1324 
  1325 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1326 
  1327   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1328 
  1329 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1330 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1331 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1332 
  1333 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1334 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1335 
  1336 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1337   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1338   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1339   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1340     "Classical Reasoner".
  1341 
  1342 
  1343 *** HOL ***
  1344 
  1345 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1346 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1349 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1350 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1351 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1352 class complete_linorder.
  1353 
  1354 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1355 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1356 
  1357 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1358 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1359 
  1360   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1361   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1362   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1363   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1364   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1365   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1366   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1367   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1368   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1369   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1370   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1371 
  1372 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1373 
  1374   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1375   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1376   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1377   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1378   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1379   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1380   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1381   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1382   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1383   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1384   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1385   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1386   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1387   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1388   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1389   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1390 
  1391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1395 
  1396 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1397 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1398 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1399 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1402 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1403 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1405 
  1406 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1407 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1408 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1409 
  1410 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1411 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1412 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1415 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1416 
  1417 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1418 
  1419     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1420     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1421 
  1422 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1423 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424 
  1425 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1426 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1429 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1430 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1431 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1434   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1435   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1436   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1437   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1438   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1439   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1440 
  1441 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1442 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1445   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1446   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1447   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1448   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1449   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1450   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1451   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1452   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1453   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1454   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1455   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1456   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1457   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1458   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1459   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1460   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1461   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1462   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1463   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1464   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1465   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1466   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1467   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1468   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1469   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1470   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1471   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1472   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1473   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1474   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1475   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1476   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1477   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1478   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1479   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1480   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1481   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1482   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1483   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1484   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1485   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1486   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1487   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1488   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1489   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1490   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1491   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1492   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1493   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1494   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1495   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1496   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1497   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1498   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1499   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1500   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1501   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1502   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1503   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1504   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1505   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1506   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1507   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1508   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1509   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1510   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1511   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1512   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1513   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1514   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1515   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1516   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1517   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1518   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1519   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1520   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1521   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1522   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1523   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1524   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1525   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1526 
  1527 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1528 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1529 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1532 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1533 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1534 
  1535 * Code generation:
  1536 
  1537   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1538     characters in the target language.
  1539 
  1540   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1541     instead.
  1542 
  1543   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1544 
  1545   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1546     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1547 
  1548       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1549 
  1550 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1551 
  1552 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1553 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1554 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1555 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1556 syntax.
  1557 
  1558 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1559 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1560 
  1561 * Nitpick:
  1562   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1563   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1564   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1565     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Sledgehammer:
  1568   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1569   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1570     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1571   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1572     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1573   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1574     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1576     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1577   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1578     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Metis:
  1581   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1583     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Command 'try':
  1586   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1587     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1589     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1590 
  1591 * Quickcheck:
  1592   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1593     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1594   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1595     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1596   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1597     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1598     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1599     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1600   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1601     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1602 
  1603 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1604 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1605 
  1606 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1607 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1608 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1609 
  1610 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1611 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1615 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1618 arithmetic.
  1619 
  1620 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1621 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1622 and lattice type classes.
  1623 
  1624 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1625 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1626 
  1627 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1628 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1629 
  1630 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1631 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1632 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1635   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1636   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1637   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1638 
  1639 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1640 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1641 constants:
  1642 
  1643   type inat   ~> type enat
  1644   Fin         ~> enat
  1645   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1646   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1647   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1648 
  1649 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1650 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1653 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1654 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1655 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1656 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1657 
  1658 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1659 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1660 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1661 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1662 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1663 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1664 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1665 
  1666   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1667   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1668   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1669   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1670 
  1671 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1672 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1673 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1676   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1677   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1678   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1679   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1680   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1681   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1682   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1683   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1684   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1685   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1686   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1687   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1688   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1689   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1690   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1691   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1692   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1693   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1694   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1695   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1696   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1697   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1698   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1699   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1700   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1701   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1702   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1703   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1704   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1705   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1706   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1707   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1708   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1709   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1710   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1711   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1712   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1713   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1714   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1715   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1716   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1717   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1718   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1719   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1720   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1721   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1722   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1723   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1724   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1725   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1726 
  1727 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1728   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1729   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1730   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1731   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1732     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1735 
  1736   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1737   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1738   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1739   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1740   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1741   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1742   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1743   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1744   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1745   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1746   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1747   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1748   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1749   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1750   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1751   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1752   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1753   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1754   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1755   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1756   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1757   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1758   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1759   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1760   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1761 
  1762 
  1763 *** Document preparation ***
  1764 
  1765 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1766 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1767 same.
  1768 
  1769 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1770 result.
  1771 
  1772 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1773 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1774 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1775 
  1776 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1777 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1778 
  1779 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1780 like this:
  1781 
  1782   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1783   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1784 
  1785 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1786 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1787 layouts.
  1788 
  1789 
  1790 *** ML ***
  1791 
  1792 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1793 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1794 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1795 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1796 under external program control.
  1797 
  1798 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1799 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1800 
  1801 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1802 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1803 (better known as Proof General).
  1804 
  1805 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1806 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1807 
  1808 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1809 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1810 
  1811 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1812 (including quotes etc.).
  1813 
  1814 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1815 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1816 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1817 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1818 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1819 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1820 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1821 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1822 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1823 
  1824 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1825 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1826 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1827 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1828 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1829 
  1830 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1831 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1832 
  1833 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1834 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1835 
  1836 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1837 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1838 
  1839 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1840 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1841 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1842 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1843 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1844 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1845 proper Proof.context.
  1846 
  1847 
  1848 *** System ***
  1849 
  1850 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1851 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1852 
  1853 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1854 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1855 
  1856 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1857 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1858 
  1859   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1860   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1861   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1862   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1863   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1864 
  1865 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1866 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867 
  1868 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1869 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1870 example:
  1871 
  1872   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1873 
  1874 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1875 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1876 
  1877 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1878 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1879 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1880 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1881 
  1882 
  1883 
  1884 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1885 ----------------------------------
  1886 
  1887 *** General ***
  1888 
  1889 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1890 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1891 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1892 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1893 like this:
  1894 
  1895   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1896 
  1897 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1898 
  1899 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1900 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1901 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1902 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1903 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1904 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1905 
  1906 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1907 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1908 the following package declarations:
  1909 
  1910   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1911   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1912 
  1913 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1914 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1915 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1916 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1917 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1918 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1919 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1920 
  1921 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1922 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1923 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1924 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1925 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1926 
  1927 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1928 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1929 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1930 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1931 
  1932 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1933 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1934 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1935 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1936 
  1937   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1938 
  1939   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1940   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1941   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1942   show_types                    show_types
  1943   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1944   show_consts                   show_consts
  1945   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1946 
  1947   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1948   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1949   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1950 
  1951   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1952   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1953 
  1954   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1955 
  1956   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1957   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1958   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1959   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1960   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1961 
  1962 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1963 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1964 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1965 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1966 
  1967 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1971   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1972 
  1973 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1974 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1975 float_token.
