NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Apr 15 14:50:09 2012 +0200 (2012-04-15)
changeset 47484 e94cc23d434a
parent 47482 a83b25e5bad3
child 47495 573ca05db948
permissions -rw-r--r--
some coverage of bundled declarations;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    14   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    15     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    16 
    17 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    18 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    19 
    20 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    21 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    22 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    23 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    24 etc. was exploited.
    25 
    26 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    27 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    28 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    29 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    30 indices of schematic variables.
    31 
    32 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    33 
    34     num ~> num_token
    35     xnum ~> xnum_token
    36     xstr ~> str_token
    37 
    38 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    39 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    40 position information via constraints).
    41 
    42 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    43 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    44 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    47 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    48 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Pure ***
    52 
    53 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    54 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    55 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    56 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    57 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    58 
    59   context
    60     fixes x y z :: 'a
    61     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    62   begin
    63 
    64   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    65 
    66   end
    67 
    68   thm my_trans
    69 
    70 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    71 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    72 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    73 
    74 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    75 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    76 
    77 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    78 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    79 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    80 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    81 
    82 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    83 manual.
    84 
    85 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    86 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    87 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    88 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    89 
    90 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    91 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    92 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    93 
    94 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    95 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    96 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    97 undocumented feature.)
    98 
    99 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   100 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   101 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   102 
   103 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   107 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   108 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   111 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   114 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   115 
   116   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   117 
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   121 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   122 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   123 
   124   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   127     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   128 
   129 
   130 *** HOL ***
   131 
   132 * New tutorial Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL ("prog-prove").
   133 
   134 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   135 
   136 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   137 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   138 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   139 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   140 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   141 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   142 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   143 as far as possible.
   144 
   145 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   146 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   147 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   148 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   149 
   150 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   151 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   152 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   153 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   154 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   155 may require adaptations as follows:
   156 
   157   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   158     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   159 
   160   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   161     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   162     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   163 
   164   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   165     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   166 
   167   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   168     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   169     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   170 
   171   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   172     Redefine using other integer operations.
   173 
   174 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   175 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   178 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   179 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181 
   182 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   183 
   184 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   185 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   186 
   187   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   188   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   189   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   190   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   191   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   192   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   193   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   194   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   195   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   196   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   197   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   198   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   199   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   200   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   201   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   202   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   203   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   204   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   205   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   206   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   207   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   208 
   209 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   210 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   213 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   214 of some relation theorems:
   215 
   216   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   217   rel_comp_def ~> rel_comp_unfold
   218   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   219   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   220   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   221   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   222 
   223 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   224 
   225 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   226 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   227 
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Consolidated various theorem names relating to Finite_Set.fold
   231 combinator:
   232 
   233   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   234   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   235   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   236   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   237   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   238   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   239 
   240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   243 
   244   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   245   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   246   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   247   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   248   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   249   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   250   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   251   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   252   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   253 
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   257 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   258 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   259 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   260 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   261 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   262 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   263 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   264 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   265 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   266 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   267 
   268 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   269 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   270 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   271 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   272 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   273 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   274 
   275 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   276 through option types.
   277 
   278 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   279 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   280 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   281 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   282 one_case.
   283 
   284 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   285 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   286 
   287 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Renamed some facts on canonical fold on lists, in order to avoid
   290 problems with interpretation involving corresponding facts on foldl
   291 with the same base names:
   292 
   293   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   294   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   295   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   296 
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   300 to match the constant's name:
   301 
   302   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   303   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   304   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   305   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   306   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   307   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   308   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   309   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   310   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   311   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   312   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   313   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   314   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   315   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   316   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   317   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   318   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   319   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   320   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   321   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   322   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   323   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   324   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   325   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   326 
   327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   330 and corresponding theorem names:
   331 
   332   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp
   333 
   334   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   335 
   336   - Renamed theorems:
   337 
   338     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   339     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   340     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   341     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   342     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   343     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   344     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   345     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   346     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   347     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   348     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   349     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   350     rel_comp_unfold ~> relcomp_unfold
   351     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   352     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   353     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   354     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   355     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   356     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   357     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   358     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   359     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   360     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   361 
   362     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   363 
   364     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   365 
   366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   369 association lists with distinct keys.
   370 
   371 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   372 
   373 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   374 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   375 
   376 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   377 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   378 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   379 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   380 follows:
   381 
   382   Operations:
   383   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   384   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   385   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   386   del -> rbt_del
   387   delete -> rbt_delete
   388   ins -> rbt_ins
   389   insert -> rbt_insert
   390   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   391   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   392   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   393   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   394   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   395   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   396   tree_less -> rbt_less
   397   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   398   union -> rbt_union
   399   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   400   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   401 
   402   Lemmas:
   403   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   404   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   405   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   406   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   407   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   408   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   409   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   410   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   411   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   412   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   413   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   414   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   415   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   416   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   417   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   418   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   419   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   420   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   421   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   422   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   423   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   424   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   425   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   426   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   427   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   428   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   429   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   430   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   431   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   432   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   433   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   434   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   435   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   436   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   437   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   438   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   439   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   440   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   441   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   442   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   443   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   444   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   445   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   446   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   447   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   448   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   449   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   450   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   451   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   452   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   453   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   454   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   455   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   456   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   457   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   458   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   459   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   460   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   461   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   462   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   463   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   464   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   465   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   466   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   467   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   468   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   469   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   470   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   471   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   472   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   473   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   474   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   475   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   476   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   477   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   478   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   479   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   480   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   481   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   482   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   483   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   484   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   485   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   486 
   487 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   488 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   489 instead.
   490 
   491   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   492   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   493   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   494   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   495   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   496   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   497   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   498   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   499   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   500   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   501   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   502   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   503   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   504   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   505   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   506   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   507   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   508   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   509   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   510   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   511   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   512   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   513   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   514   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   515   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   516   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   517   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   518   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   519   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   520   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   521   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   522   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   523   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   524   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   525   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   526   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   527   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   528   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   529   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   530   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   531   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   532 
   533 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   534 the result of the fact expression.
   535 
   536 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   537 relations.
   538 
   539 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   542 
   543 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   544 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   545 
   546   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   547   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   548   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   549   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   550   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   551   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   552   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   553   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   554   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   555   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   556   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   557   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   558   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   559   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   560   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   561   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   562   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   563   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   564   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   565   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   566   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   567   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   568   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   569   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   570   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   571   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   572   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   573   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   574   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   575   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   576   zless_le ~> less_le
   577   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   578   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   579   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   580 
   581 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   582 
   583   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   584 
   585 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   586 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   587 
   588   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   589 
   590 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   591 a list and a nat.
   592 
   593 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   594 
   595 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   596 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   597 
   598 * Quickcheck:
   599 
   600   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   601     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   602     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   603     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   604     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   605 
   606     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   607     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   608     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   609 
   610     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   611     continues searching for genuine ones.
   612 
   613     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   614     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   615     show genuine counterexamples.
   616 
   617   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   618     value generators for a given type and operations.
   619 
   620     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   621     constructors of that type.
   622 
   623   - Support for multisets.
   624 
   625   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   626 
   627   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   628     conjectures in a locale context.
   629 
   630 * Nitpick:
   631 
   632   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   633     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   634 
   635 * Sledgehammer:
   636   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   637   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   638   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   639 
   640 * Metis:
   641   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   642     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   643 
   644 * SMT:
   645   - renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   646 
   647 * Command 'try0':
   648   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   651 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   652 
   653 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   654 into Isabelle/HOL.
   655 
   656 
   657 *** FOL ***
   658 
   659 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   660 
   661 
   662 *** ZF ***
   663 
   664 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   665 analysis.
   666 
   667 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   668 
   669 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   670 
   671 
   672 *** ML ***
   673 
   674 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   675 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   676 
   677 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   678 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   679 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   680 
   681 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   682 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   683 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   684 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   685 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   686 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   687 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   688 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   689 
   690 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   691 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   692 
   693 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   694 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   695 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   696 
   697 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   698 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   701 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   702 context as well.
   703 
   704 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   705 
   706   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   707   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   708   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   709   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   710   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   711   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   712   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   713   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   714   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   715   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   716   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   717   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   718 
   719 
   720 *** System ***
   721 
   722 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   723 (not just JRE).
   724 
   725 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   726 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   727 
   728 
   729 
   730 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   731 ------------------------------------
   732 
   733 *** General ***
   734 
   735 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   736 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   737 
   738   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   739     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   740     files for checking).
   741 
   742   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   743     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   744     positions.
   745 
   746   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   747     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   748     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   749 
   750   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   751     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   752     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   753 
   754   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   755     cores.
   756 
   757   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   758     versions (garbage collection).
   759 
   760 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   761 including some remaining limitations.
   762 
   763 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   764 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   765 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   766 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   767 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   771 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   772 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   773 
   774 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   775 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   776 usedir option -Q.
