NEWS
author haftmann
Sun Feb 23 10:44:57 2014 +0100 (2014-02-23)
changeset 55686 e99ed112d303
parent 55677 1f89921f3e75
child 55716 2a6a8f9d52e1
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS and documentation, including correction of long-overseen "*"
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols for
    39 languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol completion for ML source,
    40 but within ML strings, comments, antiquotations.
    41 
    42 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    43 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    44 
    45 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    46 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    47 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    48 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    49 
    50 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    51 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    52 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Pure ***
    56 
    57 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    58 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    59 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    60 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    61 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    62 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    63 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    64 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    66 
    67 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    68 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    69 instantiated theorem.
    70 
    71 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    72 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    73 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    74 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    75 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    76 
    77   attribute_setup standard =
    78     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    79 
    80 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    81 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    82 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    83 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    84 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    85 
    86 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    87 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    88 differently).
    89 
    90 
    91 *** HOL ***
    92 
    93 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
    94 
    95 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
    96 
    97 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    98 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   101   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   102   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
   103   "Main".
   104   Theory renamings:
   105     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   106     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   107     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   108     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   109     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   110     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   111     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   112     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   113     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   114     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   115     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   116     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   117     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   118     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   119     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   120     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   121     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   122     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   123     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   124     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   125     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   126     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   127   New theories:
   128     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   129     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   130     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   131     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   132     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   133   Discontinued theories:
   134     BNF/BNF.thy
   135     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   136   Renamed commands:
   137     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   138     primrec_new ~> primrec
   139     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   140   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141 
   142 * Old datatype package:
   143   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   144     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   145     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146 
   147 * Old and new (co)datatype packages:
   148   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   149     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   150     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   153   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   154   datatype package.
   155   Renamed constants:
   156     Option.set ~> set_option
   157     Option.map ~> map_option
   158     option_rel ~> rel_option
   159   Renamed theorems:
   160     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   161     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   162     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   163     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   164     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   165     map.simps ~> list.map
   166     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   167     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   168     the.simps ~> option.sel
   169   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * New theory:
   172     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   173 
   174 * Theory reorganizations:
   175   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   176 
   177 * Sledgehammer:
   178   - New option:
   179       smt_proofs
   180   - Renamed options:
   181       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   182       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   183     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Metis:
   186   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   187     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   190 
   191 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   194 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   195 
   196 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   197 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   198 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   199 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   200 
   201 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   205 with the given constants.
   206 
   207 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   208 
   209 Fact consolidations:
   210     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   211     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   212     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   213     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   214     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   215     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   216     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   217     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   218     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   219     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   220     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   221     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   222     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   223     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   224     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   225     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   226     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   227     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   228     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   229     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   230     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   231     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   232     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   233     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   234     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   235     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   236     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   237     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   238     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   239     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   240     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   241     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   242     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   243     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   244     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   245     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   246     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   247     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   248     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   249     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   250 
   251 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   252 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   253 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   254 
   255 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   256 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   257 
   258 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   259 
   260 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   261 
   262 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   269 operations on records.
   270 
   271 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   275     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   279     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   280     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282 
   283 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   284   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   285   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   286   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   287     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   288   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   289     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   290   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   291 INCOMPATBILITY.
   292 
   293 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   294     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   295     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   296     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   297     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Fact name consolidation:
   301     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   302     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   303     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   304     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   305     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   309 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   310 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   311 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   312 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   313 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   314 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   315 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316 
   317 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   318 
   319 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   320 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   321 
   322 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   323 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   324 
   325 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   326 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   327 or the brute way with
   328 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   329 
   330 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   331 
   332 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   333 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   334 
   335 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   336 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   337 
   338 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   339 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   340 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   341 INCOMPATIBILITY
   342 
   343 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   344 
   345 * Nitpick:
   346   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   347     infinite values.
   348 
   349 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   350   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   351   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   352     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   353     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   354     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   355     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   356     intervals.
   357 
   358 
   359 *** Scala ***
   360 
   361 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   362 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   363 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   364 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   365 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367 
   368 *** ML ***
   369 
   370 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   371 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   372 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   373 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   374 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   375 of schematic variables.
   376 
   377 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   378 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   380 formal context.
   381 
   382 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   383 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   384 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   385 actually belongs to it).
   386 
   387 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   388 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   389 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   390 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   391 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   392 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** System ***
   396 
   397 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   398 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   399 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   400 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   401 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   402 
   403 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   404 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   405 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   406 
   407 
   408 
   409 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   410 -------------------------------------
   411 
   412 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   413 
   414 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   415 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   416 
   417 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   418 after edits surrounding the command location.
   419 
   420 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   421 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   422 e.g. out-of-memory).
   423 
   424 
   425 *** System ***
   426 
   427 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   428 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   429 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   430 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   431 
   432 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   433 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   434 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   435 
   436 
   437 
   438 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   439 -------------------------------------
   440 
   441 *** General ***
   442 
   443 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   444 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   445 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   448 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   451 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   452 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   453 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   454 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   455 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   456 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   457 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   458 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   459 syntax.
   460 
   461 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   462 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   465 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   466 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   467 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   468 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   469 
   470 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   474 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   475 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   476 
   477 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   478 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   479 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   480 
   481 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   482 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   483 
   484 
   485 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   486 
   487 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   488 Documentation panel.
   489 
   490 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   491 documentation.
   492 
   493 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   494 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   495 
   496 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   497 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   498 normal editing and checking process.
   499 
   500 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   501 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   502 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   503 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   504 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   505 
   506 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   507 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   508 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   509 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   510 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   511 
   512 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   513 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   514 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   515 
   516 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   517 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   518 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   519 to resolve conflict.
   520 
   521 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   522 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   523 
   524 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   525 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   526 such command executions while editing.
   527 
   528 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   529 document content.
   530 
   531 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   532 toplevel theorem statements.
   533 
   534 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   535 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   536 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   537 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   538 
   539 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   540 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   541 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   542 
   543 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   544 / Global Options / Appearance".
   545 
   546 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   547 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   548 
   549 
   550 *** Pure ***
   551 
   552 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   553 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   554 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   555 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   556 details.
   557 
   558 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   559 
   560 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   561 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   562 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   563 
   564 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   566 
   567 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   568 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   569 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   570 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   571 
   572 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   573 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   574 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   577 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   578 
   579 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   580 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   581 situations.
   582 
   583 
   584 *** HOL ***
   585 
   586 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   587 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   591 
   592 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   593 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   594 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   595 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   596 
   597   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   598 
   599 * Code generator:
   600   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   601     'code_instance'.
   602   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   603     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   604 
   605 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   606 examples.
   607 
   608 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   609 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   610 to distinguish both when desired.
   611 
   612 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   613 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   614 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   615 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   618 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   619 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   620 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   621 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   622 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   625 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   626 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   627 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   628 
   629 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   630 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   631 
   632 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   633 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   634 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   635 
   636 * Lifting:
   637   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   638     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   639       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   640       transfer rules
   641     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   642       correspondence relation can be generated
   643     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   644       parametricity
   645     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   646   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   647   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   648     copies
   649   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   650     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   651     anonymous context)
   652   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   653     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   654   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   655     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   656   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   657     INCOMPATIBILITY
   658 
   659 * Transfer:
   660   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   661     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   662   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   663   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   664     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   665   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   666 
   667 * Reification and reflection:
   668   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   669     "Reification".
   670   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   671   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   675   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   676     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   677     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   678   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   679     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   680   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   681     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   682     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   683     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   684     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   685     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   686     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   687     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   688   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   689     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   690   - Fact renames:
   691       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   692       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   696 
   697 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   698 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   699 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   703 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   704 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   705 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   706 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   707 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   708 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   709 lemmas.
   710 
   711 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   712 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   713 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   716 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   717 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   718 
   719 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   720 top and bottom elements.
   721 
   722 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   723 
   724 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   725 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   726 
   727  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   728    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   729    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   730 
   731  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   732    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   733    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   734 
   735    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   736    arbitrary filter.
   737 
   738  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   739    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   740    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   741    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   742    on a compact set.
   743 
   744  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   745    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   746    linear_continuum_topology).
   747 
   748  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   749    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   750    on all sequences converging to x.
   751 
   752  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   753    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   754    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   755    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   756    left or right.
   757 
   758  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   759 
   760      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   761 
   762  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   763    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   764 
   765  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   766    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   767    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   768    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   769    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   770    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   771 
   772  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   773 
   774    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   775 
   776    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   777      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   778 
   779    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   780 
   781    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   782      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   783 
   784    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   785 
   786    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   787 
   788  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   789 
   790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * Nitpick:
   793   - Added option "spy"
   794   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   795 
   796 * Sledgehammer:
   797   - Renamed option:
   798       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   799     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   801   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   802   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   803 
   804 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   805 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   806 
   807 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   808   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   809   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   810     generated code.
