NEWS
author blanchet
Wed Jul 18 08:44:04 2012 +0200 (2012-07-18)
changeset 48317 e5420161d11d
parent 48294 2b0c5553dc46
child 48371 3a5a5a992519
permissions -rw-r--r--
removed lie
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    19 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    20 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    21 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    22 with some care where this is really required.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** HOL ***
    26 
    27 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    28 expressions.
    29 
    30 * Quickcheck:
    31 
    32   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    33     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    34     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    35 
    36 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    37 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    38 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    39 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    40 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Sledgehammer:
    43 
    44   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    45   - Renamed options:
    46       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    47       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Document preparation ***
    51 
    52 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    53 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** System ***
    57 
    58 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
    59 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
    60 configuration.
    61 
    62 
    63 
    64 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
    65 ------------------------------
    66 
    67 *** General ***
    68 
    69 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    70 
    71   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    72     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    73   - markup for bound variables
    74   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
    75   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    76   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    77     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    78 
    79 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    80 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    81 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    82 
    83 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    84 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    85 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    86 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    87 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    88 
    89   context
    90     fixes x y z :: 'a
    91     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    92   begin
    93 
    94   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    95 
    96   end
    97 
    98   thm my_trans
    99 
   100 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   101 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   102 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   103 
   104 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   105 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   106 
   107 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   108 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   109 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   110 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   111 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   112 
   113 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   114 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   115 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   116 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   117 indices of schematic variables.
   118 
   119 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   120 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   121 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   122 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   123 etc. was exploited.
   124 
   125 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   126 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   127 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   128 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   129 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   130 of the material of that old tutorial.
   131 
   132 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   133 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   134 manual.
   135 
   136 
   137 *** Pure ***
   138 
   139 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   140 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   141 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   142 
   143 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   144 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   145 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   146 undocumented feature.)
   147 
   148 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   149 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   150 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   151 
   152   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   153 
   154   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   155     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   156 
   157 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   158 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   159 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   160 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   161 
   162 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   163 
   164     num ~> num_token
   165     xnum ~> xnum_token
   166     xstr ~> str_token
   167 
   168 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   169 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   170 position information via constraints).
   171 
   172 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   173 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   174 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   177 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   178 
   179 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   180 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   181 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   184 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   187 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   188 
   189   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   190 
   191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   194 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   197 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   198 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   199 
   200 
   201 *** HOL ***
   202 
   203 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   204 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   205 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   206 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   207 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   208 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   209 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   210 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   211 possible.
   212 
   213 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   214 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   215 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   216 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   217 
   218 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   219 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   222 
   223 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   224 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   225 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   226 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   227 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   228 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   229 
   230   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   231     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   232 
   233   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   234     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   235     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   236 
   237   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   238     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   239 
   240   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   241     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   242     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   243 
   244   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   245     Redefine using other integer operations.
   246 
   247 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   248 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   249 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   250 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   251 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   252 
   253   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   254     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   255     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   256     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   257     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   258 
   259     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   260     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   261 
   262   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   263     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   264     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   265     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   266     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   267     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   268     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   269     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   270 
   271   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   272     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   273     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   274     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   275 
   276   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   277     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   278     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   279     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   280 
   281   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   282     from type nat to type int.
   283 
   284 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   285 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   286 
   287   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   288     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   289     type.  Example syntax:
   290 
   291     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   292       is List.insert
   293 
   294     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   295     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   296     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   297     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   298     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   299     by the package.
   300 
   301   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   302     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   303     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   304     code generation for each constant.
   305 
   306   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   307     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   308     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   309     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   310     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   311 
   312   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   313     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   314     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   315 
   316 * Quotient package:
   317 
   318   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   319     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   320 
   321   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   322     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   323 
   324   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   325     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   326     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   329     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   332 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   333 
   334 * Quickcheck:
   335 
   336   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   337     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   338     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   339     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   340     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   341 
   342     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   343     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   344     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   345 
   346     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   347     continues searching for genuine ones.
   348 
   349     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   350     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   351     show genuine counterexamples.
   352 
   353   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   354     value generators for a given type and operations.
   355 
   356     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   357     constructors of that type.
   358 
   359   - Support for multisets.
   360 
   361   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   362 
   363   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   364     conjectures in a locale context.
   365 
   366 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   367 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   368 
   369 * Sledgehammer:
   370   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   371     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   372   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   373   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   374     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   375   - Sped up the minimizer.
   376   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   377   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   378   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   379 
   380 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   381 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   382 
   383 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   384 
   385 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   388 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   389 
   390   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   391 
   392 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   393 a list and a nat.
   394 
   395 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   396 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   397 
   398 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   399 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   400 default.
   401 
   402 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   403 
   404   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   405 
   406 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   407 
   408 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   409 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   410 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   411 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   412 one_case.
   413 
   414 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   415 the result of the fact expression.
   416 
   417 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   418 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   419 of some relation theorems:
   420 
   421   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   422   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   423   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   424   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   425   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   426   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   427 
   428 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   429 
   430 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   431 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   432 
   433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   436 to match the constant's name:
   437 
   438   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   439   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   440   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   441   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   442   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   443   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   444   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   445   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   446   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   447   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   448   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   449   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   450   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   451   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   452   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   453   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   454   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   455   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   456   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   457   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   458   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   459   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   460   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   461   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   462 
   463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   466 and corresponding theorem names:
   467 
   468   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   469 
   470   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   471 
   472   - Renamed theorems:
   473 
   474     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   475     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   476     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   477     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   478     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   479     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   480     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   481     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   482     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   483     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   484     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   485     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   486     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   487     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   488     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   489     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   490     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   491     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   492     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   493     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   494     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   495     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   496     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   497 
   498     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   499 
   500     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   501 
   502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   505 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   506 
   507   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   508   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   509   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   510   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   511   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   512   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   513   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   514   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   515   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   516   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   517   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   518   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   519   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   520   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   521   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   522   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   523   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   524   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   525   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   526   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   527   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   528 
   529 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   530 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   535 
   536   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   537   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   538   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   539   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   540   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   541   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   542   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   543   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   544   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   545   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   546   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   547   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   548   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   549   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   550   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   551   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   552   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   553   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   554 
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   558 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   559 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   560 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   561 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   562 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   563 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   564 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   565 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   566 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   567 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   568 
   569 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   570 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   571 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   572 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   573 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   574 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   575 
   576 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   577 through option types.
   578 
   579 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   580 relations.
   581 
   582 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   583 
   584 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   585 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   586 
   587   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   588   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   589   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   590   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   591   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   592   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   593   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   594   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   595   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   596   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   597   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   598   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   599   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   600   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   601   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   602   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   603   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   604   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   605   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   606   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   607   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   608   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   609   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   610   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   611   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   612   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   613   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   614   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   615   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   616   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   617   zless_le ~> less_le
   618   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   619   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   620   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   621 
   622 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   623 
   624   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   625 
   626 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   627 
   628 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   629 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   630 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   631 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   635 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   636 
   637 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   638 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   639 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   640 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   641 follows:
   642 
   643   Operations:
   644   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   645   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   646   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   647   del -> rbt_del
   648   delete -> rbt_delete
   649   ins -> rbt_ins
   650   insert -> rbt_insert
   651   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   652   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   653   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   654   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   655   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   656   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   657   tree_less -> rbt_less
   658   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   659   union -> rbt_union
   660   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   661   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   662 
   663   Lemmas:
   664   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   665   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   666   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   667   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   668   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   669   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   670   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   671   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   672   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   673   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   674   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   675   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   676   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   677   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   678   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   679   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   680   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   681   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   682   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   683   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   684   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   685   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   686   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   687   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   688   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   689   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   690   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   691   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   692   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   693   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   694   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   695   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   696   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   697   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   698   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   699   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   700   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   701   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   702   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   703   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   704   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   705   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   706   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   707   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   708   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   709   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   710   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   711   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   712   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   713   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   714   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   715   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   716   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   717   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   718   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   719   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   720   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   721   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   722   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   723   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   724   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   725   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   726   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   727   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   728   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   729   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   730   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   731   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   732   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   733   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   734   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   735   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   736   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   737   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   738   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   739   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   740   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   741   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   742   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   743   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   744   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   745   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   746   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   747 
   748 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   749 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   750 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752   Changed Operations:
   753   float_abs -> abs
   754   float_nprt -> nprt
   755   float_pprt -> pprt
   756   pow2 -> use powr
   757   round_down -> float_round_down
   758   round_up -> float_round_up
   759   scale -> exponent
   760 
   761   Removed Operations:
   762   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   763 
   764   Renamed Lemmas:
   765   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   766   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   767   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   768   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   769   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   770   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   771   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   772   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   773   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   774   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   775   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   776   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   777   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   778   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   779   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   780   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   781   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   782   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   783   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   784   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   785   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   786   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   787   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   788   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   789   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   790   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   791   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   792   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   793   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   794   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   795   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   796   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   797   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   798   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   799   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   800   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   801 
   802   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   803   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   804   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   805   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   806   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   807   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   808   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   809   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   810   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   811   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   812 
   813 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   814 association lists with distinct keys.