   777 
   778 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   779 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   780 
   781   long_names   ~> names_long
   782   short_names  ~> names_short
   783   unique_names ~> names_unique
   784 
   785 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   786 
   787   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   788 
   789 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   790 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   791 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   792 
   793 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   794 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   795 
   796 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   797   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   798   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   799   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   800     "Classical Reasoner".
   801 
   802 
   803 *** HOL ***
   804 
   805 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   806 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   809 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   810 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   811 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   812 class complete_linorder.
   813 
   814 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   815 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   816 
   817 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   818 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   819 
   820   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   821   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   822   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   823   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   824   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   825   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   826   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   827   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   828   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   829   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   830   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   831 
   832 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   833 
   834   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   835   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   836   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   837   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   838   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   839   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   840   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   841   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   842   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   843   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   844   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   845   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   846   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   847   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   848   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   849   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   850 
   851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   857 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   858 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   859 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   862 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   863 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   867 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   868 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   869 
   870 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   871 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   872 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   875 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   876 
   877 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   878 
   879     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   880     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   881 
   882 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   883 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   886 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   889 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   890 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   891 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   894   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   895   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   896   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   897   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   898   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   899   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   900 
   901 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   902 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   905   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   906   real_less_def ~> less_le
   907   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   908   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   909   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   910   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   911   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   912   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   913   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   914   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   915   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   916   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   917   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   918   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   919   real_le_linear ~> linear
   920   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   921   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   922   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   923   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   924   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   925   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   926   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   927   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   928   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   929   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   930   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   931   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   932   expi_add ~> exp_add
   933   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   934   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   935   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   936   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   937   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   938   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   939   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   940   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   941   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   942   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   943   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   944   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   945   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   946   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   947   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   948   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   949   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   950   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   951   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   952   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   953   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   954   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   955   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   956   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   957   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   958   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   959   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   960   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   961   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   962   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   963   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   964   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   965   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   966   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   967   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   968   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   969   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   970   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   971   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   972   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   973   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   974   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   975   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   976   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   977   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   978   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   979   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   980   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   981   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   982   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   983   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   984   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   985   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   986 
   987 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   988 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   989 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   990 
   991 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   992 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   993 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   994 
   995 * Code generation:
   996 
   997   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   998     characters in the target language.
   999 
  1000   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1001     instead.
  1002 
  1003   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1004 
  1005   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1006     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1007 
  1008       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1009 
  1010 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1013 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1014 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1015 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1016 syntax.
  1017 
  1018 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1019 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1020 
  1021 * Nitpick:
  1022   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1023   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1024   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1025     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Sledgehammer:
  1028   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1029   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1030     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1031   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1032     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1033   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1034     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1035   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1036     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1037   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1038     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1039 
  1040 * Metis:
  1041   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1043     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Command 'try':
  1046   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1047     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1049     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1050 
  1051 * Quickcheck:
  1052   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1053     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1054   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1055     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1056   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1057     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1058     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1059     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1060   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1061     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1062 
  1063 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1064 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1065 
  1066 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1067 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1068 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1069 
  1070 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1071 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1075 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1078 arithmetic.
  1079 
  1080 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1081 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1082 and lattice type classes.
  1083 
  1084 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1085 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1086 
  1087 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1088 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1089 
  1090 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1091 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1092 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1095   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1096   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1097   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1100 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1101 constants:
  1102 
  1103   type inat   ~> type enat
  1104   Fin         ~> enat
  1105   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1106   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1107   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1108 
  1109 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1110 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1113 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1114 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1115 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1116 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1117 
  1118 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1119 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1120 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1121 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1122 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1123 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1124 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1125 
  1126   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1127   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1128   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1129   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1130 
  1131 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1132 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1133 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134 
  1135   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1136   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1137   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1138   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1139   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1140   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1141   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1142   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1143   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1144   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1145   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1146   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1147   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1148   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1149   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1150   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1151   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1152   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1153   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1154   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1155   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1156   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1157   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1158   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1159   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1160   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1161   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1162   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1163   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1164   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1165   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1166   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1167   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1168   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1169   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1170   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1171   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1172   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1173   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1174   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1175   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1176   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1177   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1178   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1179   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1180   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1181   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1182   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1183   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1184   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1185   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1186 
  1187 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1188   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1189   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1190   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1191   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1192     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1197   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1198   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1199   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1200   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1201   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1202   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1203   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1204   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1205   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1206   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1207   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1208   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1209   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1210   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1211   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1212   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1213   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1214   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1215   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1216   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1217   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1218   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1219   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1220   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1221 
  1222 
  1223 *** Document preparation ***
  1224 
  1225 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1226 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1227 same.
  1228 
  1229 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1230 result.
  1231 
  1232 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1233 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1234 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1235 
  1236 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1237 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1238 
  1239 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1240 like this:
  1241 
  1242   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1243   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1244 
  1245 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1246 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1247 layouts.
  1248 
  1249 
  1250 *** ML ***
  1251 
  1252 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1253 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1254 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1255 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1256 under external program control.
  1257 
  1258 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1259 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1260 
  1261 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1262 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1263 (better known as Proof General).
  1264 
  1265 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1266 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1267 
  1268 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1269 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1270 
  1271 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1272 (including quotes etc.).
  1273 
  1274 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1275 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1276 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1277 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1278 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1279 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1280 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1281 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1282 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1283 
  1284 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1285 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1286 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1287 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1288 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1289 
  1290 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1291 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1292 
  1293 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1294 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1295 
  1296 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1297 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1298 
  1299 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1300 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1301 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1302 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1303 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1304 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1305 proper Proof.context.
  1306 
  1307 
  1308 *** System ***
  1309 
  1310 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1311 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1312 
  1313 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1314 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1315 
  1316 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1317 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1318 
  1319   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1320   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1321   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1322   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1323   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1324 
  1325 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1326 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1329 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1330 example:
  1331 
  1332   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1333 
  1334 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1335 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1336 
  1337 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1338 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1339 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1340 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1341 
  1342 
  1343 
  1344 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1345 ----------------------------------
  1346 
  1347 *** General ***
  1348 
  1349 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1350 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1351 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1352 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1353 like this:
  1354 
  1355   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1356 
  1357 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1358 
  1359 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1360 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1361 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1362 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1363 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1364 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1365 
  1366 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1367 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1368 the following package declarations:
  1369 
  1370   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1371   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1372 
  1373 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1374 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1375 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1376 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1377 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1378 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1379 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1380 
  1381 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1382 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1383 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1384 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1385 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1386 
  1387 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1388 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1389 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1390 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1391 
  1392 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1393 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1394 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1395 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1396 
  1397   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1398 
  1399   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1400   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1401   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1402   show_types                    show_types
  1403   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1404   show_consts                   show_consts
  1405   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1406 
  1407   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1408   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1409   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1410 
  1411   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1412   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1413 
  1414   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1415 
  1416   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1417   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1418   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1419   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1420   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1421 
  1422 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1423 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1424 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1425 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1426 
  1427 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1431   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1432 
  1433 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1434 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1435 float_token.
  1436 
  1437 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1438 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1442 DejaVu Sans.
  1443 
  1444 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1445 
  1446 
  1447 *** Pure ***
  1448 
  1449 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1450 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1451 time.
  1452 
  1453 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1454 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1457 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1460 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1461 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1462 command already provided this functionality.
  1463 
  1464 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1465 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1466 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1467 without interpretations.
  1468 
  1469 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1470 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1471 
  1472 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1473 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1474 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1475 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1476 
  1477 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1478 'definition' instead.
  1479 
  1480 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1481 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1482 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1483 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1484 
  1485 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1486 constructors.
  1487 
  1488 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1489 the local file system.
  1490 
  1491 
  1492 *** HOL ***
  1493 
  1494 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1495 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1496 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1497 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1498 
  1499   declare [[coercion f]]
  1500 
  1501 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1502 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1503 
  1504   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1505 
  1506 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1507 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1508 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1509 other theories like this:
  1510 
  1511   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1512 
  1513 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1514 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1515 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1516 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1517 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1518 for examples.
  1519 
  1520 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1521 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1524 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1525 
  1526 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1527 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1528 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1529 
  1530 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1531 functorial structure of types.
  1532 
  1533 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1534 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1535 
  1536 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1537 languages.
  1538 
  1539 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1540 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1544 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1547 combinators any longer.
  1548 
  1549 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1550 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1551 
  1552 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1553 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1554 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1555 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1556 
  1557   record 'a foo = ...
  1558   ...
  1559   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1560 
  1561 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1562 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1566 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1567 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1568 
  1569 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1570 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1571 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1572 
  1573 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1574 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1577 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1578 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1579 independently.
  1580 
  1581 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1582 counter example search.
  1583 
  1584 * Sledgehammer:
  1585   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1586     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1587     sledgehammer").
  1588   - Renamed commands:
  1589     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1590     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1591     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1592     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593   - Renamed options:
  1594     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1595     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1596     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1597     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1598     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Nitpick:
  1601   - Renamed options:
  1602     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1603     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1604     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1606   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1607   - Added "whack" option.