   811   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   812   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   813   - Fact renames:
   814     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   815     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   816     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   817 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   820 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   821 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   822 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   823 
   824 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   825 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   826 
   827 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   830 
   831     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   832     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   833 
   834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   837 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   838 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   839 
   840 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   841 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   842 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   843 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * HOL-BNF:
   846   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   847     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   848     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   849     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   850   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   851     coinduct).
   852   - Renamed keywords:
   853     data ~> datatype_new
   854     codata ~> codatatype
   855     bnf_def ~> bnf
   856   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   857     discs ~> disc
   858     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   859     map_id' ~> map_id
   860     sels ~> sel
   861     set_map' ~> set_map
   862     sets ~> set
   863 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 
   866 *** ML ***
   867 
   868 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   869 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   870 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   871 Examples.thy in particular.
   872 
   873 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   874 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   875 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   876 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   877 
   878 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   879 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   880 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   881 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   883 
   884 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   885 
   886     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   887     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   888 
   889 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   892 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   893 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   894 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   895 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   896 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   897 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   898 
   899 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   900 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   901 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   902 clasets separately from the context.
   903 
   904 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   905 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   906 
   907 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   908 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   909 
   910 
   911 *** System ***
   912 
   913 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   914 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   917 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   920 settings variable.
   921 
   922 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   923 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   924 always pdf.
   925 
   926 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   927 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   928 
   929 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   930 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   931 
   932 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   933 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   934 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   935 
   936 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   937 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   938 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   939 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   940 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   941 for HTML presentation of theories.
   942 
   943 
   944 
   945 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   946 -----------------------------------
   947 
   948 *** General ***
   949 
   950 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   951 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   952 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   953 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   954 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   955 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   956 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   957 
   958 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   959 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   960 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   961 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   962 
   963 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   964 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   965 
   966 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   967 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   968 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   969 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   970 dependencies properly.
   971 
   972 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   973 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   974 
   975 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   976 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   977 
   978 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   979 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   980 and "class ... context ...".
   981 
   982 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   983 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   984 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   985 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   986 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   987 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   988 
   989 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   990 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   991 
   992 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   993 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   994 
   995 
   996 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   997 
   998 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   999 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1000 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1001 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1002 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1003 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1004 
  1005 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1006 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1007 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1008 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1009 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1010 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1011 
  1012 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1013 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1014 browser on demand.
  1015 
  1016 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1017 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1018 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1019 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1020 
  1021 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1022 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1023 
  1024 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1025 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1026 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1027 potentially infinite message streams.
  1028 
  1029 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1030 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1031 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1032 schemes.
  1033 
  1034 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1035 symbols.
  1036 
  1037 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1038 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1039 
  1040 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1041 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1042 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1043 
  1044 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1045 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1046 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1047 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1048 
  1049 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1050 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1051 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1052 
  1053 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1054 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1055 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1056 Isabelle distribution.
  1057 
  1058 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1059 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1060 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1061 
  1062 
  1063 *** Pure ***
  1064 
  1065 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1066 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1067 
  1068 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1069 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1070 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1073 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1074 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1075 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1076 with some care where this is really required.
  1077 
  1078 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1079 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1080 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1081 
  1082   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1083 
  1084 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1085 a Hasse diagram.
  1086 
  1087 
  1088 *** HOL ***
  1089 
  1090 * Sledgehammer:
  1091 
  1092   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1093     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1094   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1095   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1096   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1097   - Renamed options:
  1098       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1099       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1100       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1101       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1102 
  1103 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1104 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1105 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1106 
  1107 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * Lifting:
  1111   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1112   - quot_del attribute
  1113   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1114 
  1115 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1116 expressions.
  1117 
  1118 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1119 pointfree expressions.
  1120 
  1121 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1122 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1123 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1124 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1128 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1129 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1130 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1131 accordingly.
  1132 
  1133 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1134 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1137 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1142 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1143 
  1144 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1145 
  1146 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1147 
  1148   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1149   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1150 
  1151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1154 
  1155   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1156   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1157 
  1158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159 
  1160 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1161 
  1162   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1163     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1164     output f x converges to G.
  1165 
  1166   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1167     infinity (at_bot).
  1168 
  1169   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1170     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1171 
  1172   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1173     at_top".
  1174 
  1175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1178 lattice type classes.
  1179 
  1180 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1181 
  1182     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1183     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1184 
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1188 changes as follows.
  1189 
  1190   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1191 
  1192       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1193       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1194 
  1195   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1196     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1197     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1198     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1199 
  1200   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1201     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1202     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1203 
  1204   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1205     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1206     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1207     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1208 
  1209   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1210     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1211 
  1212       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1213       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1214       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1215       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1216       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1217       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1218       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1219       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1220       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1221       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1222       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1223       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1224       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1225       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1226       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1227       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1228 
  1229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1230 
  1231 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1232 
  1233 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1234 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1235 
  1236 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1237 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1238 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1239 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1240 
  1241   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1242   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1243   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1244   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1245   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1246   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1247   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1248   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1249   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1250   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1251 
  1252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1253 
  1254 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1255 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1256 Data").
  1257 
  1258 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1259 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1260 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1261 code.
  1262 
  1263 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1264 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1265 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1267 
  1268 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1269 
  1270 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1271 
  1272 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1273 
  1274   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1275   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1276 
  1277 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1278 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1279 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1280 
  1281   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1282 
  1283     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1284     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1285     cart_base i  removed
  1286     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1287 
  1288   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1289 
  1290   Renamed lemmas:
  1291 
  1292     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1293     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1294     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1295     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1296     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1297     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1298     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1299     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1300     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1301     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1302 
  1303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * HOL/Probability:
  1306 
  1307   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1308 
  1309   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1310     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1311     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1312 
  1313   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1314     projective family).
  1315 
  1316 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1317 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1318 
  1319 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1320 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1321 datatypes.
  1322 
  1323 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1324 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1325 
  1326 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1327 trees for the code generator.
  1328 
  1329 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1330 Lifting/Transfer.
  1331 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1335 
  1336 
  1337 *** Document preparation ***
  1338 
  1339 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1340 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1341 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1342 
  1343 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1344 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1345 
  1346 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1347 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1348 document/root.tex.
  1349 
  1350 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1351 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1352 
  1353 
  1354 *** ML ***
  1355 
  1356 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1357 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1358 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1359 
  1360 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1361 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1362 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1363 
  1364 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1365 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1366 necessarily printing visible text.
  1367 
  1368 
  1369 *** System ***
  1370 
  1371 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1372 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1373 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1374 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1375 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1376 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1377 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1378 
  1379 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1380 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1381 
  1382   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1383 
  1384 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1385 
  1386 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1387 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1388 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1389 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1390 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1391 
  1392 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1393 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1394 
  1395 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1396 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1397 
  1398 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1402 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1403 version of Isabelle.
  1404 
  1405 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1406 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1407 
  1408 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1409 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1410 for home-made settings.
  1411 
  1412 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1413 
  1414 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1415 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1416 configuration.
  1417 
  1418 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1419 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1420 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1421 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1422 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1423 
  1424 
  1425 
  1426 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1427 ------------------------------
  1428 
  1429 *** General ***
  1430 
  1431 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1432 
  1433   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1434     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1435   - markup for bound variables
  1436   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1437   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1438   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1439     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1440 
  1441 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1442 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1443 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1444 
  1445 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1446 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1447 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1448 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1449 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1450 
  1451   context
  1452     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1453     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1454   begin
  1455 
  1456   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1457 
  1458   end
  1459 
  1460   thm my_trans
  1461 
  1462 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1463 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1464 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1465 
  1466 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1467 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1468 
  1469 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1470 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1471 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1472 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1473 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1474 
  1475 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1476 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1477 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1478 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1479 indices of schematic variables.
  1480 
  1481 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1482 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1483 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1484 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1485 etc. was exploited.
  1486 
  1487 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1488 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1489 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1490 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1491 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1492 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1493 
  1494 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1495 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1496 manual.
  1497 
  1498 
  1499 *** Pure ***
  1500 
  1501 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1502 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1503 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1504 
  1505 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1506 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1507 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1508 undocumented feature.)
  1509 
  1510 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1511 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1512 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1513 
  1514   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1515 
  1516   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1517     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1518 
  1519 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1520 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1521 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1522 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1523 
  1524 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1525 
  1526     num ~> num_token
  1527     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1528     xstr ~> str_token
  1529 
  1530 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1531 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1532 position information via constraints).
  1533 
  1534 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1535 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1536 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1539 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1540 
  1541 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1542 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1543 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1546 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1549 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1550 
  1551   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1552 
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1556 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1559 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1560 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1561 
  1562 
  1563 *** HOL ***
  1564 
  1565 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1566 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1567 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1568 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1569 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1570 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1571 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1572 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1573 possible.
