NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Apr 16 20:00:14 2019 +0200 (5 months ago)
changeset 70168 e79bbf86a984
parent 70164 1f163f772da3
child 70174 40fdd74b75f3
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned for release;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font collection "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from
    13 the existing "DejaVu" fonts, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'generate_file', 'export_generated_files', and
    45 'compile_generated_files' support a stateless (PIDE-conformant) model
    46 for generated sources and compiled binaries of other languages. The
    47 compilation process is managed in Isabelle/ML, and results exported to
    48 the session database for further use (e.g. with "isabelle export" or
    49 "isabelle build -e").
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    53 
    54 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    55 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    56 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    57 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    58 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", it now
    59 defaults to 1, but 0 works as well.
    60 
    61 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    62 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    63 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    64 
    65 * Further markup and rendering for "plain text" (e.g. informal prose)
    66 and "raw text" (e.g. verbatim sources). This improves the visual
    67 appearance of formal comments inside the term language, or in general
    68 for repeated alternation of formal and informal text.
    69 
    70 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    71 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    72 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    73 ongoing document processing.
    74 
    75 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    76 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    77 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    78 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    79 
    80 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    81 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    82 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    83 Isabelle component).
    84 
    85 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    86 overview column.
    87 
    88 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    89 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    90 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    91 separated from option "-s".
    92 
    93 * The Isabelle/jEdit desktop application uses the same options as
    94 "isabelle jedit" for its internal "isabelle build" process: the implicit
    95 option "-o system_heaps" (or "-s") has been discontinued. This reduces
    96 the potential for surprise wrt. command-line tools.
    97 
    98 * The official download of the Isabelle/jEdit application already
    99 contains heap images for Isabelle/HOL within its main directory: thus
   100 the first encounter becomes faster and more robust (e.g. when run from a
   101 read-only directory).
   102 
   103 * Isabelle DejaVu fonts are available with hinting by default, which is
   104 relevant for low-resolution displays. This may be disabled via system
   105 option "isabelle_fonts_hinted = false" in
   106 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/preferences -- it occasionally yields better
   107 results.
   108 
   109 * OpenJDK 11 has quite different font rendering, with better glyph
   110 shapes and improved sub-pixel anti-aliasing. In some situations results
   111 might be *worse* than Oracle Java 8, though -- a proper HiDPI / UHD
   112 display is recommended.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** Document preparation ***
   116 
   117 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
   118 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
   119 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
   120 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
   121 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
   122 can retrieved from the document database.
   123 
   124 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers with
   125 proof-scope \<^marker>\<open>tag (proof) name\<close> and produce LaTeX environments as
   126 before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: multiple markers are composed in
   127 canonical order, resulting in a reversed list of tags in the
   128 presentation context.
   129 
   130 * Marker \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close> does not apply to the proof of a top-level goal
   131 statement by default (e.g. 'theorem', 'lemma'). This is a subtle change
   132 of semantics wrt. old-style %name.
   133 
   134 * In Isabelle/jEdit, the string "\tag" may be completed to a "\<^marker>\<open>tag \<close>"
   135 template.
   136 
   137 * Document antiquotation option "cartouche" indicates if the output
   138 should be delimited as cartouche; this takes precedence over the
   139 analogous option "quotes".
   140 
   141 * Many document antiquotations are internally categorized as "embedded"
   142 and expect one cartouche argument, which is typically used with the
   143 \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> notation (e.g. \<^term>\<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>). The cartouche
   144 delimiters are stripped in output of the source (antiquotation option
   145 "source"), but it is possible to enforce delimiters via option
   146 "source_cartouche", e.g. @{term [source_cartouche] \<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>}.
   147 
   148 
   149 *** Isar ***
   150 
   151 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   152 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   153 
   154 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   155 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   156 headless PIDE session and server.
   157 
   158 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   159 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   160 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   161 
   162 
   163 *** HOL ***
   164 
   165 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   166 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   167 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   168 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   169 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   170 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   171 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   172 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   173 within each theory.
   174 
   175 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   176 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   177 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   178 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   179 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   182 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   183 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   186 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   189 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   190 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   191 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   192 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   195 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   199 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   202 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   203 
   204 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   205 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   209 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   210 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   211 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   212 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   215 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   216 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   217 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   218 
   219 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   220 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   221 
   222 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   223 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   224 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   227 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   230 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   234 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   237 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   238 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   239 theory level.
   240 
   241 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   242 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   243 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   244 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   245 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   249 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   250 
   251 * Theory HOL-Library.Cardinal_Notations has been discontinued in favor
   252 of the bundle cardinal_syntax (available in theory Main). Minor
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   256 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   257 exponentiation.
   258 
   259 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   260 of Formal power series.
   261 
   262 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   263 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   264 
   265 * Session HOL-Analysis: Better organization and much more material
   266 at the level of abstract topological spaces.
   267 
   268 * Session HOL-Algebra: Free abelian groups, etc., ported from HOL Light;
   269 proofs towards algebraic closure by de Vilhena and Baillon.
   270 
   271 * Session HOL-Homology has been added. It is a port of HOL Light's
   272 homology library, with new proofs of "invariance of domain" and related
   273 results.
   274 
   275 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   276 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   277 retrieved via "isabelle build -e HOL-SPARK-Examples" on the
   278 command-line.
   279 
   280 * Sledgehammer:
   281   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   282     updated.
   283   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   284     less time (in most cases).
   285 
   286 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   287 
   288 
   289 *** ML ***
   290 
   291 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   292 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   293 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   294 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   295 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   296 
   297   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   298   module Isabelle.Pure where
   299     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   300     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   301     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   302     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   303   \<close>
   304 
   305 See also commands 'export_generated_files' and 'compile_generated_files'
   306 to use the results.
   307 
   308 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   309 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   310 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   311 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   312 ">" as separator. For example:
   313 
   314   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   315   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   316 
   317   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   318   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   319 
   320   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   321   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   322 
   323 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   324 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   325 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   326 observes the official standard).
   327 
   328 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   329 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   330 
   331 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   332 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   333 useful.
   334 
   335 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   336 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   337 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   338 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   339 
   340 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   341 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   342 
   343 
   344 *** System ***
   345 
   346 * Update to OpenJDK 11: the current long-term support version of Java.
   347 
   348 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   349 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   350 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   351 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   352 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   353 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   354 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   355 are gradually phased out.
   356 
   357 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   358 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   359 
   360 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   361 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   362 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   363 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   364 
   365 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   366 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   367 Isabelle/PIDE.
   368 
   369 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   370 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   371 entries.
   372 
   373 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   374 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   375 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   376 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   377 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   378 dump".
   379 
   380 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   381 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   382 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   383 
   384 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   385 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   386 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   387 component).
   388 
   389 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   390 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   391 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   392 
   393 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   394 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   395 is no longer required.
   396 
   397 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   398 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   399 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   400 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   401 
   402 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   403 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   404 
   405   isabelle ghc_setup
   406   isabelle ghc_stack
   407 
   408   isabelle ocaml_setup
   409   isabelle ocaml_opam
   410 
   411 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   412 (and corresponding directory contents):
   413 
   414   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   415   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   416   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   417 
   418   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   419   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   420 
   421 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   422 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   423 
   424   ISABELLE_GHC
   425 
   426   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   427 
   428 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   429 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   430 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   431 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   432 
   433 
   434 
   435 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   436 ---------------------------------
   437 
   438 *** General ***
   439 
   440 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   441 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   442 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   443 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   444 
   445 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   446 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   447 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   448 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   449 
   450 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   451 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   454 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   455 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   456 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   457 avoid this.
   458 
   459 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   460 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   461 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   462 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   463 
   464 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   465 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   466 instead.
   467 
   468 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   469 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   470 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   472 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   473 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   474 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   475 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   476 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   477 syntax), use option "-m".
   478 
   479 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   481 
   482 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   483 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   484 without specific Prover IDE management.
   485 
   486 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   487 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   488 context.
   489 
   490 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   491 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   492 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   493 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   494 
   495   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   496 
   497 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   498 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   499 
   500 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   501 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   502 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   503 output.
   504 
   505 
   506 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   507 
   508 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   509 for session management:
   510 
   511   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   512     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   513 
   514   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   515     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   516 
   517   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   518     and -S
   519 
   520   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   521     theories
   522 
   523   Examples:
   524     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   525     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   526     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   527     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   528     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   529 
   530 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   531 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   532 
   533 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   534 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   535 
   536 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   537 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   538 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   539 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   540 arguments into this format.
   541 
   542 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   543 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   544 
   545 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   546 functions (e.g. State output).
   547 
   548 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   549 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   550 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   551 
   552 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   553 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   554 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   555 
   556 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   557 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   558 
   559 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   560 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   561 Isabelle".
   562 
   563 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   564 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   565 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   566 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   567 Unicode content when saving the file.
   568 
   569 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   570 
   571 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   572 
   573 
   574 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   575 
   576 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   577 Isabelle/jEdit.
   578 
   579 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   580 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   581 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   582 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   583 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   584 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 
   587 *** Document preparation ***
   588 
   589 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   590 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   591 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   592 are supported:
   593 
   594   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   595   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   596   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   597 
   598 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   599 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   600 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   601 
   602 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   603 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   604 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   605 
   606 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   607 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   608 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   609 
   610 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   611 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   612 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   613 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   614 
   615 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   616 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   617 
   618 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   619 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   620 normally need to import.
