NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jun 27 16:04:56 2014 +0200 (2014-06-27)
changeset 57415 e721124f1b1e
parent 57413 c14af83bd8db
child 57418 6ab1c7cb0b8d
permissions -rw-r--r--
command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds';
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   209 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   210 
   211 
   212 *** HOL ***
   213 
   214 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   215 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   218 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   221   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   222   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   223   and SUP instead uniformly.
   224   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   225   or SUP and Sup.
   226   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   227   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   228   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   229   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   230   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   234   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   235   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   236   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   237   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   238   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   241   can now deal with conjunctions.
   242   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   243   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   244   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   245 
   246 * HOL-Word:
   247   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   248   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   249   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   250   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   251   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   252 
   253 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   254 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   263 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   266 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   269   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   270   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   271   Theory renamings:
   272     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   273     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   274     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   275     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   276     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   277     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   278     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   279     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   280     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   281     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   282     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   283     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   287     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   288     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   289     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   290     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   291     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   292     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   293     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   294   New theories:
   295     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   296     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   297     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   298     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   299     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   300   Discontinued theories:
   301     BNF/BNF.thy
   302     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   303   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * New (co)datatype package:
   306   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   307   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   308     required by "fun".
   309   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   310     with Transfer.
   311   * Renamed commands:
   312       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   313       primrec_new ~> primrec
   314       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   317     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   320     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   323     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   324     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325   * No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   326     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   327     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   328     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Old datatype package:
   331   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   332     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   333     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   334   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   335     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   336     "case_prod").
   337     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   340   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   341   datatype package.
   342   Renamed constants:
   343     Option.set ~> set_option
   344     Option.map ~> map_option
   345     option_rel ~> rel_option
   346   Renamed theorems:
   347     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   348     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   349     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   350     option.recs ~> option.rec
   351     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   352     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   353     map.simps ~> list.map
   354     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   355     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   356     the.simps ~> option.sel
   357   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   358 
   359 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   360     sum_map ~> map_sum
   361     map_pair ~> map_prod
   362     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   363     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   364     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   365     set_rel ~> rel_set
   366     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   367     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   368     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   369     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   370 
   371 * New theories:
   372     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   373     Library/Tree
   374 
   375 * Theory reorganizations:
   376   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   377 
   378 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   379   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   380   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   381   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   382   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   383   the old default can be restored using
   384   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * SMT module:
   387   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   388     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   389     called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also supported as oracles. Yices is no
   390     longer supported, because no version of the solver can handle both
   391     SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   392 
   393 * Sledgehammer:
   394   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   395   - MaSh overhaul:
   396       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   397         and increase performance and reliability.
   398       - MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the traditional
   399         MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable MaSh, set the "MaSh"
   400         system option in Plugin Options / Isabelle / General to "none". Other
   401         allowed values include "sml" (for the default SML engine) and "py"
   402         (for the old Python engine).
   403   - New option:
   404       smt_proofs
   405   - Renamed options:
   406       isar_compress ~> compress
   407       isar_try0 ~> try0
   408     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * Metis:
   411   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   412     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   415 
   416 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   417 
   418 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   419 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   420 
   421 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   422 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   423 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   424 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   425 
   426 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   430 with the given constants.
   431 
   432 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   433 
   434 Fact consolidations:
   435     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   436     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   437     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   438     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   439     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   440     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   441     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   442     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   443     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   444     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   445     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   446     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   447     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   448     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   449     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   450     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   451     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   452     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   453     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   454     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   455     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   456     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   457     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   458     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   459     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   460     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   461     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   462     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   463     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   464     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   465     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   466     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   467     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   468     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   469     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   470     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   471     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   472     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   473     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   474     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   475 
   476 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   477 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   478 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   479 
   480 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   481 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   482 
   483 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   484 
   485 INCOMPATBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   494 operations on records.
   495 
   496 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   498 
   499 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   500     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   504     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   505     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   509   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   510   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   511   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   512     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   513   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   514     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   515   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517 
   518 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   519     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   520     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   521     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   522     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Fact name consolidation:
   526     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   527     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   528     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   529     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   530     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   534 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   535 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   536 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   537 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   538 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   539 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   540 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   541 
   542 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   543 
   544 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   545 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   546 
   547 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   548 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   549 
   550 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   551 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   552 or the brute way with
   553 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   554 
   555 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   556 
   557 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   558 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   561 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   562 
   563 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   564 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   565 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   566 INCOMPATIBILITY
   567 
   568 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   569   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   570   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   571   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   572   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   573   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   574   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   575   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   576   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   577   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   578   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   579   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   580 
   581   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   582 
   583   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   584     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   585     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   586     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   587     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   591   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   592 
   593   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   594 
   595   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   596 
   597   - removed constant isDiff
   598 
   599   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   600     syntax.
   601 
   602   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   603 
   604   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   605 
   606   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   607 
   608   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   609 
   610   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   611     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   612 
   613   - Other renamings:
   614     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   615     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   616     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   617     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   618     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   619     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   620     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   624   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   625 
   626 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   627   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   628   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   629 
   630   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   631   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   632   removes
   633     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   634 
   635   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   636     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   637 
   638   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   639 
   640   Renamings:
   641     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   642     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   643     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   644     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   645     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   646     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   647     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   648     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   649     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   650     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   651     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   652     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   653 
   654     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   655     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   656     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   657 
   658   Removed theorems:
   659     complex_zero_def
   660     complex_add_def
   661     complex_minus_def
   662     complex_diff_def
   663     complex_one_def
   664     complex_mult_def
   665     complex_inverse_def
   666     complex_scaleR_def
   667 
   668 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   669 
   670 * Nitpick:
   671   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   672     infinite values.
   673   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   674     "Rep_Integ".
   675   - Removed "std" option.
   676   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   677     "hide_types".
   678 
   679 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   680   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   681   - new theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   682     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   683   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   684     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   685     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   686     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   687     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   688     intervals.
   689 
   690   - renamed theorems:
   691     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   692     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   693     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   694 
   695 * HOL-Probability:
   696   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   697     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   698 
   699     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   700     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   701     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   702     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   703     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   704     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   705     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   706     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   707     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   708     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   709     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   710     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   711     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   712     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   713     integral_indicator          ~>
   714          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   715     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   716     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   717     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   718 
   719     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   720          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   721 
   722     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   723          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   724 
   725     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   726          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   727 
   728     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   729          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   730          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   731 
   732     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   733          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   734 
   735     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   736          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   737 
   738     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   739          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   740          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   741 
   742     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   743          positive_integral_real_affine
   744 
   745     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   746          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   747 
   748     The following theorems where removed:
   749 
   750     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   751     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   752     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   753     lebesgue_integral_multc
   754     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   755     integral_cmul_indicator
   756     integral_real
   757 
   758   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   759 
   760     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   761       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   762 
   763     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   764 
   765   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal distributed
   766     random variables.
   767 
   768 * Library/Kleene-Algebra was removed because AFP/Kleene_Algebra subsumes it.
   769 
   770 *** Scala ***
   771 
   772 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   773 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   774 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   775 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   776 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 
   779 *** ML ***
   780 
   781 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   782 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   785 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   786 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787 
   788 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   792 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   793 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   797 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   798 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   799 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   800 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   801 of schematic variables.
   802 
   803 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   804 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   806 formal context.
   807 
   808 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   809 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   810 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   811 actually belongs to it).
   812 
   813 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   814 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   815 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   816 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   817 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   818 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   819 
   820 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   821 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   822 
   823 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   824 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   825 
   826 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   827 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   828 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   829 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   830 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   831 
   832 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   833 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   834 purposes.
   835 
   836 
   837 *** System ***
   838 
   839 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   840 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   841 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   842 processing is started.
   843 
   844 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   845 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   846 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   847 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   849 
   850 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   851 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   852 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   853 
   854 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   855 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   856 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   857 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   858 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   859 settings variable yet.
   860 
   861 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
   862 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
   863 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
   864 
   865 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   866 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   867 
   868 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   869 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   870 
   871 
   872 
   873 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   874 -------------------------------------
   875 
   876 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   877 
   878 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   879 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   880 
   881 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   882 after edits surrounding the command location.
   883 
   884 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   885 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   886 e.g. out-of-memory).
   887 
   888 
   889 *** System ***
   890 
   891 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   892 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   893 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   894 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   895 
   896 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   897 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   898 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   899 
   900 
   901 
   902 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   903 -------------------------------------
   904 
   905 *** General ***
   906 
   907 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   908 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   909 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   912 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   915 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   916 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   917 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   918 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   919 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   920 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   921 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   922 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   923 syntax.