   815 
   816 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   817 annotated commands.
   818 
   819 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   820 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   821 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   822 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   825 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   826 instead.
   827 
   828   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   829   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   830   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   831   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   832   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   833   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   834   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   835   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   836   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   837   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   838   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   839   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   840   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   841   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   842   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   843   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   844   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   845   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   846   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   847   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   848   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   849   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   850   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   851   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   852   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   853   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   854   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   855   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   856   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   857   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   858   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   859   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   860   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   861   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   862   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   863   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   864   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   865   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   866   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   867   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   868   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   869 
   870 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   871 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   872 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   873 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   874 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   875 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   876 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   877 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   878 
   879 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   880 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   881 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   882 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   883 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   884 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   885 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   886 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   887 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   888 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   889 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   890 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892   Renamed constants:
   893   measure -> emeasure
   894   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   895   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   896   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   897   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   898 
   899   Removed locales:
   900   completeable_measure_space
   901   finite_measure_space
   902   finite_prob_space
   903   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   904   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   905   finite_sigma_algebra
   906   measure_space
   907   pair_finite_prob_space
   908   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   909   pair_finite_space
   910   pair_sigma_algebra
   911   product_sigma_algebra
   912 
   913   Removed constants:
   914   conditional_space
   915   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   916   image_space
   917   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   918   pair_measure_generator
   919   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   920   subvimage
   921 
   922   Replacement theorems:
   923   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   924   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   925   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   926   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   927   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   928   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   929   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   930   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   931   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   932   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   933   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   934   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   935   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   936   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   937   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   938   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   939   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   940   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   941   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   942   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   943   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   944   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   945   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   946   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   947   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   948   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   949   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   950   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   951   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   952   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   953   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   954   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   955   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   956   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   957   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   958   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   959   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   960   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   961   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   962   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   963   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   964   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   965   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   966   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   967   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   968   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   969   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   970   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   971   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   972   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   973   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   974   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   975   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   976   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   977   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   978   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   979   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   980   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   981   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   982   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   983   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   984   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   985   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   986   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
   987   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
   988   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
   989   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
   990   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
   991   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
   992   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
   993   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
   994   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
   995   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
   996   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
   997   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   998   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
   999   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1000   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1001   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1002   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1003   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1004   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1005   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1006   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1007   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1008   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1009   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1010   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1011   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1012   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1013   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1014   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1015   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1016   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1017   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1018   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1019   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1020   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1021   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1022   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1023   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1024   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1025   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1026   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1027   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1028   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1029   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1030   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1031   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1032   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1033   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1034   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1035   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1036   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1037   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1038   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1039   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1040   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1041   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1042   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1043   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1044   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1045   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1046   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1047   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1048   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1049   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1050   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1051 
  1052 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1053 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1054 
  1055 
  1056 *** FOL ***
  1057 
  1058 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1059 
  1060 
  1061 *** ZF ***
  1062 
  1063 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1064 analysis.
  1065 
  1066 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1067 
  1068 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 
  1071 *** ML ***
  1072 
  1073 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1074 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1075 
  1076 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1077 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1078 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1079 
  1080 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1081 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1082 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1083 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1084 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1085 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1086 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1087 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1088 
  1089 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1090 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1091 
  1092 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1093 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1094 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1095 
  1096 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1097 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1100 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1101 context as well.
  1102 
  1103 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1104 
  1105   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1106   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1107   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1108   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1109   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1110   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1111   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1112   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1113   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1114   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1115   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1116   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1117 
  1118 
  1119 *** System ***
  1120 
  1121 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1122 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1123 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1124 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1125 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1126 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1127 the generic user home was intended.
  1128 
  1129 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1130 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1131 
  1132 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1133 (not just JRE).
  1134 
  1135 
  1136 
  1137 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1138 ------------------------------------
  1139 
  1140 *** General ***
  1141 
  1142 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1143 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1144 
  1145   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1146     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1147     files for checking).
  1148 
  1149   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1150     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1151     positions.
  1152 
  1153   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1154     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1155     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1156 
  1157   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1158     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1159     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1160 
  1161   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1162     cores.
  1163 
  1164   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1165     versions (garbage collection).
  1166 
  1167 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1168 including some remaining limitations.
  1169 
  1170 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1171 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1172 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1173 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1174 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1178 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1179 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1180 
  1181 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1182 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1183 usedir option -Q.
  1184 
  1185 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1186 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1187 
  1188   long_names   ~> names_long
  1189   short_names  ~> names_short
  1190   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1191 
  1192 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1193 
  1194   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1195 
  1196 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1197 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1198 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1199 
  1200 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1201 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1202 
  1203 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1204   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1205   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1206   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1207     "Classical Reasoner".
  1208 
  1209 
  1210 *** HOL ***
  1211 
  1212 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1213 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1216 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1217 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1218 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1219 class complete_linorder.
  1220 
  1221 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1222 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1223 
  1224 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1225 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1226 
  1227   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1228   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1229   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1230   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1231   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1232   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1233   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1234   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1235   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1236   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1237   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1238 
  1239 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1240 
  1241   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1242   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1243   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1244   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1245   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1246   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1247   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1248   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1249   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1250   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1251   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1252   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1253   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1254   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1255   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1256   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1257 
  1258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1259 
  1260 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1264 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1265 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1266 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1267 
  1268 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1269 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1270 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1272 
  1273 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1274 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1275 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1276 
  1277 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1278 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1279 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1282 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1283 
  1284 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1285 
  1286     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1287     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1288 
  1289 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1290 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1293 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1296 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1297 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1298 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1301   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1302   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1303   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1304   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1305   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1306   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1307 
  1308 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1309 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1312   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1313   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1314   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1315   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1316   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1317   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1318   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1319   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1320   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1321   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1322   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1323   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1324   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1325   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1326   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1327   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1328   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1329   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1330   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1331   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1332   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1333   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1334   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1335   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1336   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1337   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1338   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1339   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1340   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1341   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1342   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1343   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1344   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1345   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1346   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1347   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1348   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1349   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1350   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1351   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1352   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1353   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1354   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1355   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1356   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1357   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1358   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1359   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1360   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1361   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1362   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1363   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1364   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1365   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1366   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1367   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1368   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1369   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1370   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1371   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1372   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1373   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1374   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1375   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1376   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1377   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1378   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1379   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1380   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1381   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1382   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1383   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1384   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1385   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1386   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1387   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1388   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1389   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1390   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1391   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1392   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1393 
  1394 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1395 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1396 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1397 
  1398 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1399 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1400 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1401 
  1402 * Code generation:
  1403 
  1404   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1405     characters in the target language.
  1406 
  1407   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1408     instead.
  1409 
  1410   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1411 
  1412   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1413     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1414 
  1415       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1416 
  1417 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1420 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1421 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1422 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1423 syntax.
  1424 
  1425 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1426 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1427 
  1428 * Nitpick:
  1429   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1430   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1431   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1432     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * Sledgehammer:
  1435   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1436   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1437     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1438   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1439     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1440   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1441     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1443     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1444   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1445     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Metis:
  1448   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1450     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1451 
  1452 * Command 'try':
  1453   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1454     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1456     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1457 
  1458 * Quickcheck:
  1459   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1460     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1461   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1462     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1463   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1464     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1465     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1466     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1467   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1468     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1469 
  1470 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1471 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1472 
  1473 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1474 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1475 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1476 
  1477 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1478 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1482 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1485 arithmetic.
  1486 
  1487 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1488 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1489 and lattice type classes.
  1490 
  1491 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1492 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1493 
  1494 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1495 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1496 
  1497 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1498 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1499 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1502   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1503   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1504   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1505 
  1506 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1507 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1508 constants:
  1509 
  1510   type inat   ~> type enat
  1511   Fin         ~> enat
  1512   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1513   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1514   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1515 
  1516 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1517 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1520 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1521 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1522 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1523 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1524 
  1525 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1526 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1527 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1528 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1529 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1530 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1531 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1532 
  1533   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1534   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1535   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1536   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1537 
  1538 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1539 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1540 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1543   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1544   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1545   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1546   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1547   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1548   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1549   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1550   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1551   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1552   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1553   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1554   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1555   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1556   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1557   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1558   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1559   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1560   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1561   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1562   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1563   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1564   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1565   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1566   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1567   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1568   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1569   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1570   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1571   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1572   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1573   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1574   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1575   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1576   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1577   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1578   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1579   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1580   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1581   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1582   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1583   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1584   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1585   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1586   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1587   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1588   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1589   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1590   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1591   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1592   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1593 
  1594 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1595   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1596   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1597   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1598   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1599     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1604   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1605   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1606   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1607   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1608   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1609   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1610   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1611   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1612   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1613   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1614   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1615   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1616   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1617   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1618   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1619   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1620   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1621   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1622   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1623   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1624   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1625   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1626   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1627   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1628 
  1629 
  1630 *** Document preparation ***
  1631 
  1632 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1633 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1634 same.