  1608   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1609   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1610   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1611   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1612     higher cardinalities.
  1613   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1614 
  1615 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1616 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1617 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1618 
  1619     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1620 
  1621 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1622 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1623 
  1624 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1625 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1626 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1627 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1628 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1629 "smt_solver".
  1630 
  1631 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1632 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1633 
  1634 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1635 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1636 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1637 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1640   - Renamed:
  1641     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1642     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1643     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644   - Added:
  1645     smt_verbose
  1646     smt_random_seed
  1647     smt_datatypes
  1648     smt_infer_triggers
  1649     smt_monomorph_limit
  1650     cvc3_options
  1651     remote_cvc3_options
  1652     remote_z3_options
  1653     yices_options
  1654 
  1655 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1656 header.
  1657 
  1658 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1659 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1660 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1661 
  1662   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1663 
  1664 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1667 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1668 
  1669 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1672 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1675 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1676 
  1677 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1678 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1681 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1682 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1690 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1693 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1694 for congruent(2)).
  1695 
  1696 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1697 
  1698   types
  1699     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1700     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1701 
  1702   constants
  1703     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1704     True ~> HOL.True
  1705     False ~> HOL.False
  1706     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1707     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1708     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1709     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1710     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1711     The ~> HOL.The
  1712     All ~> HOL.All
  1713     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1714     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1715     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1716     If ~> HOL.If
  1717     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1718     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1719     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1720     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1721     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1722     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1723     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1724     op : ~> Set.member
  1725     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1726 
  1727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1728 
  1729 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1730 
  1731     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1732     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1733     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1734     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1735     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1736     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1737     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1738     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1739 
  1740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742 * More stylized fact names:
  1743 
  1744   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1745   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1746   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1747   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1748 
  1749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1750 
  1751 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1752 
  1753   constants
  1754     null ~> List.null
  1755 
  1756   facts
  1757     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1758     null_empty ~> null_def
  1759 
  1760 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1761 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1762 generation.
  1763 
  1764 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1765 Haskell code.
  1766 
  1767 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1768 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1769 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1770 
  1771 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1772 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1775 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1776 
  1777 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1778 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1779 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1782 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1786 
  1787 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1788 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1789 referred to by its qualified name.
  1790 
  1791   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1792   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1793   product ~>  Enum.product
  1794 
  1795 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1796 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1798 
  1799 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1800 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1801 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803 
  1804 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1805 sort_key.
  1806 
  1807 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1809 
  1810 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1811 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1812 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1813 
  1814   types
  1815     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1816               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1817               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1818         (depends on your needs)
  1819 
  1820   constants
  1821      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1822      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1823      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1824 
  1825 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1826 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1827 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1828 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1831 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1832 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1833 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1834 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1840 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1841 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1842 
  1843 
  1844 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1845 
  1846 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1847 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1848 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1849 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1850 compatibility.
  1851 
  1852 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1853 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1854 
  1855 
  1856 *** HOLCF ***
  1857 
  1858 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1859 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1860 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1864 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1865 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1868   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1869   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1870 
  1871 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1872 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1873 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1876 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1877 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1878 domain definition now works:
  1879 
  1880   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1881 
  1882 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1883 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1884 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1885 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1886 
  1887   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1888     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1889 
  1890   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1891 
  1892 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1893 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1894 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1897 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1898 
  1899 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1900 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1901 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1902 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1903 
  1904 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1905 
  1906 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1914 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1915 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1916 
  1917 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1918 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1919 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1922 still supported as an input translation.
  1923 
  1924 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1925 
  1926   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1927   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1928   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1929   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1930   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1931   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1932   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1933 
  1934 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1935 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1936 
  1937   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1938   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1939   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1940   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1941   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1942   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1943 
  1944 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1945 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1948 
  1949   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1950   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1951   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1952   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1953 
  1954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1957 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1960 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1963   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1964   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1965   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1966   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1967   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1968   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1969   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1970   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1971   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1972   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1973   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1974   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1975   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1976   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1977   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1978   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1979   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1980   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1981   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1982 
  1983 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1986   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1987   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1988   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1989   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1990   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1991   box_less             ~> box_below
  1992   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1993   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1994   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1995   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1996   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1997   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1998   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1999   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2000   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2001   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2002   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2003   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2004   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2005   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2006   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2007   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2008   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2009   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2010   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2011   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2012   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2013   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2014   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2015   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2016   up_less              ~> up_below
  2017   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2018   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2019   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2020   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2021   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2022   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2023   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2024   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2025   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2026   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2027   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2028   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2029   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2030 
  2031 
  2032 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2033 
  2034 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2035 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2036 
  2037 
  2038 *** ML ***
  2039 
  2040 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2041 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2042 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2043 
  2044 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2045 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2046 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2047 
  2048 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2049 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2050 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2051 
  2052 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2053 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2054 
  2055 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2056 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2057 
  2058 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2059 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2060 
  2061 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2062 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2063 
  2064 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2065 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2066 almost all situations.
  2067 
  2068 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2069 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2070 Isabelle/ML.
  2071 
  2072 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2073 meaning.
  2074 
  2075 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2076 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2077 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2078 
  2079 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2080 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2081 
  2082 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2083 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2084 
  2085 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2086 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2087 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2088 
  2089 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2090 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2091 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2092 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2093 configuration options.
  2094 
  2095 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2096 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2097 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2098 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2099 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2100 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2101 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2102 
  2103 
  2104 
  2105 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2106 ---------------------------------
  2107 
  2108 *** General ***
  2109 
  2110 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2111 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2112 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2113 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2114 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2115 their full internal name.
  2116 
  2117 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2118 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2119 Some hints on upgrading:
  2120 
  2121   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2122     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2123     which are independent of this issue.
  2124 
  2125   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2126     provides the following special forms:
  2127 
  2128       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2129       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2130       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2131 
  2132     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2133     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2134     extra variables".
  2135 
  2136     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2137     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2138     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2139     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2140     "logic".
  2141 
  2142   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2143     antiquotations:
  2144 
  2145       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2146       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2147       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2148       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2149 
  2150   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2151     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2152     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2153     antiquotations.
  2154 
  2155 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2156 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2157 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2158 diagnose syntax problems.
  2159 
  2160 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2161 
  2162 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2163 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2164 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2165 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2166 
  2167 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2168 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2169 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2170 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2173 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2174 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2175 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2176 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2179 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2180 
  2181 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2182 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2183 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2184 
  2185   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2186 
  2187 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2188 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2189 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2190 
  2191 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2192 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2196 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2197 
  2198 
  2199 *** Pure ***
  2200 
  2201 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2202 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2203 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2204 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2205 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2206 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2207 inspect proof terms.
  2208 
  2209 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2210 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2211 are added internally.  For example:
  2212 
  2213   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2214 
  2215 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2216 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2221 'class' instead.
  2222 
  2223 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2224 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2228 invariants.
  2229 
  2230 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2231 user space functionality any longer.
  2232 
  2233 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2234 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2238 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2239 
  2240 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2241 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2242 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2243 
  2244 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2245 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2246 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2247 
  2248 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2249 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 
  2252 *** HOL ***
  2253 
  2254 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2255 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2256 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2257 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2258 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2259 
  2260 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2261 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2262 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2263 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2264 
  2265   fun
  2266     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2267   where
  2268     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2269 
  2270   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2271     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2272 
  2273   quotient_definition
  2274     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2275 
  2276 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2277 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2278 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2279 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2280 
  2281 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2282 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2283 
  2284 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2285 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2286 
  2287 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2291 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2292 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2293 
  2294 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2295 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2304 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2307 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2308 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2311   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2312   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2313   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2314   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2315   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2316   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2317   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2318   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2319   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2320   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2321   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2322   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2323   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2324   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2325   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2326   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2327   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2328   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2329   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2330   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2331   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2332   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2333   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2334   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2335   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2336   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2337   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2338   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2339   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2340 
  2341 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2342 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2343 
  2344 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2345 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2346 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2347 
  2348 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2349 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2350 
  2351 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2352 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2355 
  2356 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2357 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2360 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363 
  2364 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2365 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2366 
  2367 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2368 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2369 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2370 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2373   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2374   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2375   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2379 lattices):
  2380 
  2381     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2382     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2383 
  2384     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2385 
  2386     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2387     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2388     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2389     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2390     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2391     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2392     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2393     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2394     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2395     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2396     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2397     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2398     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2399 
  2400     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2401     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2402     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2403     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2404     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2405     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2406     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2407     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2408     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2409     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2410     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2411     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2412     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2413     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2414     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2415     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2416     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2417     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2418 
  2419   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2420   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2421 
  2422     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2423     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2424     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2425     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2426     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2427 
  2428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429 
  2430 * Refined field classes:
  2431   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2432     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2433     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2434   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2438   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2439   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2440   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2441     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2442   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2443     equal_neg_zero.