  1574 
  1575 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1576 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1577 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1578 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1579 
  1580 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1581 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582 
  1583 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1584 
  1585 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1586 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1587 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1588 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1589 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1590 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1591 
  1592   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1593     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1594 
  1595   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1596     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1597     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1598 
  1599   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1600     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1601 
  1602   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1603     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1604     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1605 
  1606   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1607     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1608 
  1609 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1610 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1611 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1612 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1613 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1614 
  1615   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1616     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1617     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1618     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1619     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1620 
  1621     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1622     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1623 
  1624   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1625     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1626     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1627     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1628     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1629     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1630     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1631     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1632 
  1633   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1634     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1635     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1636     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1637 
  1638   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1639     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1640     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1641     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1642 
  1643   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1644     from type nat to type int.
  1645 
  1646 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1647 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1648 
  1649   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1650     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1651     type.  Example syntax:
  1652 
  1653     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1654       is List.insert
  1655 
  1656     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1657     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1658     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1659     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1660     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1661     by the package.
  1662 
  1663   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1664     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1665     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1666     code generation for each constant.
  1667 
  1668   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1669     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1670     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1671     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1672     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1673 
  1674   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1675     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1676     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1677 
  1678 * Quotient package:
  1679 
  1680   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1681     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1682 
  1683   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1684     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1685 
  1686   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1687     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1688     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1691     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1694 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1695 
  1696 * Quickcheck:
  1697 
  1698   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1699     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1700     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1701     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1702     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1703 
  1704     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1705     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1706     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1707 
  1708     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1709     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1710 
  1711     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1712     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1713     show genuine counterexamples.
  1714 
  1715   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1716     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1717 
  1718     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1719     constructors of that type.
  1720 
  1721   - Support for multisets.
  1722 
  1723   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1724 
  1725   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1726     conjectures in a locale context.
  1727 
  1728 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1729 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1730 
  1731 * Sledgehammer:
  1732   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1733     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1734   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1735   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1736     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1737   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1738   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1739   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1740   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1741 
  1742 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1743 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1744 
  1745 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1746 
  1747 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1748 
  1749 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1750 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1751 
  1752   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1753 
  1754 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1755 a list and a nat.
  1756 
  1757 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1758 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1759 
  1760 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1761 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1762 default.
  1763 
  1764 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1765 
  1766   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1767 
  1768 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1769 
  1770 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1771 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1772 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1773 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1774 one_case.
  1775 
  1776 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1777 the result of the fact expression.
  1778 
  1779 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1780 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1781 of some relation theorems:
  1782 
  1783   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1784   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1785   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1786   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1787   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1788   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1789 
  1790 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1791 
  1792 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1793 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1794 
  1795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1798 to match the constant's name:
  1799 
  1800   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1801   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1802   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1803   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1804   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1805   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1806   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1807   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1808   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1809   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1810   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1811   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1812   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1813   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1814   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1815   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1816   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1817   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1818   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1819   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1820   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1821   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1822   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1823   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1824 
  1825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1828 and corresponding theorem names:
  1829 
  1830   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1831 
  1832   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1833 
  1834   - Renamed theorems:
  1835 
  1836     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1837     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1838     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1839     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1840     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1841     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1842     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1843     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1844     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1845     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1846     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1847     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1848     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1849     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1850     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1851     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1852     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1853     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1854     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1855     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1856     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1857     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1858     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1859 
  1860     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1861 
  1862     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1863 
  1864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1867 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1868 
  1869   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1870   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1871   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1872   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1873   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1874   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1875   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1876   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1877   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1878   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1879   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1880   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1881   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1882   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1883   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1884   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1885   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1886   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1887   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1888   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1889   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1890 
  1891 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1892 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1897 
  1898   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1899   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1900   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1901   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1902   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1903   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1904   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1905   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1906   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1907   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1908   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1909   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1910   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1911   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1912   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1913   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1914   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1915   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1916 
  1917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1918 
  1919 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1920 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1921 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1922 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1923 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1924 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1925 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1926 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1927 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1928 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1929 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1930 
  1931 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1932 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1933 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1934 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1935 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1936 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1937 
  1938 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1939 through option types.
  1940 
  1941 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1942 relations.
  1943 
  1944 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1947 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1948 
  1949   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1950   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1951   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1952   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1953   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1954   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1955   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1956   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1957   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1958   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1959   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1960   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1961   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1962   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1963   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1964   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1965   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1966   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1967   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1968   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1969   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1970   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1971   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1972   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1973   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1974   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1975   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1976   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1977   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1978   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1979   zless_le ~> less_le
  1980   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1981   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1982   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1983 
  1984 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1985 
  1986   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1987 
  1988 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1989 
  1990 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1991 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1992 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1993 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1997 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1998 
  1999 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2000 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2001 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2002 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2003 follows:
  2004 
  2005   Operations:
  2006   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2007   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2008   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2009   del -> rbt_del
  2010   delete -> rbt_delete
  2011   ins -> rbt_ins
  2012   insert -> rbt_insert
  2013   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2014   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2015   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2016   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2017   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2018   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2019   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2020   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2021   union -> rbt_union
  2022   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2023   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2024 
  2025   Lemmas:
  2026   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2027   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2028   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2029   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2030   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2031   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2032   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2033   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2034   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2035   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2036   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2037   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2038   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2039   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2040   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2041   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2042   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2043   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2044   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2045   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2046   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2047   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2048   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2049   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2050   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2051   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2052   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2053   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2054   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2055   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2056   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2057   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2058   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2059   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2060   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2061   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2062   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2063   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2064   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2065   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2066   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2067   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2068   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2069   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2070   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2071   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2072   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2073   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2074   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2075   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2076   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2077   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2078   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2079   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2080   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2081   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2082   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2083   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2084   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2085   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2086   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2087   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2088   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2089   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2090   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2091   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2092   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2093   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2094   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2095   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2096   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2097   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2098   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2099   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2100   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2101   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2102   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2103   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2104   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2105   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2106   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2107   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2108   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2109 
  2110 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2111 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2112 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114   Changed Operations:
  2115   float_abs -> abs
  2116   float_nprt -> nprt
  2117   float_pprt -> pprt
  2118   pow2 -> use powr
  2119   round_down -> float_round_down
  2120   round_up -> float_round_up
  2121   scale -> exponent
  2122 
  2123   Removed Operations:
  2124   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2125 
  2126   Renamed Lemmas:
  2127   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2128   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2129   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2130   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2131   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2132   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2133   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2134   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2135   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2136   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2137   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2138   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2139   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2140   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2141   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2142   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2143   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2144   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2145   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2146   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2147   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2148   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2149   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2150   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2151   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2152   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2153   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2154   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2155   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2156   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2157   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2158   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2159   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2160   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2161   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2162   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2163 
  2164   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2165   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2166   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2167   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2168   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2169   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2170   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2171   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2172   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2173   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2174 
  2175 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2176 association lists with distinct keys.
  2177 
  2178 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2179 annotated commands.
  2180 
  2181 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2182 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2183 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2184 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2187 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2188 instead.
  2189 
  2190   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2191   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2192   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2193   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2194   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2195   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2196   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2197   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2198   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2199   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2200   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2201   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2202   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2203   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2204   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2205   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2206   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2207   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2208   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2209   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2210   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2211   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2212   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2213   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2214   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2215   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2216   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2217   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2218   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2219   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2220   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2221   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2222   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2223   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2224   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2225   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2226   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2227   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2228   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2229   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2230   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2231 
  2232 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2233 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2234 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2235 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2236 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2237 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2238 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2239 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2240 
  2241 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2242 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2243 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2244 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2245 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2246 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2247 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2248 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2249 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2250 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2251 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2252 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254   Renamed constants:
  2255   measure -> emeasure
  2256   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2257   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2258   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2259   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2260 
  2261   Removed locales:
  2262   completeable_measure_space
  2263   finite_measure_space
  2264   finite_prob_space
  2265   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2266   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2267   finite_sigma_algebra
  2268   measure_space
  2269   pair_finite_prob_space
  2270   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2271   pair_finite_space
  2272   pair_sigma_algebra
  2273   product_sigma_algebra
  2274 
  2275   Removed constants:
  2276   conditional_space
  2277   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2278   image_space
  2279   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2280   pair_measure_generator
  2281   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2282   subvimage
  2283 
  2284   Replacement theorems:
  2285   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2286   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2287   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2288   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2289   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2290   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2291   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2292   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2293   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2294   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2295   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2296   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2297   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2298   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2299   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2300   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2301   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2302   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2303   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2304   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2305   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2306   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2307   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2308   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2309   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2310   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2311   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2312   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2313   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2314   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2315   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2316   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2317   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2318   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2319   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2320   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2321   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2322   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2323   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2324   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2325   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2326   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2327   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2328   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2329   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2330   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2331   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2332   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2333   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2334   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2335   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2336   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2337   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2338   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2339   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2340   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2341   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2342   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2343   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2344   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2345   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2346   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2347   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2348   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2349   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2350   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2351   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2352   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2353   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2354   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2355   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2356   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2357   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2358   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2359   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2360   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2361   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2362   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2363   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2364   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2365   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2366   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2367   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2368   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2369   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2370   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2371   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2372   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2373   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2374   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2375   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2376   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2377   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2378   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2379   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2380   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2381   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2382   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2383   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2384   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2385   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2386   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2387   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2388   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2389   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2390   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2391   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2392   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2393   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2394   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2395   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2396   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2397   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2398   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2399   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2400   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2401   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2402   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2403   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2404   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2405   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2406   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2407   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2408   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2409   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2410   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2411   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2412   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2413 
  2414 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2415 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2416 
  2417 
  2418 *** FOL ***
  2419 
  2420 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2421 
  2422 
  2423 *** ZF ***
  2424 
  2425 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2426 analysis.