  1976 
  1977 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1978 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980 
  1981 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1982 DejaVu Sans.
  1983 
  1984 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1985 
  1986 
  1987 *** Pure ***
  1988 
  1989 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1990 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1991 time.
  1992 
  1993 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1994 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1997 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2000 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2001 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2002 command already provided this functionality.
  2003 
  2004 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2005 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2006 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2007 without interpretations.
  2008 
  2009 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2010 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2011 
  2012 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2013 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2014 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2015 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2016 
  2017 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2018 'definition' instead.
  2019 
  2020 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2021 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2022 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2023 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2024 
  2025 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2026 constructors.
  2027 
  2028 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2029 the local file system.
  2030 
  2031 
  2032 *** HOL ***
  2033 
  2034 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2035 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2036 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2037 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2038 
  2039   declare [[coercion f]]
  2040 
  2041 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2042 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2043 
  2044   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2045 
  2046 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2047 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2048 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2049 other theories like this:
  2050 
  2051   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2052 
  2053 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2054 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2055 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2056 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2057 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2058 for examples.
  2059 
  2060 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2061 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2062 
  2063 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2064 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2065 
  2066 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2067 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2068 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2069 
  2070 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2071 functorial structure of types.
  2072 
  2073 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2074 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2075 
  2076 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2077 languages.
  2078 
  2079 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2080 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2082 
  2083 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2084 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085 
  2086 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2087 combinators any longer.
  2088 
  2089 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2090 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2091 
  2092 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2093 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2094 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2095 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2096 
  2097   record 'a foo = ...
  2098   ...
  2099   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2100 
  2101 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2102 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2104 
  2105 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2106 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2107 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2108 
  2109 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2110 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2111 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2112 
  2113 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2114 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115 
  2116 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2117 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2118 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2119 independently.
  2120 
  2121 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2122 counter example search.
  2123 
  2124 * Sledgehammer:
  2125   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2126     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2127     sledgehammer").
  2128   - Renamed commands:
  2129     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2130     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2131     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2132     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133   - Renamed options:
  2134     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2135     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2136     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2137     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2138     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2139 
  2140 * Nitpick:
  2141   - Renamed options:
  2142     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2143     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2144     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2146   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2147   - Added "whack" option.
  2148   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2149   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2150   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2151   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2152     higher cardinalities.
  2153   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2154 
  2155 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2156 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2157 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2158 
  2159     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2160 
  2161 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2162 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2163 
  2164 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2165 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2166 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2167 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2168 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2169 "smt_solver".
  2170 
  2171 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2172 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2173 
  2174 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2175 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2176 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2177 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2180   - Renamed:
  2181     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2182     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2183     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2184   - Added:
  2185     smt_verbose
  2186     smt_random_seed
  2187     smt_datatypes
  2188     smt_infer_triggers
  2189     smt_monomorph_limit
  2190     cvc3_options
  2191     remote_cvc3_options
  2192     remote_z3_options
  2193     yices_options
  2194 
  2195 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2196 header.
  2197 
  2198 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2199 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2200 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2201 
  2202   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2203 
  2204 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2207 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2212 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213 
  2214 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2215 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2216 
  2217 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2218 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2221 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2222 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2230 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2233 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2234 for congruent(2)).
  2235 
  2236 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2237 
  2238   types
  2239     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2240     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2241 
  2242   constants
  2243     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2244     True ~> HOL.True
  2245     False ~> HOL.False
  2246     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2247     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2248     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2249     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2250     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2251     The ~> HOL.The
  2252     All ~> HOL.All
  2253     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2254     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2255     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2256     If ~> HOL.If
  2257     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2258     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2259     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2260     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2261     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2262     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2263     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2264     op : ~> Set.member
  2265     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2266 
  2267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2270 
  2271     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2272     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2273     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2274     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2275     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2276     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2277     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2278     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2279 
  2280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * More stylized fact names:
  2283 
  2284   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2285   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2286   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2287   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2288 
  2289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2292 
  2293   constants
  2294     null ~> List.null
  2295 
  2296   facts
  2297     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2298     null_empty ~> null_def
  2299 
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2301 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2302 generation.
  2303 
  2304 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2305 Haskell code.
  2306 
  2307 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2308 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2309 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2312 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2315 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2316 
  2317 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2318 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2319 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2320 
  2321 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2322 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2326 
  2327 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2329 referred to by its qualified name.
  2330 
  2331   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2332   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2333   product ~>  Enum.product
  2334 
  2335 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2336 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2340 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2341 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2345 sort_key.
  2346 
  2347 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2351 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2352 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2353 
  2354   types
  2355     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2356               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2357               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2358         (depends on your needs)
  2359 
  2360   constants
  2361      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2362      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2363      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2364 
  2365 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2366 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2367 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2368 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2371 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2372 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2373 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2374 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2380 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2381 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2382 
  2383 
  2384 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2385 
  2386 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2387 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2388 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2389 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2390 compatibility.
  2391 
  2392 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2393 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2394 
  2395 
  2396 *** HOLCF ***
  2397 
  2398 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2399 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2400 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2404 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2405 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2408   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2409   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2410 
  2411 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2412 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2413 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2414 
  2415 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2416 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2417 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2418 domain definition now works:
  2419 
  2420   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2421 
  2422 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2423 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2424 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2425 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2426 
  2427   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2428     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2429 
  2430   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2431 
  2432 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2433 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2434 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2435 
  2436 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2437 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2440 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2441 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2442 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2443 
  2444 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2445 
  2446 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2449 
  2450 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2454 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2455 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2456 
  2457 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2458 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2459 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2462 still supported as an input translation.
  2463 
  2464 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2465 
  2466   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2467   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2468   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2469   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2470   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2471   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2472   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2473 
  2474 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2475 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2478   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2479   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2480   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2481   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2482   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2483 
  2484 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2485 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2488 
  2489   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2490   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2491   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2492   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2493 
  2494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2495 
  2496 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2497 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2500 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2503   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2504   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2505   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2506   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2507   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2508   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2509   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2510   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2511   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2512   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2513   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2514   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2515   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2516   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2517   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2518   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2519   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2520   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2521   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2522 
  2523 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2526   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2527   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2528   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2529   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2530   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2531   box_less             ~> box_below
  2532   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2533   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2534   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2535   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2536   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2537   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2538   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2539   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2540   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2541   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2542   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2543   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2544   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2545   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2546   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2547   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2548   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2549   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2550   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2551   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2552   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2553   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2554   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2555   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2556   up_less              ~> up_below
  2557   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2558   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2559   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2560   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2561   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2562   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2563   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2564   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2565   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2566   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2567   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2568   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2569   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2570 
  2571 
  2572 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2573 
  2574 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2575 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 
  2578 *** ML ***
  2579 
  2580 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2581 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2582 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2583 
  2584 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2585 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2586 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2587 
  2588 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2589 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2590 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2591 
  2592 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2593 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2594 
  2595 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2596 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2597 
  2598 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2599 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2600 
  2601 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2602 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2603 
  2604 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2605 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2606 almost all situations.