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2447 sets to lattices:
  2448 
  2449   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2450   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2451   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2452   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2453   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2454   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2455   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2456   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2457   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2458   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2459 
  2460 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2461 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2462 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2463 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2464 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2465 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2468 multiset order:
  2469 
  2470   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2471     <= and <;
  2472   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2473     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2474     multiset_order;
  2475   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2476     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2477     generation;
  2478   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2479     if needed.
  2480 
  2481 Renamed:
  2482 
  2483   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2484   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2485   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2486 
  2487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2490 
  2491 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2492 
  2493 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2494 
  2495 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2496 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2497 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499   Constants:
  2500   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2501   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2502   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2503   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2504   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2505   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2506   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2507   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2508   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2509   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2510   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2511   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2512   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2513 
  2514   Lemmas:
  2515   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2516   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2517   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2518   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2519   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2520   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2521   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2522   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2523   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2524   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2525   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2526   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2527   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2528 
  2529 * Sledgehammer:
  2530   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2531     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2532     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2533     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2534     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2535     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2536     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2538   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2539     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2540   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2541     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2542     is still experimental.)
  2543   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2544     full-typed mode.
  2545   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2546 
  2547 * Nitpick:
  2548   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2549   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2550   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2551     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2552   - Added support for quotient types.
  2553   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2554     constructs.
  2555   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2556     "termination" proofs).
  2557   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2558   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2559   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2560   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2561     record getters.
  2562   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2563   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2564   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2565   - Added "atoms" option.
  2566   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2567     problems.
  2568   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2569     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2570     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2572     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2576   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2577   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2578   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2579   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2580   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2581   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2582   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2583   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2584   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 
  2587 *** HOLCF ***
  2588 
  2589 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2590 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2591 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2592 
  2593 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2594 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2595 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2596 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2599 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2600 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2601 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2602 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2605 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2606 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2609 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2612   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2613 
  2614 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2615 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2618   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2619   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2620   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2621   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2622 
  2623 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2624 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2627   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2628   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2629 
  2630 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2631 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2635 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2640 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 
  2643 *** ML ***
  2644 
  2645 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2646 
  2647     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2648     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2649 
  2650     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2651     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2652     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2653     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2654 
  2655     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2656     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2657     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2658 
  2659 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2660 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2661 
  2662 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2663 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2664 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2665 
  2666 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2667 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2668 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2669 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2670 
  2671 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2672 the context or even global references.
  2673 
  2674 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2675 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2676 
  2677 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2678 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2679 
  2680   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2681   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2682   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2683   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2684   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2685   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2686   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2687   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2688   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2689   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2690 
  2691 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2692 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2693 
  2694 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2695 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2696 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2697 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2698 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2699 
  2700 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2701 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2702 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2703 Theory_Data version.
  2704 
  2705 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2706 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2707 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2708 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2709 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2710 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2711 explicitly in rare situations.
  2712 
  2713 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2714 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2718 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2719 
  2720 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2721 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2722 quite rare).
  2723 
  2724 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2725 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2728 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2729 terms.
  2730 
  2731 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2732 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2733 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2734 
  2735 
  2736 *** System ***
  2737 
  2738 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2739 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2740 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2741 
  2742 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2743 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2744 respectively.
  2745 
  2746 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2747 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2748 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2749 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2750 
  2751   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2752 
  2753 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2754 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2755 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2756 component.
  2757 
  2758 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2759 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2760 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2761 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2762 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2763 the user for manual installation.
  2764 
  2765 
  2766 
  2767 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2768 -------------------------------------
  2769 
  2770 *** General ***
  2771 
  2772 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2773 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2774 
  2775 
  2776 *** Pure ***
  2777 
  2778 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2779 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2780 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2781 
  2782 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2783 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2784 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2785 
  2786 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2787 interpretation.
  2788 
  2789 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2790 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 
  2793 *** Document preparation ***
  2794 
  2795 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2796 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2797 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2798 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2799 
  2800 
  2801 *** HOL ***
  2802 
  2803 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2804 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2805 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2806 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2807 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2808 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2809 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2810 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2811 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2812 
  2813 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2814 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2815 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2816 
  2817 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2818 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2819 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2820 
  2821 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2822 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2823 
  2824 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2825 
  2826 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2827 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2828 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2829 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2830 
  2831 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2832 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2833 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2834 "mirabelle" utility.
  2835 
  2836 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2837 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2838 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2839 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2840 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2841 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2842 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2843 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2844 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2845 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2846 
  2847 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2848 procedure only.
  2849 
  2850 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2851 
  2852 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2853 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2854 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2855 that fail later.
  2856 
  2857 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2858 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2859 
  2860 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2861 the same method as the approximation method.
  2862 
  2863 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2864 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2865 series expansion.
  2866 
  2867 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2868 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2869 
  2870 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2871 reals.
  2872 
  2873 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2874 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2875 
  2876 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2877 fixpoint theorem.
  2878 
  2879 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2880   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2881     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2882   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2883     accordingly
  2884   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2885     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2886   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2887     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2888 
  2889 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2890 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2891 lattice.
  2892 
  2893 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2894 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2895 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2896 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2897 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2898 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2902   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2903     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2904   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2905     le_inf_iff
  2906   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2907     sup_aci)
  2908   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2909   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2910   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2911     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2912     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2913     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2914     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2915     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2916     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2917     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2918     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2919     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2920     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2921   - authentic syntax for
  2922     Set.Pow
  2923     Set.image
  2924   - mere abbreviations:
  2925     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2926     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2927     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2928     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2929     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2930     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2931     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2932     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2933   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2934 
  2935 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2936 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2937 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2938 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2939 
  2940 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2941 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2942 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2945 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2948 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2949 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2950 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2953 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2954 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2955 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2956 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2957 
  2958 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2959 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2963 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2966 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2967 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2968 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2969 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2970 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2971 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2975     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2976     code_post       replaces    code post
  2977     etc.
  2978   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Renamed methods:
  2981     sizechange -> size_change
  2982     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2983   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2986 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2987 
  2988 * Renamed theorems:
  2989     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2990     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2991     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2992     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2993     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2994   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 
  3003 *** HOLCF ***
  3004 
  3005 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3006 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3007 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3008 
  3009 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3010 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3011 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3012 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3013 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3014 
  3015 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3016 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3017 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3018 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3019 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3020 
  3021 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3022 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3023 constructor are pre-configured.
  3024 
  3025 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3026 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3027 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3028 
  3029 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3030 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3031 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3032 as well.)
  3033 
  3034 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3035 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3036 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3037 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3038 examples.
  3039 
  3040 
  3041 *** ML ***
  3042 
  3043 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3044 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3045 
  3046 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3047 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3048 position, logical grouping etc.
  3049 
  3050 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3051 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3052 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3053 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3054 
  3055 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3056 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3057 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3058 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3059 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3060 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3061 
  3062 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3063 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3064 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3065 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3066 experiments with references.
  3067 
  3068 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3069 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3070 
  3071 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3072 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3073 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3074 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3075 
  3076 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3077 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3078 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3079 
  3080 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3081 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3082 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3090 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3091 
  3092 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3093 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3094 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3095 
  3096 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3097 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3098 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3101 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3102 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3106 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3107 instead of global theory.
  3108 
  3109 
  3110 *** System ***
  3111 
  3112 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3113 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3114 usedir option -q.
  3115 
  3116 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3117 also the system manual.
  3118 
  3119 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3120 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3121 
  3122 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3123 this is always enabled.
  3124 
  3125 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3126 
  3127 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3128 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3129 currently supported on Linux only.
  3130 
  3131 
  3132 
  3133 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3134 --------------------------------
  3135 
  3136 *** General ***
  3137 
  3138 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3139 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3140 
  3141   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3142     "isatool."
  3143 
  3144   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3145     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3146 
  3147   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3148     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3149 
  3150 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3151 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3152 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3153 
  3154 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3155 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3156 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3157 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3158 via "isabelle emacs".
  3159 
  3160 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3161 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3162 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3163 
  3164 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3165 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3166 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3167 
  3168 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3169 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3170 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3171 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3172 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3173 
  3174 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3175 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3176 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3177 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3178 
  3179 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3180 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3181 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3182 
  3183 
  3184 *** Pure ***
  3185 
  3186 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3187 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3188 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3189 
  3190 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3191 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3192 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3193 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3194 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3195 
  3196 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3197 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3198 useful in locale declarations.
  3199 
  3200 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3201 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3202 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3203 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3204 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3205 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3206 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3207 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3208 no longer generated.
  3209 
  3210 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3211 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3212 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3213 
  3214 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3215 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3216 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3217 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3218 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3219 
  3220 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3222 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3223 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3224 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3225 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3226 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3227 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3228 
  3229 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3230 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3231 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3232 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3233 
  3234 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3237 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3238 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3239 
  3240 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3241 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3244 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3245 in HOL, write
  3246 
  3247     class foo = ...