  2427 
  2428 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2429 
  2430 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431 
  2432 
  2433 *** ML ***
  2434 
  2435 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2436 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2437 
  2438 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2439 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2440 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2441 
  2442 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2443 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2444 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2445 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2446 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2447 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2448 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2449 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2450 
  2451 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2452 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2453 
  2454 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2455 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2456 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2457 
  2458 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2459 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2462 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2463 context as well.
  2464 
  2465 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2466 
  2467   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2468   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2469   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2470   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2471   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2472   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2473   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2474   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2475   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2476   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2477   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2478   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2479 
  2480 
  2481 *** System ***
  2482 
  2483 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2484 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2485 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2486 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2487 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2488 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2489 the generic user home was intended.
  2490 
  2491 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2492 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2493 
  2494 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2495 (not just JRE).
  2496 
  2497 
  2498 
  2499 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2500 ------------------------------------
  2501 
  2502 *** General ***
  2503 
  2504 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2505 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2506 
  2507   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2508     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2509     files for checking).
  2510 
  2511   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2512     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2513     positions.
  2514 
  2515   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2516     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2517     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2518 
  2519   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2520     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2521     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2522 
  2523   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2524     cores.
  2525 
  2526   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2527     versions (garbage collection).
  2528 
  2529 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2530 including some remaining limitations.
  2531 
  2532 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2533 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2534 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2535 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2536 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2540 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2541 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2542 
  2543 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2544 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2545 usedir option -Q.
  2546 
  2547 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2548 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2549 
  2550   long_names   ~> names_long
  2551   short_names  ~> names_short
  2552   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2553 
  2554 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2555 
  2556   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2557 
  2558 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2559 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2560 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2561 
  2562 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2563 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2564 
  2565 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2566   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2567   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2568   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2569     "Classical Reasoner".
  2570 
  2571 
  2572 *** HOL ***
  2573 
  2574 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2575 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2578 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2579 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2580 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2581 class complete_linorder.
  2582 
  2583 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2584 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2585 
  2586 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2587 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2588 
  2589   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2590   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2591   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2592   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2593   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2594   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2595   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2596   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2597   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2598   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2599   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2600 
  2601 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2602 
  2603   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2604   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2605   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2606   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2607   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2608   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2609   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2610   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2611   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2612   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2613   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2614   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2615   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2616   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2617   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2618   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2619 
  2620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2626 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2627 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2628 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2631 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2632 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2636 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2637 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2638 
  2639 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2640 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2641 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2644 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2645 
  2646 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2647 
  2648     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2649     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2650 
  2651 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2652 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2653 
  2654 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2655 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2658 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2659 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2660 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2663   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2664   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2665   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2666   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2667   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2668   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2669 
  2670 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2671 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2674   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2675   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2676   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2677   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2678   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2679   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2680   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2681   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2682   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2683   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2684   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2685   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2686   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2687   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2688   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2689   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2690   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2691   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2692   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2693   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2694   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2695   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2696   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2697   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2698   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2699   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2700   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2701   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2702   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2703   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2704   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2705   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2706   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2707   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2708   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2709   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2710   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2711   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2712   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2713   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2714   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2715   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2716   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2717   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2718   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2719   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2720   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2721   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2722   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2723   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2724   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2725   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2726   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2727   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2728   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2729   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2730   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2731   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2732   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2733   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2734   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2735   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2736   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2737   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2738   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2739   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2740   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2741   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2742   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2743   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2744   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2745   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2746   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2747   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2748   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2749   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2750   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2751   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2752   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2753   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2754   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2755 
  2756 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2757 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2758 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2759 
  2760 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2761 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2762 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2763 
  2764 * Code generation:
  2765 
  2766   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2767     characters in the target language.
  2768 
  2769   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2770     instead.
  2771 
  2772   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2773 
  2774   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2775     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2776 
  2777       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2778 
  2779 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2782 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2783 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2784 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2785 syntax.
  2786 
  2787 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2788 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2789 
  2790 * Nitpick:
  2791   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2792   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2793   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2794     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795 
  2796 * Sledgehammer:
  2797   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2798   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2799     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2800   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2801     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2802   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2803     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2805     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2806   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2807     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Metis:
  2810   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2812     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813 
  2814 * Command 'try':
  2815   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2816     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2817   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2818     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2819 
  2820 * Quickcheck:
  2821   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2822     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2823   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2824     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2825   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2826     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2827     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2828     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2829   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2830     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2831 
  2832 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2833 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2834 
  2835 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2836 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2837 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2838 
  2839 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2840 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2844 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2847 arithmetic.
  2848 
  2849 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2850 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2851 and lattice type classes.
  2852 
  2853 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2854 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2855 
  2856 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2857 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2858 
  2859 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2860 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2861 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2864   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2865   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2866   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2867 
  2868 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2869 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2870 constants:
  2871 
  2872   type inat   ~> type enat
  2873   Fin         ~> enat
  2874   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2875   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2876   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2877 
  2878 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2879 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2882 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2883 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2884 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2885 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2886 
  2887 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2888 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2889 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2890 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2891 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2892 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2893 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2894 
  2895   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2896   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2897   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2898   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2899 
  2900 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2901 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2902 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2905   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2906   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2907   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2908   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2909   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2910   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2911   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2912   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2913   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2914   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2915   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2916   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2917   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2918   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2919   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2920   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2921   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2922   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2923   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2924   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2925   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2926   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2927   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2928   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2929   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2930   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2931   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2932   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2933   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2934   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2935   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2936   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2937   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2938   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2939   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2940   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2941   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2942   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2943   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2944   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2945   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2946   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2947   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2948   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2949   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2950   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2951   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2952   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2953   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2954   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2955 
  2956 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2957   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2958   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2959   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2960   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2961     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2966   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2967   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2968   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2969   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2970   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2971   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2972   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2973   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2974   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2975   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2976   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2977   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2978   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2979   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2980   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2981   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2982   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2983   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2984   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2985   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2986   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2987   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2988   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2989   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2990 
  2991 
  2992 *** Document preparation ***
  2993 
  2994 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2995 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2996 same.
  2997 
  2998 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2999 result.
  3000 
  3001 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3002 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3003 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3004 
  3005 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3006 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3007 
  3008 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3009 like this:
  3010 
  3011   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3012   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3013 
  3014 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3015 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3016 layouts.
  3017 
  3018 
  3019 *** ML ***
  3020 
  3021 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3022 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3023 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3024 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3025 under external program control.
  3026 
  3027 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3028 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3029 
  3030 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3031 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3032 (better known as Proof General).
  3033 
  3034 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3035 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3036 
  3037 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3038 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3039 
  3040 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3041 (including quotes etc.).
  3042 
  3043 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3044 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3045 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3046 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3047 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3048 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3049 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3050 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3051 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3052 
  3053 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3054 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3055 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3056 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3057 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3058 
  3059 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3060 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3061 
  3062 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3063 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3064 
  3065 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3066 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3067 
  3068 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3069 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3070 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3071 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3072 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3074 proper Proof.context.