   621 
   622 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   623 session name verbatim.
   624 
   625 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   626 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   627 
   628 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   629 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   630 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   633 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   634 anymore.
   635 
   636 
   637 *** Isar ***
   638 
   639 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   640 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   641 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   642 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   643 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   644 
   645 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   646 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   647 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   648 
   649 
   650 *** Pure ***
   651 
   652 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   653 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   654 
   655 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   656 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   657 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   658 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   659 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   660 
   661 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   662 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   663 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   664 duplicate constant declarations.
   665 
   666 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   667 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   668 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   669 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   670 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   671 
   672 
   673 *** HOL ***
   674 
   675 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   676 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   677 
   678 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   679 
   680   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   681 
   682   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   683     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   684     constraints instead.
   685 
   686   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   687 
   688   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   689     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   690     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   691     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   692 
   693   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   694     standard target languages.
   695 
   696   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   697     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   698     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   699     HOL string values and vice versa.
   700 
   701   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   702     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   703 
   704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   707 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   708 
   709 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   710 
   711 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   712 former axioms:
   713 
   714   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   715 
   716 are replaced by:
   717 
   718   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   719 
   720 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   721 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   722 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   723 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   724 
   725 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   726 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   727 
   728 * Clarifed theorem names:
   729 
   730   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   731   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   732 
   733 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * SMT module:
   736 
   737   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   738     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   741     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   742     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   745 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   746 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   755 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757 
   758 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   759 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   760 Renamed:
   761 
   762   span_inc ~> span_superset
   763   span_superset ~> span_base
   764   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   765 
   766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   769 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   772 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   773 
   774 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   775 
   776   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   777     input syntax
   778 
   779   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   780 
   781 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   782 
   783 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   786 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   790   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   791   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   792   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   793 
   794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   797 
   798   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   799   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   800   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   801   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   802   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   803 
   804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 
   806 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   807 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   808 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   809 broken proofs.
   810 
   811 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   812 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   813 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   814 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   815 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   816 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   817 
   818 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   819 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   820 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   821 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   822 examples.
   823 
   824 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   825 
   826 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   827 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   830 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   831 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   835 infix/prefix notation.
   836 
   837 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   838 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   842 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   846 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   850 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   851 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   852 
   853 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   854 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   855 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   856 
   857 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   858 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   859 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   860 
   861 
   862 *** ML ***
   863 
   864 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   865 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   866 
   867 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   868 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   869 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   870 "isabelle process".
   871 
   872 
   873 *** System ***
   874 
   875 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   876 longer supported.
   877 
   878 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   879 support has been discontinued.
   880 
   881 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   882 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   883 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   886 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   887 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   888 quotes):
   889 
   890   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   891   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   892 
   893   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   894   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   895 
   896   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   897   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   898 
   899 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   900   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   901   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   902   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   903 
   904 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   905 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   906 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   907 only.
   908 
   909 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   910 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   911 up-to-date status of a session.
   912 
   913 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   914 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   915 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   916 directory.
   917 
   918 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   919 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   920 
   921 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   922 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   923 
   924 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   925 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   926 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   927 See also the "system" manual.
   928 
   929 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   930 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   931 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   932 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   933 been discontinued.
   934 
   935 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   936 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937 
   938 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   939 repository for the generated session files.
   940 
   941 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   942 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   943 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   944 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   945 ISABELLE_HOME).
   946 
   947 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   948 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   949 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   950 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   951 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   952 
   953 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   954 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   955 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   956 
   957 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   958 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   959 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   960 32/64 bit.
   961 
   962 
   963 
   964 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   965 ----------------------------------
   966 
   967 *** General ***
   968 
   969 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   970 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   971 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   972 
   973 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   974 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   975 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   976 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   977 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   978 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   979 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   980 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   981 
   982 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   983 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   984 just the theory base name as before).
   985 
   986 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   987 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   988 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   989 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   990 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   991 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   992 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   993 
   994 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   995 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   996 leads to the follow renamings:
   997 
   998   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   999   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1000   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1001   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
  1002   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
  1003 
  1004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
  1007 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
  1008 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
  1009 
  1010 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
  1011 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
  1012 
  1013 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
  1014 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
  1015 antiquotations:
  1016 
  1017   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1018     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
  1019   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1020     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
  1021   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
  1022 
  1023 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
  1024 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
  1025 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
  1026 tutorial on code generation.
  1027 
  1028 
  1029 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1030 
  1031 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
  1032 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
  1033 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
  1034 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
  1035 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
  1036 
  1037 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
  1038 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
  1039 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
  1040 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
  1041 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
  1042 effectively always enabled.
  1043 
  1044 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
  1045 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
  1046 buffers.
  1047 
  1048 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
  1049 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
  1050 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
  1051 represented by a different border color.
  1052 
  1053 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
  1054 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
  1055 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
  1056 
  1057 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
  1058 document in the default web browser.
  1059 
  1060 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1061 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1062 used for formal checking.
  1063 
  1064 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1065 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1066 enabled at all times.
  1067 
  1068 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1069 
  1070 
  1071 *** Pure ***
  1072 
  1073 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1074 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1075 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1076 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1079   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1080     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1081   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1082     malformed.
  1083   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1084     malformed.
  1085 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1088 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1089 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1090 
  1091 
  1092 *** HOL ***
  1093 
  1094 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1095 
  1096 * SMT module:
  1097   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1098     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1099     disabled by default.
  1100   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1101   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1102 
  1103 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1104 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1105 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1109 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1110 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1114 of "Complex_Main").
  1115 
  1116 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1117 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1118 
  1119 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1121 
  1122 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1123 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1124 
  1125 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1126 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1129 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1130 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1131 
  1132 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1133 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134 
  1135 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1136 
  1137 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1138 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1141 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1142 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1143 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145 * Generalized some facts:
  1146     measure_induct_rule
  1147     measure_induct
  1148     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1149     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1150     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1151     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1155 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1156 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1157 euclidean size.
  1158 
  1159 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1160   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1161   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1162     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1163     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1164   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1165     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1169 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1170 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1171 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1174   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1175   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1176 
  1177 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1178 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1181 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1182 
  1183 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1184 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1185 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1191 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1192 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1193 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1194 
  1195 syntax (ASCII)
  1196   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1197   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1198   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1199 
  1200 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1201 multisets have been renamed:
  1202 
  1203   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1204   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1205 
  1206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1207 
  1208 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1209 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1210 
  1211 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1212 
  1213 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1214 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1215 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1216 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1217 
  1218 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1219 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1220 
  1221 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1222 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1223 
  1224 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1225 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1226 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1227 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 
  1231 *** System ***
  1232 
  1233 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1234 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1235 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1236 
  1237 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1238 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1239 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1240 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1241 
  1242 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1243 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1244 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1245 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1246 
  1247 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1248 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1249 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1250 unchanged.
  1251 
  1252 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1253 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1256 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1257 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1258 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1259 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1260 
  1261 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1262 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1263 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1264 
  1265 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1266 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1267 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1268 
  1269 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1270 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1271 
  1272   isabelle imports -I -a
  1273   isabelle imports -U -a
  1274   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1275   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1276 
  1277 
  1278 
  1279 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1280 -------------------------------------
  1281 
  1282 *** General ***
  1283 
  1284 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1285   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1286     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1288     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1289     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1290     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1291     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1292 
  1293 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1294 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1295 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1296 
  1297 bundle foo
  1298 begin
  1299   declare a [simp]
  1300   declare b [intro]
  1301 end
  1302 
  1303 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1304 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1305 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1306 
  1307 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1308 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1309 discontinued.
  1310 
  1311 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1312 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1313 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1314 
  1315 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1316 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1317 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1318 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1319 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1320 
  1321 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1322 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1323 
  1324 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1325 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1326 
  1327 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1328 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1329 examples.
  1330 
  1331 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1332 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1333 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1334 
  1335 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1336 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1337 
  1338 
  1339 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1340 
  1341 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1342 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1343 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1344 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1345 
  1346 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1347 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1348 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1349 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1350 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1351 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1352 
  1353 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1354 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1355 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1356 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1357 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1358 
  1359 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1360 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1361 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1362 
  1363 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1364 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1365 
  1366 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1367 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1368 
  1369 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1370 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1371 
  1372 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1373 
  1374 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1375 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1376 systematic renaming.
  1377 
  1378 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1379 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1380 theorem statement.
  1381 
  1382 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1383 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1384 
  1385 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1386 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1387 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1388 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1389 
  1390 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1391 following independent stages:
  1392 
  1393   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1394   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1395   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1396   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1397 
  1398 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1399 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1400 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1401 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1402 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1403 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1404 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1405 
  1406 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1407 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1408 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1409 
  1410 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1411 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1412 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1413 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1414 
  1415 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1416 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1417 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1418 
  1419 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1420 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1421 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1422 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1423 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1424 old keymaps.
  1425 
  1426 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1427 and diverse:
  1428 
  1429   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1430   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1431   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1432 
  1433 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1434 have to be changed.
  1435 
  1436 
  1437 *** Document preparation ***
  1438 
  1439 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1440 
  1441 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1442 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1443 
  1444 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1445 this allows special forms of document output.
  1446 
  1447 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1448 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1449 derivatives.
  1450 
  1451 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1452 
  1453 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1454 Isabelle2015).