  3248 
  3249 instead of
  3250 
  3251     class foo = type + ...
  3252 
  3253 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3254 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3257 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3258 
  3259 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3260 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3261 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3262 
  3263 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3264 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3265 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3267 directly in regular applications.
  3268 
  3269 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3270 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3271 
  3272 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3273 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3274 
  3275 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3276 theory context.
  3277 
  3278 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3279 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3282 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3283 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3284 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3285 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3286 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3287 
  3288   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3289 
  3290 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3291 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3292 normalization.
  3293 
  3294 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3295 addressing etc.
  3296 
  3297 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3298 
  3299   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3300   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3301 
  3302 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3303 
  3304   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3305      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3306      parts of the code generator framework).
  3307 
  3308   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3309      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3310      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3311 
  3312 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3315 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3318 patterns, e.g.
  3319 
  3320     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3321 
  3322 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3323 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3324 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3325 hyphen:
  3326 
  3327     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3328 
  3329 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3330 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3331 
  3332 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3333 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3334 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3335 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3336 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3337 higher-order unification.
  3338 
  3339 
  3340 *** Document preparation ***
  3341 
  3342 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3343 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3344 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3345 
  3346 
  3347 *** HOL ***
  3348 
  3349 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3350 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3351 
  3352 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3353 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3354 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3355 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3356 Main, as before.
  3357 
  3358 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3359 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3360 
  3361 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3362 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3363 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3364 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3365 
  3366 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3367 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3368 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3369 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3370 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3371 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3372 
  3373 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3374 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3375 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3376 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3377 
  3378 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3379 menu.
  3380 
  3381 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3382 (contains the empty clause).
  3383 
  3384 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3385 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3386 
  3387 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3388 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3389 
  3390 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3391 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3392 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3395 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3396 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3397 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3398 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3399 
  3400 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3401 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3402 
  3403 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3404 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3405 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3406 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3407 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3408 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3409 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3410 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3411 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3412 
  3413 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3414 
  3415 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3416 
  3417 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3418 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3421 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3422 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3423 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3424 
  3425 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3426 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3427 
  3428     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3429     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3430     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3431     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3432     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3433     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3434     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3435     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3436 
  3437 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3438 theory Set.
  3439 
  3440 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3441 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3442 
  3443 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3444 
  3445 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3446 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3447 
  3448 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3449 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3450 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3451 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3452 allowed. For examples see
  3453 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3454 
  3455 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3456 
  3457 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3461 structure:
  3462 
  3463     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3464     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3465     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3466     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3467     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3468     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3469     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3470     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3471     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3472     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3473     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3474     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3475     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3476     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3477     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3478     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3479     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3480     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3481     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3482     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3483     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3484     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3485     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3486     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3487     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3488     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3489     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3490     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3491     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3492     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3493     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3494     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3495     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3496 
  3497     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3498     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3499     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3500     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3501     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3502     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3503     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3504     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3505     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3506     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3507 
  3508     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3509     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3510     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3511     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3512     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3513     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3514 
  3515 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3516 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3517 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3518 
  3519 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3520 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3521 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3522 
  3523 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3524 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3527 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3528 
  3529 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3530 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3531 proofs, e.g.
  3532 
  3533   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3534 
  3535 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3536 
  3537 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3538 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3539 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3542 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3546 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3547 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3551 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3552 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3553 preorder_class.*.
  3554 
  3555 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3556 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3557 
  3558 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3559 
  3560   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3561 
  3562 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3563 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3564 fold_image.
  3565 
  3566 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3567 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3568 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3569 the former will disappear at some point.
  3570 
  3571 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3572 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3573 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3574 
  3575 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3576 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3577 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3578 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3579 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3580 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3581 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3582 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3583 
  3584 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3585 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3586 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3587 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3588 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3589 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3590 
  3591     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3592     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3593     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3594     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3595     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3596     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3597     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3598 
  3599 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3600 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3601 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3602 
  3603 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3604 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3605 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3606 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3607 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3608 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3609 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3610 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3611 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3612 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3613 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3614 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3615 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3616 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3617 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3618 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3619 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3620 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3621 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3622 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3623 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3624 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3625 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3626 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3627 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3628 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3629 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3630 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3631 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3632 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3633 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3634 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3635 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3636 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3637 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3638 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3639 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3640 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3641 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3642 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3643 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3644 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3645 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3646 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3647 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3648 
  3649 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3652 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3653 
  3654 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3655 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3656 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3657 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3658 
  3659 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3660 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3661 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3662 theory RealVector.
  3663 
  3664 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3665 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3666 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3667 and inner products are included.
  3668 
  3669 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3670 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3671 supported.
  3672 
  3673 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3674 first diagonalization argument.
  3675 
  3676 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3677 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3678 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3679 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3680 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3681 
  3682     hide (open) const gcd
  3683     abbreviation gcd where
  3684       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3685     notation (output)
  3686       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3687 
  3688 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3689 
  3690 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3691 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3692 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3695 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3696 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3697 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3698 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3699 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3700 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3701 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3702 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3703 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3704 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3705 cases.
  3706 
  3707 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3708 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3709 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3710 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3711 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3712 
  3713     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3714     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3715     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3716     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3717     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3718 
  3719 
  3720 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3721 
  3722 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3723 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3724 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3725 
  3726 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3727 
  3728 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3729 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3730 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3731 
  3732 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3733 
  3734 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3735 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3736 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3737 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3738 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3739 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3740 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3741 
  3742 
  3743 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3744 
  3745 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3746 
  3747 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3748 theory targets.
  3749 
  3750 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3751 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3752 'inductive' etc.
  3753 
  3754 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3755 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3756 
  3757 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3758 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3759 
  3760 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3761 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3762 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3763 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3764 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3765 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3766 the algorithm W:
  3767 
  3768  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3769  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3770          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3771 
  3772 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3773 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3774 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3775 
  3776 
  3777 *** HOLCF ***
  3778 
  3779 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3780 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3781 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3782 
  3783 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3784 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3785 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3786 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3787 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3790 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3791 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 
  3794 *** ZF ***
  3795 
  3796 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3797 
  3798 
  3799 *** ML ***
  3800 
  3801 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3802 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3803 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3804 5.2.1!
  3805 
  3806 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3807 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3808 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3809 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3810 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3811 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3812 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3813 
  3814 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3815 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3816 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3817 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3818 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3819 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3820 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3821 
  3822 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3823 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3824 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3825 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3826 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3827 
  3828 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3829 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3830 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3831 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3832 Method.add_method.
  3833 
  3834 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3835 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3836 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3837 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3838 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3839 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3840 
  3841 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3842 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3843 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3844 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3845 examples.
  3846 
  3847 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3848 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3849 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3850 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3851 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3852 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3853 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3854 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3855 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3856 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3857 
  3858 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3859 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3860 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3861 
  3862 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3863 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3864 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3865 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3866 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3867 resort for legacy applications.
  3868 
  3869 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3870 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3871 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3872 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3873 explicit runtime argument.
  3874 
  3875 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3876 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3877 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3878 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3879 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3882 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3883 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3884 theory state.
  3885 
  3886 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3887 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3888 
  3889   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3890   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3891   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3892   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3893   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3894   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3895   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3896   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3897   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3898   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3899 
  3900 
  3901 *** System ***
  3902 
  3903 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3904 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3905 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3906 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3907 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3908 
  3909 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3910 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3911 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3912 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3913 
  3914 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3915 
  3916 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3917 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3918 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3919 prover operations.
  3920 
  3921 
  3922 
  3923 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3924 -------------------------------
  3925 
  3926 *** General ***
  3927 
  3928 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3929 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3930 
  3931 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3932 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3933 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3934 provides a proper context already.
  3935 
  3936 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3937 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3938 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3939 
  3940 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3941 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3942 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3943 swap theory imports.
  3944 
  3945 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3946 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3947 
  3948 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3949 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3950 white space without escapes.
  3951 
  3952 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3953 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3954 "foo_bar".
  3955 
  3956 
  3957 *** Pure ***
  3958 
  3959 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3960 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3961 
  3962 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3963 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3964 
  3965 (1) unused_thms
  3966      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3967 
  3968 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3969      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3970      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3971 
  3972 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3973      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3974      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3975      their ancestors.
  3976 
  3977 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3978 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3979 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3980 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3981 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3982 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3983 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3984 
  3985 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3986 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3987 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3988 
  3989 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3990 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3991 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3992 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3993 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3994 
  3995 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3996 
  3997 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3998 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3999 update of theories within ML code.
  4000 
  4001 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4002 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4003 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4004 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4005 
  4006 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4007 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4008 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4012 
  4013 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4014 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4015 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4016 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4017 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4018 
  4019 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4020 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4021 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4022 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4023 situations.
  4024 
  4025 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4026 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4027 proof text.