  2607 
  2608 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2609 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2610 Isabelle/ML.
  2611 
  2612 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2613 meaning.
  2614 
  2615 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2616 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2617 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2618 
  2619 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2620 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2621 
  2622 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2623 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2624 
  2625 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2627 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2628 
  2629 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2630 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2631 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2632 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2633 configuration options.
  2634 
  2635 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2636 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2637 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2638 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2639 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2640 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2641 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2642 
  2643 
  2644 
  2645 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2646 ---------------------------------
  2647 
  2648 *** General ***
  2649 
  2650 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2651 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2652 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2653 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2654 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2655 their full internal name.
  2656 
  2657 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2658 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2659 Some hints on upgrading:
  2660 
  2661   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2662     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2663     which are independent of this issue.
  2664 
  2665   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2666     provides the following special forms:
  2667 
  2668       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2669       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2670       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2671 
  2672     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2673     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2674     extra variables".
  2675 
  2676     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2677     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2678     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2679     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2680     "logic".
  2681 
  2682   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2683     antiquotations:
  2684 
  2685       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2686       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2687       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2688       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2689 
  2690   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2691     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2692     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2693     antiquotations.
  2694 
  2695 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2696 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2697 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2698 diagnose syntax problems.
  2699 
  2700 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2701 
  2702 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2703 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2704 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2705 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2706 
  2707 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2708 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2709 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2710 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2713 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2714 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2715 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2716 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2719 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2720 
  2721 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2722 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2723 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2724 
  2725   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2726 
  2727 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2728 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2729 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2730 
  2731 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2732 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2736 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2737 
  2738 
  2739 *** Pure ***
  2740 
  2741 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2742 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2743 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2744 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2745 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2746 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2747 inspect proof terms.
  2748 
  2749 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2750 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2751 are added internally.  For example:
  2752 
  2753   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2754 
  2755 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2756 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2761 'class' instead.
  2762 
  2763 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2764 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2768 invariants.
  2769 
  2770 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2771 user space functionality any longer.
  2772 
  2773 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2774 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2778 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2779 
  2780 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2781 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2782 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2783 
  2784 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2785 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2786 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2787 
  2788 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2789 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 
  2792 *** HOL ***
  2793 
  2794 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2795 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2796 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2797 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2798 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2799 
  2800 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2801 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2802 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2803 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2804 
  2805   fun
  2806     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2807   where
  2808     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2809 
  2810   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2811     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2812 
  2813   quotient_definition
  2814     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2815 
  2816 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2817 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2818 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2819 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2820 
  2821 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2822 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2823 
  2824 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2825 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2826 
  2827 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2831 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2832 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2833 
  2834 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2835 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2844 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2847 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2848 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2851   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2852   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2853   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2854   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2855   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2856   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2857   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2858   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2859   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2860   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2861   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2862   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2863   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2864   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2865   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2866   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2867   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2868   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2869   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2870   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2871   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2872   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2873   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2874   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2875   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2876   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2877   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2878   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2879   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2880 
  2881 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2882 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2883 
  2884 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2885 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2886 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2887 
  2888 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2889 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2890 
  2891 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2892 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2895 
  2896 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2897 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2898 
  2899 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2900 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2905 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2906 
  2907 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2908 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2909 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2910 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2913   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2914   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2915   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2919 lattices):
  2920 
  2921     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2922     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2923 
  2924     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2925 
  2926     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2927     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2928     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2929     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2930     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2931     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2932     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2933     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2934     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2935     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2936     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2937     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2938     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2939 
  2940     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2941     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2942     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2943     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2944     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2945     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2946     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2947     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2948     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2949     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2950     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2951     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2952     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2953     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2954     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2955     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2956     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2957     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2958 
  2959   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2960   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2961 
  2962     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2963     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2964     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2965     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2966     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2967 
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Refined field classes:
  2971   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2972     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2973     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2974   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2978   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2979   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2980   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2981     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2982   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2983     equal_neg_zero.
  2984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2987 sets to lattices:
  2988 
  2989   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2990   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2991   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2992   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2993   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2994   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2995   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2996   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2997   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2998   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2999 
  3000 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3001 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3002 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3003 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3004 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3005 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3008 multiset order:
  3009 
  3010   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3011     <= and <;
  3012   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3013     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3014     multiset_order;
  3015   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3016     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3017     generation;
  3018   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3019     if needed.
  3020 
  3021 Renamed:
  3022 
  3023   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3024   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3025   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3026 
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3030 
  3031 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3032 
  3033 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3034 
  3035 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3036 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3037 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039   Constants:
  3040   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3041   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3042   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3043   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3044   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3045   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3046   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3047   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3048   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3049   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3050   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3051   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3052   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3053 
  3054   Lemmas:
  3055   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3056   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3057   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3058   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3059   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3060   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3061   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3062   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3063   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3064   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3065   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3066   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3067   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3068 
  3069 * Sledgehammer:
  3070   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3071     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3072     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3073     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3074     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3075     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3076     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3078   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3079     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3080   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3081     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3082     is still experimental.)
  3083   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3084     full-typed mode.
  3085   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3086 
  3087 * Nitpick:
  3088   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3089   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3090   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3091     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3092   - Added support for quotient types.
  3093   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3094     constructs.
  3095   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3096     "termination" proofs).
  3097   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3098   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3099   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3100   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3101     record getters.
  3102   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3103   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3104   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3105   - Added "atoms" option.
  3106   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3107     problems.
  3108   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3109     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3110     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3112     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3116   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3117   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3118   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3119   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3120   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3121   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3122   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3123   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3124   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125 
  3126 
  3127 *** HOLCF ***
  3128 
  3129 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3130 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3131 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3134 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3135 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3136 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3139 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3140 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3141 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3142 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3145 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3146 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3149 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3152   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3153 
  3154 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3155 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3158   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3159   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3160   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3161   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3162 
  3163 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3164 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3167   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3168   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3169 
  3170 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3171 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3175 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3180 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 
  3183 *** ML ***
  3184 
  3185 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3186 
  3187     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3188     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3189 
  3190     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3191     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3192     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3193     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3194 
  3195     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3196     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3197     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3198 
  3199 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3200 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3201 
  3202 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3203 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3204 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3205 
  3206 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3207 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3208 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3209 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3210 
  3211 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3212 the context or even global references.
  3213 
  3214 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3215 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3216 
  3217 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3218 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3219 
  3220   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3221   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3222   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3223   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3224   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3225   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3226   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3227   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3228   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3229   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3230 
  3231 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3232 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3233 
  3234 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3235 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3236 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3237 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3238 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3239 
  3240 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3241 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3242 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3243 Theory_Data version.