  1455 
  1456 
  1457 *** Isar ***
  1458 
  1459 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1460 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1461 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1462 
  1463 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1464 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1465 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1466 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1467 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1470 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1471 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1472 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1473 
  1474 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1475 context.
  1476 
  1477 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1478 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1479 
  1480 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1481 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1482 
  1483 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1484 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1485 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1486 
  1487 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1488 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1492 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1493 definitions.
  1494 
  1495 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1496 expression, e.g.
  1497 
  1498   (use facts in simp)
  1499   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1500 
  1501 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1502 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1503 
  1504 
  1505 *** Pure ***
  1506 
  1507 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1508 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1509 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1510 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1511 
  1512 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1513 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1514 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1515 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1516 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1517 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1518 
  1519 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1520 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1521 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1522 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1523 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1524 types where this is really intended.
  1525 
  1526 
  1527 *** HOL ***
  1528 
  1529 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1530 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1531 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1532 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1533 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1534 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1535 
  1536 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1537 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1538 
  1539 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1540 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Sledgehammer:
  1543   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1544   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1545 
  1546 * (Co)datatype package:
  1547   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1548     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1549     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1550     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1551   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1552     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1553   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1554     to the map function.
  1555   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1556   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1557        terms of map and set
  1558        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1559   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1560        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1561     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1562   - Renamed lemmas:
  1563       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1564       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1565     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1567   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1568     equivalent) form.
  1569     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1572 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1573 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1574 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1577 
  1578   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1579   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1580 
  1581 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1582 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1583 eliminated altogether.
  1584 
  1585 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1586 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1587 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1588 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1589 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1590 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1591 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1592 
  1593 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1597 
  1598     setsum ~> sum
  1599     setprod ~> prod
  1600     listsum ~> sum_list
  1601     listprod ~> prod_list
  1602 
  1603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1606     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1607     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1608     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1609     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1610     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1611     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1612     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1613     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1614     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1615     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1616     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1617     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1618     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1619     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1620     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1621     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1622     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1623     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1624     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1625     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1626     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1627     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1628     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1629     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1630     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1631     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1632     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1633     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1634     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1638 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1639 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1642 
  1643 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1644 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1645 
  1646   - Logical representation:
  1647     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1648     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1649       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1650     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1651       are non-canonical.
  1652   - Printing and parsing:
  1653     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1654       (as before).
  1655     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1656     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1657       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1658       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1659     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1660       printed as their logical representation.
  1661   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1662     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1663   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1664 
  1665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1668 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1669 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1670 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1673 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1674 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1675 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1676 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1679 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1682 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1683 
  1684 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1685 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1686 interface for the generated code.
  1687 
  1688 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1689 spelt out explicitly.
  1690 
  1691 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1692 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1693 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1694 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1695 
  1696 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1697 products.
  1698 
  1699 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1700 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1701 
  1702 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1703 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1704 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1705 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1706 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1707 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1708 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1712 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1713 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1719   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1720   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1721 
  1722 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1723   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1724     le_add_same_cancel1
  1725     le_add_same_cancel2
  1726     less_add_same_cancel1
  1727     less_add_same_cancel2
  1728     add_le_same_cancel1
  1729     add_le_same_cancel2
  1730     add_less_same_cancel1
  1731     add_less_same_cancel2
  1732 
  1733 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1734   superseeded by a more general version:
  1735     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1736     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1737     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1738     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1739     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1740     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1741     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1742     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1746 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1749 
  1750 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1751 
  1752   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1753   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1754 
  1755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1761 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1762 A)".
  1763 
  1764 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1767 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1768 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1769 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1770 
  1771 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1772 dioid.
  1773 
  1774 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1775 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1776 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1777 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1780 of a more general type also:
  1781   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1782   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1783   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1784   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1785   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1786   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1787   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1788   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1789   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1790   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1791   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1792   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1793   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1794   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1795   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1796   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1797   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1798   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1799   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1800   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1801   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1802   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1803   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1804   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1805   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1806   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1807   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1808   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1809   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1810   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1811   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1812   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1813   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1814   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1815   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1816   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1817   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1818   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1819   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1820   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1821   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1822   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1823   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1824   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1825   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1826   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1827   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1828   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1829   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1830   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1831   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1832   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1833   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1834   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1835   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1836   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1837   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1838   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1839   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1840   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1841   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1842   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1843   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1844   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1845   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1846   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1847   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1848   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1849   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1850   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1851   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1852   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1853   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1854   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1855   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1856   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1857   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1858   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1859   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1860   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1861   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1862   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1863   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1864   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1865   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1866   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1867   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1868   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870 
  1871 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1872 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1875 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1876 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1877 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1878 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1879 
  1880 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1881 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1882 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1883 once.
  1884 
  1885 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1886 set_mset rather than count.
  1887 
  1888   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1889     by default.
  1890 
  1891   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1892     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1893 
  1894   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1895     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1896 
  1897   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1898     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1899 
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1903 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1904 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1905 underscores.
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1908 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1909 relation.
  1910 
  1911 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1912 everywhere fix bijections.
  1913 
  1914 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1915 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1916 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1917 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1918 
  1919 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1920 
  1921 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1922 
  1923 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1924 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1925 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1928 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1929 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1930 
  1931 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1932 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1933 
  1934 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1935 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1936 domain.
  1937 
  1938 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1939 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1942   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1943 
  1944 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1945 Probability Mass Functions.
  1946 
  1947 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1948 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1949 folding over a list in random order.
  1950 
  1951 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1952 subprobability distributions.
  1953 
  1954 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1955 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1956 
  1957     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1958     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1959     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1960     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1961     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1962     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1963     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1964     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1965     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1966     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1967     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1968     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1969     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1970     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1971     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1972     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1973     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1974     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1975     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1976     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1977     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1978     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1979 
  1980 Some functions have been renamed:
  1981     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1982 
  1983 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1984     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1985     #\<subset># ~> <
  1986     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1987     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1991 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1992 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1993 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1994 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1997 been renamed:
  1998 
  1999     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  2000     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  2001     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2002     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  2003     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  2004     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  2005     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  2006     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  2007     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  2008 
  2009     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  2010     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  2011     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2012     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  2013     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  2014     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  2015     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  2016     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  2017     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  2018     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  2019     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  2020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  2023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  2026 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  2027 
  2028     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2029     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2030     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2031     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2032     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  2033     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2034     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2035     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2036     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  2037     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  2038     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  2039     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  2040     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  2041     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2042     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2043     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2044     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2045 
  2046 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  2047 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  2048 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  2049 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  2050 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  2051 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  2054 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  2055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  2058 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  2059 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2060 
  2061 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2062 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2063 removed or changed:
  2064 
  2065   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2066   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2067   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2068   union_single_eq_diff
  2069   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2070   diff_single_eq_union
  2071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2072 
  2073 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2074 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2075 
  2076   mset_add
  2077   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2078   diff_single_eq_union
  2079   union_single_eq_diff
  2080   union_single_eq_member
  2081   add_eq_conv_diff
  2082   insert_noteq_member
  2083   add_eq_conv_ex
  2084   multi_member_split
  2085   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2086   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2087   mset_subset_insertD
  2088   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2089   insert_union_subset_iff
  2090   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2091   inter_add_left1
  2092   inter_add_left2
  2093   inter_add_right1
  2094   inter_add_right2
  2095   sup_union_left1
  2096   sup_union_left2
  2097   sup_union_right1
  2098   sup_union_right2
  2099   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2100   multi_nonempty_split
  2101   mset_insort
  2102   mset_update
  2103   mult1I
  2104   less_add
  2105   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2106   rel_mset_Zero
  2107   msed_map_invL
  2108   msed_map_invR
  2109   msed_rel_invL
  2110   msed_rel_invR
  2111   le_multiset_right_total
  2112   multiset_induct
  2113   multiset_induct2_size
  2114   multiset_induct2
  2115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2118 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2119 element:
  2120 
  2121   image_mset
  2122   mset
  2123   replicate_mset
  2124   mult1
  2125   pred_mset
  2126   rel_mset'
  2127   mset_insort
  2128 
  2129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2132 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2133 
  2134   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2135   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2136   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2137   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2138   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2139   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2140   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2141   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2142   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2143   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2144   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2145   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2146   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2147   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2148   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2149   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2150   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2151   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2152   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2156 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2157 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2161 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2162 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2163 
  2164 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2165 multisets:
  2166 
  2167   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2168   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2169 
  2170 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2171 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2172 
  2173   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2174   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2175 
  2176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2179 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2180 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2181 
  2182 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2183 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2184 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2185 
  2186 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2187 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2188 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2189 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2190 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2191 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2194 the following renaming
  2195 
  2196   prefixeq -> prefix
  2197   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2198   suffixeq -> suffix
  2199   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2200 
  2201 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2202 
  2203 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2204 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2205 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2206 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2207 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2208 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2211 theories.
  2212 
  2213 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2214 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2215 
  2216 
  2217 *** ML ***
  2218 
  2219 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2220 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2221 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2222 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2226 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2227 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2228 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2229 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2230 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2231 superseded by General.Div.
  2232 
  2233 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2234 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2237 with approximative output quality.
  2238 
  2239 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2240 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2243 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2244 requiring separate files.