  3075 
  3076 
  3077 *** System ***
  3078 
  3079 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3080 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3081 
  3082 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3083 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3084 
  3085 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3086 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3087 
  3088   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3089   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3090   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3091   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3092   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3093 
  3094 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3095 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3098 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3099 example:
  3100 
  3101   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3102 
  3103 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3104 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3105 
  3106 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3107 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3108 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3109 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3110 
  3111 
  3112 
  3113 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3114 ----------------------------------
  3115 
  3116 *** General ***
  3117 
  3118 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3119 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3120 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3121 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3122 like this:
  3123 
  3124   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3125 
  3126 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3127 
  3128 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3129 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3130 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3131 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3132 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3133 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3134 
  3135 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3136 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3137 the following package declarations:
  3138 
  3139   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3140   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3141 
  3142 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3143 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3144 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3145 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3146 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3147 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3148 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3149 
  3150 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3151 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3152 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3153 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3154 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3155 
  3156 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3157 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3158 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3159 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3160 
  3161 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3162 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3163 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3164 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3165 
  3166   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3167 
  3168   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3169   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3170   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3171   show_types                    show_types
  3172   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3173   show_consts                   show_consts
  3174   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3175 
  3176   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3177   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3178   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3179 
  3180   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3181   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3182 
  3183   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3184 
  3185   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3186   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3187   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3188   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3189   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3190 
  3191 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3192 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3193 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3194 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3195 
  3196 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3200   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3201 
  3202 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3203 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3204 float_token.
  3205 
  3206 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3207 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3211 DejaVu Sans.
  3212 
  3213 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3214 
  3215 
  3216 *** Pure ***
  3217 
  3218 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3219 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3220 time.
  3221 
  3222 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3223 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3226 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3229 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3230 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3231 command already provided this functionality.
  3232 
  3233 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3234 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3235 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3236 without interpretations.
  3237 
  3238 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3239 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3240 
  3241 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3242 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3243 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3244 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3245 
  3246 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3247 'definition' instead.
  3248 
  3249 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3250 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3251 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3252 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3253 
  3254 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3255 constructors.
  3256 
  3257 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3258 the local file system.
  3259 
  3260 
  3261 *** HOL ***
  3262 
  3263 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3264 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3265 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3266 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3267 
  3268   declare [[coercion f]]
  3269 
  3270 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3271 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3272 
  3273   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3274 
  3275 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3276 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3277 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3278 other theories like this:
  3279 
  3280   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3281 
  3282 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3283 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3284 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3285 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3286 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3287 for examples.
  3288 
  3289 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3290 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3293 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3294 
  3295 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3296 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3297 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3298 
  3299 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3300 functorial structure of types.
  3301 
  3302 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3303 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3304 
  3305 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3306 languages.
  3307 
  3308 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3309 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3313 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3316 combinators any longer.
  3317 
  3318 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3319 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3320 
  3321 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3322 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3323 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3324 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3325 
  3326   record 'a foo = ...
  3327   ...
  3328   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3329 
  3330 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3331 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3335 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3336 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3337 
  3338 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3339 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3340 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3341 
  3342 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3343 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3346 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3347 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3348 independently.
  3349 
  3350 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3351 counter example search.
  3352 
  3353 * Sledgehammer:
  3354   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3355     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3356     sledgehammer").
  3357   - Renamed commands:
  3358     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3359     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3360     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3361     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3362   - Renamed options:
  3363     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3364     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3365     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3366     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3367     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Nitpick:
  3370   - Renamed options:
  3371     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3372     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3373     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3375   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3376   - Added "whack" option.
  3377   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3378   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3379   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3380   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3381     higher cardinalities.
  3382   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3383 
  3384 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3385 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3386 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3387 
  3388     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3389 
  3390 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3391 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3392 
  3393 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3394 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3395 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3396 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3397 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3398 "smt_solver".
  3399 
  3400 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3401 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3402 
  3403 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3404 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3405 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3406 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3409   - Renamed:
  3410     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3411     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3412     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413   - Added:
  3414     smt_verbose
  3415     smt_random_seed
  3416     smt_datatypes
  3417     smt_infer_triggers
  3418     smt_monomorph_limit
  3419     cvc3_options
  3420     remote_cvc3_options
  3421     remote_z3_options
  3422     yices_options
  3423 
  3424 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3425 header.
  3426 
  3427 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3428 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3429 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3430 
  3431   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3432 
  3433 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3436 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3441 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3444 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3445 
  3446 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3447 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3450 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3451 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452 
  3453 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3459 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3462 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3463 for congruent(2)).
  3464 
  3465 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3466 
  3467   types
  3468     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3469     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3470 
  3471   constants
  3472     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3473     True ~> HOL.True
  3474     False ~> HOL.False
  3475     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3476     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3477     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3478     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3479     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3480     The ~> HOL.The
  3481     All ~> HOL.All
  3482     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3483     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3484     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3485     If ~> HOL.If
  3486     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3487     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3488     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3489     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3490     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3491     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3492     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3493     op : ~> Set.member
  3494     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3495 
  3496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3499 
  3500     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3501     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3502     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3503     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3504     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3505     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3506     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3507     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3508 
  3509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * More stylized fact names:
  3512 
  3513   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3514   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3515   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3516   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3517 
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3521 
  3522   constants
  3523     null ~> List.null
  3524 
  3525   facts
  3526     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3527     null_empty ~> null_def
  3528 
  3529 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3530 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3531 generation.
  3532 
  3533 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3534 Haskell code.
  3535 
  3536 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3537 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3538 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3541 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3544 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3545 
  3546 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3547 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3548 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3551 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3557 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3558 referred to by its qualified name.
  3559 
  3560   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3561   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3562   product ~>  Enum.product
  3563 
  3564 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3565 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3569 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3570 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3574 sort_key.
  3575 
  3576 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3580 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3581 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3582 
  3583   types
  3584     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3585               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3586               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3587         (depends on your needs)
  3588 
  3589   constants
  3590      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3591      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3592      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3593 
  3594 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3595 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3596 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3597 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3600 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3601 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3602 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3603 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3609 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3610 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3611 
  3612 
  3613 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3614 
  3615 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3616 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3617 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3618 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3619 compatibility.
  3620 
  3621 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3622 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3623 
  3624 
  3625 *** HOLCF ***
  3626 
  3627 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3628 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3629 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3633 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3634 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3637   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3638   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3639 
  3640 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3641 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3642 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3645 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3646 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3647 domain definition now works:
  3648 
  3649   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3650 
  3651 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3652 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3653 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3654 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3655 
  3656   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3657     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3658 
  3659   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3660 
  3661 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3662 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3663 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3666 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3669 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3670 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3671 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3672 
  3673 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3674 
  3675 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3678 
  3679 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3683 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3684 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3685 
  3686 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3687 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3688 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3691 still supported as an input translation.
  3692 
  3693 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3694 
  3695   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3696   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3697   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3698   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3699   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3700   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3701   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3702 
  3703 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3704 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3707   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3708   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3709   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3710   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3711   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3712 
  3713 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3714 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3717 
  3718   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3719   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3720   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3721   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3722 
  3723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3726 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3729 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3730 
  3731   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3732   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3733   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3734   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3735   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3736   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3737   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3738   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3739   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3740   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3741   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3742   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3743   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3744   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3745   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3746   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3747   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3748   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3749   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3750   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3751 
  3752 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3755   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3756   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3757   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3758   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3759   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3760   box_less             ~> box_below
  3761   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3762   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3763   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3764   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3765   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3766   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3767   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3768   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3769   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3770   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3771   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3772   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3773   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3774   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3775   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3776   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3777   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3778   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3779   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3780   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3781   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3782   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3783   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3784   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3785   up_less              ~> up_below
  3786   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3787   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3788   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3789   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3790   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3791   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3792   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3793   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3794   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3795   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3796   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3797   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3798   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3799 
  3800 
  3801 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3802 
  3803 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3804 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 
  3807 *** ML ***
  3808 
  3809 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3810 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3811 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3812 
  3813 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3814 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3815 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3816 
  3817 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3818 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3819 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3820 
  3821 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3822 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3823 
  3824 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3825 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3826 
  3827 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3828 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3829 
  3830 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3831 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3832 
  3833 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3834 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3835 almost all situations.
  3836 
  3837 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3838 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3839 Isabelle/ML.
  3840 
  3841 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3842 meaning.
  3843 
  3844 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3845 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3846 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3847 
  3848 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3849 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3850 
  3851 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3852 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3853 
  3854 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3855 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3856 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3857 
  3858 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3859 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3860 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3861 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3862 configuration options.
  3863 
  3864 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3865 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3866 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3867 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3868 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3869 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3870 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3871 
  3872 
  3873 
  3874 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3875 ---------------------------------
  3876 
  3877 *** General ***
  3878 
  3879 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3880 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3881 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3882 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3883 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3884 their full internal name.
  3885 
  3886 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3887 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3888 Some hints on upgrading:
  3889 
  3890   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3891     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3892     which are independent of this issue.
  3893 
  3894   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3895     provides the following special forms:
  3896 
  3897       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3898       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3899       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3900 
  3901     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3902     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3903     extra variables".
  3904 
  3905     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3906     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3907     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3908     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3909     "logic".
  3910 
  3911   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3912     antiquotations:
  3913 
  3914       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3915       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3916       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3917       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3918 
  3919   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3920     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3921     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3922     antiquotations.
  3923 
  3924 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3925 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3926 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3927 diagnose syntax problems.
  3928 
  3929 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3930 
  3931 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3932 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3933 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3934 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3935 
  3936 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3937 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3938 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3939 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3942 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3943 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3944 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3945 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3948 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3949 
  3950 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3951 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3952 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3953 
  3954   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3955 
  3956 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3957 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3958 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3959 
  3960 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3961 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3965 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3966 
  3967 
  3968 *** Pure ***
  3969 
  3970 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3971 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3972 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3973 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3974 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3975 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3976 inspect proof terms.
  3977 
  3978 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3979 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3980 are added internally.  For example:
  3981 
  3982   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3983 
  3984 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3985 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3990 'class' instead.
  3991 
  3992 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3993 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3997 invariants.
  3998 
  3999 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4000 user space functionality any longer.
  4001 
  4002 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4003 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4007 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4008 
  4009 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4010 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4011 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4012 
  4013 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4014 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4015 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4016 
  4017 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4018 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 
  4021 *** HOL ***
  4022 
  4023 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4024 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4025 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4026 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4027 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4028 
  4029 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4030 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4031 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4032 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4033 
  4034   fun
  4035     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4036   where
  4037     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4038 
  4039   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4040     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4041 
  4042   quotient_definition
  4043     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4044 
  4045 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4046 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4047 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4048 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4049 
  4050 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4051 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4052 
  4053 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4054 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4055 
  4056 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4060 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4061 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4062 
  4063 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4064 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4065 
  4066 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4073 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4076 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4077 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078 
  4079   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4080   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4081   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4082   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4083   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4084   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4085   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4086   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4087   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4088   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4089   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4090   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4091   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4092   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4093   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4094   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4095   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4096   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4097   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4098   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4099   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4100   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4101   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4102   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4103   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4104   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4105   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4106   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4107   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4108   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4109 
  4110 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4111 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4112 
  4113 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4114 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4115 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4116 
  4117 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4118 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4119 
  4120 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4121 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4124 
  4125 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4126 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4129 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132 
  4133 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4134 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4135 
  4136 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4137 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4138 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4139 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4142   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4143   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4144   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4148 lattices):
  4149 
  4150     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4151     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4152 
  4153     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4154 
  4155     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4156     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4157     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4158     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4159     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4160     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4161     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4162     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4163     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4164     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4165     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4166     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4167     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4168 
  4169     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4170     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4171     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4172     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4173     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4174     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4175     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4176     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4177     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4178     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4179     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4180     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4181     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4182     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4183     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4184     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4185     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4186     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4187 
  4188   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4189   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4190 
  4191     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4192     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4193     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4194     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4195     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4196 
  4197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Refined field classes:
  4200   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4201     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4202     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4203   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4207   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4208   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4209   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4210     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4211   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4212     equal_neg_zero.
  4213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4216 sets to lattices:
  4217 
  4218   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4219   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4220   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4221   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4222   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4223   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4224   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4225   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4226   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4227   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4228 
  4229 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4230 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4231 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4232 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4233 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4234 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4237 multiset order:
  4238 
  4239   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4240     <= and <;
  4241   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4242     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4243     multiset_order;
  4244   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4245     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4246     generation;
  4247   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4248     if needed.
  4249 
  4250 Renamed:
  4251 
  4252   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4253   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4254   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4255 
  4256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4259 
  4260 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4261 
  4262 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4263 
  4264 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4265 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4266 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268   Constants:
  4269   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4270   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4271   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4272   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4273   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4274   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4275   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4276   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4277   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4278   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4279   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4280   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4281   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4282 
  4283   Lemmas:
  4284   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4285   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4286   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4287   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4288   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4289   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4290   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4291   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4292   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4293   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4294   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4295   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4296   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4297 
  4298 * Sledgehammer:
  4299   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4300     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4301     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4302     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4303     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4304     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4307   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4308     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4309   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4310     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4311     is still experimental.)
  4312   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4313     full-typed mode.
  4314   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4315 
  4316 * Nitpick:
  4317   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4318   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4319   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4320     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4321   - Added support for quotient types.
  4322   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4323     constructs.
  4324   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4325     "termination" proofs).
  4326   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4327   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4328   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4329   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4330     record getters.
  4331   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4332   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4333   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4334   - Added "atoms" option.
  4335   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4336     problems.
  4337   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4338     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4339     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4341     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4342   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4345   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4346   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4347   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4348   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4349   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4350   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4351   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4352   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4353   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4354 
  4355 
  4356 *** HOLCF ***
  4357 
  4358 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4359 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4360 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4363 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4364 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4365 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4368 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4369 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4370 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4371 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4374 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4375 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376 
  4377 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4378 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4379 
  4380   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4381   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4382 
  4383 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4384 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4385 
  4386   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4387   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4388   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4389   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4390   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4391 
  4392 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4393 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4396   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4397   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4398 
  4399 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4400 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4402 
  4403 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4404 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4409 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 
  4412 *** ML ***
  4413 
  4414 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4415 
  4416     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4417     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4418 
  4419     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4420     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4421     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4422     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4423 
  4424     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4425     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4426     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4427 
  4428 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4429 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4430 
  4431 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4432 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4433 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4434 
  4435 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4436 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4437 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4438 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4439 
  4440 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4441 the context or even global references.
  4442 
  4443 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4444 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4445 
  4446 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4447 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4448 
  4449   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4450   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4451   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4452   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4453   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4454   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4455   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4456   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4457   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4458   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4459 
  4460 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4461 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4462 
  4463 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4464 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4465 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4466 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4467 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4468 
  4469 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4470 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4471 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4472 Theory_Data version.
  4473 
  4474 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4475 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4476 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4477 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4478 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4479 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4480 explicitly in rare situations.
  4481 
  4482 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4483 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4485 
  4486 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4487 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4488 
  4489 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4490 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4491 quite rare).
  4492 
  4493 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4494 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4495 
  4496 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4497 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4498 terms.
  4499 
  4500 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4501 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4502 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4503 
  4504 
  4505 *** System ***
  4506 
  4507 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4508 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4509 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4510 
  4511 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4512 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4513 respectively.
  4514 
  4515 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4516 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4517 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4518 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4519 
  4520   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4521 
  4522 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4523 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4524 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4525 component.
  4526 
  4527 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4528 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4529 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4530 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4531 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4532 the user for manual installation.
  4533 
  4534 
  4535 
  4536 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4537 -------------------------------------
  4538 
  4539 *** General ***
  4540 
  4541 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4542 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4543 
  4544 
  4545 *** Pure ***
  4546 
  4547 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4548 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4549 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4550 
  4551 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4552 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4553 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4554 
  4555 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4556 interpretation.
  4557 
  4558 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4559 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 
  4562 *** Document preparation ***
  4563 
  4564 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4565 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4566 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4567 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4568 
  4569 
  4570 *** HOL ***
  4571 
  4572 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4573 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4574 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4575 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4576 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4577 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4578 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4579 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4580 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4581 
  4582 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4583 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4584 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4585 
  4586 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4587 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4588 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4589 
  4590 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4591 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4592 
  4593 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4594 
  4595 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4596 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4597 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4598 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4599 
  4600 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4601 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4602 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4603 "mirabelle" utility.
  4604 
  4605 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4606 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4607 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4608 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4609 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4610 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4611 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4612 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4613 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4614 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4615 
  4616 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4617 procedure only.
  4618 
  4619 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4620 
  4621 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4622 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4623 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4624 that fail later.
  4625 
  4626 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4627 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4628 
  4629 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4630 the same method as the approximation method.
  4631 
  4632 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4633 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4634 series expansion.
  4635 
  4636 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4637 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4638 
  4639 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4640 reals.
  4641 
  4642 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4643 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4644 
  4645 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4646 fixpoint theorem.
  4647 
  4648 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4649   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4650     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4651   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4652     accordingly
  4653   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4654     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4655   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4656     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4657 
  4658 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4659 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4660 lattice.
  4661 
  4662 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4663 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4664 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4665 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4666 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4667 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4671   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4672     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4673   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4674     le_inf_iff
  4675   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4676     sup_aci)
  4677   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4678   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4679   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4680     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4681     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4682     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4683     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4684     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4685     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4686     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4687     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4688     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4689     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4690   - authentic syntax for
  4691     Set.Pow
  4692     Set.image
  4693   - mere abbreviations:
  4694     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4695     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4696     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4697     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4698     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4699     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4700     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4701     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4702   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4703 
  4704 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4705 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4706 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4707 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4708 
  4709 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4710 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4711 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4714 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4717 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4718 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4719 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4720 
  4721 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4722 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4723 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4724 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4725 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4726 
  4727 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4728 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4732 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4735 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4736 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4737 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4738 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4739 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4740 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4744     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4745     code_post       replaces    code post
  4746     etc.
  4747   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Renamed methods:
  4750     sizechange -> size_change
  4751     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4752   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4755 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4756 
  4757 * Renamed theorems:
  4758     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4759     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4760     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4761     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4762     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4763   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 
  4772 *** HOLCF ***
  4773 
  4774 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4775 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4776 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4777 
  4778 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4779 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4780 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4781 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4782 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4783 
  4784 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4785 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4786 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4787 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4788 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4789 
  4790 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4791 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4792 constructor are pre-configured.
  4793 
  4794 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4795 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4796 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4797 
  4798 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4799 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4800 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4801 as well.)
  4802 
  4803 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4804 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4805 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4806 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4807 examples.
  4808 
  4809 
  4810 *** ML ***
  4811 
  4812 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4813 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4814 
  4815 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4816 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4817 position, logical grouping etc.
  4818 
  4819 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4820 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4821 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4822 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4823 
  4824 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4825 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4826 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4827 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4828 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4829 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4830 
  4831 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4832 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4833 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4834 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4835 experiments with references.
  4836 
  4837 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4838 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4839 
  4840 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4841 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4842 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4843 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4844 
  4845 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4846 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4847 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4848 
  4849 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4850 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4851 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4859 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4860 
  4861 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4862 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4863 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4864 
  4865 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4866 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4867 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4870 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4871 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4875 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4876 instead of global theory.
  4877 
  4878 
  4879 *** System ***
  4880 
  4881 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4882 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4883 usedir option -q.
  4884 
  4885 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4886 also the system manual.
  4887 
  4888 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4889 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4890 
  4891 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4892 this is always enabled.
  4893 
  4894 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4895 
  4896 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4897 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4898 currently supported on Linux only.
  4899 
  4900 
  4901 
  4902 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4903 --------------------------------
  4904 
  4905 *** General ***
  4906 
  4907 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4908 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4909 
  4910   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4911     "isatool."
  4912 
  4913   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4914     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4915 
  4916   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4917     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4918 
  4919 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4920 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4921 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4922 
  4923 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4924 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4925 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4926 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4927 via "isabelle emacs".
  4928 
  4929 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4930 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4931 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4932 
  4933 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4934 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4935 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4936 
  4937 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4938 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4939 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4940 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4941 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4942 
  4943 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4944 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4945 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4946 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4947 
  4948 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4949 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4950 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4951 
  4952 
  4953 *** Pure ***
  4954 
  4955 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4956 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4957 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4958 
  4959 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4960 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4961 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4962 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4963 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4964 
  4965 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4966 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4967 useful in locale declarations.
  4968 
  4969 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4970 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4971 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4972 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4973 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4974 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4975 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4976 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4977 no longer generated.
  4978 
  4979 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4980 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4981 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4982 
  4983 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4984 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4985 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4986 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4987 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4988 
  4989 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4991 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4992 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4993 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4994 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4995 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4996 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4997 
  4998 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4999 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5000 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5001 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5002 
  5003 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5006 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5007 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5008 
  5009 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5010 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5013 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5014 in HOL, write
  5015 
  5016     class foo = ...
  5017 
  5018 instead of
  5019 
  5020     class foo = type + ...
  5021 
  5022 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5023 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5026 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5027 
  5028 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5029 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5030 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5031 
  5032 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5033 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5034 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5035 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5036 directly in regular applications.
  5037 
  5038 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5039 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5040 
  5041 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5042 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5043 
  5044 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5045 theory context.
  5046 
  5047 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5048 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5051 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5052 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5053 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5054 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5055 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5056 
  5057   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5058 
  5059 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5060 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5061 normalization.
  5062 
  5063 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5064 addressing etc.
  5065 
  5066 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5067 
  5068   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5069   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5070 
  5071 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5072 
  5073   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5074      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5075      parts of the code generator framework).
  5076 
  5077   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5078      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5079      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5080 
  5081 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5084 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5085 
  5086 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5087 patterns, e.g.
  5088 
  5089     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5090 
  5091 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5092 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5093 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5094 hyphen:
  5095 
  5096     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5097 
  5098 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5099 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5100 
  5101 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5102 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5103 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5104 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5105 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5106 higher-order unification.
  5107 
  5108 
  5109 *** Document preparation ***
  5110 
  5111 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5112 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5113 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5114 
  5115 
  5116 *** HOL ***
  5117 
  5118 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5119 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5120 
  5121 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5122 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5123 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5124 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5125 Main, as before.
  5126 
  5127 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5128 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5129 
  5130 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5131 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5132 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5133 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5134 
  5135 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5136 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5137 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5138 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5139 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5140 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5141 
  5142 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5143 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5144 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5145 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5146 
  5147 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5148 menu.
  5149 
  5150 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5151 (contains the empty clause).
  5152 
  5153 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5154 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5155 
  5156 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5157 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5158 
  5159 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5160 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5161 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5164 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5165 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5166 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5167 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5168 
  5169 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5170 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5171 
  5172 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5173 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5174 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5175 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5176 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5177 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5178 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5179 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5180 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5181 
  5182 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5183 
  5184 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5185 
  5186 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5187 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5190 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5191 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5192 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5193 
  5194 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5195 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5196 
  5197     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5198     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5199     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5200     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5201     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5202     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5203     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5204     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5205 
  5206 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5207 theory Set.
  5208 
  5209 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5210 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5211 
  5212 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5213 
  5214 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5215 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5216 
  5217 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5218 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5219 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5220 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5221 allowed. For examples see
  5222 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5223 
  5224 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5225 
  5226 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5230 structure:
  5231 
  5232     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5233     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5234     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5235     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5236     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5237     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5238     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5239     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5240     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5241     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5242     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5243     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5244     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5245     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5246     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5247     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5248     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5249     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5250     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5251     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5252     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5253     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5254     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5255     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5256     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5257     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5258     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5259     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5260     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5261     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5262     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5263     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5264     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5265 
  5266     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5267     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5268     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5269     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5270     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5271     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5272     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5273     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5274     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5275     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5276 
  5277     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5278     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5279     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5280     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5281     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5282     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5283 
  5284 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5285 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5286 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5287 
  5288 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5289 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5290 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5291 
  5292 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5293 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5294 
  5295 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5296 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5297 
  5298 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5299 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5300 proofs, e.g.
  5301 
  5302   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5303 
  5304 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5305 
  5306 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5307 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5308 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5311 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5313 
  5314 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5315 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5316 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5320 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5321 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5322 preorder_class.*.
  5323 
  5324 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5325 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5326 
  5327 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5328 
  5329   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5330 
  5331 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5332 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5333 fold_image.
  5334 
  5335 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5336 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5337 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5338 the former will disappear at some point.
  5339 
  5340 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5341 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5342 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5343 
  5344 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5345 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5346 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5347 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5348 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5349 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5350 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5351 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5352 
  5353 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5354 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5355 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5356 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5357 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5358 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5359 
  5360     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5361     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5362     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5363     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5364     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5365     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5366     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5367 
  5368 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5369 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5370 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5371 
  5372 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5373 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5374 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5375 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5376 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5377 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5378 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5379 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5380 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5381 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5382 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5383 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5384 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5385 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5386 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5387 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5388 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5389 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5390 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5391 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5392 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5393 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5394 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5395 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5396 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5397 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5398 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5399 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5400 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5401 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5402 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5403 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5404 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5405 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5406 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5407 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5408 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5409 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5410 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5411 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5412 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5413 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5414 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5415 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5416 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5417 
  5418 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5419 
  5420 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5421 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5422 
  5423 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5424 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5425 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5426 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5427 
  5428 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5429 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5430 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5431 theory RealVector.
  5432 
  5433 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5434 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5435 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5436 and inner products are included.
  5437 
  5438 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5439 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5440 supported.
  5441 
  5442 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5443 first diagonalization argument.
  5444 
  5445 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5446 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5447 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5448 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5449 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5450 
  5451     hide (open) const gcd
  5452     abbreviation gcd where
  5453       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5454     notation (output)
  5455       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5456 
  5457 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5458 
  5459 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5460 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5461 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5462 
  5463 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5464 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5465 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5466 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5467 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5468 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5469 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5470 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5471 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5472 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5473 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5474 cases.
  5475 
  5476 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5477 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5478 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5479 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5480 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5481 
  5482     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5483     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5484     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5485     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5486     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5487 
  5488 
  5489 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5490 
  5491 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5492 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5493 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5494 
  5495 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5496 
  5497 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5498 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5499 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5500 
  5501 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5502 
  5503 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5504 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5505 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5506 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5507 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5508 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5509 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5510 
  5511 
  5512 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5513 
  5514 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5515 
  5516 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5517 theory targets.
  5518 
  5519 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5520 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5521 'inductive' etc.