  4028 
  4029 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4030 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4031 
  4032 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4033 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4034 predicates.
  4035 
  4036 
  4037 *** Document preparation ***
  4038 
  4039 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4040 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4041 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4042 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4043 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4044 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4045 
  4046 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4047 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4048 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4049 
  4050 
  4051 *** HOL ***
  4052 
  4053 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4054 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4055 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4056 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4057 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4058 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4059 
  4060 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4061 with multithreading.
  4062 
  4063 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4064 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4065 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4066 
  4067 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4068 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4069 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4070 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4073 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4074 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4075 and makes them available separately.  See
  4076 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4077 
  4078 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4079 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4080 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4081 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4082 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4083 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4084 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4085 the declared rules.
  4086 
  4087 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4088 
  4089   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4090 
  4091 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4092 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4093 
  4094 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4095 
  4096   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4097 
  4098   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4099     definitions on => and bool.
  4100 
  4101   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4102     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4103     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4104 
  4105       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4106       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4107       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4108       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4109       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4110       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4111       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4112       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4113 
  4114   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4115     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4116     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4117 
  4118   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4119     The proof pattern
  4120 
  4121       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4122       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4123 
  4124     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4125     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4126 
  4127       have "EX S. P S"
  4128       proof
  4129         show "P S" <...>
  4130       qed
  4131 
  4132   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4133     The proof pattern
  4134 
  4135       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4136       also have "S = T" <...>
  4137       finally have "P T" .
  4138 
  4139     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4140     must be replaced by something like
  4141 
  4142       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4143       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4144       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4145 
  4146   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4147     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4148 
  4149       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4150 
  4151     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4152     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4153     type of the form
  4154 
  4155       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4156 
  4157     rather than
  4158 
  4159       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4160 
  4161 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4162 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4163 
  4164 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4167 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4169 
  4170 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4171 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4174 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4177 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4178 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4181 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4182 
  4183   less_trans
  4184   less_linear
  4185   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4186   le_less_trans
  4187   less_le_trans
  4188   less_not_sym
  4189   less_asym
  4190 
  4191 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4192 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4193 and different variable names.
  4194 
  4195 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4196 
  4197 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4198 finite maps.
  4199 
  4200 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4201 
  4202 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4203 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4204 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4205 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4206 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4207 accordingly.
  4208 
  4209 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4210 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4211 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4212 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4213 
  4214 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4215 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4216 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4217 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4218 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4222 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4225 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4226 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4227 
  4228 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4230 
  4231 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4232 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4233 
  4234 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4235 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4238 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4241 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4245 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4248 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4249 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4250 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4251 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4252 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4253 
  4254 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4255 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4256 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4257 
  4258 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4259 
  4260 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4261 
  4262 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4263 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4264 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 *** ZF ***
  4268 
  4269 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4270 same session:
  4271 
  4272   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4273   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4274   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4275   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4276   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4277   List      -> List_ZF
  4278   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4279 
  4280 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4281 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4282 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4283 
  4284 
  4285 *** ML ***
  4286 
  4287 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4288 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4289 
  4290 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4291 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4292 
  4293 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4294 
  4295 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4296 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4297 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4298 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4299 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4302 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4303 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4304 
  4305 
  4306 *** System ***
  4307 
  4308 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4309 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4310 
  4311 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4312 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4313 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4314 
  4315 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4316 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4317 
  4318 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4319 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4320 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4321 
  4322 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4323 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4324 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4325 
  4326 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4327 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4328 
  4329 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4330 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4331 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4332 script.
  4333 
  4334 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4335 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4336 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4337 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4338 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4339 
  4340 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4341 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4342 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4343 
  4344 
  4345 
  4346 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4347 -----------------------------------
  4348 
  4349 *** General ***
  4350 
  4351 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4352 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4353 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4354 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4355 
  4356 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4357 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4358 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4361 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4362 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4363 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4366 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4367 quotes.
  4368 
  4369 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4370 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4371 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4372 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4373 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4374 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4375 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4376 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4377 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4378 
  4379 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4380 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4381 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4382 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4383 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4384 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4385 
  4386 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4387 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4388 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4389 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4390 
  4391 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4392 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4393 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4394 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4395 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4396 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4397 
  4398 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4399 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4400 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4401 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4402 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4403 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4404 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4405 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4406 
  4407 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4408 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4409 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4410 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4411 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4412 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4413 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4414 
  4415 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4416 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4417 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4418 
  4419 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4420 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4421 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4422 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4423 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4424 limit is imposed.
  4425 
  4426 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4427 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4428 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4429 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4430 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4431 and scalability.
  4432 
  4433 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4434 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4435 
  4436 
  4437 *** Document preparation ***
  4438 
  4439 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4440 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4441 current context.
  4442 
  4443 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4444 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4445 
  4446 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4447 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4448 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4449 
  4450 
  4451 *** Pure ***
  4452 
  4453 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4454 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4455 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4456 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4457 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4458 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4459 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4460 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4461 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4462 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4463 
  4464 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4465 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4466 sketch:
  4467 
  4468     internal compilation:
  4469         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4470     writing SML code to a file:
  4471         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4472     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4473         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4474     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4475         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4476 
  4477     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4478         method ``eval''
  4479 
  4480 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4481 
  4482 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4483 
  4484     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4485     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4486     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4487     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4488 
  4489 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4490 
  4491     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4492       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4493 
  4494     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4495       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4496 
  4497     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4498       {(target)}+
  4499         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4500 
  4501     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4502       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4503         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4504 
  4505 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4506 
  4507 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4508 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4509 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4510 codegen".
  4511 
  4512 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4513 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4514 annotations).
  4515 
  4516 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4517 syntax.
  4518 
  4519 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4520 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4521 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4522 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4523 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4524 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4525 
  4526 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4527 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4528 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4529 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4530 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4531 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4532 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4533 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4534 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4535 equations, see section "definitions".
  4536 
  4537 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4538 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4539 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4540 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4541 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4542 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4543 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4544 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4545 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4546 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4547 
  4548 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4549 configuration options:
  4550 
  4551   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4552   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4553   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4554   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4555   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4556   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4557   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4558   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4559   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4560 
  4561 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4562 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4563 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4564 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4565 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4566 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4567 order.
  4568 
  4569 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4570 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4571 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4572 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4573 context encountered later on.
  4574 
  4575 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4576 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4577 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4578 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4579 
  4580 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4581 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4582 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4583 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4584 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4585 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4586 
  4587 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4588 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4589 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4590 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4591 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4592 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4593 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4594 more permissive.
  4595 
  4596 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4597 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4598 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4599 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4600 maintainability of proof texts.
  4601 
  4602 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4603 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4604 
  4605   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4606   then guess x and y by clarify
  4607 
  4608 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4609 proof tools being involved here.
  4610 
  4611 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4612 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4613 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4614 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4615 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4616 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4617 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4618 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4619 
  4620 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4621 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4622 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4623 
  4624   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4625   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4626   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4627   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4628 
  4629 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4630 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4631 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4632 
  4633 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4634 both named and unnamed ones.
  4635 
  4636 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4637 
  4638   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4639 
  4640 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4641 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4642 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4643 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4644 
  4645 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4646 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4647 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4648 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4649 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4650 
  4651 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4652 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4653 
  4654 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4655 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4656 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4657 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4658 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4659 originally first one.
  4660 
  4661 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4662 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4663 expected.
  4664 
  4665 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4666 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4667 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4668 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4669 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4670 
  4671   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4672     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4673     obtains x where "P x"
  4674 
  4675   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4676     assumes "A & B"
  4677     obtains A and B
  4678 
  4679   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4680     assumes "A | B"
  4681     obtains
  4682       A
  4683     | B
  4684 
  4685 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4686 explicitly:
  4687 
  4688   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4689     obtains "~ thesis"
  4690 
  4691   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4692     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4693 
  4694 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4695 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4696 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4697 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4698 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4699 case_names).
  4700 
  4701 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4702 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4703 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4704 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4705 
  4706 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4707 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4708 top-level lemma.
  4709 
  4710 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4711 introduction rule (default "that").
  4712 
  4713 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4714 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4715 to occur.
  4716 
  4717 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4718 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4719 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4720 representations independently of name spaces.
  4721 
  4722 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4723 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4724 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4727 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4728 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4729 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4730 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4731 current context.
  4732 
  4733 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4734 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4735 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4736 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4737 
  4738   axiomatization
  4739     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4740     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4741 
  4742   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4743   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4744 
  4745   abbreviation
  4746     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4747     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4748 
  4749 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4750 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4751 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4752 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4753 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4754 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4755 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4756 
  4757 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4758 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4759 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4760 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4761 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4762 
  4763 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4764 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4765 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4766 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4767 
  4768 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4769 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4770 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4771 
  4772   definition "K x _ = x"
  4773 
  4774   inductive conj for A B
  4775   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4776 
  4777 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4778 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4779 abbreviations on output.