  1635 
  1636 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1637 result.
  1638 
  1639 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1640 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1641 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1642 
  1643 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1644 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1645 
  1646 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1647 like this:
  1648 
  1649   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1650   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1651 
  1652 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1653 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1654 layouts.
  1655 
  1656 
  1657 *** ML ***
  1658 
  1659 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1660 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1661 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1662 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1663 under external program control.
  1664 
  1665 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1666 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1667 
  1668 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1669 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1670 (better known as Proof General).
  1671 
  1672 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1673 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1674 
  1675 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1676 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1677 
  1678 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1679 (including quotes etc.).
  1680 
  1681 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1682 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1683 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1684 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1685 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1686 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1687 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1688 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1689 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1690 
  1691 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1692 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1693 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1694 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1695 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1696 
  1697 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1698 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1699 
  1700 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1701 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1702 
  1703 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1704 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1705 
  1706 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1707 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1708 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1709 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1710 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1711 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1712 proper Proof.context.
  1713 
  1714 
  1715 *** System ***
  1716 
  1717 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1718 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1719 
  1720 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1721 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1722 
  1723 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1724 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1725 
  1726   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1727   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1728   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1729   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1730   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1731 
  1732 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1733 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1734 
  1735 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1736 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1737 example:
  1738 
  1739   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1740 
  1741 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1742 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1743 
  1744 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1745 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1746 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1747 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1748 
  1749 
  1750 
  1751 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1752 ----------------------------------
  1753 
  1754 *** General ***
  1755 
  1756 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1757 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1758 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1759 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1760 like this:
  1761 
  1762   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1763 
  1764 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1765 
  1766 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1767 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1768 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1769 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1770 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1771 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1772 
  1773 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1774 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1775 the following package declarations:
  1776 
  1777   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1778   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1779 
  1780 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1781 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1782 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1783 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1784 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1785 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1786 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1787 
  1788 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1789 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1790 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1791 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1792 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1793 
  1794 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1795 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1796 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1797 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1798 
  1799 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1800 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1801 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1802 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1803 
  1804   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1805 
  1806   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1807   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1808   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1809   show_types                    show_types
  1810   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1811   show_consts                   show_consts
  1812   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1813 
  1814   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1815   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1816   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1817 
  1818   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1819   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1820 
  1821   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1822 
  1823   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1824   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1825   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1826   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1827   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1828 
  1829 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1830 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1831 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1832 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1833 
  1834 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1838   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1839 
  1840 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1841 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1842 float_token.
  1843 
  1844 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1845 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1847 
  1848 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1849 DejaVu Sans.
  1850 
  1851 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1852 
  1853 
  1854 *** Pure ***
  1855 
  1856 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1857 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1858 time.
  1859 
  1860 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1861 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1864 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1867 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1868 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1869 command already provided this functionality.
  1870 
  1871 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1872 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1873 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1874 without interpretations.
  1875 
  1876 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1877 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1878 
  1879 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1880 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1881 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1882 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1883 
  1884 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1885 'definition' instead.
  1886 
  1887 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1888 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1889 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1890 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1891 
  1892 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1893 constructors.
  1894 
  1895 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1896 the local file system.
  1897 
  1898 
  1899 *** HOL ***
  1900 
  1901 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1902 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1903 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1904 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1905 
  1906   declare [[coercion f]]
  1907 
  1908 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1909 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1910 
  1911   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1912 
  1913 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1914 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1915 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1916 other theories like this:
  1917 
  1918   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1919 
  1920 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1921 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1922 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1923 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1924 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1925 for examples.
  1926 
  1927 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1928 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1931 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1932 
  1933 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1934 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1935 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1936 
  1937 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1938 functorial structure of types.
  1939 
  1940 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1941 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1942 
  1943 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1944 languages.
  1945 
  1946 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1947 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949 
  1950 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1951 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1952 
  1953 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1954 combinators any longer.
  1955 
  1956 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1957 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1958 
  1959 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1960 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1961 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1962 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1963 
  1964   record 'a foo = ...
  1965   ...
  1966   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1967 
  1968 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1969 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1973 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1974 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1975 
  1976 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1977 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1978 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1979 
  1980 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1981 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1982 
  1983 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1984 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1985 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1986 independently.
  1987 
  1988 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1989 counter example search.
  1990 
  1991 * Sledgehammer:
  1992   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1993     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1994     sledgehammer").
  1995   - Renamed commands:
  1996     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1997     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1998     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1999     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000   - Renamed options:
  2001     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2002     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2003     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2004     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2005     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2006 
  2007 * Nitpick:
  2008   - Renamed options:
  2009     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2010     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2011     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2013   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2014   - Added "whack" option.
  2015   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2016   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2017   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2018   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2019     higher cardinalities.
  2020   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2021 
  2022 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2023 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2024 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2025 
  2026     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2027 
  2028 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2029 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2030 
  2031 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2032 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2033 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2034 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2035 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2036 "smt_solver".
  2037 
  2038 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2039 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2040 
  2041 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2042 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2043 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2044 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2047   - Renamed:
  2048     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2049     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2050     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051   - Added:
  2052     smt_verbose
  2053     smt_random_seed
  2054     smt_datatypes
  2055     smt_infer_triggers
  2056     smt_monomorph_limit
  2057     cvc3_options
  2058     remote_cvc3_options
  2059     remote_z3_options
  2060     yices_options
  2061 
  2062 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2063 header.
  2064 
  2065 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2066 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2067 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2068 
  2069   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2070 
  2071 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2072 
  2073 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2074 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2079 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2082 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2083 
  2084 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2085 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2088 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2089 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2092 
  2093 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2097 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2100 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2101 for congruent(2)).
  2102 
  2103 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2104 
  2105   types
  2106     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2107     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2108 
  2109   constants
  2110     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2111     True ~> HOL.True
  2112     False ~> HOL.False
  2113     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2114     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2115     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2116     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2117     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2118     The ~> HOL.The
  2119     All ~> HOL.All
  2120     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2121     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2122     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2123     If ~> HOL.If
  2124     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2125     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2126     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2127     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2128     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2129     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2130     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2131     op : ~> Set.member
  2132     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2133 
  2134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2137 
  2138     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2139     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2140     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2141     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2142     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2143     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2144     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2145     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2146 
  2147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * More stylized fact names:
  2150 
  2151   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2152   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2153   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2154   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2155 
  2156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2157 
  2158 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2159 
  2160   constants
  2161     null ~> List.null
  2162 
  2163   facts
  2164     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2165     null_empty ~> null_def
  2166 
  2167 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2168 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2169 generation.
  2170 
  2171 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2172 Haskell code.
  2173 
  2174 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2175 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2176 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2179 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2182 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2183 
  2184 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2185 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2186 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2189 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2193 
  2194 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2196 referred to by its qualified name.
  2197 
  2198   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2199   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2200   product ~>  Enum.product
  2201 
  2202 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2203 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2207 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2208 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2212 sort_key.
  2213 
  2214 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2216 
  2217 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2218 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2219 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2220 
  2221   types
  2222     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2223               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2224               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2225         (depends on your needs)
  2226 
  2227   constants
  2228      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2229      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2230      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2231 
  2232 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2233 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2234 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2235 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2238 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2239 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2240 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2241 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2247 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2248 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2249 
  2250 
  2251 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2252 
  2253 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2254 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2255 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2256 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2257 compatibility.
  2258 
  2259 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2260 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2261 
  2262 
  2263 *** HOLCF ***
  2264 
  2265 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2266 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2267 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2271 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2272 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2275   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2276   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2277 
  2278 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2279 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2280 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2283 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2284 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2285 domain definition now works:
  2286 
  2287   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2288 
  2289 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2290 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2291 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2292 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2293 
  2294   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2295     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2296 
  2297   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2298 
  2299 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2300 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2301 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2304 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2307 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2308 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2309 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2310 
  2311 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2312 
  2313 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319 
  2320 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2321 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2322 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2323 
  2324 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2325 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2326 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2329 still supported as an input translation.
  2330 
  2331 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2332 
  2333   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2334   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2335   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2336   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2337   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2338   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2339   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2340 
  2341 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2342 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2345   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2346   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2347   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2348   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2349   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2350 
  2351 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2352 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2355 
  2356   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2357   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2358   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2359   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2360 
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2364 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2367 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2368 
  2369   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2370   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2371   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2372   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2373   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2374   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2375   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2376   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2377   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2378   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2379   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2380   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2381   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2382   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2383   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2384   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2385   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2386   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2387   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2388   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2389 
  2390 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2393   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2394   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2395   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2396   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2397   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2398   box_less             ~> box_below
  2399   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2400   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2401   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2402   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2403   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2404   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2405   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2406   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2407   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2408   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2409   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2410   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2411   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2412   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2413   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2414   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2415   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2416   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2417   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2418   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2419   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2420   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2421   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2422   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2423   up_less              ~> up_below
  2424   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2425   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2426   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2427   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2428   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2429   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2430   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2431   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2432   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2433   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2434   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2435   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2436   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2437 
  2438 
  2439 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2440 
  2441 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2442 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 
  2445 *** ML ***
  2446 
  2447 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2448 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2449 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2450 
  2451 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2452 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2453 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2454 
  2455 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2456 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2457 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2458 
  2459 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2460 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2461 
  2462 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2463 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2464 
  2465 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2466 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2467 
  2468 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2469 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2470 
  2471 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2472 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2473 almost all situations.
  2474 
  2475 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2476 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2477 Isabelle/ML.
  2478 
  2479 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2480 meaning.
  2481 
  2482 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2483 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2484 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2485 
  2486 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2487 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2488 
  2489 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2490 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2491 
  2492 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2493 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2494 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2495 
  2496 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2497 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2498 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2499 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2500 configuration options.
  2501 
  2502 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2503 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2504 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2505 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2506 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2507 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2508 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2509 
  2510 
  2511 
  2512 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2513 ---------------------------------
  2514 
  2515 *** General ***
  2516 
  2517 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2518 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2519 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2520 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2521 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2522 their full internal name.
  2523 
  2524 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2525 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2526 Some hints on upgrading:
  2527 
  2528   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2529     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2530     which are independent of this issue.
  2531 
  2532   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2533     provides the following special forms:
  2534 
  2535       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2536       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2537       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2538 
  2539     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2540     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2541     extra variables".
  2542 
  2543     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2544     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2545     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2546     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2547     "logic".
  2548 
  2549   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2550     antiquotations:
  2551 
  2552       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2553       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2554       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2555       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2556 
  2557   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2558     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2559     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2560     antiquotations.
  2561 
  2562 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2563 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2564 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2565 diagnose syntax problems.
  2566 
  2567 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2568 
  2569 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2570 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2571 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2572 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2573 
  2574 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2575 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2576 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2577 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2580 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2581 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2582 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2583 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2584 
  2585 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2586 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2587 
  2588 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2589 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2590 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2591 
  2592   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2593 
  2594 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2595 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2596 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2597 
  2598 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2599 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2603 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2604 
  2605 
  2606 *** Pure ***
  2607 
  2608 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2609 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2610 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2611 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2612 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2613 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2614 inspect proof terms.
  2615 
  2616 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2617 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2618 are added internally.  For example:
  2619 
  2620   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2621 
  2622 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2623 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2628 'class' instead.
  2629 
  2630 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2631 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2635 invariants.
  2636 
  2637 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2638 user space functionality any longer.
  2639 
  2640 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2641 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2645 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2646 
  2647 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2648 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2649 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2650 
  2651 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2652 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2653 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2654 
  2655 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2656 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 
  2659 *** HOL ***
  2660 
  2661 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2662 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2663 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2664 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2665 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2666 
  2667 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2668 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2669 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2670 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2671 
  2672   fun
  2673     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2674   where
  2675     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2676 
  2677   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2678     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2679 
  2680   quotient_definition
  2681     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2682 
  2683 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2684 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2685 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2686 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2687 
  2688 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2689 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2690 
  2691 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2692 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2693 
  2694 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2698 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2699 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2700 
  2701 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2702 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709 
  2710 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2711 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2714 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2715 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2718   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2719   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2720   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2721   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2722   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2723   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2724   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2725   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2726   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2727   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2728   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2729   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2730   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2731   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2732   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2733   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2734   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2735   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2736   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2737   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2738   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2739   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2740   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2741   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2742   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2743   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2744   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2745   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2746   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2747 
  2748 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2749 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2750 
  2751 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2752 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2753 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2754 
  2755 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2756 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2757 
  2758 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2759 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2762 
  2763 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2764 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2767 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2772 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2773 
  2774 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2775 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2776 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2777 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2780   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2781   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2782   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2786 lattices):
  2787 
  2788     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2789     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2790 
  2791     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2792 
  2793     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2794     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2795     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2796     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2797     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2798     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2799     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2800     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2801     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2802     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2803     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2804     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2805     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2806 
  2807     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2808     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2809     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2810     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2811     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2812     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2813     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2814     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2815     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2816     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2817     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2818     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2819     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2820     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2821     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2822     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2823     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2824     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2825 
  2826   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2827   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2828 
  2829     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2830     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2831     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2832     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2833     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2834 
  2835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Refined field classes:
  2838   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2839     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2840     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2841   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2845   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2846   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2847   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2848     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2849   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2850     equal_neg_zero.
  2851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2854 sets to lattices:
  2855 
  2856   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2857   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2858   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2859   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2860   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2861   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2862   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2863   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2864   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2865   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2866 
  2867 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2868 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2869 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2870 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2871 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2872 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2875 multiset order:
  2876 
  2877   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2878     <= and <;
  2879   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2880     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2881     multiset_order;
  2882   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2883     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2884     generation;
  2885   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2886     if needed.
  2887 
  2888 Renamed:
  2889 
  2890   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2891   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2892   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2893 
  2894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2897 
  2898 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2899 
  2900 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2901 
  2902 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2903 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2904 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906   Constants:
  2907   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2908   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2909   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2910   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2911   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2912   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2913   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2914   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2915   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2916   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2917   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2918   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2919   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2920 
  2921   Lemmas:
  2922   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2923   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2924   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2925   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2926   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2927   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2928   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2929   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2930   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2931   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2932   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2933   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2934   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2935 
  2936 * Sledgehammer:
  2937   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2938     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2939     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2940     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2941     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2942     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2943     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2945   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2946     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2947   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2948     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2949     is still experimental.)
  2950   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2951     full-typed mode.
  2952   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2953 
  2954 * Nitpick:
  2955   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2956   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2957   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2958     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2959   - Added support for quotient types.
  2960   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2961     constructs.
  2962   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2963     "termination" proofs).
  2964   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2965   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2966   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2967   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2968     record getters.
  2969   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2970   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2971   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2972   - Added "atoms" option.
  2973   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2974     problems.
  2975   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2976     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2977     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2979     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2981 
  2982 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2983   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2984   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2985   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2986   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2987   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2988   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2989   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2990   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2991   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 
  2994 *** HOLCF ***
  2995 
  2996 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2997 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2998 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3001 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3002 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3003 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3006 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3007 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3008 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3009 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3012 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3013 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3016 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3019   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3020 
  3021 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3022 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3025   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3026   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3027   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3028   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3029 
  3030 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3031 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3034   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3035   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3036 
  3037 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3038 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3042 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3047 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049 
  3050 *** ML ***
  3051 
  3052 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3053 
  3054     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3055     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3056 
  3057     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3058     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3059     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3060     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3061 
  3062     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3063     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3064     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3065 
  3066 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3067 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3068 
  3069 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3070 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3071 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3072 
  3073 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3074 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3075 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3076 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3077 
  3078 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3079 the context or even global references.
  3080 
  3081 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3082 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3083 
  3084 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3085 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3086 
  3087   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3088   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3089   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3090   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3091   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3092   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3093   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3094   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3095   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3096   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3097 
  3098 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3099 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3100 
  3101 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3102 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3103 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3104 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3105 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3106 
  3107 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3108 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3109 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3110 Theory_Data version.
  3111 
  3112 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3113 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3114 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3115 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3116 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3117 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3118 explicitly in rare situations.
  3119 
  3120 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3121 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3125 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3128 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3129 quite rare).
  3130 
  3131 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3132 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3135 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3136 terms.
  3137 
  3138 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3139 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3140 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3141 
  3142 
  3143 *** System ***
  3144 
  3145 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3146 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3147 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3148 
  3149 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3150 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3151 respectively.
  3152 
  3153 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3154 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3155 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3156 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3157 
  3158   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3159 
  3160 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3161 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3162 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3163 component.
  3164 
  3165 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3166 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3167 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3168 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3169 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3170 the user for manual installation.
  3171 
  3172 
  3173 
  3174 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3175 -------------------------------------
  3176 
  3177 *** General ***
  3178 
  3179 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3180 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3181 
  3182 
  3183 *** Pure ***
  3184 
  3185 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3186 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3187 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3188 
  3189 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3190 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3191 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3192 
  3193 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3194 interpretation.