  3244 
  3245 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3246 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3247 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3248 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3249 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3250 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3251 explicitly in rare situations.
  3252 
  3253 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3254 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3258 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3261 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3262 quite rare).
  3263 
  3264 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3265 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3268 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3269 terms.
  3270 
  3271 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3272 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3273 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3274 
  3275 
  3276 *** System ***
  3277 
  3278 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3279 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3280 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3281 
  3282 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3283 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3284 respectively.
  3285 
  3286 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3287 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3288 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3289 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3290 
  3291   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3292 
  3293 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3294 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3295 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3296 component.
  3297 
  3298 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3299 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3300 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3301 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3302 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3303 the user for manual installation.
  3304 
  3305 
  3306 
  3307 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3308 -------------------------------------
  3309 
  3310 *** General ***
  3311 
  3312 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3313 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3314 
  3315 
  3316 *** Pure ***
  3317 
  3318 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3319 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3320 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3321 
  3322 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3323 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3324 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3325 
  3326 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3327 interpretation.
  3328 
  3329 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3330 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332 
  3333 *** Document preparation ***
  3334 
  3335 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3336 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3337 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3338 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3339 
  3340 
  3341 *** HOL ***
  3342 
  3343 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3344 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3345 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3346 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3347 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3348 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3349 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3350 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3351 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3352 
  3353 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3354 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3355 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3356 
  3357 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3358 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3359 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3360 
  3361 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3362 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3363 
  3364 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3365 
  3366 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3367 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3368 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3369 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3370 
  3371 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3372 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3373 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3374 "mirabelle" utility.
  3375 
  3376 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3377 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3378 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3379 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3380 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3381 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3382 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3383 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3384 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3385 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3386 
  3387 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3388 procedure only.
  3389 
  3390 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3391 
  3392 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3393 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3394 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3395 that fail later.
  3396 
  3397 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3398 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3399 
  3400 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3401 the same method as the approximation method.
  3402 
  3403 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3404 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3405 series expansion.
  3406 
  3407 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3408 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3409 
  3410 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3411 reals.
  3412 
  3413 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3414 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3415 
  3416 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3417 fixpoint theorem.
  3418 
  3419 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3420   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3421     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3422   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3423     accordingly
  3424   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3425     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3426   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3427     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3428 
  3429 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3430 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3431 lattice.
  3432 
  3433 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3434 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3435 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3436 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3437 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3438 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3442   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3443     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3444   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3445     le_inf_iff
  3446   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3447     sup_aci)
  3448   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3449   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3450   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3451     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3452     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3453     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3454     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3455     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3456     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3457     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3458     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3459     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3460     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3461   - authentic syntax for
  3462     Set.Pow
  3463     Set.image
  3464   - mere abbreviations:
  3465     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3466     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3467     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3468     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3469     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3470     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3471     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3472     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3473   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3474 
  3475 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3476 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3477 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3478 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3479 
  3480 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3481 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3482 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3485 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3488 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3489 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3490 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3493 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3494 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3495 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3496 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3497 
  3498 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3499 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3503 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3506 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3507 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3508 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3509 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3510 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3511 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3515     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3516     code_post       replaces    code post
  3517     etc.
  3518   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Renamed methods:
  3521     sizechange -> size_change
  3522     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3523   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3526 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3527 
  3528 * Renamed theorems:
  3529     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3530     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3531     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3532     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3533     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3534   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 
  3543 *** HOLCF ***
  3544 
  3545 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3546 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3547 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3548 
  3549 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3550 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3551 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3552 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3553 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3554 
  3555 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3556 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3557 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3558 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3559 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3560 
  3561 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3562 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3563 constructor are pre-configured.
  3564 
  3565 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3566 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3567 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3568 
  3569 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3570 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3571 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3572 as well.)
  3573 
  3574 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3575 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3576 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3577 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3578 examples.
  3579 
  3580 
  3581 *** ML ***
  3582 
  3583 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3584 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3585 
  3586 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3587 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3588 position, logical grouping etc.
  3589 
  3590 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3591 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3592 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3593 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3594 
  3595 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3596 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3597 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3598 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3599 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3600 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3601 
  3602 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3603 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3604 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3605 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3606 experiments with references.
  3607 
  3608 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3609 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3610 
  3611 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3612 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3613 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3614 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3615 
  3616 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3617 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3618 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3619 
  3620 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3621 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3622 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 
  3629 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3630 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3631 
  3632 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3633 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3634 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3635 
  3636 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3637 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3638 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3641 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3642 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3646 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3647 instead of global theory.
  3648 
  3649 
  3650 *** System ***
  3651 
  3652 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3653 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3654 usedir option -q.
  3655 
  3656 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3657 also the system manual.
  3658 
  3659 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3660 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3661 
  3662 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3663 this is always enabled.
  3664 
  3665 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3666 
  3667 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3668 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3669 currently supported on Linux only.
  3670 
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3674 --------------------------------
  3675 
  3676 *** General ***
  3677 
  3678 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3679 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3680 
  3681   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3682     "isatool."
  3683 
  3684   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3685     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3686 
  3687   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3688     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3689 
  3690 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3691 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3692 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3693 
  3694 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3695 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3696 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3697 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3698 via "isabelle emacs".
  3699 
  3700 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3701 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3702 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3703 
  3704 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3705 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3706 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3707 
  3708 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3709 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3710 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3711 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3712 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3713 
  3714 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3715 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3716 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3717 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3718 
  3719 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3720 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3721 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3722 
  3723 
  3724 *** Pure ***
  3725 
  3726 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3727 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3728 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3729 
  3730 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3731 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3732 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3733 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3734 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3735 
  3736 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3737 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3738 useful in locale declarations.
  3739 
  3740 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3741 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3742 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3743 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3744 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3745 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3746 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3747 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3748 no longer generated.
  3749 
  3750 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3751 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3752 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3753 
  3754 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3755 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3756 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3757 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3758 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3759 
  3760 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3762 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3763 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3764 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3765 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3766 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3767 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3768 
  3769 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3770 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3771 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3772 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3773 
  3774 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3777 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3778 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3779 
  3780 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3781 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3784 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3785 in HOL, write
  3786 
  3787     class foo = ...
  3788 
  3789 instead of
  3790 
  3791     class foo = type + ...
  3792 
  3793 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3794 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3797 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3798 
  3799 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3800 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3801 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3802 
  3803 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3804 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3805 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3806 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3807 directly in regular applications.
  3808 
  3809 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3810 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3811 
  3812 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3813 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3814 
  3815 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3816 theory context.
  3817 
  3818 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3819 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3820 
  3821 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3822 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3823 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3824 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3825 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3826 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3827 
  3828   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3829 
  3830 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3831 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3832 normalization.
  3833 
  3834 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3835 addressing etc.
  3836 
  3837 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3838 
  3839   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3840   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3841 
  3842 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3843 
  3844   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3845      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3846      parts of the code generator framework).
  3847 
  3848   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3849      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3850      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3851 
  3852 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3855 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3858 patterns, e.g.
  3859 
  3860     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3861 
  3862 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3863 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3864 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3865 hyphen:
  3866 
  3867     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3868 
  3869 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3870 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3871 
  3872 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3873 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3874 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3875 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3876 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3877 higher-order unification.
  3878 
  3879 
  3880 *** Document preparation ***
  3881 
  3882 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3883 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3884 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3885 
  3886 
  3887 *** HOL ***
  3888 
  3889 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3890 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3891 
  3892 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3893 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3894 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3895 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3896 Main, as before.
  3897 
  3898 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3899 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3900 
  3901 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3902 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3903 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3904 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3905 
  3906 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3907 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3908 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3909 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3910 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3911 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3912 
  3913 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3914 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3915 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3916 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3917 
  3918 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3919 menu.
  3920 
  3921 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3922 (contains the empty clause).
  3923 
  3924 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3925 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3926 
  3927 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3928 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3929 
  3930 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3931 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3932 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3935 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3936 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3937 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3938 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3939 
  3940 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3941 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3942 
  3943 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3944 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3945 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3946 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3947 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3948 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3949 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3950 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3951 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3952 
  3953 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3954 
  3955 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3956 
  3957 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3958 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3961 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3962 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3963 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3964 
  3965 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3966 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3967 
  3968     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3969     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3970     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3971     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3972     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3973     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3974     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3975     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3976 
  3977 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3978 theory Set.
  3979 
  3980 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3981 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3982 
  3983 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3984 
  3985 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3986 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3987 
  3988 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3989 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3990 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3991 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3992 allowed. For examples see
  3993 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3994 
  3995 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3996 
  3997 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4001 structure:
  4002 
  4003     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4004     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4005     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4006     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4007     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4008     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4009     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4010     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4011     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4012     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4013     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4014     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4015     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4016     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4017     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4018     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4019     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4020     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4021     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4022     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4023     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4024     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4025     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4026     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4027     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4028     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4029     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4030     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4031     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4032     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4033     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4034     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4035     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4036 
  4037     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4038     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4039     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4040     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4041     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4042     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4043     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4044     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4045     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4046     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4047 
  4048     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4049     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4050     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4051     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4052     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4053     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4054 
  4055 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4056 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4057 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4058 
  4059 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4060 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4061 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4062 
  4063 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4064 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4065 
  4066 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4067 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4068 
  4069 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4070 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4071 proofs, e.g.
  4072 
  4073   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4074 
  4075 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4076 
  4077 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4078 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4079 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4082 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4086 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4087 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4091 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4092 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4093 preorder_class.*.
  4094 
  4095 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4096 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4097 
  4098 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4099 
  4100   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4101 
  4102 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4103 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4104 fold_image.
  4105 
  4106 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4107 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4108 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4109 the former will disappear at some point.
  4110 
  4111 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4112 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4113 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4114 
  4115 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4116 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4117 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4118 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4119 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4120 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4121 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4122 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4123 
  4124 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4125 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4126 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4127 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4128 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4129 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4130 
  4131     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4132     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4133     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4134     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4135     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4136     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4137     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4138 
  4139 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4140 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4141 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4142 
  4143 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4144 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4145 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4146 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4147 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4148 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4149 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4150 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4151 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4152 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4153 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4154 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4155 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4156 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4157 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4158 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4159 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4160 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4161 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4162 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4163 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4164 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4165 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4166 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4167 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4168 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4169 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4170 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4171 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4172 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4173 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4174 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4175 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4176 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4177 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4178 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4179 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4180 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4181 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4182 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4183 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4184 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4185 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4186 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4187 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4188 
  4189 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4192 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4193 
  4194 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4195 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4196 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4197 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4198 
  4199 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4200 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4201 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4202 theory RealVector.
  4203 
  4204 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4205 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4206 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4207 and inner products are included.
  4208 
  4209 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4210 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4211 supported.
  4212 
  4213 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4214 first diagonalization argument.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4217 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4218 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4219 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4220 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4221 
  4222     hide (open) const gcd
  4223     abbreviation gcd where
  4224       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4225     notation (output)
  4226       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4227 
  4228 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4229 
  4230 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4231 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4232 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4235 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4236 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4237 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4238 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4239 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4240 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4241 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4242 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4243 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4244 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4245 cases.
  4246 
  4247 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4248 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4249 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4250 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4251 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4252 
  4253     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4254     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4255     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4256     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4257     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4258 
  4259 
  4260 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4261 
  4262 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4263 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4264 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4265 
  4266 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4267 
  4268 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4269 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4270 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4271 
  4272 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4273 
  4274 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4275 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4276 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4277 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4278 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4279 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4280 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4281 
  4282 
  4283 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4284 
  4285 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4286 
  4287 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4288 theory targets.
  4289 
  4290 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4291 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4292 'inductive' etc.
  4293 
  4294 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4295 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4296 
  4297 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4298 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4299 
  4300 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4301 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4302 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4303 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4304 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4305 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4306 the algorithm W:
  4307 
  4308  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4309  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4310          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4311 
  4312 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4313 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4314 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4315 
  4316 
  4317 *** HOLCF ***
  4318 
  4319 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4320 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4321 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4322 
  4323 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4324 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4325 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4326 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4327 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4330 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4331 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 
  4334 *** ZF ***
  4335 
  4336 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4337 
  4338 
  4339 *** ML ***
  4340 
  4341 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4342 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4343 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4344 5.2.1!
  4345 
  4346 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4347 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4348 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4349 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4350 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4351 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4352 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4353 
  4354 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4355 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4356 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4357 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4358 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4359 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4360 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4361 
  4362 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4363 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4364 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4365 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4366 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4367 
  4368 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4369 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4370 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4371 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4372 Method.add_method.
  4373 
  4374 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4375 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4376 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4377 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4378 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4379 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4380 
  4381 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4382 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4383 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4384 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4385 examples.
  4386 
  4387 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4388 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4389 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4390 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4391 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4392 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4393 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4394 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4395 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4396 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4397 
  4398 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4399 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4400 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4401 
  4402 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4403 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4404 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4405 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4406 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4407 resort for legacy applications.
  4408 
  4409 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4410 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4411 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4412 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4413 explicit runtime argument.
  4414 
  4415 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4416 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4417 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4418 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4419 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4422 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4423 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4424 theory state.
  4425 
  4426 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4427 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4428 
  4429   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4430   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4431   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4432   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4433   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4434   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4435   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4436   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4437   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4438   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4439 
  4440 
  4441 *** System ***
  4442 
  4443 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4444 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4445 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4446 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4447 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4448 
  4449 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4450 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4451 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4452 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4453 
  4454 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4455 
  4456 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4457 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4458 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4459 prover operations.
  4460 
  4461 
  4462 
  4463 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4464 -------------------------------
  4465 
  4466 *** General ***
  4467 
  4468 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4469 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4470 
  4471 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4472 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4473 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4474 provides a proper context already.
  4475 
  4476 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4477 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4478 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4479 
  4480 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4481 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4482 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4483 swap theory imports.
  4484 
  4485 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4487 
  4488 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4489 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4490 white space without escapes.
  4491 
  4492 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4493 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4494 "foo_bar".
  4495 
  4496 
  4497 *** Pure ***
  4498 
  4499 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4500 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4501 
  4502 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4503 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4504 
  4505 (1) unused_thms
  4506      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4507 
  4508 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4509      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4510      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4511 
  4512 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4513      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4514      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4515      their ancestors.
  4516 
  4517 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4518 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4519 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4520 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4521 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4522 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4523 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4524 
  4525 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4526 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4527 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4528 
  4529 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4530 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4531 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4532 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4533 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4534 
  4535 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4536 
  4537 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4538 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4539 update of theories within ML code.
  4540 
  4541 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4542 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4543 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4544 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4545 
  4546 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4547 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4548 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4552 
  4553 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4554 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4555 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4556 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4557 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4558 
  4559 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4560 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4561 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4562 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4563 situations.
  4564 
  4565 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4566 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4567 proof text.
  4568 
  4569 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4570 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4571 
  4572 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4573 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4574 predicates.
  4575 
  4576 
  4577 *** Document preparation ***
  4578 
  4579 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4580 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4581 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4582 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4583 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4584 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4585 
  4586 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4587 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4588 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4589 
  4590 
  4591 *** HOL ***
  4592 
  4593 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4594 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4595 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4596 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4597 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4598 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4599 
  4600 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4601 with multithreading.
  4602 
  4603 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4604 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4605 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4606 
  4607 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4608 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4609 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4610 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4613 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4614 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4615 and makes them available separately.  See
  4616 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4617 
  4618 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4619 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4620 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4621 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4622 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4623 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4624 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4625 the declared rules.
  4626 
  4627 This setup also deals with rules like
  4628 
  4629   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4630 
  4631 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4632 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4633 
  4634 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4635 
  4636   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4637 
  4638   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4639     definitions on => and bool.
  4640 
  4641   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4642     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4643     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4644 
  4645       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4646       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4647       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4648       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4649       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4650       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4651       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4652       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4653 
  4654   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4655     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4656     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4657 
  4658   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4659     The proof pattern
  4660 
  4661       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4662       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4663 
  4664     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4665     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4666 
  4667       have "EX S. P S"
  4668       proof
  4669         show "P S" <...>
  4670       qed
  4671 
  4672   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4673     The proof pattern
  4674 
  4675       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4676       also have "S = T" <...>
  4677       finally have "P T" .
  4678 
  4679     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4680     must be replaced by something like
  4681 
  4682       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4683       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4684       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4685 
  4686   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4687     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4688 
  4689       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4690 
  4691     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4692     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4693     type of the form
  4694 
  4695       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4696 
  4697     rather than
  4698 
  4699       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4700 
  4701 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4702 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4703 
  4704 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4707 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4711 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4714 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4717 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4718 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4721 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4722 
  4723   less_trans
  4724   less_linear
  4725   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4726   le_less_trans
  4727   less_le_trans
  4728   less_not_sym
  4729   less_asym
  4730 
  4731 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4732 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4733 and different variable names.
  4734 
  4735 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4736 
  4737 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4738 finite maps.
  4739 
  4740 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4741 
  4742 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4743 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4744 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4745 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4746 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4747 accordingly.
  4748 
  4749 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4750 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4751 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4752 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4753 
  4754 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4755 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4756 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4757 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4758 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4762 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4765 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4766 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4767 
  4768 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4772 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4773 
  4774 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4775 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4778 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4781 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4785 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4788 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4789 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4790 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4791 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4792 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4795 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4796 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4797 
  4798 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4799 
  4800 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4801 
  4802 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4803 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4804 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4805 
  4806 
  4807 *** ZF ***
  4808 
  4809 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4810 same session:
  4811 
  4812   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4813   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4814   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4815   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4816   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4817   List      -> List_ZF
  4818   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4819 
  4820 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4821 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4822 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4823 
  4824 
  4825 *** ML ***
  4826 
  4827 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4828 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4829 
  4830 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4831 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4832 
  4833 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4834 
  4835 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4836 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4837 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4838 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4839 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4842 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4843 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4844 
  4845 
  4846 *** System ***
  4847 
  4848 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4849 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4850 
  4851 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4852 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4853 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4854 
  4855 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4856 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4857 
  4858 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4859 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4860 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4861 
  4862 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4863 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4864 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4865 
  4866 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4867 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4868 
  4869 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4870 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4871 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4872 script.
  4873 
  4874 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4875 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4876 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4877 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4878 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4879 
  4880 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4881 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4882 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4883 
  4884 
  4885 
  4886 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4887 -----------------------------------
  4888 
  4889 *** General ***
  4890 
  4891 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4892 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4893 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4894 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4895 
  4896 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4897 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4898 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4901 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4902 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4903 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4906 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4907 quotes.
  4908 
  4909 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4910 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4911 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4912 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4913 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4914 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4915 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4916 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4917 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4918 
  4919 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4920 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4921 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4922 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4923 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4924 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4925 
  4926 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4927 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4928 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4929 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4930 
  4931 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4932 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4933 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4934 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4935 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4936 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4937 
  4938 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4939 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4940 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4941 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4942 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4943 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4944 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4945 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4946 
  4947 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4948 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4949 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4950 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4951 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4952 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4953 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4954 
  4955 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4956 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4957 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4958 
  4959 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4960 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4961 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4962 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4963 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4964 limit is imposed.
  4965 
  4966 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4967 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4968 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4969 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4970 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4971 and scalability.
  4972 
  4973 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4974 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 *** Document preparation ***
  4978 
  4979 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4980 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4981 current context.
  4982 
  4983 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4984 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4985 
  4986 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4987 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4988 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4989 
  4990 
  4991 *** Pure ***
  4992 
  4993 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4994 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4995 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4996 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4997 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4998 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4999 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5000 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5001 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5002 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5003 
  5004 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5005 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5006 sketch:
  5007 
  5008     internal compilation:
  5009         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5010     writing SML code to a file:
  5011         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5012     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5013         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5014     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5015         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5016 
  5017     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5018         method ``eval''
  5019 
  5020 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5021 
  5022 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5023 
  5024     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5025     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5026     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5027     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5028 
  5029 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5030 
  5031     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5032       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5033 
  5034     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5035       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5036 
  5037     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5038       {(target)}+
  5039         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5040 
  5041     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5042       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5043         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5044 
  5045 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5046 
  5047 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5048 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5049 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5050 codegen".
  5051 
  5052 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5053 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5054 annotations).
  5055 
  5056 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5057 syntax.