   924 
   925 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   926 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   929 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   930 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   931 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   932 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   933 
   934 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   938 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   939 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   940 
   941 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   942 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   943 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   944 
   945 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   946 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   947 
   948 
   949 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   950 
   951 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   952 Documentation panel.
   953 
   954 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   955 documentation.
   956 
   957 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   958 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   959 
   960 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   961 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   962 normal editing and checking process.
   963 
   964 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   965 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   966 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   967 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   968 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   969 
   970 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   971 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   972 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   973 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   974 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   975 
   976 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   977 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   978 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   979 
   980 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   981 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   983 to resolve conflict.
   984 
   985 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   986 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   987 
   988 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   989 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   990 such command executions while editing.
   991 
   992 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   993 document content.
   994 
   995 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   996 toplevel theorem statements.
   997 
   998 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   999 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1000 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1001 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1002 
  1003 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1004 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1005 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1006 
  1007 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1008 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1009 
  1010 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1011 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1012 
  1013 
  1014 *** Pure ***
  1015 
  1016 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1017 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1018 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1019 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1020 details.
  1021 
  1022 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1023 
  1024 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1025 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1026 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1027 
  1028 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1030 
  1031 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1032 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1033 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1034 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1035 
  1036 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1037 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1038 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1039 
  1040 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1041 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1042 
  1043 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1044 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1045 situations.
  1046 
  1047 
  1048 *** HOL ***
  1049 
  1050 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1051 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1055 
  1056 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1057 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1058 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1059 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1060 
  1061   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1062 
  1063 * Code generator:
  1064   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1065     'code_instance'.
  1066   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1067     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1068 
  1069 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1070 examples.
  1071 
  1072 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1073 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1074 to distinguish both when desired.
  1075 
  1076 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1077 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1078 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1079 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1082 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1083 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1084 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1085 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1086 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087 
  1088 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1089 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1090 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1091 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1092 
  1093 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1094 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1095 
  1096 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1097 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1098 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1099 
  1100 * Lifting:
  1101   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1102     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1103       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1104       transfer rules
  1105     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1106       correspondence relation can be generated
  1107     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1108       parametricity
  1109     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1110   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1111   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1112     copies
  1113   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1114     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1115     anonymous context)
  1116   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1117     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1118   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1119     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1120   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1121     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1122 
  1123 * Transfer:
  1124   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1125     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1126   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1127   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1128     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1129   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1130 
  1131 * Reification and reflection:
  1132   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1133     "Reification".
  1134   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1135   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1139   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1140     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1141     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1142   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1143     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1144   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1145     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1146     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1147     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1148     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1149     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1150     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1151     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1152   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1153     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1154   - Fact renames:
  1155       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1156       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1160 
  1161 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1162 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1163 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1167 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1168 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1169 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1170 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1171 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1172 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1173 lemmas.
  1174 
  1175 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1176 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1177 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1178 
  1179 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1180 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1181 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1182 
  1183 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1184 top and bottom elements.
  1185 
  1186 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1187 
  1188 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1189 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1190 
  1191  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1192    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1193    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1194 
  1195  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1196    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1197    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1198 
  1199    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1200    arbitrary filter.
  1201 
  1202  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1203    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1204    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1205    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1206    on a compact set.
  1207 
  1208  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1209    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1210    linear_continuum_topology).
  1211 
  1212  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1213    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1214    on all sequences converging to x.
  1215 
  1216  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1217    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1218    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1219    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1220    left or right.
  1221 
  1222  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1223 
  1224      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1225 
  1226  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1227    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1228 
  1229  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1230    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1231    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1232    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1233    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1234    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1235 
  1236  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1237 
  1238    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1239 
  1240    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1241      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1242 
  1243    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1244 
  1245    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1246      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1247 
  1248    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1249 
  1250    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1251 
  1252  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1253 
  1254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Nitpick:
  1257   - Added option "spy".
  1258   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1259 
  1260 * Sledgehammer:
  1261   - Renamed option:
  1262       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1263     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1265   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1266   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1267 
  1268 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1269 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1270 
  1271 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1272   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1273   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1274     generated code.
  1275   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1276   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1277   - Fact renames:
  1278     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1279     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1280     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1281 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1282 
  1283 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1284 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1285 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1286 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1287 
  1288 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1289 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1290 
  1291 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1294 
  1295     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1296     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1297 
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1301 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1302 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1303 
  1304 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1305 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1306 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1307 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1308 
  1309 * HOL-BNF:
  1310   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1311     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1312     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1313     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1314   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1315     coinduct).
  1316   - Renamed keywords:
  1317     data ~> datatype_new
  1318     codata ~> codatatype
  1319     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1320   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1321     discs ~> disc
  1322     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1323     map_id' ~> map_id
  1324     sels ~> sel
  1325     set_map' ~> set_map
  1326     sets ~> set
  1327 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 
  1330 *** ML ***
  1331 
  1332 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1333 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1334 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1335 Examples.thy in particular.
  1336 
  1337 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1338 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1339 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1340 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1341 
  1342 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1343 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1344 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1345 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1349 
  1350     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1351     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1352 
  1353 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1354 
  1355 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1356 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1357 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1358 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1359 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1360 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1361 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1362 
  1363 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1364 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1365 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1366 clasets separately from the context.
  1367 
  1368 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1369 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1370 
  1371 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1372 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1373 
  1374 
  1375 *** System ***
  1376 
  1377 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1378 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1379 
  1380 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1381 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1382 
  1383 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1384 settings variable.
  1385 
  1386 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1387 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1388 always pdf.
  1389 
  1390 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1391 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1392 
  1393 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1394 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1395 
  1396 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1397 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1398 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1399 
  1400 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1401 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1402 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1403 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1404 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1405 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1406 
  1407 
  1408 
  1409 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1410 -----------------------------------
  1411 
  1412 *** General ***
  1413 
  1414 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1415 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1416 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1417 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1418 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1419 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1420 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1421 
  1422 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1423 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1424 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1425 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1426 
  1427 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1428 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1429 
  1430 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1431 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1432 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1433 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1434 dependencies properly.
  1435 
  1436 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1437 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1438 
  1439 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1440 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1441 
  1442 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1443 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1444 and "class ... context ...".
  1445 
  1446 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1447 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1448 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1449 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1450 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1451 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1452 
  1453 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1454 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1455 
  1456 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1457 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1458 
  1459 
  1460 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1461 
  1462 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1463 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1464 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1465 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1466 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1467 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1468 
  1469 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1470 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1471 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1472 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1473 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1474 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1475 
  1476 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1477 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1478 browser on demand.
  1479 
  1480 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1481 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1482 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1483 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1484 
  1485 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1486 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1487 
  1488 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1489 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1490 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1491 potentially infinite message streams.
  1492 
  1493 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1494 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1495 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1496 schemes.
  1497 
  1498 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1499 symbols.
  1500 
  1501 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1502 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1503 
  1504 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1505 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1506 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1507 
  1508 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1509 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1510 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1511 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1512 
  1513 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1514 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1515 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1516 
  1517 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1518 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1519 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1520 Isabelle distribution.
  1521 
  1522 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1523 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1524 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1525 
  1526 
  1527 *** Pure ***
  1528 
  1529 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1530 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1531 
  1532 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1533 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1534 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1537 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1538 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1539 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1540 with some care where this is really required.
  1541 
  1542 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1543 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1544 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1545 
  1546   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1547 
  1548 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1549 a Hasse diagram.
  1550 
  1551 
  1552 *** HOL ***
  1553 
  1554 * Sledgehammer:
  1555 
  1556   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1557     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1558   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1559   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1560   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1561   - Renamed options:
  1562       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1563       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1564       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1565       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1566 
  1567 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1568 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1569 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1570 
  1571 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Lifting:
  1575   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1576   - quot_del attribute
  1577   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1578 
  1579 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1580 expressions.
  1581 
  1582 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1583 pointfree expressions.
  1584 
  1585 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1586 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1587 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1588 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1592 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1593 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1594 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1595 accordingly.
  1596 
  1597 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1598 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1601 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1606 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1607 
  1608 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1609 
  1610 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1611 
  1612   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1613   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1614 
  1615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1618 
  1619   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1620   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1621 
  1622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1625 
  1626   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1627     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1628     output f x converges to G.
  1629 
  1630   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1631     infinity (at_bot).
  1632 
  1633   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1634     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1635 
  1636   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1637     at_top".
  1638 
  1639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1642 lattice type classes.
  1643 
  1644 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1645 
  1646     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1647     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1648 
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1652 changes as follows.
  1653 
  1654   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1655 
  1656       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1657       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1658 
  1659   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1660     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1661     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1662     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1663 
  1664   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1665     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1666     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1667 
  1668   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1669     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1670     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1671     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1672 
  1673   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1674     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1675 
  1676       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1677       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1678       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1679       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1680       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1681       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1682       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1683       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1684       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1685       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1686       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1687       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1688       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1689       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1690       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1691       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1692 
  1693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1696 
  1697 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1698 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1699 
  1700 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1701 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1702 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1703 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1704 
  1705   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1706   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1707   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1708   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1709   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1710   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1711   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1712   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1713   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1714   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1715 
  1716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1719 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1720 Data").
  1721 
  1722 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1723 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1724 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1725 code.
  1726 
  1727 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1728 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1729 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1733 
  1734 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1735 
  1736 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1737 
  1738   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1739   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1740 
  1741 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1742 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1743 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1744 
  1745   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1746 
  1747     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1748     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1749     cart_base i  removed
  1750     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1751 
  1752   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1753 
  1754   Renamed lemmas:
  1755 
  1756     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1757     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1758     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1759     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1760     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1761     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1762     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1763     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1764     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1765     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1766 
  1767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768 
  1769 * HOL/Probability:
  1770 
  1771   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1772 
  1773   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1774     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1775     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1776 
  1777   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1778     projective family).
  1779 
  1780 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1781 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1782 
  1783 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1784 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1785 datatypes.
  1786 
  1787 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1788 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1789 
  1790 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1791 trees for the code generator.
  1792 
  1793 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1794 Lifting/Transfer.
  1795 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 
  1801 *** Document preparation ***
  1802 
  1803 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1804 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1805 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1806 
  1807 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1808 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1809 
  1810 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1811 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1812 document/root.tex.
  1813 
  1814 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1815 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1816 
  1817 
  1818 *** ML ***
  1819 
  1820 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1821 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1822 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1823 
  1824 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1825 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1826 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1827 
  1828 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1829 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1830 necessarily printing visible text.
  1831 
  1832 
  1833 *** System ***
  1834 
  1835 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1836 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1837 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1838 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1839 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1840 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1841 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1842 
  1843 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1844 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1845 
  1846   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1847 
  1848 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1849 
  1850 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1851 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1852 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1853 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1854 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1855 
  1856 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1857 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1858 
  1859 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1860 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1861 
  1862 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1864 
  1865 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1866 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1867 version of Isabelle.
  1868 
  1869 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1870 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1871 
  1872 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1873 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1874 for home-made settings.
  1875 
  1876 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1877 
  1878 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1879 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1880 configuration.
  1881 
  1882 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1883 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1884 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1885 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1886 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1887 
  1888 
  1889 
  1890 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1891 ------------------------------
  1892 
  1893 *** General ***
  1894 
  1895 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1896 
  1897   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1898     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1899   - markup for bound variables
  1900   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1901   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1902   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1903     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1904 
  1905 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1906 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1907 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1908 
  1909 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1910 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1911 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1912 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1913 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1914 
  1915   context
  1916     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1917     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1918   begin
  1919 
  1920   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1921 
  1922   end
  1923 
  1924   thm my_trans
  1925 
  1926 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1927 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1928 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1929 
  1930 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1931 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1932 
  1933 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1934 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1935 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1936 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1937 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1938 
  1939 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1940 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1941 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1942 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1943 indices of schematic variables.
  1944 
  1945 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1946 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1947 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1948 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1949 etc. was exploited.
  1950 
  1951 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1952 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1953 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1954 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1955 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1956 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1957 
  1958 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1959 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1960 manual.
  1961 
  1962 
  1963 *** Pure ***
  1964 
  1965 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1966 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1967 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1968 
  1969 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1970 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1971 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1972 undocumented feature.)
  1973 
  1974 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1975 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1976 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1977 
  1978   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1979 
  1980   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1981     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1982 
  1983 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1984 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1985 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1986 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1987 
  1988 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1989 
  1990     num ~> num_token
  1991     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1992     xstr ~> str_token
  1993 
  1994 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1995 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1996 position information via constraints).
  1997 
  1998 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1999 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2000 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2003 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2004 
  2005 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2006 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2007 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2010 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2011 
  2012 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2013 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2014 
  2015   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2016 
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2020 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2023 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2024 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2025 
  2026 
  2027 *** HOL ***
  2028 
  2029 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2030 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2031 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2032 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2033 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2034 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2035 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2036 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2037 possible.
  2038 
  2039 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2040 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2041 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2042 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2043 
  2044 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2045 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2048 
  2049 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2050 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2051 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2052 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2053 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2054 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2055 
  2056   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2057     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2058 
  2059   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2060     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2061     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2062 
  2063   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2064     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2065 
  2066   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2067     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2068     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2069 
  2070   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2071     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2072 
  2073 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2074 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2075 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2076 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2077 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2078 
  2079   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2080     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2081     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2082     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2083     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2084 
  2085     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2086     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2087 
  2088   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2089     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2090     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2091     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2092     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2093     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2094     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2095     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2096 
  2097   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2098     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2099     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2100     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2101 
  2102   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2103     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2104     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2105     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2106 
  2107   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2108     from type nat to type int.
  2109 
  2110 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2111 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2112 
  2113   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2114     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2115     type.  Example syntax:
  2116 
  2117     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2118       is List.insert
  2119 
  2120     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2121     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2122     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2123     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2124     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2125     by the package.
  2126 
  2127   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2128     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2129     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2130     code generation for each constant.
  2131 
  2132   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2133     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2134     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2135     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2136     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2137 
  2138   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2139     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2140     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2141 
  2142 * Quotient package:
  2143 
  2144   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2145     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2146 
  2147   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2148     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2149 
  2150   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2151     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2152     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2153 
  2154   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2155     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156 
  2157 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2158 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2159 
  2160 * Quickcheck:
  2161 
  2162   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2163     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2164     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2165     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2166     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2167 
  2168     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2169     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2170     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2171 
  2172     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2173     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2174 
  2175     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2176     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2177     show genuine counterexamples.
  2178 
  2179   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2180     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2181 
  2182     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2183     constructors of that type.
  2184 
  2185   - Support for multisets.
  2186 
  2187   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2188 
  2189   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2190     conjectures in a locale context.
  2191 
  2192 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2193 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2194 
  2195 * Sledgehammer:
  2196   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2197     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2198   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2199   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2200     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2201   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2202   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2203   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2204   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2205 
  2206 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2207 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2208 
  2209 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2210 
  2211 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2214 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2215 
  2216   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2217 
  2218 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2219 a list and a nat.
  2220 
  2221 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2222 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2223 
  2224 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2225 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2226 default.
  2227 
  2228 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2229 
  2230   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2231 
  2232 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2233 
  2234 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2235 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2236 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2237 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2238 one_case.
  2239 
  2240 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2241 the result of the fact expression.
  2242 
  2243 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2244 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2245 of some relation theorems:
  2246 
  2247   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2248   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2249   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2250   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2251   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2252   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2253 
  2254 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2255 
  2256 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2257 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2258 
  2259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2260 
  2261 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2262 to match the constant's name:
  2263 
  2264   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2265   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2266   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2267   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2268   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2269   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2270   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2271   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2272   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2273   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2274   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2275   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2276   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2277   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2278   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2279   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2280   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2281   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2282   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2283   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2284   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2285   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2286   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2287   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2288 
  2289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2292 and corresponding theorem names:
  2293 
  2294   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2295 
  2296   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2297 
  2298   - Renamed theorems:
  2299 
  2300     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2301     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2302     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2303     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2304     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2305     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2306     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2307     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2308     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2309     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2310     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2311     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2312     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2313     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2314     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2315     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2316     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2317     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2318     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2319     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2320     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2321     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2322     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2323 
  2324     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2325 
  2326     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2327 
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2331 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2332 
  2333   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2334   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2335   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2336   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2337   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2338   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2339   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2340   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2341   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2342   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2343   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2344   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2345   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2346   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2347   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2348   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2349   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2350   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2351   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2352   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2353   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2354 
  2355 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2356 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357 
  2358 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2361 
  2362   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2363   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2364   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2365   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2366   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2367   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2368   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2369   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2370   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2371   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2372   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2373   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2374   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2375   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2376   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2377   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2378   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2379   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2380 
  2381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2384 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2385 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2386 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2387 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2388 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2389 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2390 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2391 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2392 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2393 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2394 
  2395 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2396 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2397 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2398 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2399 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2400 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2401 
  2402 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2403 through option types.
  2404 
  2405 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2406 relations.
  2407 
  2408 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2411 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2412 
  2413   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2414   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2415   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2416   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2417   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2418   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2419   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2420   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2421   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2422   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2423   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2424   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2425   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2426   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2427   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2428   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2429   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2430   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2431   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2432   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2433   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2434   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2435   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2436   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2437   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2438   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2439   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2440   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2441   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2442   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2443   zless_le ~> less_le
  2444   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2445   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2446   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2447 
  2448 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2449 
  2450   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2451 
  2452 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2453 
  2454 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2455 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2456 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2457 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2461 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2462 
  2463 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2464 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2465 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2466 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2467 follows:
  2468 
  2469   Operations:
  2470   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2471   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2472   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2473   del -> rbt_del
  2474   delete -> rbt_delete
  2475   ins -> rbt_ins
  2476   insert -> rbt_insert
  2477   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2478   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2479   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2480   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2481   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2482   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2483   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2484   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2485   union -> rbt_union
  2486   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2487   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2488 
  2489   Lemmas:
  2490   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2491   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2492   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2493   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2494   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2495   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2496   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2497   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2498   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2499   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2500   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2501   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2502   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2503   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2504   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2505   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2506   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2507   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2508   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2509   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2510   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2511   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2512   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2513   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2514   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2515   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2516   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2517   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2518   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2519   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2520   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2521   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2522   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2523   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2524   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2525   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2526   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2527   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2528   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2529   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2530   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2531   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2532   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2533   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2534   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2535   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2536   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2537   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2538   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2539   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2540   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2541   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2542   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2543   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2544   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2545   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2546   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2547   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2548   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2549   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2550   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2551   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2552   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2553   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2554   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2555   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2556   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2557   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2558   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2559   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2560   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2561   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2562   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2563   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2564   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2565   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2566   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2567   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2568   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2569   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2570   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2571   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2572   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2573 
  2574 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2575 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2576 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578   Changed Operations:
  2579   float_abs -> abs
  2580   float_nprt -> nprt
  2581   float_pprt -> pprt
  2582   pow2 -> use powr
  2583   round_down -> float_round_down
  2584   round_up -> float_round_up
  2585   scale -> exponent
  2586 
  2587   Removed Operations:
  2588   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2589 
  2590   Renamed Lemmas:
  2591   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2592   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2593   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2594   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2595   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2596   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2597   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2598   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2599   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2600   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2601   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2602   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2603   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2604   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2605   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2606   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2607   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2608   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2609   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2610   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2611   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2612   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2613   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2614   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2615   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2616   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2617   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2618   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2619   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2620   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2621   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2622   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2623   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2624   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2625   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2626   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2627 
  2628   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2629   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2630   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2631   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2632   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2633   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2634   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2635   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2636   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2637   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2638 
  2639 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2640 association lists with distinct keys.
  2641 
  2642 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2643 annotated commands.
  2644 
  2645 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2646 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2647 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2648 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2651 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2652 instead.
  2653 
  2654   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2655   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2656   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2657   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2658   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2659   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2660   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2661   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2662   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2663   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2664   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2665   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2666   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2667   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2668   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2669   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2670   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2671   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2672   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2673   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2674   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2675   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2676   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2677   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2678   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2679   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2680   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2681   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2682   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2683   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2684   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2685   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2686   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2687   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2688   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2689   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2690   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2691   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2692   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2693   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2694   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2695 
  2696 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2697 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2698 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2699 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2700 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2701 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2702 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2703 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2704 
  2705 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2706 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2707 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2708 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2709 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2710 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2711 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2712 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2713 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2714 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2715 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2716 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718   Renamed constants:
  2719   measure -> emeasure
  2720   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2721   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2722   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2723   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2724 
  2725   Removed locales:
  2726   completeable_measure_space
  2727   finite_measure_space
  2728   finite_prob_space
  2729   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2730   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2731   finite_sigma_algebra
  2732   measure_space
  2733   pair_finite_prob_space
  2734   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2735   pair_finite_space
  2736   pair_sigma_algebra
  2737   product_sigma_algebra
  2738 
  2739   Removed constants:
  2740   conditional_space
  2741   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2742   image_space
  2743   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2744   pair_measure_generator
  2745   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2746   subvimage
  2747 
  2748   Replacement theorems:
  2749   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2750   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2751   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2752   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2753   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2754   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2755   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2756   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2757   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2758   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2759   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2760   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2761   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2762   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2763   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2764   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2765   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2766   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2767   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2768   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2769   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2770   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2771   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2772   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2773   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2774   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2775   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2776   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2777   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2778   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2779   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2780   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2781   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2782   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2783   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2784   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2785   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2786   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2787   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2788   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2789   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2790   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2791   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2792   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2793   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2794   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2795   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2796   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2797   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2798   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2799   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2800   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2801   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2802   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2803   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2804   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2805   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2806   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2807   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2808   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2809   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2810   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2811   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2812   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2813   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2814   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2815   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2816   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2817   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2818   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2819   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2820   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2821   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2822   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2823   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2824   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2825   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2826   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2827   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2828   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2829   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2830   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2831   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2832   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2833   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2834   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2835   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2836   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2837   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2838   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2839   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2840   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2841   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2842   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2843   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2844   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2845   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2846   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2847   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2848   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2849   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2850   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2851   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2852   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2853   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2854   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2855   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2856   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2857   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2858   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2859   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2860   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2861   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2862   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2863   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2864   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2865   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2866   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2867   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2868   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2869   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2870   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2871   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2872   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2873   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2874   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2875   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2876   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2877 
  2878 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2879 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2880 
  2881 
  2882 *** FOL ***
  2883 
  2884 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2885 
  2886 
  2887 *** ZF ***
  2888 
  2889 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2890 analysis.
  2891 
  2892 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2893 
  2894 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 
  2897 *** ML ***
  2898 
  2899 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2900 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2901 
  2902 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2903 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2904 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2905 
  2906 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2907 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2908 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2909 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2910 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2911 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2912 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2913 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2914 
  2915 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2916 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2917 
  2918 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2919 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2920 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2921 
  2922 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2923 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2926 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2927 context as well.
  2928 
  2929 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2930 
  2931   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2932   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2933   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2934   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2935   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2936   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2937   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2938   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2939   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2940   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2941   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2942   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2943 
  2944 
  2945 *** System ***
  2946 
  2947 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2948 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2949 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2950 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2951 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2952 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2953 the generic user home was intended.
  2954 
  2955 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2956 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2957 
  2958 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2959 (not just JRE).
  2960 
  2961 
  2962 
  2963 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2964 ------------------------------------
  2965 
  2966 *** General ***
  2967 
  2968 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2969 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2970 
  2971   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2972     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2973     files for checking).
  2974 
  2975   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2976     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2977     positions.
  2978 
  2979   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2980     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2981     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2982 
  2983   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2984     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2985     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2986 
  2987   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2988     cores.
  2989 
  2990   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2991     versions (garbage collection).
  2992 
  2993 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2994 including some remaining limitations.
  2995 
  2996 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2997 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2998 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2999 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3000 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3004 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3005 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3006 
  3007 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3008 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3009 usedir option -Q.
  3010 
  3011 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3012 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3013 
  3014   long_names   ~> names_long
  3015   short_names  ~> names_short
  3016   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3017 
  3018 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3019 
  3020   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3021 
  3022 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3023 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3024 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3025 
  3026 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3027 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3028 
  3029 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3030   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3031   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3032   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3033     "Classical Reasoner".
  3034 
  3035 
  3036 *** HOL ***
  3037 
  3038 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3039 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3042 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3043 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3044 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3045 class complete_linorder.
  3046 
  3047 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3048 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3049 
  3050 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3051 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3052 
  3053   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3054   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3055   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3056   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3057   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3058   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3059   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3060   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3061   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3062   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3063   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3064 
  3065 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3066 
  3067   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3068   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3069   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3070   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3071   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3072   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3073   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3074   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3075   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3076   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3077   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3078   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3079   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3080   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3081   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3082   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3083 
  3084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3090 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3091 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3092 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3095 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3096 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3100 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3101 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3102 
  3103 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3104 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3105 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3108 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3109 
  3110 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3111 
  3112     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3113     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3114 
  3115 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3116 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3119 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3122 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3123 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3124 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125 
  3126   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3127   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3128   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3129   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3130   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3131   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3132   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3133 
  3134 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3135 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3138   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3139   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3140   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3141   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3142   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3143   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3144   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3145   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3146   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3147   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3148   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3149   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3150   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3151   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3152   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3153   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3154   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3155   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3156   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3157   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3158   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3159   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3160   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3161   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3162   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3163   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3164   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3165   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3166   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3167   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3168   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3169   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3170   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3171   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3172   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3173   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3174   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3175   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3176   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3177   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3178   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3179   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3180   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3181   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3182   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3183   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3184   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3185   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3186   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3187   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3188   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3189   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3190   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3191   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3192   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3193   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3194   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3195   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3196   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3197   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3198   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3199   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3200   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3201   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3202   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3203   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3204   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3205   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3206   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3207   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3208   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3209   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3210   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3211   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3212   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3213   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3214   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3215   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3216   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3217   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3218   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3219 
  3220 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3221 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3222 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3223 
  3224 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3225 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3226 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3227 
  3228 * Code generation:
  3229 
  3230   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3231     characters in the target language.
  3232 
  3233   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3234     instead.
  3235 
  3236   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3237 
  3238   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3239     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3240 
  3241       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3242 
  3243 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3246 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3247 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3248 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3249 syntax.
  3250 
  3251 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3252 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3253 
  3254 * Nitpick:
  3255   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3256   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3257   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Sledgehammer:
  3261   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3262   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3263     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3264   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3265     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3266   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3267     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3269     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3270   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3271     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Metis:
  3274   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3276     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Command 'try':
  3279   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3280     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3282     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3283 
  3284 * Quickcheck:
  3285   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3286     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3287   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3288     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3289   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3290     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3291     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3292     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3293   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3294     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3295 
  3296 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3297 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3298 
  3299 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3300 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3301 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3302 
  3303 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3304 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3308 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3311 arithmetic.
  3312 
  3313 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3314 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3315 and lattice type classes.
  3316 
  3317 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3318 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3319 
  3320 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3321 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3322 
  3323 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3324 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3325 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3328   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3329   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3330   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3331 
  3332 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3333 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3334 constants:
  3335 
  3336   type inat   ~> type enat
  3337   Fin         ~> enat
  3338   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3339   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3340   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3341 
  3342 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3343 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3346 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3347 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3348 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3349 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3350 
  3351 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3352 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3353 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3354 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3355 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3356 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3357 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3358 
  3359   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3360   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3361   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3362   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3363 
  3364 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3365 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3366 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3369   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3370   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3371   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3372   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3373   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3374   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3375   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3376   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3377   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3378   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3379   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3380   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3381   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3382   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3383   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3384   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3385   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3386   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3387   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3388   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3389   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3390   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3391   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3392   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3393   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3394   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3395   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3396   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3397   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3398   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3399   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3400   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3401   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3402   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3403   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3404   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3405   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3406   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3407   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3408   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3409   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3410   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3411   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3412   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3413   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3414   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3415   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3416   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3417   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3418   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3419 
  3420 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3421   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3422   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3423   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3424   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3425     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3430   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3431   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3432   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3433   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3434   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3435   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3436   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3437   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3438   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3439   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3440   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3441   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3442   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3443   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3444   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3445   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3446   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3447   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3448   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3449   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3450   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3451   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3452   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3453   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3454 
  3455 
  3456 *** Document preparation ***
  3457 
  3458 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3459 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3460 same.
  3461 
  3462 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3463 result.
  3464 
  3465 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3466 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3467 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3468 
  3469 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3470 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3471 
  3472 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3473 like this:
  3474 
  3475   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3476   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3477 
  3478 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3479 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3480 layouts.
  3481 
  3482 
  3483 *** ML ***
  3484 
  3485 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3486 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3487 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3488 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3489 under external program control.
  3490 
  3491 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3492 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3493 
  3494 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3495 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3496 (better known as Proof General).
  3497 
  3498 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3499 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3500 
  3501 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3502 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3503 
  3504 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3505 (including quotes etc.).
  3506 
  3507 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3508 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3509 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3510 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3511 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3512 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3513 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3514 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3515 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3516 
  3517 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3518 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3519 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3520 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3521 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3522 
  3523 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3524 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3525 
  3526 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3527 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3528 
  3529 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3530 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3531 
  3532 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3533 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3534 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3535 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3536 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3537 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3538 proper Proof.context.
  3539 
  3540 
  3541 *** System ***
  3542 
  3543 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3544 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3545 
  3546 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3547 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3548 
  3549 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3550 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3551 
  3552   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3553   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3554   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3555   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3556   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3557 
  3558 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3559 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3562 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3563 example:
  3564 
  3565   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3566 
  3567 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3568 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3569 
  3570 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3571 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3572 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3573 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3574 
  3575 
  3576 
  3577 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3578 ----------------------------------
  3579 
  3580 *** General ***
  3581 
  3582 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3583 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3584 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3585 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3586 like this:
  3587 
  3588   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3589 
  3590 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3591 
  3592 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3593 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3594 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3595 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3596 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3598 
  3599 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3600 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3601 the following package declarations:
  3602 
  3603   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3604   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3605 
  3606 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3607 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3608 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3609 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3610 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3611 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3612 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3613 
  3614 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3615 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3616 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3617 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3618 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3619 
  3620 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3621 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3622 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3623 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3624 
  3625 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3626 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3627 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3628 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3629 
  3630   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3631 
  3632   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3633   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3634   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3635   show_types                    show_types
  3636   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3637   show_consts                   show_consts
  3638   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3639 
  3640   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3641   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3642   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3643 
  3644   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3645   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3646 
  3647   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3648 
  3649   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3650   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3651   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3652   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3653   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3654 
  3655 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3656 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3657 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3658 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3659 
  3660 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3664   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3665 
  3666 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3667 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3668 float_token.
  3669 
  3670 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3671 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3675 DejaVu Sans.
  3676 
  3677 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3678 
  3679 
  3680 *** Pure ***
  3681 
  3682 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3683 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3684 time.
  3685 
  3686 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3687 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3690 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3693 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3694 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3695 command already provided this functionality.
  3696 
  3697 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3698 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3699 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3700 without interpretations.
  3701 
  3702 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3703 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3704 
  3705 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3706 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3707 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3708 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3709 
  3710 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3711 'definition' instead.
  3712 
  3713 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3714 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3715 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3716 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3717 
  3718 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3719 constructors.
  3720 
  3721 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3722 the local file system.
  3723 
  3724 
  3725 *** HOL ***
  3726 
  3727 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3728 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3729 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3730 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3731 
  3732   declare [[coercion f]]
  3733 
  3734 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3735 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3736 
  3737   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3738 
  3739 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3740 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3741 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3742 other theories like this:
  3743 
  3744   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3745 
  3746 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3747 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3748 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3749 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3750 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3751 for examples.
  3752 
  3753 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3754 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3757 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3758 
  3759 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3760 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3761 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3762 
  3763 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3764 functorial structure of types.
  3765 
  3766 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3767 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3768 
  3769 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3770 languages.
  3771 
  3772 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3773 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3777 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3780 combinators any longer.
  3781 
  3782 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3783 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3784 
  3785 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3786 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3787 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3788 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3789 
  3790   record 'a foo = ...
  3791   ...
  3792   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3793 
  3794 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3795 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3799 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3800 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3801 
  3802 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3803 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3804 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3805 
  3806 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3807 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3810 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3811 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3812 independently.
  3813 
  3814 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3815 counter example search.
  3816 
  3817 * Sledgehammer:
  3818   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3819     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3820     sledgehammer").
  3821   - Renamed commands:
  3822     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3823     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3824     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3825     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826   - Renamed options:
  3827     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3828     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3829     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3830     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3831     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Nitpick:
  3834   - Renamed options:
  3835     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3836     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3837     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3838   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3839   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3840   - Added "whack" option.
  3841   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3842   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3843   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3844   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3845     higher cardinalities.
  3846   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3847 
  3848 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3849 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3850 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3851 
  3852     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3853 
  3854 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3855 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3856 
  3857 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3858 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3859 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3860 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3861 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3862 "smt_solver".
  3863 
  3864 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3865 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3866 
  3867 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3868 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3869 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3870 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3873   - Renamed:
  3874     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3875     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877   - Added:
  3878     smt_verbose
  3879     smt_random_seed
  3880     smt_datatypes
  3881     smt_infer_triggers
  3882     smt_monomorph_limit
  3883     cvc3_options
  3884     remote_cvc3_options
  3885     remote_z3_options
  3886     yices_options
  3887 
  3888 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3889 header.
  3890 
  3891 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3892 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3893 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3894 
  3895   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3896 
  3897 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3900 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3905 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3908 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3909 
  3910 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3911 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3914 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3915 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3920 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3923 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3926 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3927 for congruent(2)).
  3928 
  3929 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3930 
  3931   types
  3932     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3933     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3934 
  3935   constants
  3936     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3937     True ~> HOL.True
  3938     False ~> HOL.False
  3939     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3940     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3941     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3942     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3943     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3944     The ~> HOL.The
  3945     All ~> HOL.All
  3946     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3947     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3948     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3949     If ~> HOL.If
  3950     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3951     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3952     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3953     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3954     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3955     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3956     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3957     op : ~> Set.member
  3958     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3959 
  3960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3963 
  3964     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3965     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3966     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3967     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3968     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3969     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3970     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3971     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3972 
  3973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * More stylized fact names:
  3976 
  3977   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3978   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3979   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3980   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3981 
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3985 
  3986   constants
  3987     null ~> List.null
  3988 
  3989   facts
  3990     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3991     null_empty ~> null_def
  3992 
  3993 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3994 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3995 generation.
  3996 
  3997 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3998 Haskell code.
  3999 
  4000 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4001 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4002 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4005 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4008 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4009 
  4010 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4011 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4012 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4015 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4022 referred to by its qualified name.
  4023 
  4024   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4025   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4026   product ~>  Enum.product
  4027 
  4028 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4029 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4033 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4034 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036 
  4037 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4038 sort_key.
  4039 
  4040 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4044 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4045 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4046 
  4047   types
  4048     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4049               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4050               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4051         (depends on your needs)
  4052 
  4053   constants
  4054      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4055      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4056      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4057 
  4058 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4059 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4060 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4061 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4064 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4065 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4066 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4067 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4073 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4074 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4075 
  4076 
  4077 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4078 
  4079 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4080 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4081 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4082 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4083 compatibility.
  4084 
  4085 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4086 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4087 
  4088 
  4089 *** HOLCF ***
  4090 
  4091 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4092 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4093 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4097 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4098 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4101   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4102   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4103 
  4104 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4105 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4106 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4109 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4110 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4111 domain definition now works:
  4112 
  4113   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4114 
  4115 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4116 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4117 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4118 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4119 
  4120   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4121     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4122 
  4123   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4124 
  4125 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4126 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4127 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4130 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4133 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4134 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4135 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4136 
  4137 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4138 
  4139 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4147 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4148 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4149 
  4150 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4151 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4152 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4155 still supported as an input translation.
  4156 
  4157 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4158 
  4159   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4160   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4161   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4162   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4163   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4164   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4165   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4166 
  4167 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4168 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4169 
  4170   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4171   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4172   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4173   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4174   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4175   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4176 
  4177 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4178 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4181 
  4182   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4183   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4184   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4185   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4186 
  4187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4188 
  4189 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4190 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191 
  4192 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4193 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4196   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4197   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4198   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4199   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4200   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4201   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4202   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4203   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4204   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4205   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4206   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4207   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4208   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4209   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4210   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4211   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4212   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4213   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4214   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4215 
  4216 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4217 
  4218   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4219   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4220   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4221   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4222   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4223   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4224   box_less             ~> box_below
  4225   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4226   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4227   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4228   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4229   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4230   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4231   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4232   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4233   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4234   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4235   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4236   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4237   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4238   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4239   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4240   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4241   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4242   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4243   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4244   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4245   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4246   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4247   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4248   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4249   up_less              ~> up_below
  4250   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4251   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4252   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4253   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4254   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4255   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4256   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4257   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4258   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4259   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4260   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4261   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4262   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4263 
  4264 
  4265 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4266 
  4267 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4268 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4269 
  4270 
  4271 *** ML ***
  4272 
  4273 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4274 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4275 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4276 
  4277 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4278 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4279 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4280 
  4281 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4282 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4283 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4284 
  4285 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4286 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4287 
  4288 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4289 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4290 
  4291 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4292 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4293 
  4294 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4295 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4296 
  4297 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4298 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4299 almost all situations.
  4300 
  4301 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4302 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4303 Isabelle/ML.
  4304 
  4305 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4306 meaning.
  4307 
  4308 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4309 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4310 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4311 
  4312 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4313 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4314 
  4315 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4316 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4317 
  4318 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4319 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4320 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4321 
  4322 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4323 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4324 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4325 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4326 configuration options.
  4327 
  4328 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4329 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4330 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4331 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4332 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4333 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4334 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4335 
  4336 
  4337 
  4338 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4339 ---------------------------------
  4340 
  4341 *** General ***
  4342 
  4343 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4344 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4345 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4346 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4347 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4348 their full internal name.
  4349 
  4350 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4351 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4352 Some hints on upgrading:
  4353 
  4354   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4355     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4356     which are independent of this issue.
  4357 
  4358   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4359     provides the following special forms:
  4360 
  4361       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4362       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4363       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4364 
  4365     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4366     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4367     extra variables".
  4368 
  4369     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4370     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4371     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4372     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4373     "logic".
  4374 
  4375   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4376     antiquotations:
  4377 
  4378       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4379       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4380       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4381       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4382 
  4383   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4384     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4385     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4386     antiquotations.
  4387 
  4388 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4389 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4390 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4391 diagnose syntax problems.
  4392 
  4393 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4394 
  4395 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4396 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4397 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4398 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4399 
  4400 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4401 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4402 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4403 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4406 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4407 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4408 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4409 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4412 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4413 
  4414 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4415 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4416 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4417 
  4418   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4419 
  4420 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4421 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4422 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4423 
  4424 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4425 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4429 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4430 
  4431 
  4432 *** Pure ***
  4433 
  4434 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4435 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4436 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4437 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4438 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4439 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4440 inspect proof terms.
  4441 
  4442 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4443 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4444 are added internally.  For example:
  4445 
  4446   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4447 
  4448 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4449 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4454 'class' instead.
  4455 
  4456 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4457 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4461 invariants.
  4462 
  4463 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4464 user space functionality any longer.
  4465 
  4466 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4467 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4471 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4472 
  4473 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4474 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4475 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4476 
  4477 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4478 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4479 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4480 
  4481 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4482 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4483 
  4484 
  4485 *** HOL ***
  4486 
  4487 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4488 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4489 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4490 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4491 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4492 
  4493 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4494 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4495 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4496 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4497 
  4498   fun
  4499     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4500   where
  4501     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4502 
  4503   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4504     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4505 
  4506   quotient_definition
  4507     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4508 
  4509 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4510 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4511 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4512 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4513 
  4514 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4515 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4516 
  4517 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4518 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4519 
  4520 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4524 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4525 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4526 
  4527 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4528 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4529 
  4530 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532 
  4533 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4535 
  4536 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4537 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4540 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4541 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4542 
  4543   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4544   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4545   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4546   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4547   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4548   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4549   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4550   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4551   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4552   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4553   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4554   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4555   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4556   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4557   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4558   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4559   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4560   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4561   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4562   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4563   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4564   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4565   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4566   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4567   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4568   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4569   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4570   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4571   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4572   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4573 
  4574 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4575 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4576 
  4577 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4578 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4579 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4580 
  4581 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4582 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4583 
  4584 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4585 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4588 
  4589 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4590 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4593 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4598 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4599 
  4600 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4601 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4602 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4603 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4606   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4607   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4608   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4612 lattices):
  4613 
  4614     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4615     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4616 
  4617     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4618 
  4619     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4620     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4621     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4622     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4623     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4624     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4625     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4626     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4627     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4628     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4629     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4630     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4631     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4632 
  4633     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4634     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4635     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4636     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4637     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4638     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4639     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4640     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4641     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4642     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4643     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4644     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4645     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4646     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4647     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4648     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4649     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4650     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4651 
  4652   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4653   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4654 
  4655     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4656     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4657     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4658     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4659     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4660 
  4661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 * Refined field classes:
  4664   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4665     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4666     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4667   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4671   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4672   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4673   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4674     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4675   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4676     equal_neg_zero.
  4677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4680 sets to lattices:
  4681 
  4682   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4683   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4684   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4685   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4686   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4687   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4688   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4689   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4690   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4691   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4692 
  4693 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4694 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4695 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4696 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4697 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4698 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4701 multiset order:
  4702 
  4703   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4704     <= and <;
  4705   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4706     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4707     multiset_order;
  4708   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4709     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4710     generation;
  4711   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4712     if needed.
  4713 
  4714 Renamed:
  4715 
  4716   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4717   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4718   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4719 
  4720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4723 
  4724 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4725 
  4726 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4727 
  4728 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4729 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4730 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732   Constants:
  4733   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4734   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4735   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4736   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4737   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4738   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4739   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4740   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4741   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4742   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4743   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4744   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4745   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4746 
  4747   Lemmas:
  4748   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4749   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4750   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4751   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4752   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4753   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4754   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4755   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4756   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4757   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4758   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4759   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4760   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4761 
  4762 * Sledgehammer:
  4763   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4764     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4765     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4766     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4767     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4768     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4769     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4771   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4772     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4773   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4774     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4775     is still experimental.)
  4776   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4777     full-typed mode.
  4778   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4779 
  4780 * Nitpick:
  4781   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4782   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4783   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4784     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4785   - Added support for quotient types.
  4786   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4787     constructs.
  4788   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4789     "termination" proofs).
  4790   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4791   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4792   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4793   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4794     record getters.
  4795   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4796   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4797   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4798   - Added "atoms" option.
  4799   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4800     problems.
  4801   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4802     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4803     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4805     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4809   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4810   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4811   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4812   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4813   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4814   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4815   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4816   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4817   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 
  4820 *** HOLCF ***
  4821 
  4822 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4823 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4824 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4827 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4828 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4829 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4832 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4833 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4834 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4835 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4838 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4839 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4842 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4845   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4846 
  4847 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4848 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4851   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4852   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4853   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4854   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4855 
  4856 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4857 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4858 
  4859   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4860   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4861   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4862 
  4863 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4864 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4868 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4869 
  4870 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4873 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 
  4876 *** ML ***
  4877 
  4878 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4879 
  4880     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4881     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4882 
  4883     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4884     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4885     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4886     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4887 
  4888     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4889     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4890     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4891 
  4892 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4893 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4894 
  4895 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4896 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4897 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4898 
  4899 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4900 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4901 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4902 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4903 
  4904 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4905 the context or even global references.
  4906 
  4907 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4908 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4909 
  4910 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4911 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4912 
  4913   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4914   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4915   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4916   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4917   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4918   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4919   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4920   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4921   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4922   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4923 
  4924 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4925 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4926 
  4927 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4928 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4929 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4930 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4931 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4932 
  4933 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4934 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4935 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4936 Theory_Data version.
  4937 
  4938 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4939 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4940 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4941 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4942 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4943 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4944 explicitly in rare situations.
  4945 
  4946 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4947 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4949 
  4950 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4951 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4952 
  4953 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4954 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4955 quite rare).
  4956 
  4957 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4958 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4961 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4962 terms.
  4963 
  4964 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4965 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4966 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4967 
  4968 
  4969 *** System ***
  4970 
  4971 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4972 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4973 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4974 
  4975 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4976 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4977 respectively.
  4978 
  4979 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4980 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4981 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4982 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4983 
  4984   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4985 
  4986 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4987 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4988 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4989 component.
  4990 
  4991 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4992 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4993 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4994 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4995 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4996 the user for manual installation.
  4997 
  4998 
  4999 
  5000 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5001 -------------------------------------
  5002 
  5003 *** General ***
  5004 
  5005 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5006 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5007 
  5008 
  5009 *** Pure ***
  5010 
  5011 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5012 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5013 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5014 
  5015 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5016 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5017 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5018 
  5019 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5020 interpretation.
  5021 
  5022 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5023 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 
  5026 *** Document preparation ***
  5027 
  5028 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5029 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5030 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5031 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5032 
  5033 
  5034 *** HOL ***
  5035 
  5036 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5037 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5038 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5039 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5040 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5041 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5042 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5043 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5044 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5045 
  5046 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5047 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5048 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5049 
  5050 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5051 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5052 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5053 
  5054 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5055 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5056 
  5057 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5058 
  5059 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5060 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5061 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5062 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5063 
  5064 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5065 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5066 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5067 "mirabelle" utility.
  5068 
  5069 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5070 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5071 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5072 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5073 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5074 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5075 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5076 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5077 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5078 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5079 
  5080 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5081 procedure only.
  5082 
  5083 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5084 
  5085 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5086 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5087 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5088 that fail later.
  5089 
  5090 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5091 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5092 
  5093 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5094 the same method as the approximation method.
  5095 
  5096 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5097 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5098 series expansion.
  5099 
  5100 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5101 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5102 
  5103 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5104 reals.
  5105 
  5106 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5107 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5108 
  5109 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5110 fixpoint theorem.
  5111 
  5112 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5113   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5114     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5115   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5116     accordingly
  5117   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5118     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5119   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5120     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5121 
  5122 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5123 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5124 lattice.
  5125 
  5126 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5127 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5128 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5129 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5130 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5131 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5135   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5136     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5137   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5138     le_inf_iff
  5139   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5140     sup_aci)
  5141   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5142   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5143   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5144     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5145     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5146     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5147     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5148     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5149     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5150     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5151     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5152     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5153     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5154   - authentic syntax for
  5155     Set.Pow
  5156     Set.image
  5157   - mere abbreviations:
  5158     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5159     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5160     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5161     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5162     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5163     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5164     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5165     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5166   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5167 
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5169 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5170 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5171 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5172 
  5173 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5174 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5175 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5176 
  5177 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5178 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5179 
  5180 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5181 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5182 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5183 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5186 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5187 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5188 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5189 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5190 
  5191 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5192 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5194 
  5195 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5196 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5199 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5200 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5201 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5202 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5203 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5204 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5206 
  5207 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5208     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5209     code_post       replaces    code post
  5210     etc.
  5211   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5212 
  5213 * Renamed methods:
  5214     sizechange -> size_change
  5215     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5216   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5219 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5220 
  5221 * Renamed theorems:
  5222     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5223     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5224     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5225     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5226     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5227   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5234 
  5235 
  5236 *** HOLCF ***
  5237 
  5238 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5239 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5240 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5241 
  5242 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5243 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5244 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5245 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5246 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5247 
  5248 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5249 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5250 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5251 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5252 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5253 
  5254 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5255 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5256 constructor are pre-configured.
  5257 
  5258 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5259 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5260 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5261 
  5262 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5263 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5264 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5265 as well.)
  5266 
  5267 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5268 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5269 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5270 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5271 examples.
  5272 
  5273 
  5274 *** ML ***
  5275 
  5276 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5277 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5278 
  5279 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5280 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5281 position, logical grouping etc.
  5282 
  5283 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5284 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5285 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5286 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5287 
  5288 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5289 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5290 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5291 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5292 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5293 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5294 
  5295 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5296 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5297 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5298 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5299 experiments with references.
  5300 
  5301 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5302 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5303 
  5304 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5305 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5306 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5307 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5308 
  5309 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5310 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5311 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5312 
  5313 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5314 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5315 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5321 
  5322 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5323 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5324 
  5325 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5326 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5327 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5328 
  5329 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5330 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5331 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5332 
  5333 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5334 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5335 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5337 
  5338 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5339 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5340 instead of global theory.
  5341 
  5342 
  5343 *** System ***
  5344 
  5345 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5346 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5347 usedir option -q.
  5348 
  5349 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5350 also the system manual.
  5351 
  5352 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5353 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5354 
  5355 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5356 this is always enabled.
  5357 
  5358 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5359 
  5360 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5361 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5362 currently supported on Linux only.
  5363 
  5364 
  5365 
  5366 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5367 --------------------------------
  5368 
  5369 *** General ***
  5370 
  5371 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5372 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5373 
  5374   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5375     "isatool."
  5376 
  5377   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5378     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5379 
  5380   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5381     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5382 
  5383 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5384 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5385 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5386 
  5387 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5388 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5389 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5390 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5391 via "isabelle emacs".
  5392 
  5393 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5394 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5395 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5396 
  5397 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5398 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5399 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5400 
  5401 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5402 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5403 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5404 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5405 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5406 
  5407 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5408 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5409 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5410 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5411 
  5412 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5413 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5414 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5415 
  5416 
  5417 *** Pure ***
  5418 
  5419 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5420 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5421 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5422 
  5423 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5424 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5425 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5426 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5427 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5428 
  5429 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5430 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5431 useful in locale declarations.
  5432 
  5433 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5434 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5435 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5436 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5437 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5438 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5439 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5440 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5441 no longer generated.
  5442 
  5443 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5444 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5445 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5446 
  5447 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5448 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5449 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5450 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5451 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5452 
  5453 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5454 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5455 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5456 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5457 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5458 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5459 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5460 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5461 
  5462 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5463 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5464 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5465 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5466 
  5467 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5470 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5471 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5472 
  5473 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5474 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5477 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5478 in HOL, write
  5479 
  5480     class foo = ...
  5481 
  5482 instead of
  5483 
  5484     class foo = type + ...
  5485 
  5486 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5487 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5488 
  5489 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5490 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5491 
  5492 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5493 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5494 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5495 
  5496 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5497 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5498 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5500 directly in regular applications.
  5501 
  5502 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5503 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5504 
  5505 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5506 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5507 
  5508 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5509 theory context.
  5510 
  5511 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5512 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5513 
  5514 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5515 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5516 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5517 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5518 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5519 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5520 
  5521   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5522 
  5523 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5524 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5525 normalization.
  5526 
  5527 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5528 addressing etc.
  5529 
  5530 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5531 
  5532   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5533   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5534 
  5535 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5536 
  5537   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5538      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5539      parts of the code generator framework).
  5540 
  5541   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5542      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5543      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5544 
  5545 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5548 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5551 patterns, e.g.
  5552 
  5553     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5554 
  5555 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5556 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5557 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5558 hyphen:
  5559 
  5560     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5561 
  5562 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5563 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5564 
  5565 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5566 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5567 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5568 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5569 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5570 higher-order unification.
  5571 
  5572 
  5573 *** Document preparation ***
  5574 
  5575 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5576 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5577 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5578 
  5579 
  5580 *** HOL ***
  5581 
  5582 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5583 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5584 
  5585 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5586 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5587 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5588 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5589 Main, as before.
  5590 
  5591 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5592 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5593 
  5594 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5595 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5596 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5597 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5598 
  5599 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5600 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5601 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5602 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5603 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5604 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5605 
  5606 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5607 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5608 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5609 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5610 
  5611 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5612 menu.
  5613 
  5614 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5615 (contains the empty clause).
  5616 
  5617 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5618 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5619 
  5620 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5621 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5622 
  5623 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5624 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5625 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5628 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5629 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5630 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5631 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5632 
  5633 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5634 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5635 
  5636 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5637 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5638 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5639 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5640 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5641 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5642 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5643 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5644 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5645 
  5646 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5647 
  5648 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5649 
  5650 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5651 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5654 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5655 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5656 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5657 
  5658 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5659 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5660 
  5661     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5662     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5663     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5664     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5665     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5666     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5667     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5668     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5669 
  5670 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5671 theory Set.
  5672 
  5673 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5674 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5675 
  5676 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5677 
  5678 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5679 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5680 
  5681 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5682 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5683 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5684 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5685 allowed. For examples see
  5686 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5687 
  5688 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5689 
  5690 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5694 structure:
  5695 
  5696     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5697     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5698     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5699     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5700     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5701     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5702     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5703     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5704     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5705     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5706     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5707     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5708     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5709     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5710     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5711     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5712     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5713     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5714     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5715     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5716     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5717     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5718     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5719     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5720     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5721     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5722     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5723     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5724     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5725     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5726     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5727     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5728     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5729 
  5730     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5731     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5732     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5733     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5734     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5735     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5736     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5737     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5738     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5739     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5740 
  5741     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5742     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5743     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5744     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5745     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5746     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5747 
  5748 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5749 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5750 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5751 
  5752 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5753 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5754 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5755 
  5756 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5757 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5758 
  5759 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5760 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5761 
  5762 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5763 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5764 proofs, e.g.
  5765 
  5766   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5767 
  5768 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5769 
  5770 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5771 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5772 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5773 
  5774 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5775 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5779 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5780 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5782 
  5783 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5784 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5785 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5786 preorder_class.*.
  5787 
  5788 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5789 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5790 
  5791 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5792 
  5793   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5794 
  5795 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5796 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5797 fold_image.
  5798 
  5799 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5800 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5801 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5802 the former will disappear at some point.
  5803 
  5804 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5805 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5806 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5807 
  5808 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5809 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5810 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5811 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5812 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5813 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5814 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5815 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5816 
  5817 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5818 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5819 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5820 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5821 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5822 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5823 
  5824     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5825     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5826     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5827     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5828     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5829     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5830     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5831 
  5832 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5833 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5834 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5835 
  5836 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5837 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5838 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5839 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5840 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5841 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5842 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5843 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5844 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5845 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5846 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5847 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5848 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5849 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5850 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5851 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5852 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5853 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5854 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5855 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5856 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5857 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5858 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5859 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5860 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5861 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5862 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5863 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5864 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5865 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5866 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5867 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5868 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5869 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5870 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5871 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5872 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5873 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5874 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5875 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5876 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5877 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5878 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5879 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5880 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5881 
  5882 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5883 
  5884 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5885 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5886 
  5887 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5888 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5889 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5890 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5891 
  5892 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5893 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5894 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5895 theory RealVector.
  5896 
  5897 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5898 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5899 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5900 and inner products are included.
  5901 
  5902 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5903 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5904 supported.
  5905 
  5906 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5907 first diagonalization argument.
  5908 
  5909 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5910 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5911 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5912 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5913 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5914 
  5915     hide (open) const gcd
  5916     abbreviation gcd where
  5917       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5918     notation (output)
  5919       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5920 
  5921 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5922 
  5923 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5924 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5925 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5928 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5929 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5930 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5931 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5932 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5933 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5934 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5935 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5936 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5937 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5938 cases.
  5939 
  5940 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5941 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5942 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5943 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5944 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5945 
  5946     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5947     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5948     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5949     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5950     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5951 
  5952 
  5953 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5954 
  5955 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5956 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5957 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5958 
  5959 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5960 
  5961 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5962 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5963 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5964 
  5965 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5966 
  5967 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5968 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5969 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5970 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5971 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5972 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5973 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5974 
  5975 
  5976 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5977 
  5978 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5979 
  5980 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5981 theory targets.
  5982 
  5983 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5984 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5985 'inductive' etc.
  5986 
  5987 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5988 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5989 
  5990 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5991 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5992 
  5993 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5994 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5995 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5996 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5997 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5998 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5999 the algorithm W:
  6000 
  6001  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6002  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6003          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6004 
  6005 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6006 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6007 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6008 
  6009 
  6010 *** HOLCF ***
  6011 
  6012 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6013 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6014 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6015 
  6016 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6017 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6018 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6019 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6020 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6021 
  6022 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6023 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6024 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6025 
  6026 
  6027 *** ZF ***
  6028 
  6029 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6030 
  6031 
  6032 *** ML ***
  6033 
  6034 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6035 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6036 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6037 5.2.1!
  6038 
  6039 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6040 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6041 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6042 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6043 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6044 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6045 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6046 
  6047 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6048 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6049 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6050 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6051 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6052 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6053 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6054 
  6055 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6056 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6057 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6058 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6059 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6060 
  6061 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6062 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6063 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6064 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6065 Method.add_method.
  6066 
  6067 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6068 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6069 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6070 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6071 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6072 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6073 
  6074 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6075 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6076 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6077 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6078 examples.
  6079 
  6080 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6081 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6082 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6083 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6084 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6085 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6086 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6087 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6088 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6089 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6090 
  6091 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6092 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6093 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6094 
  6095 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6096 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6097 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6098 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6099 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6100 resort for legacy applications.
  6101 
  6102 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6103 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6104 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6105 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6106 explicit runtime argument.
  6107 
  6108 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6109 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6110 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6111 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6112 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6113 
  6114 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6115 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6116 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6117 theory state.
  6118 
  6119 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6120 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6121 
  6122   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6123   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6124   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6125   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6126   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6127   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6128   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6129   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6130   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6131   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6132 
  6133 
  6134 *** System ***
  6135 
  6136 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6137 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6138 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6139 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6140 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6141 
  6142 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6143 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6144 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6145 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6146 
  6147 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6148 
  6149 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6150 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6151 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6152 prover operations.
  6153 
  6154 
  6155 
  6156 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6157 -------------------------------
  6158 
  6159 *** General ***
  6160 
  6161 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6162 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6163 
  6164 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6165 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6166 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6167 provides a proper context already.
  6168 
  6169 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6170 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6171 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6172 
  6173 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6174 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6175 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6176 swap theory imports.
  6177 
  6178 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6179 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6180 
  6181 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6182 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6183 white space without escapes.
  6184 
  6185 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6186 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6187 "foo_bar".
  6188 
  6189 
  6190 *** Pure ***
  6191 
  6192 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6193 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6194 
  6195 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6196 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6197 
  6198 (1) unused_thms
  6199      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6200 
  6201 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6202      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6203      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6204 
  6205 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6206      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6207      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6208      their ancestors.
  6209 
  6210 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6211 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6212 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6213 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6214 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6215 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6216 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6217 
  6218 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6219 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6220 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6221 
  6222 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6223 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6224 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6225 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6226 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6227 
  6228 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6229 
  6230 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6231 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6232 update of theories within ML code.
  6233 
  6234 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6235 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6236 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6237 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6238 
  6239 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6240 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6241 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6243 
  6244 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6245 
  6246 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6247 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6248 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6249 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6250 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6251 
  6252 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6253 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6254 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6255 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6256 situations.
  6257 
  6258 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6259 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the