  3195 
  3196 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3197 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 
  3200 *** Document preparation ***
  3201 
  3202 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3203 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3204 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3205 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3206 
  3207 
  3208 *** HOL ***
  3209 
  3210 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3211 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3212 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3213 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3214 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3215 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3216 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3217 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3218 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3219 
  3220 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3221 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3222 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3223 
  3224 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3225 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3226 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3227 
  3228 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3229 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3230 
  3231 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3232 
  3233 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3234 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3235 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3236 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3237 
  3238 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3239 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3240 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3241 "mirabelle" utility.
  3242 
  3243 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3244 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3245 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3246 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3247 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3248 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3249 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3250 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3251 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3252 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3253 
  3254 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3255 procedure only.
  3256 
  3257 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3258 
  3259 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3260 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3261 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3262 that fail later.
  3263 
  3264 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3265 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3266 
  3267 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3268 the same method as the approximation method.
  3269 
  3270 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3271 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3272 series expansion.
  3273 
  3274 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3275 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3276 
  3277 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3278 reals.
  3279 
  3280 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3281 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3282 
  3283 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3284 fixpoint theorem.
  3285 
  3286 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3287   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3288     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3289   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3290     accordingly
  3291   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3292     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3293   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3294     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3295 
  3296 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3297 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3298 lattice.
  3299 
  3300 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3301 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3302 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3303 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3304 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3305 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3309   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3310     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3311   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3312     le_inf_iff
  3313   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3314     sup_aci)
  3315   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3316   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3317   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3318     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3319     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3320     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3321     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3322     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3323     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3324     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3325     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3326     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3327     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3328   - authentic syntax for
  3329     Set.Pow
  3330     Set.image
  3331   - mere abbreviations:
  3332     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3333     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3334     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3335     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3336     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3337     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3338     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3339     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3340   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3341 
  3342 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3343 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3344 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3345 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3346 
  3347 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3348 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3349 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3352 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3355 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3356 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3357 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358 
  3359 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3360 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3361 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3362 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3363 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3364 
  3365 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3366 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3370 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3373 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3374 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3375 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3376 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3377 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3378 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3382     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3383     code_post       replaces    code post
  3384     etc.
  3385   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Renamed methods:
  3388     sizechange -> size_change
  3389     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3390   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3393 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3394 
  3395 * Renamed theorems:
  3396     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3397     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3398     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3399     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3400     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3401   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 
  3410 *** HOLCF ***
  3411 
  3412 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3413 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3414 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3415 
  3416 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3417 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3418 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3419 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3420 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3421 
  3422 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3423 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3424 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3425 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3426 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3427 
  3428 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3429 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3430 constructor are pre-configured.
  3431 
  3432 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3433 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3434 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3435 
  3436 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3437 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3438 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3439 as well.)
  3440 
  3441 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3442 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3443 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3444 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3445 examples.
  3446 
  3447 
  3448 *** ML ***
  3449 
  3450 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3451 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3452 
  3453 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3454 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3455 position, logical grouping etc.
  3456 
  3457 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3458 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3459 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3460 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3461 
  3462 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3463 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3464 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3465 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3466 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3467 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3468 
  3469 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3470 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3471 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3472 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3473 experiments with references.
  3474 
  3475 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3476 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3477 
  3478 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3479 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3480 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3481 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3482 
  3483 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3484 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3485 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3486 
  3487 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3488 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3489 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3497 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3498 
  3499 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3500 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3501 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3502 
  3503 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3504 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3505 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3508 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3509 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3513 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3514 instead of global theory.
  3515 
  3516 
  3517 *** System ***
  3518 
  3519 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3520 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3521 usedir option -q.
  3522 
  3523 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3524 also the system manual.
  3525 
  3526 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3527 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3528 
  3529 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3530 this is always enabled.
  3531 
  3532 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3533 
  3534 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3535 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3536 currently supported on Linux only.
  3537 
  3538 
  3539 
  3540 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3541 --------------------------------
  3542 
  3543 *** General ***
  3544 
  3545 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3546 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3547 
  3548   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3549     "isatool."
  3550 
  3551   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3552     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3553 
  3554   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3555     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3556 
  3557 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3558 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3559 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3560 
  3561 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3562 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3563 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3564 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3565 via "isabelle emacs".
  3566 
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3568 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3569 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3570 
  3571 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3572 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3573 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3574 
  3575 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3576 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3577 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3578 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3579 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3580 
  3581 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3582 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3583 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3584 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3585 
  3586 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3587 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3588 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3589 
  3590 
  3591 *** Pure ***
  3592 
  3593 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3594 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3595 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3596 
  3597 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3598 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3599 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3600 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3601 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3602 
  3603 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3604 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3605 useful in locale declarations.
  3606 
  3607 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3608 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3609 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3610 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3611 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3612 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3613 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3614 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3615 no longer generated.
  3616 
  3617 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3618 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3619 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3620 
  3621 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3622 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3623 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3624 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3625 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3626 
  3627 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3629 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3630 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3631 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3632 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3633 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3634 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3635 
  3636 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3637 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3638 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3639 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3640 
  3641 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3644 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3645 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3646 
  3647 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3648 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3651 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3652 in HOL, write
  3653 
  3654     class foo = ...
  3655 
  3656 instead of
  3657 
  3658     class foo = type + ...
  3659 
  3660 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3661 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3664 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3665 
  3666 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3667 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3668 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3669 
  3670 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3671 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3672 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3673 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3674 directly in regular applications.
  3675 
  3676 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3677 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3678 
  3679 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3680 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3681 
  3682 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3683 theory context.
  3684 
  3685 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3686 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3689 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3690 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3691 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3692 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3693 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3694 
  3695   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3696 
  3697 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3698 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3699 normalization.
  3700 
  3701 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3702 addressing etc.
  3703 
  3704 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3705 
  3706   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3707   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3708 
  3709 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3710 
  3711   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3712      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3713      parts of the code generator framework).
  3714 
  3715   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3716      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3717      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3718 
  3719 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3722 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3725 patterns, e.g.
  3726 
  3727     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3728 
  3729 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3730 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3731 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3732 hyphen:
  3733 
  3734     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3735 
  3736 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3737 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3738 
  3739 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3740 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3741 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3742 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3743 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3744 higher-order unification.
  3745 
  3746 
  3747 *** Document preparation ***
  3748 
  3749 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3750 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3751 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3752 
  3753 
  3754 *** HOL ***
  3755 
  3756 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3757 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3758 
  3759 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3760 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3761 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3762 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3763 Main, as before.
  3764 
  3765 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3766 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3767 
  3768 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3769 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3770 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3771 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3772 
  3773 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3774 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3775 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3776 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3777 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3778 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3779 
  3780 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3781 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3782 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3783 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3784 
  3785 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3786 menu.
  3787 
  3788 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3789 (contains the empty clause).
  3790 
  3791 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3792 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3793 
  3794 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3795 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3796 
  3797 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3798 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3799 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3802 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3803 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3804 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3805 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3806 
  3807 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3808 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3809 
  3810 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3811 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3812 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3813 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3814 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3815 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3816 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3817 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3818 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3819 
  3820 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3821 
  3822 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3823 
  3824 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3825 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826 
  3827 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3828 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3829 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3830 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3831 
  3832 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3833 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3834 
  3835     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3836     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3837     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3838     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3839     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3840     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3841     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3842     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3843 
  3844 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3845 theory Set.
  3846 
  3847 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3848 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3849 
  3850 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3851 
  3852 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3853 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3854 
  3855 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3856 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3857 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3858 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3859 allowed. For examples see
  3860 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3861 
  3862 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3863 
  3864 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3868 structure:
  3869 
  3870     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3871     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3872     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3873     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3874     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3875     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3876     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3877     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3878     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3879     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3880     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3881     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3882     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3883     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3884     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3885     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3886     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3887     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3888     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3889     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3890     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3891     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3892     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3893     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3894     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3895     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3896     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3897     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3898     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3899     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3900     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3901     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3902     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3903 
  3904     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3905     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3906     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3907     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3908     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3909     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3910     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3911     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3912     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3913     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3914 
  3915     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3916     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3917     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3918     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3919     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3920     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3921 
  3922 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3923 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3924 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3925 
  3926 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3927 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3928 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3929 
  3930 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3931 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3934 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3935 
  3936 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3937 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3938 proofs, e.g.
  3939 
  3940   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3941 
  3942 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3943 
  3944 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3945 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3946 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3949 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3953 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3954 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3959 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3960 preorder_class.*.
  3961 
  3962 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3963 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3964 
  3965 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3966 
  3967   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3968 
  3969 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3970 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3971 fold_image.