  2245 
  2246 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2247 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2248 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2249 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2250 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2251 
  2252 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2253 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2254 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2255 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2256 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2257 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2258 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2261 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263 
  2264 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2265 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2266 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2267 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2270 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2271 
  2272 
  2273 *** System ***
  2274 
  2275 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2276 
  2277 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2278 much less disk space.
  2279 
  2280 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2281 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2282 particular:
  2283 
  2284   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2285     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2286   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2287   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2288 
  2289 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2290 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2291 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2294 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2295 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2296 return code 1.
  2297 
  2298 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2299 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2300 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2301 
  2302 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2303 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2304 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2305 
  2306 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2307 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2308 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2309 by default).
  2310 
  2311 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2312 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2313 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2314 resulting log files.
  2315 
  2316 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2317 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2318 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2319 implicit default via option -p.
  2320 
  2321 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2322 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2323 
  2324 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2325 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2326 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2327 
  2328 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2329 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2330 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2331 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2332 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2335 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2336 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2337 
  2338 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2339 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2340 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2341 
  2342 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2343 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2344 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2345 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2346 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2347 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2348 been discontinued.
  2349 
  2350 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2351 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2352 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2353 
  2354 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2355 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2356 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2357 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2358 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2359 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2360 
  2361 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2362 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2363 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2364 connection).
  2365 
  2366 
  2367 
  2368 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2369 -----------------------------------
  2370 
  2371 *** General ***
  2372 
  2373 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2374 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2375 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2376 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2377 examples that do require HOL.
  2378 
  2379 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2380 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2381 
  2382 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2383 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2384 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2385 has been removed (see below).
  2386 
  2387 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2388 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2389 
  2390 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2391 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2392 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2393 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2394 
  2395 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2396 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2397 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2398 meaning.
  2399 
  2400 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2401 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2402 to update old sources.
  2403 
  2404 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2405 
  2406   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2407   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2408   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2409   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2410 
  2411 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2412 accordingly.
  2413 
  2414 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2415 'theorem'.
  2416 
  2417 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2418 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2419 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2420 
  2421 
  2422 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2423 
  2424 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2425 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2426 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2427 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2428 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2429 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2430 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2431 any effect on the running ML program.
  2432 
  2433 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2434 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2435 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2436 update.
  2437 
  2438 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2439 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2440 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2441 
  2442 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2443 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2444 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2445 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2446 visibility.
  2447 
  2448 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2449 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2450 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2451 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2452 panel.
  2453 
  2454 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2455 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2456 
  2457 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2458 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2459 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2460 
  2461 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2462 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2463 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2464 
  2465 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2466 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2467 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2468 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2469 
  2470 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2471 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2472 the editor.
  2473 
  2474 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2475 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2476 
  2477 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2478 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2479 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2480 instead.
  2481 
  2482 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2483 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2484 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2485 
  2486 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2487 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2488 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2489 
  2490 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2491 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2492 
  2493 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2494 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2495 
  2496 
  2497 *** Document preparation ***
  2498 
  2499 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2500 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2501 
  2502 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2503 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2504 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2505 
  2506 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2507 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2508 follows:
  2509 
  2510   \<^item>  itemize
  2511   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2512   \<^descr>  description
  2513 
  2514 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2515 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2516 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2517 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2518 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2519 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2520 
  2521 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2522 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2523 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2524 
  2525 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2526 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2527 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2528 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2529 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2530 
  2531 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2532 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2533 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2534 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2535 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2536 
  2537 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2538 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2539 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2540 
  2541 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2542 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2543 
  2544 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2545 
  2546 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2547 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2548 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2549 
  2550 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2551 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2552 
  2553 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2554 entities of the Isar language.
  2555 
  2556 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2557 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2558 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2559 
  2560 
  2561 *** Isar ***
  2562 
  2563 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2564 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2565 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2566 example:
  2567 
  2568   have result: "C x y"
  2569     if "A x" and "B y"
  2570     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2571     <proof>
  2572 
  2573 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2574 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2575 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2576 
  2577   {
  2578     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2579     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2580     have "C x y" <proof>
  2581   }
  2582   note result = this
  2583 
  2584 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2585 instead of 'assume' above.
  2586 
  2587 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2588 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2589 
  2590   assume result: "C x y"
  2591     if "A x" and "B y"
  2592     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2593 
  2594 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2595 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2596 
  2597 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2598 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2599 example:
  2600 
  2601   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2602 
  2603 is equivalent to:
  2604 
  2605   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2606 
  2607 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2608 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2609 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2610 follows:
  2611 
  2612   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2613 
  2614 or:
  2615 
  2616   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2617 
  2618 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2619 
  2620   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2621 
  2622 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2623 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2624 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2625 of the local context elements yet.
  2626 
  2627 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2628 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2629 
  2630   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2631   then have something
  2632   proof cases
  2633     case a
  2634     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2635   next
  2636     case b
  2637     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2638   next
  2639     case c
  2640     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2641   qed
  2642 
  2643 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2644 
  2645   case a: (c xs)
  2646   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2647 
  2648 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2649 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2650 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2651 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2652 and always put attributes in front.
  2653 
  2654 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2655 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2656 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2657 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2658 
  2659 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2660 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2661 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2662 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2663 
  2664   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2665     supply [simp] = a
  2666   proof
  2667     show A by simp
  2668   next
  2669     show A by simp
  2670   qed
  2671 
  2672 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2673 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2674 
  2675 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2676 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2677 
  2678 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2679 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2680 
  2681 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2682 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2683 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2684 manual.
  2685 
  2686 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2687 ('apply' scripts).
  2688 
  2689 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2690 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2691 example:
  2692 
  2693 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2694   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2695 proof goal_cases
  2696   case (1 x)
  2697   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2698 next
  2699   case (2 y z)
  2700   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2701 qed
  2702 
  2703 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2704   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2705 proof goal_cases
  2706   case prems: 1
  2707   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2708 next
  2709   case prems: 2
  2710   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2711 qed
  2712 
  2713 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2714 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2715 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2716 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2717 
  2718 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2719 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2720 
  2721 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2722 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2723 
  2724 
  2725 *** Pure ***
  2726 
  2727 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2728 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2729 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2730 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2731 
  2732 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2733 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2736 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2737 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2738 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2739 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2740 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2741 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2742 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2743 
  2744   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2745   begin
  2746     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2747   end
  2748 
  2749   locale morphism =
  2750     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2751     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2752   begin
  2753     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2754   end
  2755 
  2756 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2757 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2758 
  2759 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2760 'defines'.
  2761 
  2762 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2763 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2766 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2767 
  2768 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2769 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2772 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2773 exploited.
  2774 
  2775 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2776 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2777 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2778 
  2779 
  2780 *** HOL ***
  2781 
  2782 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2783 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2784 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2785 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2786 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2787 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2790 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2791 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2792 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2793 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2794 
  2795 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2796 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2797 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2798 simplify porting old theories:
  2799 
  2800   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2801 
  2802   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2803 
  2804   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2805   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2806 
  2807   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2808 
  2809   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2810   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2811 
  2812   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2813 
  2814   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2815     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2816 
  2817   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2818   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2819   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2820 
  2821   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2822   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2823   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2824 
  2825 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2826 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2827 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2828 
  2829 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2830 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2831 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2832 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2833 
  2834 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2835 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2836 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2837 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2840 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2841 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2842 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2845 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2846 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2850 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2851 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2852 
  2853 Consolidated facts:
  2854   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2855   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2856   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2857   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2858   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2859   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2860   split_split ~> prod.split
  2861   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2862   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2863   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2864   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2865   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2866   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2867   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2868   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2869   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2870   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2871   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2872   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2873   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2874   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2875   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2876   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2877   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2878   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2879   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2880   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2881   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2882   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2883   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2884   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2885   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2886   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2887   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2888   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2889 
  2890 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2891   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2892   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2893   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2894   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2895 
  2896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2899 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2900 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2901 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2902 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2903 
  2904 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2905   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2906   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2907   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2908   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2909   real_of_one of_int_1
  2910   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2911   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2912   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2913   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2914   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2915   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2916   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2917   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2918   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2919   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2920   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2921   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2922   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2923   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2924   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2925   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2926   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2927 
  2928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2931 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2934 
  2935 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Sledgehammer:
  2938   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2939   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2940     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2941   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2942   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2943   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2944     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2946 
  2947 * Nitpick:
  2948   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2949   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2950   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2951   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2952   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2953 
  2954 * (Co)datatype package:
  2955   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2956     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2957   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2958   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2959     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2961     being defined.
  2962   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2963 
  2964 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2965 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2966 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2967 
  2968 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2969 
  2970 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2971 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2973 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2974 
  2975 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2979 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2980 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2981 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2982 
  2983 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2984 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2985 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2986 
  2987 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2988 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2989 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2990 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2991 
  2992 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2993 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2994 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2995 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2996 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2997 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2998 during instantiation.
  2999 
  3000 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  3001 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  3002 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  3005 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  3006 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  3007 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  3008 
  3009   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3010   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3011 
  3012 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Library/Multiset:
  3015   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  3016       < ~> <#
  3017       > ~> >#
  3018       <= ~> <=#
  3019       >= ~> >=#
  3020       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  3021       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  3022     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  3024       \<subset>#
  3025       \<subseteq>#
  3026       \<supset>#
  3027       \<supseteq>#
  3028   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  3029     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  3030     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  3031     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  3032     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  3033     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  3034     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035   - Renamed conversions:
  3036       multiset_of ~> mset
  3037       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  3038       set_of ~> set_mset
  3039     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3040   - Renamed lemmas:
  3041       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3042       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  3043       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3044     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3045   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  3046     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  3047     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  3048     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3049 
  3050 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  3051 
  3052 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  3053 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  3054 chain-complete partial orders.
  3055 
  3056 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  3057 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  3058 
  3059 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3060 periodic functions.
  3061 
  3062 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3063 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3064 GCD.
  3065 
  3066 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3067 
  3068 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3069 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3070 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3071 
  3072 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3073 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3074 
  3075 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3076 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3077 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3078 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3079 
  3080 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3081 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3082 
  3083 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3084 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3085 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3086 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3087 properties.
  3088 
  3089 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3090 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3091 
  3092 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3093 structures.
  3094 
  3095 
  3096 *** ML ***
  3097 
  3098 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3099 system are available:
  3100 
  3101   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3102   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3103   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3104 
  3105 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3106 
  3107 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3108 Isar proof method.
  3109 
  3110 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3111 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3112 breaks.
  3113 
  3114 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3115 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3116 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3119 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3120 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3121 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3122 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3125 
  3126   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3127   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3128 
  3129   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3130   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3131 
  3132 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3133 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3134 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3135 
  3136 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3137 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3138 instead (with proper context).
  3139 
  3140 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3141 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3142 
  3143 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3144 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3145 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3146 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3147 the proof context discipline.
  3148 
  3149 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3150 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3151 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3152 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3153 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 
  3156 *** System ***
  3157 
  3158 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3159 
  3160 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3161 conflations:
  3162 
  3163     hence  ~>  then have
  3164     thus   ~>  then show
  3165 
  3166 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3167 maintainability of proofs.
  3168 
  3169 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3170 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3171 performance.
  3172 
  3173 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3174 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3175 
  3176     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3177 
  3178 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3179 space.
  3180 
  3181 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3182 platforms as follows.
  3183 
  3184   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3185     associated with the main app bundle
  3186 
  3187   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3188     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3189     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3190 
  3191   - isabelle build: settings
  3192     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3193 
  3194 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3195 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3196 
  3197 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3198 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3199 required after change.
  3200 
  3201 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3202 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3203 
  3204 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3205 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3206 
  3207 
  3208 
  3209 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3210 ------------------------------
  3211 
  3212 *** General ***
  3213 
  3214 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3215 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3216 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3217 
  3218   context
  3219   begin
  3220 
  3221   private definition ...
  3222   private lemma ...
  3223 
  3224   qualified definition ...
  3225   qualified lemma ...
  3226 
  3227   lemma ...
  3228   theorem ...
  3229 
  3230   end
  3231 
  3232 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3233 naming policy.
  3234 
  3235 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3236 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3237 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3238 
  3239 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3240 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3241 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3242 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3243 
  3244 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3245 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3246 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3250 theory context.
  3251 
  3252 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3253 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3254 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3255 
  3256 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3257 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3258 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3259 sources.
  3260 
  3261 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3262 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3263 
  3264 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3265 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3266 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3267 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3268 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3269 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3270 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3271 
  3272 
  3273 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3274 
  3275 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3276 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3277 
  3278 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3279 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3280 in the buffer.
  3281 
  3282 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3283 marker, SideKick parser.
  3284 
  3285 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3286 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3287 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3288 
  3289 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3290 Options / Text Area).
  3291 
  3292 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3293 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3294 
  3295 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3296 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3297 
  3298 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3299 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3300 
  3301 
  3302 *** Document preparation ***
  3303 
  3304 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3305 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3306 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3307 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3308 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3309 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3310 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3311 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3314 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3315 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3316 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3317 
  3318 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3319 style.
  3320 
  3321 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3322 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3323 
  3324 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3325 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3326 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3327 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3328 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3329 
  3330 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3331 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3332 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3333 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3334 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3335 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3336 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3339 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3340 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 
  3344 *** Pure ***
  3345 
  3346 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3347 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3348 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3349 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3350 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3351 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3352 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3353 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3354 
  3355 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3356 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3357 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3358 
  3359 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3360 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3361 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3362 different index.
  3363 
  3364 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3365 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3366 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3367 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3368 
  3369 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3370 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3371 token category instead.
  3372 
  3373 
  3374 *** HOL ***
  3375 
  3376 * New (co)datatype package:
  3377   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3378     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3379     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3380     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3381     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382   - Renamed theorems:
  3383       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3384       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3385       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3386       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3387       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3388       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3389       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3390       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3391       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3392       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3393       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3394       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3395       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3396     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3398     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3399     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3401     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3402     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3404     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3405     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3406     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3407     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3408     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3409     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410   - Renamed theories:
  3411       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3412       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3413       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3414       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3415       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3416       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3417     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3419     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3420     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3421     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3422     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3423     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3424     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3425     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3426     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3427   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3428     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3429     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3430     rules.
  3431 
  3432 * Old datatype package:
  3433   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3434     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3435     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3436     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3437     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438   - Renamed theorems:
  3439       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3440     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441   - Renamed theory:
  3442       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3443     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Nitpick:
  3446   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3447     operations.
  3448 
  3449 * Sledgehammer:
  3450   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3451     default.
  3452   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3453     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3454   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3455     Removed sub-command:
  3456       min
  3457   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3458     dramatically improved.
  3459   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3460 
  3461 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3462   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3463     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3464     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3465     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3466     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3467     point to it.
  3468     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3470     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3472     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3473   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3474     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3475 
  3476 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3477 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3478 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3479 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3480 
  3481 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3482 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3483 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3486 
  3487 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3488 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3489 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3490 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3493 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3499 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3500 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3503 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3506 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3508 
  3509 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3510 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3511 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3512 needed.
  3513 
  3514 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3515 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3516 
  3517 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3518 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3519 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3520 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3521 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3522 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3523 
  3524 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3525 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3526 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3527 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3528 
  3529 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3530 type class hierarchy:
  3531   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3532   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3533   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3534   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3535 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3538   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3539   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3540 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3543 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3544 
  3545 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3546   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3547   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3548   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3549 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3552 and part of theory Main.
  3553   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3560 Fact rename:
  3561     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3565 
  3566 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3567 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3568 
  3569 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3570 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3571 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3572 
  3573 * Library/Multiset:
  3574   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3575   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3576     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3577   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3578       <# ~> #<#
  3579       <=# ~> #<=#
  3580       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3581       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3582     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3584       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3585       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3586     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587   - Renamed
  3588       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3589       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3590       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3591     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3593   - Added attributes:
  3594       image_mset.id [simp]
  3595       image_mset_id [simp]
  3596       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3597       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3598       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3599       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3600       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3601       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3602     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3605 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3606 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3607 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3610 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3611 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3612 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3613 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3614 examples.
  3615 
  3616 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3617   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3618   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3619   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3620     projection
  3621 
  3622 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3623 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3624 
  3625 
  3626 *** ML ***
  3627 
  3628 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3629 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3630 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3631 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3632 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3633 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3634 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3635 
  3636 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3637 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3638 
  3639 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3640 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3641 
  3642 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3646 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3647 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3648 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3649 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3650 nested.
  3651 
  3652 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3653 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3656 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3657 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3659 
  3660 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3661 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3662 Thm.term_of etc.
  3663 
  3664 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3665 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3666 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3669 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3670 
  3671 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3672 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3673 
  3674 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3675 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3676 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3679 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3680 
  3681 
  3682 *** System ***
  3683 
  3684 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3685 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3686 
  3687 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3688 
  3689 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3690 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3691 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3692 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3696 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3697 
  3698 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3699 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3700 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3701 
  3702 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3703 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3704 
  3705 
  3706 
  3707 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3708 ---------------------------------
  3709 
  3710 *** General ***
  3711 
  3712 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3713 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3714 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3715 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3716 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3717 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3718 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3719 some examples.
  3720 
  3721 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3722 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3723 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3724 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3725 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3726 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3727 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3728 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3729 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3730 
  3731 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3732 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3733 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3734 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3735 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3736 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3737 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3738 proof tools.
  3739 
  3740 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3741 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3742 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3743 
  3744 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3745 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3746 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3747 
  3748 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3749 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3750 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3751 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3754 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3755 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3759 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3760 
  3761 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3762 not check existence within the file-system.
  3763 
  3764 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3765 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3766 
  3767 
  3768 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3769 
  3770 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3771 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3772 buffer.
  3773 
  3774 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3775 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3776 
  3777 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3778 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3779 
  3780 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3781 auxiliary ML files.
  3782 
  3783 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3784 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3785 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3786 
  3787 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3788 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3789 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3790 
  3791 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3792 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3793 
  3794 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3795 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3796 caret".
  3797 
  3798 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3799 completion popup and context-menu.
  3800 
  3801 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3802 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3803 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3804 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3805 
  3806 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3807 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3808 
  3809 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3810 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3811 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3812 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3813 
  3814 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3815 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3816 
  3817 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3818 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3819 
  3820 * Improved monitor panel.
  3821 
  3822 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3823 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3824 
  3825 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3826 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3827 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3828 
  3829 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3830 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3831 within the context.