  5058 
  5059 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5060 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5061 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5062 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5063 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5064 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5065 
  5066 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5067 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5068 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5069 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5070 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5071 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5072 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5073 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5074 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5075 equations, see section "definitions".
  5076 
  5077 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5078 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5079 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5080 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5081 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5082 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5083 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5084 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5085 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5086 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5087 
  5088 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5089 configuration options:
  5090 
  5091   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5092   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5093   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5094   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5095   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5096   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5097   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5098   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5099   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5100 
  5101 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5102 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5103 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5104 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5105 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5106 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5107 order.
  5108 
  5109 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5110 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5111 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5112 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5113 context encountered later on.
  5114 
  5115 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5116 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5117 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5118 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5119 
  5120 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5121 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5122 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5123 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5124 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5125 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5126 
  5127 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5128 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5129 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5130 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5131 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5132 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5133 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5134 more permissive.
  5135 
  5136 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5137 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5138 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5139 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5140 maintainability of proof texts.
  5141 
  5142 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5143 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5144 
  5145   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5146   then guess x and y by clarify
  5147 
  5148 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5149 proof tools being involved here.
  5150 
  5151 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5152 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5153 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5154 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5155 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5156 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5157 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5158 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5159 
  5160 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5161 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5162 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5163 
  5164   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5165   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5166   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5167   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5168 
  5169 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5170 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5171 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5172 
  5173 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5174 both named and unnamed ones.
  5175 
  5176 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5177 
  5178   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5179 
  5180 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5181 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5182 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5183 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5184 
  5185 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5186 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5187 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5188 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5189 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5190 
  5191 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5192 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5193 
  5194 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5195 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5196 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5197 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5198 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5199 originally first one.
  5200 
  5201 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5202 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5203 expected.
  5204 
  5205 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5206 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5207 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5208 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5209 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5210 
  5211   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5212     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5213     obtains x where "P x"
  5214 
  5215   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5216     assumes "A & B"
  5217     obtains A and B
  5218 
  5219   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5220     assumes "A | B"
  5221     obtains
  5222       A
  5223     | B
  5224 
  5225 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5226 explicitly:
  5227 
  5228   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5229     obtains "~ thesis"
  5230 
  5231   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5232     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5233 
  5234 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5235 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5236 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5237 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5238 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5239 case_names).
  5240 
  5241 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5242 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5243 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5244 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5245 
  5246 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5247 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5248 top-level lemma.
  5249 
  5250 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5251 introduction rule (default "that").
  5252 
  5253 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5254 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5255 to occur.
  5256 
  5257 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5258 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5259 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5260 representations independently of name spaces.
  5261 
  5262 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5263 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5264 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5265 
  5266 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5267 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5268 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5269 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5270 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5271 current context.
  5272 
  5273 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5274 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5275 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5276 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5277 
  5278   axiomatization
  5279     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5280     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5281 
  5282   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5283   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5284 
  5285   abbreviation
  5286     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5287     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5288 
  5289 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5290 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5291 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5292 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5293 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5294 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5295 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5296 
  5297 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5298 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5299 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5300 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5301 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5302 
  5303 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5304 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5305 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5306 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5307 
  5308 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5309 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5310 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5311 
  5312   definition "K x _ = x"
  5313 
  5314   inductive conj for A B
  5315   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5316 
  5317 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5318 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5319 abbreviations on output.
  5320 
  5321 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5322 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5323 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5324 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5325 
  5326 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5327 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5328 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5329 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5330 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5331 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5332 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5333 
  5334 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5335 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5336 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5337 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5338 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5339 
  5340 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5341 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5342 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5343 
  5344 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5345 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5346 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5347 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5348 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5349 
  5350   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5351     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5352 
  5353 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5354 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5355 partial_order.
  5356 
  5357 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5358 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5359 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5360 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5361 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5362 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5363 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5364 examples.
  5365 
  5366 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5367 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5368 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5369 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5370 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5371 
  5372 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5373 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5374 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5375 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5376 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5377 
  5378   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5379   (induct set: foo bar)
  5380   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5381   (induct type: foo bar)
  5382 
  5383 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5384 new format.
  5385 
  5386 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5387 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5388 
  5389 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5390 considered a legacy feature.
  5391 
  5392 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5393 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5394 
  5395 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5396 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5397 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5398 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5399 
  5400 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5401 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5402 manipulating the claset.
  5403 
  5404 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5405 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5406 least one premise.
  5407 
  5408 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5409 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5410 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5411 rule steps.
  5412 
  5413 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5414 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5415 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5416 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5417 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5418 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5419 
  5420 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5421 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5422 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5423 
  5424 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5425 the graph browser tool.
  5426 
  5427 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5428 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5429 
  5430 
  5431 *** HOL ***
  5432 
  5433 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5434 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5435 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5436 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5437 multi-threading.
  5438 
  5439 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5440 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5441 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5442 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5443 work with multi-threading.
  5444 
  5445 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5446 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5447 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5448 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5449 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5450 
  5451 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5452 
  5453 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5454 equality.
  5455 
  5456 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5457 the new 'class' package:
  5458 
  5459     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5460     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5461     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5462     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5463     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5464     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5465     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5466     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5467     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5468     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5469     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5470     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5471     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5472     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5473     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5474     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5475     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5476     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5477     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5478     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5479 
  5480 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5481 
  5482 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5483 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5484 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5485 names.
  5486 
  5487 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5488 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5489 
  5490 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5491 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5492 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5493 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5494 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5495 
  5496 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5497 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5498 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5499 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5500 
  5501 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5502 
  5503 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5504 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5505 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5506 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5510 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5511 
  5512 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5513 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5514 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5517 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5518 
  5519 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5520 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5521 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5522 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5523 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5524 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5525 in the current context.
  5526 
  5527 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5528 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5532 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5533 
  5534 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5535 
  5536     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5537     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5538 
  5539     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5540       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5541     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5542     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5543 
  5544     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5545     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5546 
  5547   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5548 
  5549     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5550     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5551     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5552     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5553     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5554     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5555     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5556     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5557     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5558     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5559     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5560     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5561     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5562     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5563     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5564     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5565     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5566     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5567     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5568     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5569     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5570     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5571     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5572     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5573     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5574     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5575     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5576     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5577     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5578     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5579     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5580     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5581     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5582     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5583     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5584 
  5585     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5586     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5587     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5588     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5589     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5590     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5591     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5592     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5593     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5594     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5595     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5596     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5597     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5598     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5599     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5600     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5601     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5602 
  5603     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5604     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5605     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5606     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5607     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5608     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5609     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5610     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5611     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5612     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5613     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5614     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5615     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5616     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5617     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5618     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5619     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5620     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5621     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5622     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5623     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5624     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5625     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5626     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5627     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5628     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5629     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5630     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5631 
  5632     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5633     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5634     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5635     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5636     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5637     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5638 
  5639     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5640     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5641     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5642     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5643 
  5644     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5645     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5646 
  5647     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5648     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5649 
  5650 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5651 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5652 
  5653 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5654 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5655 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5656 "*.size".
  5657 
  5658 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5660 
  5661 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5662 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5663 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5666 
  5667 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5668 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5669 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5670 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5671 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5672 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5673 numerals on all operations.
  5674 
  5675 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5676 
  5677 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5678 
  5679 * Code generator library theories:
  5680   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5681     languages.
  5682   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5683     languages.
  5684   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5685     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5686   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5687   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5688     denominator).
  5689   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5690     representable by rational numbers.
  5691   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5692     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5693     includes Code_Integer.
  5694   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5695     target-language built-in integers.
  5696   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5697     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5698 
  5699 * New package for inductive predicates
  5700 
  5701   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5702 
  5703     inductive
  5704       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5705       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5706     where
  5707       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5708     | ...
  5709 
  5710   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5711 
  5712     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5713 
  5714     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5715     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5716 
  5717     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5718     intros
  5719       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5720       ...
  5721 
  5722   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5723   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5724 
  5725     inductive_set
  5726       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5727       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5728     where
  5729       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5730     | ...
  5731 
  5732   or
  5733 
  5734     inductive_set
  5735       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5736       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5737       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5738     where
  5739       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5740     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5741     | ...
  5742 
  5743   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5744 
  5745   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5746   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5747 
  5748   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5749 
  5750   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5751     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5752     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5753     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5754     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5755 
  5756   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5757     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5758     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5759     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5760     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5761     statements of the form
  5762 
  5763       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5764 
  5765     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5766     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5767 
  5768       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5769 
  5770   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5771 
  5772       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5773         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5774         ==> ... ==> P
  5775 
  5776     for predicates and
  5777 
  5778       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5779         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5780         ==> ... ==> P
  5781 
  5782     for sets rather than
  5783 
  5784       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5785         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5786         ==> ... ==> P
  5787 
  5788     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5789     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5790     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5791 
  5792   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5793     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5794     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5795 
  5796 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5797 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5798 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5799 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5800 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5801 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5802 
  5803 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5804 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5805 
  5806 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5807 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5808 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5809 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5810 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5811 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5812 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5813 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5814 variable.
  5815 
  5816 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5817 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5818 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5819 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5820   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5821   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5822 
  5823 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5824 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5825 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5826 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5827 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5828 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5829 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5830 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5831 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5832 
  5833 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5834 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5835 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5836 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5837 rat, etc.
  5838 
  5839 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5840 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5841 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5842 
  5843 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5844 
  5845 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5846 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5847 
  5848 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5849 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5850 
  5851 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5852 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5853 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5854 
  5855 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5856 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5858 
  5859 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5860 
  5861 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5862 
  5863 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5864 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5865 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5866 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5867 
  5868 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5869 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5870 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5871 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5872 
  5873 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5874 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5875 algebraic operations.
  5876 
  5877 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5879 
  5880 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5884 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5885 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5886 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5887 adapted.
  5888 
  5889 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5890 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5891 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5892 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5893 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5894 
  5895 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5896 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5897 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5898 
  5899 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5900 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5901 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5902 
  5903 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5904 
  5905 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5906 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5907 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5908   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5909       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5910   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5911   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5912   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5913 
  5914 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5915 
  5916 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5917 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5918 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5919 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5920 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5921 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5922 
  5923 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5924 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5925 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5926 
  5927 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5928 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5929 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5933 
  5934 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5935 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5938 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5939 
  5940 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5941 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5942 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5943 
  5944 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5945 True/False.
  5946 
  5947 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5948 
  5949 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5950 
  5951 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5952 ``rule'' method.
  5953 
  5954 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5955 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5956 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5957 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5958 
  5959 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5960 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5961 
  5962 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5963 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5964 
  5965 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5966 Library.
  5967 
  5968 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5969 
  5970 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5971 as greatest fixed-point.
  5972 
  5973 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5974 association lists.
  5975 
  5976 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5977 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5978 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5979 
  5980 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5981 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5982 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5983 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5984 behavior.
  5985 
  5986 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5987 
  5988 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5989 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5990 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5991 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5992 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5993 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5994 
  5995 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5996 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5997 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5998 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5999 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6000 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6001 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6002 
  6003 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6004 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6005 
  6006 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6007 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6008 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6009 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6010 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6011 
  6012 
  6013 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6014 
  6015 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6016 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6017 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6018 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6022 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6023 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6024 
  6025 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6026 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6027 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6028 
  6029 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6030 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6031 
  6032 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6033 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6034 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6036 
  6037   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6038   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6039   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6040   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6041   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6042   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6043   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6044   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6045   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6046   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6047   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6048   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6049   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6050   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6051   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6052 
  6053 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6054 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6055 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6056 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6057 
  6058   approx        <-- capprox
  6059   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6060   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6061   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6062   monad         <-- cmonad
  6063   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6064   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6065   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6066   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6067 
  6068 
  6069 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6070 
  6071 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6072 
  6073 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6075 
  6076 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6077 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6080 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6081 of algebraic structures.
  6082 
  6083 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6084 
  6085 
  6086 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6087 
  6088 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6089 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6090 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6091 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6092 
  6093 
  6094 *** ML ***
  6095 
  6096 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6097 (even on SML/NJ).
  6098 
  6099 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6100 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6101 compile-time.  For example:
  6102 
  6103 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6104 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6105 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6106 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6107 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6108 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6109 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6110 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6111 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6112 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6113 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6114 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6115 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6116 ML {* @{context} *}
  6117 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6118 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6119 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6120 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6121 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6122 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6123 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6124 
  6125 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6126 
  6127 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6128 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6129 
  6130 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6131 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6132 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6133 
  6134 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6135 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6136 
  6137 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6138 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6139 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6140 
  6141 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6142 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6143 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6144 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6145 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6146 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6147 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6148 declarations and definitions.
  6149 
  6150 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6151 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6152 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6153 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6154 
  6155 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6156 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6157 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6158 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6159 
  6160 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6161 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6162 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6163 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6164 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6165 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6166 
  6167 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6168 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6169 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6170 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6171 attributes, methods, etc.
  6172 
  6173 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6174 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6175 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6176 fold_map combinators.
  6177 
  6178 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6179 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6180 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6181 derivation.
  6182 
  6183 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6184 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6185 achieve the old behaviour.
  6186 
  6187 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6188 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6189 statements.
  6190 
  6191 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6192 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6193 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6194 
  6195 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6196 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6197 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6198 
  6199   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6200   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6201   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6202 
  6203 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6204 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6205 
  6206 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6207 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6208 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6209 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6210 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6211 
  6212 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6213 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6214 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6215 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6216 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6217 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6218 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6219 in a locale context).
  6220 
  6221 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6222 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6223 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6224 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6225 
  6226 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6227 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6228 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6229 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6230 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6231 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6232 
  6233 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6234 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6235 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6236 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6237 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6238 
  6239   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."