  3972 
  3973 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3974 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3975 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3976 the former will disappear at some point.
  3977 
  3978 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3979 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3980 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3981 
  3982 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3983 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3984 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3985 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3986 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3987 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3988 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3989 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3990 
  3991 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3992 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3993 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3994 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3995 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3996 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3997 
  3998     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3999     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4000     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4001     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4002     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4003     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4004     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4005 
  4006 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4007 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4008 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4009 
  4010 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4011 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4012 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4013 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4014 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4015 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4016 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4017 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4018 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4019 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4020 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4021 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4022 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4023 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4024 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4025 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4026 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4027 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4028 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4029 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4030 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4031 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4032 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4033 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4034 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4035 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4036 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4037 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4038 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4039 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4040 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4041 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4042 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4043 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4044 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4045 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4046 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4047 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4048 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4049 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4050 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4051 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4052 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4053 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4054 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4055 
  4056 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4059 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4060 
  4061 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4062 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4063 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4064 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4065 
  4066 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4067 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4068 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4069 theory RealVector.
  4070 
  4071 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4072 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4073 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4074 and inner products are included.
  4075 
  4076 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4077 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4078 supported.
  4079 
  4080 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4081 first diagonalization argument.
  4082 
  4083 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4084 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4085 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4086 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4087 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4088 
  4089     hide (open) const gcd
  4090     abbreviation gcd where
  4091       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4092     notation (output)
  4093       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4094 
  4095 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4096 
  4097 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4098 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4099 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4100 
  4101 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4102 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4103 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4104 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4105 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4106 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4107 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4108 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4109 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4110 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4111 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4112 cases.
  4113 
  4114 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4115 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4116 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4117 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4118 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4119 
  4120     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4121     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4122     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4123     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4124     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4125 
  4126 
  4127 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4128 
  4129 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4130 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4131 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4132 
  4133 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4134 
  4135 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4136 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4137 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4138 
  4139 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4140 
  4141 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4142 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4143 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4144 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4145 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4146 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4147 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4148 
  4149 
  4150 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4151 
  4152 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4153 
  4154 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4155 theory targets.
  4156 
  4157 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4158 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4159 'inductive' etc.
  4160 
  4161 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4162 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4163 
  4164 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4165 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4166 
  4167 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4168 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4169 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4170 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4171 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4172 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4173 the algorithm W:
  4174 
  4175  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4176  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4177          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4178 
  4179 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4180 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4181 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4182 
  4183 
  4184 *** HOLCF ***
  4185 
  4186 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4187 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4188 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4189 
  4190 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4191 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4192 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4193 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4194 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4197 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4198 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 
  4201 *** ZF ***
  4202 
  4203 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4204 
  4205 
  4206 *** ML ***
  4207 
  4208 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4209 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4210 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4211 5.2.1!
  4212 
  4213 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4214 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4215 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4216 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4217 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4218 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4219 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4220 
  4221 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4222 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4223 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4224 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4225 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4226 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4227 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4228 
  4229 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4230 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4231 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4232 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4233 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4234 
  4235 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4236 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4237 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4238 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4239 Method.add_method.
  4240 
  4241 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4242 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4243 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4244 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4245 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4246 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4247 
  4248 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4249 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4250 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4251 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4252 examples.
  4253 
  4254 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4255 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4256 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4257 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4258 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4259 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4260 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4261 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4262 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4263 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4264 
  4265 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4266 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4267 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4268 
  4269 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4270 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4271 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4272 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4273 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4274 resort for legacy applications.
  4275 
  4276 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4277 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4278 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4279 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4280 explicit runtime argument.
  4281 
  4282 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4283 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4284 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4285 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4286 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4289 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4290 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4291 theory state.
  4292 
  4293 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4294 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4295 
  4296   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4297   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4298   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4299   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4300   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4301   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4302   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4303   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4304   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4305   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4306 
  4307 
  4308 *** System ***
  4309 
  4310 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4311 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4312 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4313 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4314 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4315 
  4316 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4317 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4318 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4319 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4320 
  4321 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4322 
  4323 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4324 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4325 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4326 prover operations.
  4327 
  4328 
  4329 
  4330 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4331 -------------------------------
  4332 
  4333 *** General ***
  4334 
  4335 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4336 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4337 
  4338 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4339 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4340 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4341 provides a proper context already.
  4342 
  4343 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4344 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4345 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4346 
  4347 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4348 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4349 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4350 swap theory imports.
  4351 
  4352 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4353 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4354 
  4355 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4356 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4357 white space without escapes.
  4358 
  4359 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4360 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4361 "foo_bar".
  4362 
  4363 
  4364 *** Pure ***
  4365 
  4366 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4367 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4368 
  4369 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4370 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4371 
  4372 (1) unused_thms
  4373      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4374 
  4375 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4376      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4377      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4378 
  4379 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4380      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4381      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4382      their ancestors.
  4383 
  4384 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4385 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4386 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4387 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4388 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4389 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4390 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4391 
  4392 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4393 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4394 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4395 
  4396 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4397 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4398 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4399 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4400 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4401 
  4402 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4403 
  4404 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4405 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4406 update of theories within ML code.
  4407 
  4408 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4410 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4411 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4412 
  4413 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4414 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4415 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4419 
  4420 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4421 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4422 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4423 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4424 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4425 
  4426 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4427 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4428 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4429 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4430 situations.
  4431 
  4432 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4433 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4434 proof text.
  4435 
  4436 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4437 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4438 
  4439 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4440 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4441 predicates.
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** Document preparation ***
  4445 
  4446 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4447 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4448 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4449 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4450 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4451 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4452 
  4453 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4454 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4455 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4456 
  4457 
  4458 *** HOL ***
  4459 
  4460 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4461 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4462 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4463 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4464 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4465 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4466 
  4467 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4468 with multithreading.
  4469 
  4470 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4471 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4472 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4473 
  4474 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4475 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4476 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4477 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4480 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4481 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4482 and makes them available separately.  See
  4483 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4484 
  4485 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4486 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4487 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4488 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4489 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4490 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4491 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4492 the declared rules.
  4493 
  4494 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4495 
  4496   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4497 
  4498 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4499 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4500 
  4501 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4502 
  4503   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4504 
  4505   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4506     definitions on => and bool.
  4507 
  4508   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4509     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4510     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4511 
  4512       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4513       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4514       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4515       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4516       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4517       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4518       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4519       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4520 
  4521   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4522     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4523     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4524 
  4525   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4526     The proof pattern
  4527 
  4528       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4529       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4530 
  4531     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4532     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4533 
  4534       have "EX S. P S"
  4535       proof
  4536         show "P S" <...>
  4537       qed
  4538 
  4539   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4540     The proof pattern
  4541 
  4542       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4543       also have "S = T" <...>
  4544       finally have "P T" .
  4545 
  4546     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4547     must be replaced by something like
  4548 
  4549       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4550       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4551       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4552 
  4553   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4554     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4555 
  4556       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4557 
  4558     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4559     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4560     type of the form
  4561 
  4562       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4563 
  4564     rather than
  4565 
  4566       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4567 
  4568 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4569 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4570 
  4571 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4574 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4578 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4581 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4584 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4585 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4588 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4589 
  4590   less_trans
  4591   less_linear
  4592   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4593   le_less_trans
  4594   less_le_trans
  4595   less_not_sym
  4596   less_asym
  4597 
  4598 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4599 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4600 and different variable names.
  4601 
  4602 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4603 
  4604 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4605 finite maps.
  4606 
  4607 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4608 
  4609 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4610 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4611 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4612 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4613 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4614 accordingly.
  4615 
  4616 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4617 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4618 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4619 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4620 
  4621 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4622 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4623 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4624 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4625 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4627 
  4628 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4629 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4632 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4633 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4634 
  4635 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4639 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4640 
  4641 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4642 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4645 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4648 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4652 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4655 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4656 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4657 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4658 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4659 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4662 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4663 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4664 
  4665 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4666 
  4667 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4668 
  4669 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4670 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4671 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4672 
  4673 
  4674 *** ZF ***
  4675 
  4676 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4677 same session:
  4678 
  4679   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4680   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4681   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4682   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4683   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4684   List      -> List_ZF
  4685   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4686 
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4688 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4689 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4690 
  4691 
  4692 *** ML ***
  4693 
  4694 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4695 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4696 
  4697 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4698 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4699 
  4700 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4701 
  4702 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4703 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4704 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4705 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4706 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4709 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4710 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4711 
  4712 
  4713 *** System ***
  4714 
  4715 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4716 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4717 
  4718 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4719 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4720 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4721 
  4722 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4723 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4724 
  4725 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4726 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4727 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4728 
  4729 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4730 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4731 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4732 
  4733 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4734 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4735 
  4736 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4737 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4738 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4739 script.
  4740 
  4741 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4742 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4743 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4744 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4745 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4746 
  4747 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4748 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4749 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 
  4753 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4754 -----------------------------------
  4755 
  4756 *** General ***
  4757 
  4758 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4759 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4760 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4761 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4762 
  4763 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4764 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4765 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4766 
  4767 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4768 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4769 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4770 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4773 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4774 quotes.
  4775 
  4776 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4777 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4778 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4779 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4780 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4781 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4782 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4783 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4784 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4785 
  4786 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4787 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4788 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4789 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4790 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4791 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4792 
  4793 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4794 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4795 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4796 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4797 
  4798 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4799 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4800 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4801 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4802 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4803 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4804 
  4805 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4806 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4807 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4808 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4809 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4810 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4811 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4812 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4813 
  4814 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4815 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4816 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4817 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4818 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4819 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4820 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4821 
  4822 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4823 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4824 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4825 
  4826 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4827 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4828 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4829 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4830 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4831 limit is imposed.
  4832 
  4833 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4834 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4835 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4836 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4837 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4838 and scalability.
  4839 
  4840 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4841 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4842 
  4843 
  4844 *** Document preparation ***
  4845 
  4846 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4847 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4848 current context.
  4849 
  4850 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4851 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4852 
  4853 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4854 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4855 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4856 
  4857 
  4858 *** Pure ***
  4859 
  4860 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4861 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4862 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4863 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4864 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4865 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4866 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4867 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4868 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4869 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4870 
  4871 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4872 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4873 sketch:
  4874 
  4875     internal compilation:
  4876         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4877     writing SML code to a file:
  4878         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4879     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4880         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4881     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4882         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4883 
  4884     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4885         method ``eval''
  4886 
  4887 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4888 
  4889 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4890 
  4891     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4892     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4893     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4894     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4895 
  4896 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4897 
  4898     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4899       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4900 
  4901     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4902       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4903 
  4904     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4905       {(target)}+
  4906         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4907 
  4908     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4909       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4910         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4911 
  4912 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4913 
  4914 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4915 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4916 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4917 codegen".
  4918 
  4919 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4920 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4921 annotations).
  4922 
  4923 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4924 syntax.
  4925 
  4926 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4927 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4928 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4929 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4930 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4931 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4932 
  4933 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4934 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4935 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4936 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4937 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4938 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4939 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4940 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4941 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4942 equations, see section "definitions".
  4943 
  4944 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4945 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4946 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4947 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4948 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4949 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4950 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4951 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4952 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4953 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4954 
  4955 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4956 configuration options:
  4957 
  4958   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4959   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4960   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4961   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4962   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4963   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4964   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4965   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4966   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4967 
  4968 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4969 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4970 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4971 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4972 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4973 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4974 order.
  4975 
  4976 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4977 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4978 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4979 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4980 context encountered later on.
  4981 
  4982 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4983 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4984 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4985 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4986 
  4987 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4988 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4989 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4990 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4991 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4992 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4993 
  4994 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4995 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4996 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4997 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4998 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4999 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5000 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5001 more permissive.
  5002 
  5003 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5004 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5005 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5006 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5007 maintainability of proof texts.
  5008 
  5009 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5010 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5011 
  5012   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5013   then guess x and y by clarify
  5014 
  5015 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5016 proof tools being involved here.
  5017 
  5018 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5019 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5020 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5021 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5022 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5023 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5024 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5025 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5026 
  5027 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5028 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5029 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5030 
  5031   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5032   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5033   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5034   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5035 
  5036 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5037 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5038 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5039 
  5040 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5041 both named and unnamed ones.
  5042 
  5043 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5044 
  5045   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5046 
  5047 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5048 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5049 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5050 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5051 
  5052 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5053 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5054 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5055 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5056 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5057 
  5058 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5059 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5060 
  5061 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5062 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5063 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5064 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5065 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5066 originally first one.
  5067 
  5068 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5069 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5070 expected.
  5071 
  5072 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5073 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5074 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5075 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5076 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5077 
  5078   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5079     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5080     obtains x where "P x"
  5081 
  5082   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5083     assumes "A & B"
  5084     obtains A and B
  5085 
  5086   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5087     assumes "A | B"
  5088     obtains
  5089       A
  5090     | B
  5091 
  5092 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5093 explicitly:
  5094 
  5095   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5096     obtains "~ thesis"
  5097 
  5098   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5099     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5100 
  5101 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5102 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5103 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5104 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5105 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5106 case_names).
  5107 
  5108 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5109 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5110 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5111 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5112 
  5113 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5114 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5115 top-level lemma.
  5116 
  5117 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5118 introduction rule (default "that").
  5119 
  5120 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5121 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5122 to occur.
  5123 
  5124 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5125 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5126 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5127 representations independently of name spaces.
  5128 
  5129 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5130 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5131 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5132 
  5133 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5134 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5135 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5136 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5137 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5138 current context.
  5139 
  5140 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5141 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5142 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5143 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5144 
  5145   axiomatization
  5146     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5147     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5148 
  5149   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5150   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5151 
  5152   abbreviation
  5153     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5154     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5155 
  5156 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5157 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5158 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5159 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5160 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5161 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5162 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5163 
  5164 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5165 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5166 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5167 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5168 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5169 
  5170 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5171 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5172 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5173 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5174 
  5175 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5176 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5177 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5178 
  5179   definition "K x _ = x"
  5180 
  5181   inductive conj for A B
  5182   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5183 
  5184 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5185 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5186 abbreviations on output.
  5187 
  5188 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5189 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5190 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5191 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5192 
  5193 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5194 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5195 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5196 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5197 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5198 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5199 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5200 
  5201 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5202 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5203 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5204 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5205 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5206 
  5207 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5208 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5209 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5210 
  5211 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5212 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5213 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5214 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5215 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5216 
  5217   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5218     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5219 
  5220 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5221 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5222 partial_order.
  5223 
  5224 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5225 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5226 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5227 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5228 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5229 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5230 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5231 examples.
  5232 
  5233 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5234 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5235 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5236 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5237 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5238 
  5239 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5240 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5241 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5242 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5243 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5244 
  5245   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5246   (induct set: foo bar)
  5247   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5248   (induct type: foo bar)
  5249 
  5250 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5251 new format.
  5252 
  5253 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5254 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5255 
  5256 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5257 considered a legacy feature.
  5258 
  5259 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5260 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5263 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5264 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5265 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5266   
  5267 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5268 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5269 manipulating the claset.
  5270 
  5271 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5272 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5273 least one premise.
  5274 
  5275 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5276 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5277 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5278 rule steps.
  5279 
  5280 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5281 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5282 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5283 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5285 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5286 
  5287 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5288 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5289 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5290 
  5291 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5292 the graph browser tool.
  5293 
  5294 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5295 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5296 
  5297 
  5298 *** HOL ***
  5299 
  5300 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5301 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5302 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5303 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5304 multi-threading.
  5305   
  5306 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5307 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5308 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5309 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5310 work with multi-threading.
  5311 
  5312 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5313 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5314 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5315 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5316 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5317 
  5318 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5319 
  5320 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5321 equality.
  5322 
  5323 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5324 the new 'class' package:
  5325 
  5326     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5327     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5328     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5329     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5330     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5331     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5332     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5333     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5334     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5335     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5336     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5337     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5338     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5339     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5340     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5341     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5342     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5343     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5344     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5345     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5346 
  5347 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5348 
  5349 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5350 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5351 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5352 names.
  5353 
  5354 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5355 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5356 
  5357 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5358 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5359 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5360 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5361 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5362 
  5363 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5364 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5365 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5366 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5367 
  5368 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5369 
  5370 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5371 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5372 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5373 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5375 
  5376 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5377 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5380 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5381 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5382 
  5383 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5384 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5385 
  5386 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5387 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5388 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5389 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5390 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5391 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5392 in the current context.
  5393 
  5394 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5395 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5397 
  5398 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5399 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5400 
  5401 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5402 
  5403     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5404     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5405 
  5406     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5407       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5408     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5409     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5410 
  5411     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5412     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5413 
  5414   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5415 
  5416     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5417     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5418     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5419     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5420     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5421     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5422     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5423     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5424     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5425     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5426     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5427     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5428     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5429     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5430     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5431     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5432     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5433     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5434     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5435     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5436     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5437     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5438     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5439     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5440     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5441     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5442     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5443     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5444     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5445     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5446     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5447     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5448     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5449     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5450     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5451 
  5452     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5453     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5454     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5455     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5456     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5457     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5458     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5459     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5460     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5461     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5462     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5463     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5464     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5465     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5466     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5467     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5468     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5469 
  5470     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5471     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5472     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5473     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5474     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5475     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5476     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5477     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5478     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5479     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5480     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5481     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5482     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5483     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5484     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5485     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5486     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5487     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5488     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5489     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5490     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5491     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5492     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5493     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5494     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5495     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5496     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5497     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5498 
  5499     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5500     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5501     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5502     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5503     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5504     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5505 
  5506     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5507     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5508     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5509     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5510 
  5511     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5512     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5513 
  5514     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5515     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5516 
  5517 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5518 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5519 
  5520 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5521 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5522 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5523 "*.size".
  5524 
  5525 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5529 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5530 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5531 
  5532 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5535 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5536 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5537 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5538 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5539 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5540 numerals on all operations.
  5541 
  5542 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5543 
  5544 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5545 
  5546 * Code generator library theories:
  5547   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5548     languages.
  5549   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5550     languages.
  5551   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5552     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5553   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5554   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5555     denominator).
  5556   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5557     representable by rational numbers.
  5558   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5559     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5560     includes Code_Integer.
  5561   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5562     target-language built-in integers.
  5563   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5564     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5565 
  5566 * New package for inductive predicates
  5567 
  5568   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5569 
  5570     inductive
  5571       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5572       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5573     where
  5574       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5575     | ...
  5576 
  5577   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5578 
  5579     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5580 
  5581     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5582     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5583 
  5584     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5585     intros
  5586       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5587       ...
  5588 
  5589   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5590   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5591 
  5592     inductive_set
  5593       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5594       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5595     where
  5596       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5597     | ...
  5598 
  5599   or
  5600 
  5601     inductive_set
  5602       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5603       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5604       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5605     where
  5606       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5607     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5608     | ...
  5609 
  5610   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5611 
  5612   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5613   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5614 
  5615   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5616 
  5617   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5618     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5619     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5620     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5621     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5622 
  5623   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5624     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5625     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5626     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5627     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5628     statements of the form
  5629 
  5630       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5631 
  5632     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5633     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5634 
  5635       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5636 
  5637   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5638 
  5639       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5640         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5641         ==> ... ==> P
  5642 
  5643     for predicates and
  5644 
  5645       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5646         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5647         ==> ... ==> P
  5648 
  5649     for sets rather than
  5650 
  5651       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5652         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5653         ==> ... ==> P
  5654 
  5655     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5656     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5657     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5658 
  5659   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5660     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5661     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5662 
  5663 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5664 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5665 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5666 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5667 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5668 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5669 
  5670 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5671 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5672 
  5673 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5674 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5675 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5676 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5677 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5678 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5679 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5680 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5681 variable.
  5682 
  5683 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5684 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5685 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5686 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5687   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5688   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5689 
  5690 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5691 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5692 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5693 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5694 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5695 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5696 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5697 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5698 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5699 
  5700 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5701 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5702 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5703 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5704 rat, etc.
  5705 
  5706 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5707 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5708 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5709 
  5710 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5711 
  5712 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5713 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5714 
  5715 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5716 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5717 
  5718 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5719 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5720 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5723 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725 
  5726 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5727 
  5728 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5729 
  5730 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5731 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5732 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5733 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5734 
  5735 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5736 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5737 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5738 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5741 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5742 algebraic operations.
  5743 
  5744 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5746 
  5747 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5749 
  5750 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5751 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5752 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5753 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5754 adapted.
  5755  
  5756 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5757 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5758 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5759 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5760 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5761 
  5762 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5763 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5764 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5765 
  5766 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5767 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5768 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5769 
  5770 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5773 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5774 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5775   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5776       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5777   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5778   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5779   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5780 
  5781 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5782 
  5783 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5784 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5785 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5786 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5787 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5788 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5789 
  5790 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5791 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5792 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5793 
  5794 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5795 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5796 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5798 
  5799 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5800 
  5801 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5802 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5803 
  5804 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5805 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5806 
  5807 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5808 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5809 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5810 
  5811 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5812 True/False.
  5813 
  5814 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5815 
  5816 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5817 
  5818 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5819 ``rule'' method.
  5820 
  5821 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5822 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5823 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5824 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5825 
  5826 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5827 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5828 
  5829 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5830 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5831 
  5832 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5833 Library.
  5834 
  5835 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5836 
  5837 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5838 as greatest fixed-point.
  5839 
  5840 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5841 association lists.
  5842 
  5843 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5844 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5845 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5846 
  5847 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5848 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5849 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5850 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5851 behavior.
  5852 
  5853 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5854 
  5855 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5856 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5857 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5858 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5859 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5860 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5861 
  5862 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5863 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5864 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5865 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5866 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5867 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5868 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5869 
  5870 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5871 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5872 
  5873 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5874 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5875 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5876 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5877 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5878 
  5879 
  5880 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5881 
  5882 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5883 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5884 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5885 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5887 
  5888 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5889 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5890 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5891 
  5892 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5893 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5894 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5895 
  5896 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5897 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5898 
  5899 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5900 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5901 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5905   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5906   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5907   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5908   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5909   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5910   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5911   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5912   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5913   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5914   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5915   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5916   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5917   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5918   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5919 
  5920 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5921 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5922 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5923 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5924 
  5925   approx        <-- capprox
  5926   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5927   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5928   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5929   monad         <-- cmonad
  5930   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5931   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5932   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5933   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5934 
  5935 
  5936 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5937 
  5938 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5939 
  5940 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5944 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5947 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5948 of algebraic structures.
  5949 
  5950 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5951 
  5952 
  5953 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5954 
  5955 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5956 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5957 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5958 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5959 
  5960 
  5961 *** ML ***
  5962 
  5963 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5964 (even on SML/NJ).
  5965 
  5966 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5967 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5968 compile-time.  For example:
  5969 
  5970 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5971 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5972 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5973 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5974 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5975 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5976 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5977 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5978 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5979 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5980 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5981 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5982 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5983 ML {* @{context} *}
  5984 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5985 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5986 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5987 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5988 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5989 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5990 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5991 
  5992 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5993 
  5994 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5995 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5996 
  5997 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5998 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5999 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6000 
  6001 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6002 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6003 
  6004 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6005 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6006 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6007 
  6008 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6009 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6010 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6011 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6012 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6013 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6014 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6015 declarations and definitions.
  6016 
  6017 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6018 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6019 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6020 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6021 
  6022 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6023 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6024 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6025 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6028 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6029 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6030 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6031 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6032 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6033 
  6034 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6035 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6036 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6037 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6038 attributes, methods, etc.
  6039 
  6040 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6041 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6042 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6043 fold_map combinators.
  6044 
  6045 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6046 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6047 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6048 derivation.
  6049 
  6050 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6051 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6052 achieve the old behaviour.
  6053 
  6054 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6055 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6056 statements.
  6057 
  6058 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6059 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6060 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6061 
  6062 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6063 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6064 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6065 
  6066   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6067   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6068   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6069 
  6070 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6071 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6072 
  6073 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6074 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6075 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6076 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6077 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6078 
  6079 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6080 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6081 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6082 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6083 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6084 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6085 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6086 in a locale context).
  6087 
  6088 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6089 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6090 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6091 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6092 
  6093 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6094 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6095 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6096 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6097 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6098 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6099 
  6100 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6101 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6102 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6103 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6104 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6105 
  6106   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6107 
  6108 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6109 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6110 this:
  6111 
  6112   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6113 
  6114 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6115 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6116 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6117 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6118 
  6119 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6120 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6123 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6124 
  6125 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6126 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6127 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6128 batch mode.
  6129 
  6130 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6131 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6132 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6133 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6136 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6137 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6138 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6139 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6140 
  6141 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6142 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6143 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6144 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6145 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6146 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6147 
  6148 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6149 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6150 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6152 
  6153 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6154 "Trueprop" etc.
  6155 
  6156 
  6157 *** System ***
  6158 
  6159 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6160 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6161 Isabelle installations.
  6162 
  6163 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6164 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6165 code.
  6166 
  6167 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6168 
  6169 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6170 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6171 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6172 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6173 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6174 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6175 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6176 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6177 Implementation manual.
  6178 
  6179 
  6180 
  6181 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6182 ----------------------------------
  6183 
  6184 *** General ***
  6185 
  6186 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6187 
  6188   theory <name>
  6189   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6190   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6191   begin
  6192 
  6193 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6194 
  6195   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6196 
  6197 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6198 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6199 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6200 
  6201 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6202 relative and absolute paths.
  6203 
  6204 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6205 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6206 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6207 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6208 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6209 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6210 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6211 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6212 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6213 
  6214   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6215 
  6216 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6217 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6218 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6219 
  6220 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6221 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6222 
  6223 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6224 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6225 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6226 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6227 
  6228   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  6229   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  6230 
  6231 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  6232 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  6233 faster.
  6234 
  6235 
  6236 *** Document preparation ***
  6237 
  6238 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  6239 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  6240 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are