  3832 
  3833 
  3834 *** Pure ***
  3835 
  3836 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3837 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3838 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3839 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3840 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3841 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3842 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3843 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3844 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3845 
  3846 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3847 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3848 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3849 renaming needs to be applied:
  3850 
  3851   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3852   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3853   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3854   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3855   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3856 
  3857 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3858 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3859 old constants:
  3860 
  3861 setup {*
  3862   fn thy => thy
  3863     |> Sign.root_path
  3864     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3865     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3866     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3867     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3868 *}
  3869 
  3870 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3871 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3872 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3873 
  3874 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3875 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3876 instantiated theorem.
  3877 
  3878 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3879 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3880 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3881 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3882 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3883 
  3884   attribute_setup standard =
  3885     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3886 
  3887 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3888 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3889 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3890 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3891 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3892 
  3893 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3894 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3895 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3896 
  3897 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3898 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3899 
  3900 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3901 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 *** HOL ***
  3905 
  3906 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3907 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3916 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3922 with the given constants.
  3923 
  3924 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3925 operations on records.
  3926 
  3927 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3928 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3933 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3934 
  3935 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3938 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3939 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3940 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3941 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3944 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3947   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3948   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3949   part of theory "Main".
  3950 
  3951   Theory renamings:
  3952     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3953     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3954     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3955     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3956     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3957     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3958     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3959     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3960     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3961     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3962     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3963     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3964     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3965     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3966     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3967     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3968     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3969     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3970     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3971     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3972     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3973     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3974 
  3975   New theories:
  3976     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3977     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3978     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3979     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3980     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3981 
  3982   Discontinued theories:
  3983     BNF/BNF.thy
  3984     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3985 
  3986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * New (co)datatype package:
  3989   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3990   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3991     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3992   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3993     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3994   - Renamed commands:
  3995       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3996       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3997       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3998     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  4000     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  4001     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  4003     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  4004     using "prim(co)rec".
  4005     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  4007     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  4008     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  4010     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  4011     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  4012     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Old datatype package:
  4015   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  4016     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  4017     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  4019     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  4020     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  4023   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  4024   BNF-based datatype package.
  4025 
  4026   Renamed constants:
  4027     Option.set ~> set_option
  4028     Option.map ~> map_option
  4029     option_rel ~> rel_option
  4030 
  4031   Renamed theorems:
  4032     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  4033     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  4034     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  4035     option.recs ~> option.rec
  4036     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  4037     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  4038     map.simps ~> list.map
  4039     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  4040     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  4041     the.simps ~> option.sel
  4042 
  4043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  4046     sum_map ~> map_sum
  4047     map_pair ~> map_prod
  4048     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  4049     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  4050     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  4051     set_rel ~> rel_set
  4052     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  4053     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  4054     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  4055     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  4056 
  4057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4060   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4061   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4062   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4063   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4064     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4065     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4066       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4067       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4068       automatically
  4069     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4070     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4071       automatically for datatypes
  4072   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4073     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4074       more
  4075       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4077       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4078       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4080       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4081       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4083     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4085     form
  4086     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4088     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4090     Code_Numeral.natural
  4091     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4096 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4097 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4098 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4099 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4100 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4101 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4104 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4105 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4106 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4107 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4108 
  4109 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4110 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4111 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4112 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4113 
  4114 * Sledgehammer:
  4115   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4116   - MaSh overhaul:
  4117     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4118       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4119     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4120       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4121       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4122       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4123   - New option:
  4124       smt_proofs
  4125   - Renamed options:
  4126       isar_compress ~> compress
  4127       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4128 
  4129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4132 
  4133 * Nitpick:
  4134   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4135     take infinite values.
  4136   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4137     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4138   - Removed "std" option.
  4139   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4140     "hide_types".
  4141 
  4142 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4143 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4144 
  4145 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4146 
  4147 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4148   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4149   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4150     SUP instead uniformly.
  4151   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4152     or SUP and Sup.
  4153   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4154   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4155   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4156     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4157     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4158 
  4159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4162 
  4163 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4164 
  4165   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4166   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4167   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4168   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4169 
  4170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4173 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4174 
  4175 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4176 
  4177     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4178     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4179     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4180     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4181     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4182     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4183     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4184     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4185     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4186     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4187     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4188     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4189     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4190     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4191     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4192     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4193     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4194     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4195     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4196     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4197     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4198     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4199     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4200     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4201     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4202     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4203     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4204     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4205     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4206     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4207     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4208     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4209     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4210     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4211     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4212     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4213     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4214     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4215     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4216     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4217     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4218     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4219     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4220     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4221     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4222     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4223     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4224     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4225     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4226     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4227     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4228     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4229     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4230     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4231     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4232     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4233     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4234     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4235     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4236 
  4237   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4238   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4239   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4240     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4241 
  4242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4245 
  4246   Fact consolidations:
  4247     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4248     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4249     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4250     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4251     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4252     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4253     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4254     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4255     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4256     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4257     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4258     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4259     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4260     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4261     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4262     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4263     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4264     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4265     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4266     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4267     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4268     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4269     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4270     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4271     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4272     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4273     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4274     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4275     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4276     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4277     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4278     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4279     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4280     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4281     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4282     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4283     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4284     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4285     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4286     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4287 
  4288 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4289 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4290 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4291 
  4292 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4293 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4294 
  4295 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4296 
  4297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4300 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4306     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4307 
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4311   consolidation:
  4312     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4313     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4314 
  4315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4318   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4319   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4320   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4321     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4322   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4323     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4324   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4325 
  4326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4329 
  4330     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4331     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4332     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4333     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4334     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4335     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4336     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4337     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4338     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4339     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4340     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4341     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4342     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4343 
  4344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4347 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4348 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4349 
  4350 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4351     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4352     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4353     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4354     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4355 
  4356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * Fact name consolidation:
  4359     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4360     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4361     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4362     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4363     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4364 
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4368 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4369 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4370 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4371 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4372 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4373 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4377 
  4378 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4379 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4380 
  4381 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4382 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4383 
  4384 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4385 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4386 or the brute way with
  4387 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4388 
  4389 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4390 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4391 stating boundedness of sets.
  4392 
  4393 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4394 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4395 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4398   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4399   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4400   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4401   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4402   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4403   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4404   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4405   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4406   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4407   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4408   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4409 
  4410   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4411 
  4412   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4413 
  4414     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4415     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4416     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4417     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4418     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4419 
  4420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4423   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4424 
  4425   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4426 
  4427   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4428 
  4429   - removed constant isDiff
  4430 
  4431   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4432     input syntax.
  4433 
  4434   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4435 
  4436   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4437 
  4438   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4439 
  4440   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4441 
  4442   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4443     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4444     has_vector_derivative.
  4445 
  4446   - Other renamings:
  4447     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4448     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4449     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4450     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4451     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4452     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4453     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4454 
  4455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4458 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4459 in continuous_intros.
  4460 
  4461 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4462 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4463 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4464 
  4465 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4466 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4467 especially removes
  4468 
  4469     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4470 
  4471 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4472     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4473 
  4474 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4475 
  4476   Renamings:
  4477     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4478     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4479     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4480     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4481     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4482     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4483     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4484     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4485     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4486     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4487     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4488     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4489 
  4490     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4491     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4492     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4493 
  4494   Removed theorems:
  4495     complex_zero_def
  4496     complex_add_def
  4497     complex_minus_def
  4498     complex_diff_def
  4499     complex_one_def
  4500     complex_mult_def
  4501     complex_inverse_def
  4502     complex_scaleR_def
  4503 
  4504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4507 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4510 
  4511 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4512 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4513 
  4514 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4515 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516 
  4517 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4518 
  4519 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * HOL-Word:
  4523   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4524     of "word_arith_wis".
  4525   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4526     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4527     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4528 
  4529 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4530   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4531   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4532   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4533     (except the AFP)
  4534 
  4535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4536 
  4537 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4538   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4539   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4540     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4541   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4542     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4543     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4544     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4545     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4546     intervals.
  4547   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4548     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4549     - renamed theorems:
  4550         interval ~> box
  4551         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4552         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4553         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4554         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4555         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4556         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4557         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4558         open_interval ~> open_box
  4559         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4560         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4561         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4562         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4563         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4564         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4565         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4566         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4567         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4568         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4569         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4570         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4571         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4572         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4573         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4574         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4575         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4576         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4577         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4578         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4579         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4580         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4581         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4582         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4583 
  4584     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4585         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4586         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4587         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4588         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4589         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4590         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4591         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4592         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4593         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4594         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4595         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4596         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4597         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4598         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4599         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4600         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4601         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4602 
  4603   - renamed theorems:
  4604     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4605     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4606     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4607 
  4608 * HOL-Probability:
  4609   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4610 
  4611     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4612       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4613 
  4614     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4615 
  4616   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4617     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4618 
  4619     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4620     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4621     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4622     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4623     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4624     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4625     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4626     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4627     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4628     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4629     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4630     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4631     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4632     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4633     integral_indicator          ~>
  4634          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4635     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4636     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4637     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4638 
  4639     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4640          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4641 
  4642     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4643          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4644 
  4645     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4646          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4647 
  4648     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4649          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4650          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4651 
  4652     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4653          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4654 
  4655     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4656          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4657 
  4658     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4659          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4660          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4661 
  4662     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4663          nn_integral_real_affine
  4664 
  4665     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4666          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4667 
  4668     The following theorems where removed:
  4669 
  4670     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4671     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4672     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4673     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4674     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4675     integral_cmul_indicator
  4676     integral_real
  4677 
  4678   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4679     distributed random variables.
  4680 
  4681 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4682 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 
  4686 *** Scala ***
  4687 
  4688 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4689 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4690 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4691 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4692 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4695 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 
  4698 *** ML ***
  4699 
  4700 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4701 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4702 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4703 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4704 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4705 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4706 
  4707 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4708 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4709 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4710 actually belongs to it).
  4711 
  4712 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4713 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4714 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4715 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4716 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4717 of schematic variables.
  4718 
  4719 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4720 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4723 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4724 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4730 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4731 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4735 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4736 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4737 formal context.
  4738 
  4739 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4740 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4743 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4744 
  4745 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4746 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4747 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4748 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4749 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4750 
  4751 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4752 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4753 purposes.
  4754 
  4755 
  4756 *** System ***
  4757 
  4758 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4759 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4760 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4761 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4762 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4763 
  4764 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4765 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4766 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4767 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4768 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4769 settings variable.
  4770 
  4771 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4772 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4773 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4774 
  4775 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4776 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4777 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4778 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4779 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4780 
  4781 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4782 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4783 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4784 
  4785 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4786 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4787 
  4788 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4789 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4790 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4791 
  4792 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4793 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4794 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4795 processing is started.
  4796 
  4797 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4798 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4799 
  4800 
  4801 
  4802 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4803 -------------------------------------
  4804 
  4805 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4806 
  4807 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4808 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4809 
  4810 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4811 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4812 
  4813 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4814 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4815 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4816 
  4817 
  4818 *** System ***
  4819 
  4820 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4821 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4822 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4823 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4824 
  4825 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4826 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4827 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4828 
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4832 -------------------------------------
  4833 
  4834 *** General ***
  4835 
  4836 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4837 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4838 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4841 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4844 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4845 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4846 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4847 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4848 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4849 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4850 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4851 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4852 syntax.
  4853 
  4854 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4855 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4858 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4859 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4860 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4861 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4862 
  4863 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4865 
  4866 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4867 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4868 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4869 
  4870 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4871 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4872 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4873 
  4874 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4875 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4876 
  4877 
  4878 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4879 
  4880 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4881 Documentation panel.
  4882 
  4883 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4884 documentation.
  4885 
  4886 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4887 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4888 
  4889 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4890 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4891 normal editing and checking process.
  4892 
  4893 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4894 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4895 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4896 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4897 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4898 
  4899 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4900 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4901 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4902 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4903 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4904 
  4905 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4906 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4907 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4908 
  4909 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4910 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4911 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4912 to resolve conflict.
  4913 
  4914 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4915 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4916 
  4917 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4918 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4919 such command executions while editing.
  4920 
  4921 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4922 document content.
  4923 
  4924 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4925 toplevel theorem statements.
  4926 
  4927 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4928 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4929 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4930 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4931 
  4932 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4933 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4934 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4935 
  4936 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4937 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4938 
  4939 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4940 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4941 
  4942 
  4943 *** Pure ***
  4944 
  4945 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4946 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4947 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4948 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4949 details.
  4950 
  4951 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4952 
  4953 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4954 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4955 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4956 
  4957 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4961 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4962 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4963 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4966 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4967 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4970 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4971 
  4972 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4973 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4974 situations.
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 *** HOL ***
  4978 
  4979 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4980 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4982 
  4983 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4984 
  4985 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4986 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4987 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4988 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4989 
  4990   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4991 
  4992 * Code generator:
  4993   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4994     'code_instance'.
  4995   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4996     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4997 
  4998 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4999 examples.
  5000 
  5001 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  5002 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  5003 to distinguish both when desired.
  5004 
  5005 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  5006 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  5007 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  5008 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  5011 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  5012 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  5013 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  5014 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  5015 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  5018 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  5019 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5020 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  5021 
  5022 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  5023 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  5024 
  5025 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  5026 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  5027 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  5028 
  5029 * Lifting:
  5030   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  5031     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  5032       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  5033       transfer rules
  5034     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  5035       correspondence relation can be generated
  5036     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  5037       parametricity
  5038     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  5039   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  5040   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  5041     copies
  5042   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  5043     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  5044     anonymous context)
  5045   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  5046     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5047   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  5048     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  5049   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  5050     INCOMPATIBILITY
  5051 
  5052 * Transfer:
  5053   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  5054     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  5055   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  5056   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  5057     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  5058   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  5059 
  5060 * Reification and reflection:
  5061   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5062     "Reification".
  5063   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5064   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5068   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5069     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5070     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5071   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5072     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5073   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5074     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5075     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5076     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5077     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5078     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5079     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5080     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5081   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5082     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5083   - Fact renames:
  5084       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5085       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5087 
  5088 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5089 
  5090 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5091 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5092 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5094 
  5095 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5096 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5097 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5098 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5099 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5100 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5101 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5102 lemmas.
  5103 
  5104 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5105 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5106 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5107 
  5108 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5109 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5110 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5111 
  5112 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5113 top and bottom elements.
  5114 
  5115 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5116 
  5117 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5118 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5119 
  5120  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5121    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5122    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5123 
  5124  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5125    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5126    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5127 
  5128    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5129    arbitrary filter.
  5130 
  5131  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5132    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5133    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5134    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5135    on a compact set.
  5136 
  5137  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5138    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5139    linear_continuum_topology).
  5140 
  5141  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5142    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5143    on all sequences converging to x.
  5144 
  5145  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5146    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5147    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5148    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5149    left or right.
  5150 
  5151  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5152 
  5153      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5154 
  5155  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5156    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5157 
  5158  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5159    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5160    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5161    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5162    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5163    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5164 
  5165  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5166 
  5167    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5168 
  5169    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5170      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5171 
  5172    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5173 
  5174    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5175      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5176 
  5177    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5178 
  5179    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5180 
  5181  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5182 
  5183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Nitpick:
  5186   - Added option "spy".
  5187   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5188 
  5189 * Sledgehammer:
  5190   - Renamed option:
  5191       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5192     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5193   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5194   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5195   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5196 
  5197 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5198 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5199 
  5200 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5201   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5202   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5203     generated code.
  5204   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5205   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5206   - Fact renames:
  5207     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5208     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5209     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5210 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5213 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5214 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5215 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5216 
  5217 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5218 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5219 
  5220 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5221 
  5222 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5223 
  5224     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5225     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5226 
  5227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5230 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5231 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5232 
  5233 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5234 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5235 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5236 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5237 
  5238 * HOL-BNF:
  5239   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5240     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5241     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5242     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5243   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5244     coinduct).
  5245   - Renamed keywords:
  5246     data ~> datatype_new
  5247     codata ~> codatatype
  5248     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5249   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5250     discs ~> disc
  5251     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5252     map_id' ~> map_id
  5253     sels ~> sel
  5254     set_map' ~> set_map
  5255     sets ~> set
  5256 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5257 
  5258 
  5259 *** ML ***
  5260 
  5261 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5262 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5263 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5264 Examples.thy in particular.
  5265 
  5266 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5267 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5268 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5269 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5270 
  5271 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5272 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5273 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5274 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5276 
  5277 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5278 
  5279     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5280     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5281 
  5282 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5283 
  5284 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5285 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5286 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5287 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5288 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5289 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5290 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5291 
  5292 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5293 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5294 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5295 clasets separately from the context.
  5296 
  5297 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5298 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5299 
  5300 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5301 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5302 
  5303 
  5304 *** System ***
  5305 
  5306 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5307 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5308 
  5309 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5310 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5313 settings variable.
  5314 
  5315 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5316 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5317 always pdf.
  5318 
  5319 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5320 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5321 
  5322 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5323 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5324 
  5325 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5326 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5327 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5328 
  5329 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5330 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5331 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5332 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5333 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5334 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5335 
  5336 
  5337 
  5338 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5339 -----------------------------------
  5340 
  5341 *** General ***
  5342 
  5343 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5344 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5345 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5346 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5347 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5348 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5349 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5350 
  5351 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5352 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5353 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5354 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5355 
  5356 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5357 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5358 
  5359 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5360 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5361 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5362 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5363 dependencies properly.
  5364 
  5365 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5366 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5367 
  5368 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5369 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5370 
  5371 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5372 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5373 and "class ... context ...".
  5374 
  5375 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5376 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5377 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5378 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5379 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5380 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5381 
  5382 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5383 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5384 
  5385 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5386 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5387 
  5388 
  5389 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5390 
  5391 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5392 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5393 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5394 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5395 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5396 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5397 
  5398 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5399 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5400 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5401 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5402 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5403 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5404 
  5405 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5406 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5407 browser on demand.
  5408 
  5409 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5410 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5411 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5412 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5413 
  5414 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5415 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5416 
  5417 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5418 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5419 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5420 potentially infinite message streams.
  5421 
  5422 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5423 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5424 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5425 schemes.
  5426 
  5427 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5428 symbols.
  5429 
  5430 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5431 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5432 
  5433 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5434 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5435 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5436 
  5437 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5438 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5439 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5440 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5441 
  5442 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5443 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5444 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5445 
  5446 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5447 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5448 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5449 Isabelle distribution.
  5450 
  5451 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5452 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5453 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5454 
  5455 
  5456 *** Pure ***
  5457 
  5458 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5459 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5460 
  5461 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5462 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5463 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464 
  5465 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5466 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5467 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5468 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5469 with some care where this is really required.
  5470 
  5471 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5472 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5473 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5474 
  5475   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5476 
  5477 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5478 a Hasse diagram.
  5479 
  5480 
  5481 *** HOL ***
  5482 
  5483 * Sledgehammer:
  5484 
  5485   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5486     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5487   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5488   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5489   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5490   - Renamed options:
  5491       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5492       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5493       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5494       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5495 
  5496 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5497 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5498 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5499 
  5500 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Lifting:
  5504   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5505   - quot_del attribute
  5506   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5507 
  5508 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5509 expressions.
  5510 
  5511 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5512 pointfree expressions.
  5513 
  5514 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5515 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5516 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5517 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5521 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5522 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5523 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5524 accordingly.
  5525 
  5526 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5527 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5528 
  5529 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5530 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5531 
  5532 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5535 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5536 
  5537 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5538 
  5539 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5540 
  5541   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5542   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5543 
  5544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545 
  5546 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5547 
  5548   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5549   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5550 
  5551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5552 
  5553 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5554 
  5555   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5556     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5557     output f x converges to G.
  5558 
  5559   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5560     infinity (at_bot).
  5561 
  5562   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5563     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5564 
  5565   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5566     at_top".
  5567 
  5568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5569 
  5570 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5571 lattice type classes.
  5572 
  5573 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5574 
  5575     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5576     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5577 
  5578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5579 
  5580 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5581 changes as follows.
  5582 
  5583   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5584 
  5585       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5586       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5587 
  5588   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5589     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5590     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5591     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5592 
  5593   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5594     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5595     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5596 
  5597   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5598     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5599     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5600     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5601 
  5602   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5603     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5604 
  5605       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5606       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5607       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5608       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5609       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5610       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5611       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5612       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5613       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5614       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5615       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5616       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5617       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5618       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5619       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5620       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5621 
  5622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5623 
  5624 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5625 
  5626 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5627 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5628 
  5629 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5630 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5631 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5632 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5633 
  5634   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5635   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5636   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5637   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5638   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5639   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5640   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5641   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5642   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5643   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5644 
  5645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5648 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5649 Data").
  5650 
  5651 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5652 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5653 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5654 code.
  5655 
  5656 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5657 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5658 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5660 
  5661 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5662 
  5663 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5664 
  5665 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5666 
  5667   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5668   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5669 
  5670 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5671 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5672 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5673 
  5674   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5675 
  5676     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5677     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5678     cart_base i  removed
  5679     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5680 
  5681   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5682 
  5683   Renamed lemmas:
  5684 
  5685     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5686     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5687     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5688     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5689     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5690     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5691     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5692     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5693     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5694     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5695 
  5696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * HOL/Probability:
  5699 
  5700   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5701 
  5702   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5703     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5704     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5705 
  5706   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5707     projective family).
  5708 
  5709 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5710 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5711 
  5712 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5713 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5714 datatypes.
  5715 
  5716 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5717 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5718 
  5719 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5720 trees for the code generator.
  5721 
  5722 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5723 Lifting/Transfer.
  5724 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725 
  5726 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 
  5730 *** Document preparation ***
  5731 
  5732 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5733 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5734 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5735 
  5736 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5737 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5738 
  5739 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5740 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5741 document/root.tex.
  5742 
  5743 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5744 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5745 
  5746 
  5747 *** ML ***
  5748 
  5749 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5750 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5751 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5752 
  5753 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5754 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5755 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5756 
  5757 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5758 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5759 necessarily printing visible text.
  5760 
  5761 
  5762 *** System ***
  5763 
  5764 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5765 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5766 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5767 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5768 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5769 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5770 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5771 
  5772 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5773 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5774 
  5775   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5776 
  5777 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5778 
  5779 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5780 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5781 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5782 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5783 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5784 
  5785 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5786 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5787 
  5788 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5789 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5790 
  5791 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5793 
  5794 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5795 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5796 version of Isabelle.
  5797 
  5798 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5799 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5800 
  5801 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5802 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5803 for home-made settings.
  5804 
  5805 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5806 
  5807 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5808 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5809 configuration.
  5810 
  5811 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5812 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5813 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5814 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5815 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5816 
  5817 
  5818 
  5819 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5820 ------------------------------
  5821 
  5822 *** General ***
  5823 
  5824 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5825 
  5826   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5827     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5828   - markup for bound variables
  5829   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5830   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5831   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5832     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5833 
  5834 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5835 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5836 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5837 
  5838 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5839 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5840 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5841 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5842 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5843 
  5844   context
  5845     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5846     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5847   begin
  5848 
  5849   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5850 
  5851   end
  5852 
  5853   thm my_trans
  5854 
  5855 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5856 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5857 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5858 
  5859 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5860 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5861 
  5862 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5863 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5864 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5865 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5866 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5867 
  5868 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5869 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5870 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5871 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5872 indices of schematic variables.
  5873 
  5874 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5875 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5876 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5877 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5878 etc. was exploited.
  5879 
  5880 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5881 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5882 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5883 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5884 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5885 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5886 
  5887 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5888 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5889 manual.
  5890 
  5891 
  5892 *** Pure ***
  5893 
  5894 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5895 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5896 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5897 
  5898 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5899 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5900 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5901 undocumented feature.)
  5902 
  5903 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5904 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5905 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5906 
  5907   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5908 
  5909   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5910     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5911 
  5912 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5913 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5914 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5915 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5916 
  5917 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5918 
  5919     num ~> num_token
  5920     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5921     xstr ~> str_token
  5922 
  5923 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5924 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5925 position information via constraints).
  5926 
  5927 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5928 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5929 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5932 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5933 
  5934 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5935 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5936 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5939 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5942 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5943 
  5944   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5945 
  5946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5949 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5950 
  5951 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5952 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5953 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5954 
  5955 
  5956 *** HOL ***
  5957 
  5958 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5959 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5960 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5961 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5962 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5963 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5964 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5965 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5966 possible.
  5967 
  5968 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5969 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5970 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5971 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5972 
  5973 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5974 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5975 
  5976 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5977 
  5978 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5979 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5980 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5981 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5982 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5983 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5984 
  5985   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5986     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5987 
  5988   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5989     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5990     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5991 
  5992   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5993     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5994 
  5995   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5996     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5997     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5998 
  5999   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  6000     Redefine using other integer operations.
  6001 
  6002 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  6003 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  6004 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  6005 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  6006 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  6007 
  6008   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  6009     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  6010     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  6011     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  6012     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  6013 
  6014     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  6015     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  6016 
  6017   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  6018     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  6019     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  6020     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  6021     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  6022     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  6023     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  6024     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  6025 
  6026   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  6027     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  6028     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  6029     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  6030 
  6031   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  6032     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  6033     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  6034     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  6035 
  6036   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  6037     from type nat to type int.
  6038 
  6039 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  6040 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  6041 
  6042   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  6043     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  6044     type.  Example syntax:
  6045 
  6046     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  6047       is List.insert
  6048 
  6049     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  6050     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  6051     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  6052     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  6053     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  6054     by the package.
  6055 
  6056   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  6057     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  6058     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  6059     code generation for each constant.
  6060 
  6061   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6062     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6063     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6064     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6065     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6066 
  6067   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6068     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6069     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6070 
  6071 * Quotient package:
  6072 
  6073   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6074     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6075 
  6076   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6077     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6078 
  6079   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6080     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6081     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6084     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6085 
  6086 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6087 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6088 
  6089 * Quickcheck:
  6090 
  6091   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6092     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6093     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6094     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6095     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6096 
  6097     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6098     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6099     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6100 
  6101     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6102     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6103 
  6104     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6105     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6106     show genuine counterexamples.
  6107 
  6108   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6109     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6110 
  6111     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6112     constructors of that type.
  6113 
  6114   - Support for multisets.
  6115 
  6116   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6117 
  6118   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6119     conjectures in a locale context.
  6120 
  6121 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6122 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6123 
  6124 * Sledgehammer:
  6125   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6126     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6127   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6128   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6129     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6130   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6131   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6132   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6133   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6134 
  6135 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6136 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6137 
  6138 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6139 
  6140 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6141 
  6142 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6143 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6144 
  6145   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6146 
  6147 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6148 a list and a nat.
  6149 
  6150 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6151 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6152 
  6153 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6154 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6155 default.
  6156 
  6157 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6158 
  6159   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6160 
  6161 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6162 
  6163 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6164 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6165 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6166 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6167 one_case.
  6168 
  6169 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6170 the result of the fact expression.
  6171 
  6172 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6173 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6174 of some relation theorems:
  6175 
  6176   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6177   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6178   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6179   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6180   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6181   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6182 
  6183 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6184 
  6185 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6186 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6187 
  6188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6191 to match the constant's name:
  6192 
  6193   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6194   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6195   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6196   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6197   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6198   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6199   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6200   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6201   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6202   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6203   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6204   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6205   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6206   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6207   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6208   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6209   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6210   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6211   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6212   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6213   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6214   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6215   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6216   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6217 
  6218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6219 
  6220 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6221 and corresponding theorem names:
  6222 
  6223   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6224 
  6225   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6226 
  6227   - Renamed theorems:
  6228 
  6229     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6230     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6231     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6232     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6233     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6234     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6235     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6236     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6237     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6238     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6239     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6240     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6241     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6242     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6243     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6244     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6245     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6246     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6247     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6248     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6249     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6250     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6251     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6252 
  6253     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6254 
  6255     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6256 
  6257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6258 
  6259 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.