  5522 
  5523 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5524 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5525 
  5526 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5527 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5528 
  5529 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5530 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5531 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5532 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5533 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5534 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5535 the algorithm W:
  5536 
  5537  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5538  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5539          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5540 
  5541 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5542 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5543 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5544 
  5545 
  5546 *** HOLCF ***
  5547 
  5548 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5549 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5550 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5551 
  5552 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5553 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5554 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5555 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5556 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5559 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5560 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 
  5563 *** ZF ***
  5564 
  5565 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5566 
  5567 
  5568 *** ML ***
  5569 
  5570 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5571 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5572 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5573 5.2.1!
  5574 
  5575 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5576 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5577 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5578 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5579 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5580 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5581 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5582 
  5583 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5584 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5585 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5586 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5587 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5588 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5589 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5590 
  5591 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5592 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5593 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5594 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5595 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5596 
  5597 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5598 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5599 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5600 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5601 Method.add_method.
  5602 
  5603 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5604 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5605 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5606 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5607 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5608 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5609 
  5610 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5611 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5612 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5613 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5614 examples.
  5615 
  5616 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5617 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5618 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5619 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5620 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5621 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5622 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5623 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5624 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5625 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5626 
  5627 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5628 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5629 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5630 
  5631 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5632 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5633 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5634 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5635 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5636 resort for legacy applications.
  5637 
  5638 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5639 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5640 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5641 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5642 explicit runtime argument.
  5643 
  5644 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5645 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5646 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5647 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5648 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5651 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5652 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5653 theory state.
  5654 
  5655 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5656 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5657 
  5658   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5659   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5660   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5661   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5662   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5663   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5664   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5665   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5666   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5667   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5668 
  5669 
  5670 *** System ***
  5671 
  5672 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5673 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5674 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5675 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5676 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5677 
  5678 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5679 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5680 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5681 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5682 
  5683 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5684 
  5685 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5686 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5687 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5688 prover operations.
  5689 
  5690 
  5691 
  5692 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5693 -------------------------------
  5694 
  5695 *** General ***
  5696 
  5697 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5698 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5699 
  5700 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5701 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5702 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5703 provides a proper context already.
  5704 
  5705 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5706 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5707 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5708 
  5709 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5710 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5711 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5712 swap theory imports.
  5713 
  5714 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5715 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5716 
  5717 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5718 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5719 white space without escapes.
  5720 
  5721 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5722 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5723 "foo_bar".
  5724 
  5725 
  5726 *** Pure ***
  5727 
  5728 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5729 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5730 
  5731 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5732 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5733 
  5734 (1) unused_thms
  5735      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5736 
  5737 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5738      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5739      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5740 
  5741 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5742      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5743      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5744      their ancestors.
  5745 
  5746 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5747 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5748 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5749 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5750 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5751 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5752 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5753 
  5754 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5755 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5756 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5757 
  5758 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5759 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5760 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5761 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5762 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5763 
  5764 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5765 
  5766 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5767 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5768 update of theories within ML code.
  5769 
  5770 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5771 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5772 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5773 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5774 
  5775 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5776 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5777 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5779 
  5780 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5781 
  5782 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5783 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5784 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5785 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5786 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5787 
  5788 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5789 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5790 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5791 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5792 situations.
  5793 
  5794 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5795 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5796 proof text.
  5797 
  5798 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5799 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5800 
  5801 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5802 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5803 predicates.
  5804 
  5805 
  5806 *** Document preparation ***
  5807 
  5808 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5809 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5810 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5811 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5812 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5813 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5814 
  5815 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5816 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5817 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5818 
  5819 
  5820 *** HOL ***
  5821 
  5822 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5823 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5824 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5825 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5826 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5827 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5828 
  5829 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5830 with multithreading.
  5831 
  5832 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5833 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5834 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5835 
  5836 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5837 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5838 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5839 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5842 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5843 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5844 and makes them available separately.  See
  5845 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5846 
  5847 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5848 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5849 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5850 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5851 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5852 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5853 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5854 the declared rules.
  5855 
  5856 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5857 
  5858   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5859 
  5860 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5861 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5862 
  5863 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5864 
  5865   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5866 
  5867   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5868     definitions on => and bool.
  5869 
  5870   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5871     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5872     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5873 
  5874       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5875       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5876       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5877       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5878       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5879       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5880       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5881       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5882 
  5883   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5884     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5885     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5886 
  5887   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5888     The proof pattern
  5889 
  5890       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5891       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5892 
  5893     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5894     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5895 
  5896       have "EX S. P S"
  5897       proof
  5898         show "P S" <...>
  5899       qed
  5900 
  5901   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5902     The proof pattern
  5903 
  5904       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5905       also have "S = T" <...>
  5906       finally have "P T" .
  5907 
  5908     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5909     must be replaced by something like
  5910 
  5911       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5912       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5913       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5914 
  5915   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5916     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5917 
  5918       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5919 
  5920     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5921     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5922     type of the form
  5923 
  5924       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5925 
  5926     rather than
  5927 
  5928       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5929 
  5930 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5931 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5932 
  5933 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5934 
  5935 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5936 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5938 
  5939 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5940 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5941 
  5942 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5943 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5944 
  5945 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5946 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5947 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5948 
  5949 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5950 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5951 
  5952   less_trans
  5953   less_linear
  5954   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5955   le_less_trans
  5956   less_le_trans
  5957   less_not_sym
  5958   less_asym
  5959 
  5960 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5961 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5962 and different variable names.
  5963 
  5964 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5965 
  5966 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5967 finite maps.
  5968 
  5969 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5970 
  5971 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5972 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5973 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5974 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5975 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5976 accordingly.
  5977 
  5978 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5979 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5980 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5981 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5982 
  5983 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5984 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5985 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5986 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5987 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5989 
  5990 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5991 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5994 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5995 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5996 
  5997 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5999 
  6000 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6001 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6002 
  6003 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6004 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6007 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6008 
  6009 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6010 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6012 
  6013 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6014 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6015 
  6016 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6017 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6018 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6019 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6020 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6021 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6022 
  6023 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6024 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6025 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6026 
  6027 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6028 
  6029 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6030 
  6031 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6032 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6033 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6034 
  6035 
  6036 *** ZF ***
  6037 
  6038 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6039 same session:
  6040 
  6041   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6042   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6043   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6044   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6045   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6046   List      -> List_ZF
  6047   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6048 
  6049 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6050 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6051 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6052 
  6053 
  6054 *** ML ***
  6055 
  6056 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6057 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6058 
  6059 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6060 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6061 
  6062 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6063 
  6064 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6065 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6066 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6067 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6068 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6071 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6072 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6073 
  6074 
  6075 *** System ***
  6076 
  6077 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6078 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6079 
  6080 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6081 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6082 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6083 
  6084 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6085 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6086 
  6087 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6088 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6089 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6090 
  6091 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6092 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6093 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6094 
  6095 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6096 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6097 
  6098 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6099 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6100 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6101 script.
  6102 
  6103 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6104 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6105 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6106 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6107 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6108 
  6109 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6110 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6111 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6112 
  6113 
  6114 
  6115 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6116 -----------------------------------
  6117 
  6118 *** General ***
  6119 
  6120 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6121 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6122 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6123 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6124 
  6125 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6126 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6127 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6130 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6131 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6132 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6133 
  6134 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6135 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6136 quotes.
  6137 
  6138 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6139 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6140 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6141 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6142 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6143 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6144 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6145 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6146 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6147 
  6148 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6149 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6150 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6151 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6152 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6153 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6154 
  6155 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6156 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6157 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6158 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6159 
  6160 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6161 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6162 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6163 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6164 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6165 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6166 
  6167 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6168 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6169 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6170 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6171 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6172 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6173 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6174 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6175 
  6176 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6177 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6178 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6179 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6180 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6181 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6182 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6183 
  6184 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6185 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6186 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6187 
  6188 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6189 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6190 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6191 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6192 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6193 limit is imposed.
  6194 
  6195 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6196 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6197 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6198 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6199 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6200 and scalability.
  6201 
  6202 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6203 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6204 
  6205 
  6206 *** Document preparation ***
  6207 
  6208 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6209 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6210 current context.
  6211 
  6212 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6213 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6214 
  6215 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6216 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6217 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6218 
  6219 
  6220 *** Pure ***
  6221 
  6222 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6223 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6224 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6225 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6226 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6227 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6228 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6229 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6230 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6231 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6232 
  6233 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6234 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6235 sketch:
  6236 
  6237     internal compilation:
  6238         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6239     writing SML code to a file:
  6240         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6241     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6242         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6243     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6244         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6245 
  6246     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6247         method ``eval''
  6248 
  6249 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6250 
  6251 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6252 
  6253     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6254     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6255     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6256     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6257 
  6258 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6259 
  6260     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6261       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6262 
  6263     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6264       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6265 
  6266     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6267       {(target)}+
  6268         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>