  4780 
  4781 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4782 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4783 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4784 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4785 
  4786 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4787 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4788 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4789 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4790 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4791 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4792 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4793 
  4794 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4795 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4796 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4797 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4798 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4799 
  4800 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4801 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4802 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4803 
  4804 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4805 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4806 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4807 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4808 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4809 
  4810   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4811     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4812 
  4813 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4814 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4815 partial_order.
  4816 
  4817 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4818 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4819 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4820 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4821 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4822 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4823 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4824 examples.
  4825 
  4826 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4827 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4828 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4829 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4830 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4831 
  4832 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4833 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4834 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4835 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4836 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4837 
  4838   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4839   (induct set: foo bar)
  4840   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4841   (induct type: foo bar)
  4842 
  4843 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4844 new format.
  4845 
  4846 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4847 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4848 
  4849 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4850 considered a legacy feature.
  4851 
  4852 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4853 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4856 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4857 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4858 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4859   
  4860 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4861 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4862 manipulating the claset.
  4863 
  4864 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4865 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4866 least one premise.
  4867 
  4868 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4869 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4870 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4871 rule steps.
  4872 
  4873 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4874 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4875 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4876 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4877 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4878 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4879 
  4880 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4881 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4882 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4883 
  4884 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4885 the graph browser tool.
  4886 
  4887 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4888 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4889 
  4890 
  4891 *** HOL ***
  4892 
  4893 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4894 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4895 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4896 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4897 multi-threading.
  4898   
  4899 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4900 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4901 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4902 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4903 work with multi-threading.
  4904 
  4905 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4906 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4907 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4908 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4909 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4910 
  4911 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4912 
  4913 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4914 equality.
  4915 
  4916 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4917 the new 'class' package:
  4918 
  4919     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4920     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4921     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4922     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4923     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4924     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4925     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4926     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4927     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4928     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4929     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4930     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4931     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4932     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4933     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4934     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4935     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4936     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4937     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4938     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4939 
  4940 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4941 
  4942 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4943 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4944 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4945 names.
  4946 
  4947 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4948 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4949 
  4950 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4951 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4952 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4953 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4954 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4955 
  4956 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4957 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4958 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4959 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4960 
  4961 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4962 
  4963 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4964 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4965 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4966 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4970 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4973 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4974 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4977 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4978 
  4979 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4980 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4981 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4982 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4983 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4984 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4985 in the current context.
  4986 
  4987 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4988 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 
  4991 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4992 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4993 
  4994 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4995 
  4996     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4997     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4998 
  4999     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5000       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5001     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5002     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5003 
  5004     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5005     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5006 
  5007   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5008 
  5009     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5010     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5011     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5012     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5013     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5014     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5015     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5016     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5017     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5018     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5019     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5020     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5021     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5022     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5023     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5024     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5025     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5026     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5027     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5028     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5029     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5030     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5031     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5032     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5033     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5034     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5035     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5036     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5037     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5038     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5039     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5040     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5041     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5042     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5043     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5044 
  5045     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5046     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5047     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5048     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5049     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5050     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5051     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5052     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5053     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5054     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5055     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5056     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5057     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5058     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5059     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5060     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5061     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5062 
  5063     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5064     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5065     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5066     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5067     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5068     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5069     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5070     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5071     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5072     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5073     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5074     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5075     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5076     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5077     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5078     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5079     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5080     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5081     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5082     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5083     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5084     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5085     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5086     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5087     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5088     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5089     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5090     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5091 
  5092     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5093     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5094     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5095     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5096     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5097     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5098 
  5099     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5100     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5101     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5102     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5103 
  5104     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5105     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5106 
  5107     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5108     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5109 
  5110 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5111 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5112 
  5113 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5114 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5115 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5116 "*.size".
  5117 
  5118 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5120 
  5121 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5122 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5123 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5128 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5129 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5130 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5131 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5132 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5133 numerals on all operations.
  5134 
  5135 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5136 
  5137 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5138 
  5139 * Code generator library theories:
  5140   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5141     languages.
  5142   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5143     languages.
  5144   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5145     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5146   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5147   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5148     denominator).
  5149   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5150     representable by rational numbers.
  5151   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5152     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5153     includes Code_Integer.
  5154   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5155     target-language built-in integers.
  5156   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5157     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5158 
  5159 * New package for inductive predicates
  5160 
  5161   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5162 
  5163     inductive
  5164       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5165       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5166     where
  5167       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5168     | ...
  5169 
  5170   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5171 
  5172     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5173 
  5174     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5175     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5176 
  5177     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5178     intros
  5179       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5180       ...
  5181 
  5182   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5183   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5184 
  5185     inductive_set
  5186       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5187       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5188     where
  5189       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5190     | ...
  5191 
  5192   or
  5193 
  5194     inductive_set
  5195       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5196       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5197       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5198     where
  5199       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5200     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5201     | ...
  5202 
  5203   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5204 
  5205   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5206   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5207 
  5208   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5209 
  5210   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5211     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5212     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5213     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5214     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5215 
  5216   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5217     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5218     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5219     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5220     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5221     statements of the form
  5222 
  5223       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5224 
  5225     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5226     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5227 
  5228       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5229 
  5230   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5231 
  5232       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5233         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5234         ==> ... ==> P
  5235 
  5236     for predicates and
  5237 
  5238       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5239         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5240         ==> ... ==> P
  5241 
  5242     for sets rather than
  5243 
  5244       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5245         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5246         ==> ... ==> P
  5247 
  5248     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5249     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5250     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5251 
  5252   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5253     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5254     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5255 
  5256 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5257 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5258 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5259 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5260 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5261 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5262 
  5263 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5264 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5265 
  5266 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5267 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5268 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5269 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5270 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5271 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5272 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5273 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5274 variable.
  5275 
  5276 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5277 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5278 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5279 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5280   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5281   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5282 
  5283 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5284 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5285 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5286 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5287 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5288 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5289 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5290 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5291 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5292 
  5293 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5294 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5295 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5296 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5297 rat, etc.
  5298 
  5299 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5300 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5301 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5302 
  5303 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5304 
  5305 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5306 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5307 
  5308 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5309 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5310 
  5311 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5312 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5313 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5316 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5320 
  5321 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5322 
  5323 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5324 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5325 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5326 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5327 
  5328 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5329 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5330 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5331 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5332 
  5333 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5334 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5335 algebraic operations.
  5336 
  5337 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5339 
  5340 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5342 
  5343 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5344 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5345 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5346 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5347 adapted.
  5348  
  5349 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5350 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5351 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5352 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5353 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5354 
  5355 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5356 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5357 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5358 
  5359 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5360 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5361 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5362 
  5363 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5366 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5367 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5368   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5369       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5370   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5371   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5372   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5373 
  5374 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5375 
  5376 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5377 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5378 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5379 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5380 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5381 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5382 
  5383 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5384 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5385 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5386 
  5387 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5388 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5389 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5391 
  5392 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5393 
  5394 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5395 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5396 
  5397 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5398 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5399 
  5400 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5401 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5402 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5403 
  5404 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5405 True/False.
  5406 
  5407 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5408 
  5409 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5410 
  5411 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5412 ``rule'' method.
  5413 
  5414 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5415 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5416 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5417 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5418 
  5419 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5420 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5421 
  5422 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5423 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5424 
  5425 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5426 Library.
  5427 
  5428 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5429 
  5430 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5431 as greatest fixed-point.
  5432 
  5433 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5434 association lists.
  5435 
  5436 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5437 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5438 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5439 
  5440 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5441 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5442 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5444 behavior.
  5445 
  5446 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5447 
  5448 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5449 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5450 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5451 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5452 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5453 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5454 
  5455 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5456 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5457 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5458 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5459 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5460 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5461 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5462 
  5463 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5464 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5465 
  5466 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5467 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5468 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5469 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5470 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5471 
  5472 
  5473 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5474 
  5475 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5476 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5477 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5478 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5480 
  5481 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5482 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5483 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5484 
  5485 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5486 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5487 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5488 
  5489 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5490 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5491 
  5492 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5493 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5494 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496 
  5497   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5498   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5499   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5500   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5501   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5502   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5503   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5504   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5505   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5506   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5507   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5508   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5509   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5510   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5511   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5512 
  5513 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5514 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5515 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5516 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5517 
  5518   approx        <-- capprox
  5519   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5520   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5521   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5522   monad         <-- cmonad
  5523   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5524   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5525   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5526   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5527 
  5528 
  5529 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5530 
  5531 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5532 
  5533 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5535 
  5536 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5537 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5538 
  5539 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5540 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5541 of algebraic structures.
  5542 
  5543 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5544 
  5545 
  5546 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5547 
  5548 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5549 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5550 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5551 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5552 
  5553 
  5554 *** ML ***
  5555 
  5556 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5557 (even on SML/NJ).
  5558 
  5559 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5560 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5561 compile-time.  For example:
  5562 
  5563 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5564 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5565 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5566 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5567 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5568 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5569 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5570 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5571 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5572 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5573 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5574 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5575 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5576 ML {* @{context} *}
  5577 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5578 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5579 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5580 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5581 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5582 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5583 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5584 
  5585 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5586 
  5587 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5588 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5589 
  5590 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5591 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5592 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5593 
  5594 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5595 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5596 
  5597 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5598 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5599 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5600 
  5601 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5602 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5603 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5604 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5605 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5606 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5607 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5608 declarations and definitions.
  5609 
  5610 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5611 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5612 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5613 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5614 
  5615 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5616 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5617 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5618 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5621 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5622 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5623 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5624 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5625 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5626 
  5627 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5628 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5629 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5630 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5631 attributes, methods, etc.
  5632 
  5633 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5634 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5635 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5636 fold_map combinators.
  5637 
  5638 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5639 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5640 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5641 derivation.
  5642 
  5643 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5644 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5645 achieve the old behaviour.
  5646 
  5647 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5648 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5649 statements.
  5650 
  5651 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5652 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5653 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5654 
  5655 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5656 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5657 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5658 
  5659   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5660   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5661   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5662 
  5663 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5664 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5665 
  5666 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5667 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5668 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5669 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5670 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5671 
  5672 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5673 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5674 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5675 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5676 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5677 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5678 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5679 in a locale context).
  5680 
  5681 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5682 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5683 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5684 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5685 
  5686 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5687 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5688 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5689 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5690 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5691 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5692 
  5693 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5694 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5695 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5696 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5697 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5698 
  5699   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5700 
  5701 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5702 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5703 this:
  5704 
  5705   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5706 
  5707 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5708 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5709 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5710 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5711 
  5712 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5713 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5714 
  5715 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5716 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5717 
  5718 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5719 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5720 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5721 batch mode.
  5722 
  5723 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5724 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5725 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5726 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5727 
  5728 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5729 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5730 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5731 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5732 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5733 
  5734 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5735 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5736 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5737 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5738 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5739 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5740 
  5741 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5742 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5743 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5745 
  5746 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5747 "Trueprop" etc.
  5748 
  5749 
  5750 *** System ***
  5751 
  5752 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5753 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5754 Isabelle installations.
  5755 
  5756 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5757 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5758 code.
  5759 
  5760 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5761 
  5762 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5763 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5764 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5765 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5766 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5767 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5768 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5769 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5770 Implementation manual.
  5771 
  5772 
  5773 
  5774 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5775 ----------------------------------
  5776 
  5777 *** General ***
  5778 
  5779 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5780 
  5781   theory <name>
  5782   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5783   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5784   begin
  5785 
  5786 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5787 
  5788   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5789 
  5790 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5791 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5792 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5793 
  5794 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5795 relative and absolute paths.
  5796 
  5797 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5798 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5799 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5800 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5801 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5802 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5803 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5804 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5805 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5806 
  5807   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5808 
  5809 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5810 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5811 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5812 
  5813 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5814 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5815 
  5816 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5817 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5818 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5819 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5820 
  5821   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5822   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5823 
  5824 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5825 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5826 faster.
  5827 
  5828 
  5829 *** Document preparation ***
  5830 
  5831 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5832 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5833 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5834 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5835 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5836 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5837 
  5838 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5839 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5840 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5841 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5842 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5843 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5844 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5845 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5846 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5847 \isadroptag.
  5848 
  5849 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5850 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5851 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5852 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5853 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5854 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5855 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5856 specified above.
  5857 
  5858 * Several new antiquotations:
  5859 
  5860   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5861 
  5862   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5863 
  5864   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5865   argument is a known logical constant;
  5866 
  5867   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5868   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5869 
  5870   @{ML text}
  5871 
  5872 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5873 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5874 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5875 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5876 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5877 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5878 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5879 
  5880 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5881 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5882 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5883 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5884 
  5885 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5886 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5887 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5888 
  5889 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5890 a proof context.
  5891 
  5892 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5893 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5894 
  5895 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5896 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5897 
  5898 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5899 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5900 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5901 
  5902 
  5903 *** Pure ***
  5904 
  5905 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5906 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5907 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5908 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5909 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5910 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5911 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5912 
  5913 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5914 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5915 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5916 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5917 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5918 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5919 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5920 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5921 
  5922 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5923 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5924 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5925 
  5926 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5927 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5928 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5929 
  5930 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5931 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5932 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5933 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5937 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5938 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5939 axclasses vs. locales.
  5940 
  5941 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5942 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5943 
  5944 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5945 marks in schematic variable names.
  5946 
  5947 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5948 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5949 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5950 
  5951   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5952     by simp
  5953 
  5954 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5955 
  5956 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5957 annotations as "(00...)".
  5958 
  5959 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5960 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5961 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5962 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5963 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5964 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5965 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5966 
  5967 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5968 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5969 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5970 specifications.
  5971 
  5972 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5973 locally fixed variables as well.
  5974 
  5975 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5976 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5977 Limit.
  5978 
  5979 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5980 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5981 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5982 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5983 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5984 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5985 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5986 
  5987 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5988 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5989 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5990 
  5991 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5994 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5995 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5996 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5997 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5998 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5999 
  6000 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  6001 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  6002 
  6003 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  6004 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  6005 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  6006 
  6007 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  6008 
  6009 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  6010 theory development.
  6011 
  6012 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6013 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6014 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6015 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6016 
  6017 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6018 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6019 quoted when used as identifier.
  6020 
  6021 
  6022 *** Locales ***
  6023 
  6024 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6025 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6026 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6027 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6028 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6029 commands is a follows:
  6030 
  6031   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6032   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6033   (3) interpret expr inst
  6034 
  6035 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6036 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6037 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6038 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6039 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6040 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6041 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6042 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6043 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6044 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6045 
  6046 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6047 'interpret' instead.
  6048 
  6049 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6050 parameters.
  6051 
  6052 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6053 redeclaration.
  6054 
  6055 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6056 
  6057 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6058 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6059 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6060 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6061 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6062 
  6063 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6064 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6065 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6066 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6067 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6068 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6069 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6070 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6071 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6072 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6073 
  6074 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6075 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6076 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6077 
  6078 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6079 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6080 
  6081 
  6082 *** Provers ***
  6083 
  6084 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6085 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6086 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6087 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6088 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6089 
  6090 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6091 and quasi orders.
  6092 
  6093 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6094 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6095 
  6096 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6097 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  6098 
  6099 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  6100 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  6101 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6102 
  6103 
  6104 *** HOL ***
  6105 
  6106 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  6107 
  6108   syntax (epsilon)
  6109     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  6110 
  6111 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  6112 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  6113 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  6114 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6115 
  6116 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  6117 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  6118 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  6119 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  6120 
  6121 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  6122 instead of ":".
  6123 
  6124 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  6125 
  6126   Old       New
  6127   {..n(}    {..<n}
  6128   {)n..}    {n<..}
  6129   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  6130   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  6131   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  6132 
  6133 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  6134 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  6135 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  6136 
  6137   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  6138   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  6139 
  6140 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  6141 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  6142 interface.
  6143 
  6144 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  6145 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  6146 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  6147 be a tuple pattern.
  6148 
  6149 Some new syntax forms are available:
  6150 
  6151   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  6152   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  6153   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  6154   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  6155 
  6156 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  6157 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  6158 
  6159 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  6160 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  6161 (insert F x)'.
  6162 
  6163 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  6164 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  6165 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  6166 
  6167 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  6168 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  6169 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  6170 
  6171 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  6172 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  6173 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  6174 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6175 in unstructured proof scripts.
  6176 
  6177 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  6178 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  6179 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  6180 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  6181 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  6182 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  6183 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  6184 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  6185 <record_name>_ext_type.
  6186 
  6187 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  6188 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  6189 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  6190 quite long.
  6191 
  6192 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  6193 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  6194 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  6195 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6196 
  6197 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  6198 type-variables in the term.
  6199 
  6200 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  6201 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  6202 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6203 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  6204 goals than previously.
  6205 
  6206 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  6207 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  6208 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  6209 just like y <= x.
  6210 
  6211 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  6212 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  6213 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  6214 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  6215 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  6216 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  6217 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6218 
  6219 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  6220 
  6221 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  6222 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  6223 
  6224 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  6225 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  6226 inequalities.
  6227 
  6228 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6229 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6230 
  6231   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  6232   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  6233   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  6234   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  6235   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  6236   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  6237   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  6238   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  6239   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  6240   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  6241   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  6242 
  6243 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  6244      
  6245      zero_le_square
  6246      not_square_less_zero 
  6247 
  6248   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  6249   
  6250      realpow_zero_zero
  6251      realpow_two
  6252      realpow_less
  6253      zero_le_power
  6254      realpow_two_le
  6255      abs_realpow_two
  6256      realpow_two_abs     
  6257 
  6258 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  6259 
  6260 * Theory List:
  6261 
  6262 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified