NEWS
author hoelzl
Tue Mar 26 12:20:54 2013 +0100 (2013-03-26)
changeset 51520 e9b361845809
parent 51517 7957d26c3334
child 51533 3f6280aedbcc
permissions -rw-r--r--
move real_isLub_unique to isLub_unique in Lubs; real_sum_of_halves to RealDef; abs_diff_less_iff to Rings
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    10 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    11 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    12 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    13 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    14 presentation of theories.
    15 
    16 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    17 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    18 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    19 
    20 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    21 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** Pure ***
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    27 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    28 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    29 
    30 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    31 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    32 
    33 
    34 *** HOL ***
    35 
    36 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
    37   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
    38     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
    39     This is now identity on infinite sets.
    40   - Locales (Ā»mini packagesĀ«) for fundamental definitions with
    41     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
    42   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
    43     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
    44     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
    45     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
    46     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
    47     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
    48     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
    49     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
    50   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
    51     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
    52   - Fact renames:
    53       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
    54       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
    55 
    56 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57 
    58 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
    59 
    60 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
    61 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    62 
    63 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    64 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    65 
    66 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
    67 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
    68 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
    69 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
    70 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
    71 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    72 
    73 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
    74 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
    75 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
    76 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77 
    78 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    79 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    80 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    81 
    82 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
    83 
    84     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
    85     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
    86 
    87 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    88 
    89 * Sledgehammer:
    90 
    91   - Renamed option:
    92       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
    93 
    94 
    95 *** HOL-Algebra ***
    96 
    97 * Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and .../poly.
    98 Existing theories should be based on src/HOL/Library/Polynomial
    99 instead.  The latter provides integration with HOL's type classes for
   100 rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   101 
   102 
   103 *** System ***
   104 
   105 * Discontinued "isabelle usedir" option -P (remote path) and -r (reset
   106 session path).  Note that usedir is legacy and superseded by "isabelle
   107 build" since Isabelle2013.
   108 
   109 
   110 
   111 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   112 -----------------------------------
   113 
   114 *** General ***
   115 
   116 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   117 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   118 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   119 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   120 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   121 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   122 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   123 
   124 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   125 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   126 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   127 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   128 
   129 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   130 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   131 
   132 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   133 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   134 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   135 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   136 dependencies properly.
   137 
   138 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   139 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   140 
   141 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   142 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   143 
   144 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   145 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   146 and "class ... context ...".
   147 
   148 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   149 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   150 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   151 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   152 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   153 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   154 
   155 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   156 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   157 
   158 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   159 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   160 
   161 
   162 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   163 
   164 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   165 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   166 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   167 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   168 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   169 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   170 
   171 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   172 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   173 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   174 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   175 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   176 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   177 
   178 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   179 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   180 browser on demand.
   181 
   182 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   183 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   184 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   185 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   186 
   187 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   188 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   189 
   190 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   191 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   192 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   193 potentially infinite message streams.
   194 
   195 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   196 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   197 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   198 schemes.
   199 
   200 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   201 symbols.
   202 
   203 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   204 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   205 
   206 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   207 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   208 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   209 
   210 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   211 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   212 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   213 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   214 
   215 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   216 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   217 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   218 
   219 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   220 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   221 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   222 Isabelle distribution.
   223 
   224 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   225 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   226 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   227 
   228 
   229 *** Pure ***
   230 
   231 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   232 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   233 
   234 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   235 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   236 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   239 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   240 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   241 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   242 with some care where this is really required.
   243 
   244 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   245 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   246 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   247 
   248   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   249 
   250 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   251 a Hasse diagram.
   252 
   253 
   254 *** HOL ***
   255 
   256 * Sledgehammer:
   257 
   258   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   259     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   260   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   261   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   262   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   263   - Renamed options:
   264       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   265       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   266       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   267       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   268 
   269 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   270 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   271 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   272 
   273 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276 * Lifting:
   277   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   278   - quot_del attribute
   279   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   280 
   281 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   282 expressions.
   283 
   284 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   285 pointfree expressions.
   286 
   287 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   288 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   289 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   290 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   294 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   295 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   296 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   297 accordingly.
   298 
   299 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   300 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   303 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   308 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   309 
   310 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   311 
   312 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   313 
   314   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   315   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   316 
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   320 
   321   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   322   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   323 
   324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   327 
   328   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   329     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   330     output f x converges to G.
   331 
   332   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   333     infinity (at_bot).
   334 
   335   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   336     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   337 
   338   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   339     at_top".
   340 
   341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   342 
   343 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   344 lattice type classes.
   345 
   346 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   347 
   348     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   349     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   350 
   351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352 
   353 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   354 changes as follows.
   355 
   356   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   357 
   358       prefix ~> prefixeq
   359       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   360 
   361   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   362     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   363     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   364     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   365 
   366   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   367     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   368     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   369 
   370   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   371     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   372     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   373     Library/Prefix_Order.
   374 
   375   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   376     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   377 
   378       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   379       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   380       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   381       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   382       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   383       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   384       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   385       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   386       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   387       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   388       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   389       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   390       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   391       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   392       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   393       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   394 
   395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   396 
   397 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   398 
   399 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   400 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   401 
   402 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   403 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   404 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   405 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   406 
   407   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   408   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   409   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   410   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   411   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   412   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   413   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   414   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   415   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   416   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   417 
   418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   421 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   422 Data").
   423 
   424 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   425 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   426 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   427 code.
   428 
   429 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   430 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   431 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   433 
   434 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   435 
   436 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   437 
   438 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   439 
   440   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   441   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   442 
   443 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   444 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   445 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   446 
   447   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   448 
   449     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   450     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   451     cart_base i  removed
   452     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   453 
   454   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   455 
   456   Renamed lemmas:
   457 
   458     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   459     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   460     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   461     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   462     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   463     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   464     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   465     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   466     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   467     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   468 
   469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * HOL/Probability:
   472 
   473   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   474 
   475   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   476     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   477     (borel_measurable_induct).
   478 
   479   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   480     projective family).
   481 
   482 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   483 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   484 
   485 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   486 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   487 datatypes.
   488 
   489 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   490 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   491 
   492 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   493 trees for the code generator.
   494 
   495 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   496 Lifting/Transfer.
   497 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   498 
   499 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 
   503 *** Document preparation ***
   504 
   505 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   506 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   507 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   508 
   509 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   510 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   511 
   512 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   513 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   514 document/root.tex.
   515 
   516 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   517 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   518 
   519 
   520 *** ML ***
   521 
   522 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   523 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   524 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   525 
   526 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   527 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   528 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   529 
   530 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   531 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   532 necessarily printing visible text.
   533 
   534 
   535 *** System ***
   536 
   537 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   538 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   539 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   540 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   541 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   542 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   543 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   544 
   545 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   546 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   547 
   548   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   549 
   550 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   551 
   552 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   553 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   554 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   555 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   556 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   557 
   558 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   559 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   560 
   561 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   562 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   563 
   564 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   566 
   567 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   568 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   569 version of Isabelle.
   570 
   571 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   572 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   573 
   574 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   575 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   576 for home-made settings.
   577 
   578 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   579 
   580 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   581 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   582 configuration.
   583 
   584 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   585 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   586 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   587 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   588 bundled as Isabelle component.
   589 
   590 
   591 
   592 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   593 ------------------------------
   594 
   595 *** General ***
   596 
   597 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   598 
   599   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   600     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   601   - markup for bound variables
   602   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   603   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   604   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   605     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   606 
   607 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   608 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   609 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   610 
   611 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   612 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   613 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   614 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   615 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   616 
   617   context
   618     fixes x y z :: 'a
   619     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   620   begin
   621 
   622   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   623 
   624   end
   625 
   626   thm my_trans
   627 
   628 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   629 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   630 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   631 
   632 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   633 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   634 
   635 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   636 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   637 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   638 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   639 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   640 
   641 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   642 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   643 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   644 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   645 indices of schematic variables.
   646 
   647 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   648 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   649 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   650 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   651 etc. was exploited.
   652 
   653 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   654 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   655 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   656 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   657 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   658 of the material of that old tutorial.
   659 
   660 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   661 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   662 manual.
   663 
   664 
   665 *** Pure ***
   666 
   667 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   668 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   669 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   670 
   671 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   672 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   673 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   674 undocumented feature.)
   675 
   676 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   677 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   678 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   679 
   680   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   681 
   682   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   683     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   684 
   685 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   686 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   687 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   688 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   689 
   690 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   691 
   692     num ~> num_token
   693     xnum ~> xnum_token
   694     xstr ~> str_token
   695 
   696 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   697 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   698 position information via constraints).
   699 
   700 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   701 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   702 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   705 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   706 
   707 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   708 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   709 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   712 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   715 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   716 
   717   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   718 
   719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   720 
   721 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   722 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   725 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   726 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   727 
   728 
   729 *** HOL ***
   730 
   731 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   732 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   733 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   734 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   735 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   736 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   737 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   738 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   739 possible.
   740 
   741 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   742 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   743 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   744 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   745 
   746 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   747 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   750 
   751 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   752 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   753 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   754 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   755 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   756 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   757 
   758   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   759     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   760 
   761   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   762     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   763     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   764 
   765   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   766     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   767 
   768   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   769     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   770     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   771 
   772   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   773     Redefine using other integer operations.
   774 
   775 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   776 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   777 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   778 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   779 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   780 
   781   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   782     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   783     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   784     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   785     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   786 
   787     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   788     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   789 
   790   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   791     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   792     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   793     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   794     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   795     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   796     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   797     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   798 
   799   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   800     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   801     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   802     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   803 
   804   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   805     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   806     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   807     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   808 
   809   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   810     from type nat to type int.
   811 
   812 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   813 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   814 
   815   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   816     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   817     type.  Example syntax:
   818 
   819     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   820       is List.insert
   821 
   822     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   823     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   824     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   825     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   826     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   827     by the package.
   828 
   829   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   830     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   831     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   832     code generation for each constant.
   833 
   834   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   835     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   836     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   837     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   838     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   839 
   840   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   841     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   842     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   843 
   844 * Quotient package:
   845 
   846   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   847     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   848 
   849   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   850     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   851 
   852   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   853     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   854     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   857     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   860 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   861 
   862 * Quickcheck:
   863 
   864   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   865     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   866     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   867     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   868     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   869 
   870     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   871     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   872     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   873 
   874     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   875     continues searching for genuine ones.
   876 
   877     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   878     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   879     show genuine counterexamples.
   880 
   881   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   882     value generators for a given type and operations.
   883 
   884     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   885     constructors of that type.
   886 
   887   - Support for multisets.
   888 
   889   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   890 
   891   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   892     conjectures in a locale context.
   893 
   894 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   895 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   896 
   897 * Sledgehammer:
   898   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   899     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   900   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   901   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   902     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   903   - Sped up the minimizer.
   904   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   905   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   906   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   907 
   908 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   909 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   910 
   911 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   912 
   913 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   914 
   915 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   916 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   917 
   918   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   919 
   920 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   921 a list and a nat.
   922 
   923 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   924 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   925 
   926 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   927 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   928 default.
   929 
   930 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   931 
   932   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   933 
   934 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   935 
   936 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   937 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   938 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   939 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   940 one_case.
   941 
   942 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   943 the result of the fact expression.
   944 
   945 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   946 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   947 of some relation theorems:
   948 
   949   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   950   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   951   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   952   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   953   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   954   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   955 
   956 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   957 
   958 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   959 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   960 
   961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   964 to match the constant's name:
   965 
   966   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   967   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   968   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   969   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   970   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   971   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   972   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   973   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   974   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   975   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   976   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   977   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   978   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   979   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   980   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   981   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   982   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   983   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   984   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   985   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   986   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   987   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   988   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   989   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   990 
   991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   994 and corresponding theorem names:
   995 
   996   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   997 
   998   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   999 
  1000   - Renamed theorems:
  1001 
  1002     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1003     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1004     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1005     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1006     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1007     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1008     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1009     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1010     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1011     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1012     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1013     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1014     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1015     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1016     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1017     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1018     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1019     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1020     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1021     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1022     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1023     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1024     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1025 
  1026     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1027 
  1028     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1029 
  1030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1033 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1034 
  1035   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1036   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1037   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1038   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1039   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1040   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1041   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1042   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1043   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1044   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1045   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1046   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1047   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1048   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1049   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1050   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1051   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1052   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1053   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1054   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1055   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1056 
  1057 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1058 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1059 
  1060 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1063 
  1064   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1065   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1066   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1067   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1068   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1069   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1070   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1071   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1072   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1073   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1074   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1075   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1076   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1077   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1078   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1079   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1080   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1081   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1082 
  1083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1086 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1087 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1088 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1089 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1090 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1091 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1093 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1094 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1095 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1096 
  1097 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1098 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1099 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1100 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1101 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1102 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1103 
  1104 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1105 through option types.
  1106 
  1107 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1108 relations.
  1109 
  1110 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1114 
  1115   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1116   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1117   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1118   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1119   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1120   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1121   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1122   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1123   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1124   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1125   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1126   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1127   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1128   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1129   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1130   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1131   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1132   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1133   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1134   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1135   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1136   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1137   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1138   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1139   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1140   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1141   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1142   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1143   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1144   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1145   zless_le ~> less_le
  1146   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1147   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1148   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1149 
  1150 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1151 
  1152   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1153 
  1154 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1155 
  1156 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1157 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1158 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1159 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161 
  1162 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1163 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1164 
  1165 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1166 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1167 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1168 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1169 follows:
  1170 
  1171   Operations:
  1172   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1173   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1174   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1175   del -> rbt_del
  1176   delete -> rbt_delete
  1177   ins -> rbt_ins
  1178   insert -> rbt_insert
  1179   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1180   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1181   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1182   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1183   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1184   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1185   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1186   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1187   union -> rbt_union
  1188   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1189   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1190 
  1191   Lemmas:
  1192   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1193   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1194   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1195   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1196   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1197   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1198   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1199   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1200   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1201   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1202   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1203   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1204   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1205   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1206   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1207   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1208   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1209   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1210   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1211   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1212   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1213   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1214   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1215   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1216   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1217   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1218   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1219   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1220   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1221   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1222   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1223   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1224   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1225   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1226   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1227   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1228   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1229   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1230   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1231   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1232   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1233   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1234   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1235   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1236   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1237   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1238   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1239   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1240   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1241   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1242   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1243   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1244   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1245   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1246   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1247   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1248   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1249   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1250   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1251   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1252   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1253   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1254   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1255   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1256   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1257   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1258   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1259   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1260   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1261   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1262   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1263   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1264   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1265   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1266   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1267   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1268   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1269   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1270   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1271   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1272   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1273   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1274   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1275 
  1276 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1277 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1278 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1279 
  1280   Changed Operations:
  1281   float_abs -> abs
  1282   float_nprt -> nprt
  1283   float_pprt -> pprt
  1284   pow2 -> use powr
  1285   round_down -> float_round_down
  1286   round_up -> float_round_up
  1287   scale -> exponent
  1288 
  1289   Removed Operations:
  1290   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1291 
  1292   Renamed Lemmas:
  1293   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1294   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1295   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1296   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1297   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1298   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1299   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1300   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1301   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1302   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1303   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1304   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1305   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1306   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1307   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1308   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1309   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1310   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1311   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1312   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1313   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1314   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1315   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1316   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1317   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1318   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1319   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1320   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1321   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1322   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1323   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1324   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1325   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1326   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1327   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1328   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1329 
  1330   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1331   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1332   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1333   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1334   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1335   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1336   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1337   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1338   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1339   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1340 
  1341 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1342 association lists with distinct keys.
  1343 
  1344 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1345 annotated commands.
  1346 
  1347 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1348 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1349 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1350 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1351 
  1352 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1353 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1354 instead.
  1355 
  1356   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1357   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1358   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1359   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1360   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1361   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1362   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1363   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1364   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1365   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1366   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1367   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1368   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1369   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1370   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1371   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1372   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1373   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1374   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1375   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1376   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1377   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1378   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1379   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1380   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1381   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1382   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1383   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1384   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1385   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1386   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1387   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1388   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1389   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1390   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1391   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1392   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1393   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1394   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1395   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1396   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1397 
  1398 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1399 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1400 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1401 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1402 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1403 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1404 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1405 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1406 
  1407 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1408 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1409 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1410 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1411 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1412 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1413 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1414 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1415 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1416 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1417 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1418 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1419 
  1420   Renamed constants:
  1421   measure -> emeasure
  1422   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1423   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1424   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1425   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1426 
  1427   Removed locales:
  1428   completeable_measure_space
  1429   finite_measure_space
  1430   finite_prob_space
  1431   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1432   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1433   finite_sigma_algebra
  1434   measure_space
  1435   pair_finite_prob_space
  1436   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1437   pair_finite_space
  1438   pair_sigma_algebra
  1439   product_sigma_algebra
  1440 
  1441   Removed constants:
  1442   conditional_space
  1443   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1444   image_space
  1445   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1446   pair_measure_generator
  1447   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1448   subvimage
  1449 
  1450   Replacement theorems:
  1451   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1452   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1453   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1454   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1455   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1456   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1457   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1458   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1459   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1460   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1461   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1462   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1463   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1464   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1465   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1466   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1467   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1468   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1469   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1470   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1471   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1472   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1473   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1474   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1475   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1476   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1477   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1478   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1479   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1480   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1481   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1482   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1483   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1484   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1485   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1486   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1487   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1488   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1489   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1490   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1491   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1492   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1493   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1494   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1495   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1496   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1497   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1498   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1499   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1500   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1501   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1502   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1503   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1504   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1505   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1506   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1507   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1508   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1509   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1510   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1511   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1512   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1513   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1514   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1515   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1516   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1517   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1518   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1519   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1520   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1521   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1522   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1523   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1524   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1525   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1526   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1527   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1528   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1529   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1530   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1531   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1532   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1533   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1534   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1535   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1536   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1537   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1538   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1539   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1540   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1541   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1542   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1543   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1544   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1545   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1546   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1547   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1548   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1549   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1550   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1551   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1552   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1553   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1554   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1555   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1556   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1557   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1558   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1559   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1560   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1561   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1562   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1563   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1564   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1565   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1566   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1567   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1568   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1569   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1570   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1571   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1572   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1573   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1574   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1575   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1576   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1577   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1578   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1579 
  1580 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1581 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1582 
  1583 
  1584 *** FOL ***
  1585 
  1586 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1587 
  1588 
  1589 *** ZF ***
  1590 
  1591 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1592 analysis.
  1593 
  1594 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1595 
  1596 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 
  1599 *** ML ***
  1600 
  1601 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1602 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1603 
  1604 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1605 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1606 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1607 
  1608 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1609 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1610 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1611 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1612 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1613 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1614 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1615 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1616 
  1617 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1618 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1619 
  1620 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1621 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1622 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1623 
  1624 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1625 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1628 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1629 context as well.
  1630 
  1631 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1632 
  1633   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1634   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1635   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1636   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1637   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1638   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1639   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1640   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1641   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1642   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1643   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1644   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1645 
  1646 
  1647 *** System ***
  1648 
  1649 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1650 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1651 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1652 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1653 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1654 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1655 the generic user home was intended.
  1656 
  1657 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1658 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1659 
  1660 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1661 (not just JRE).
  1662 
  1663 
  1664 
  1665 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1666 ------------------------------------
  1667 
  1668 *** General ***
  1669 
  1670 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1671 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1672 
  1673   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1674     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1675     files for checking).
  1676 
  1677   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1678     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1679     positions.
  1680 
  1681   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1682     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1683     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1684 
  1685   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1686     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1687     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1688 
  1689   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1690     cores.
  1691 
  1692   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1693     versions (garbage collection).
  1694 
  1695 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1696 including some remaining limitations.
  1697 
  1698 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1699 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1700 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1701 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1702 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1706 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1707 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1708 
  1709 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1710 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1711 usedir option -Q.
  1712 
  1713 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1714 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1715 
  1716   long_names   ~> names_long
  1717   short_names  ~> names_short
  1718   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1719 
  1720 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1721 
  1722   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1723 
  1724 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1725 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1726 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1727 
  1728 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1729 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1730 
  1731 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1732   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1733   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1734   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1735     "Classical Reasoner".
  1736 
  1737 
  1738 *** HOL ***
  1739 
  1740 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1741 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1744 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1745 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1746 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1747 class complete_linorder.
  1748 
  1749 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1750 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1751 
  1752 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1753 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1754 
  1755   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1756   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1757   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1758   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1759   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1760   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1761   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1762   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1763   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1764   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1765   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1766 
  1767 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1768 
  1769   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1770   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1771   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1772   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1773   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1774   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1775   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1776   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1777   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1778   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1779   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1780   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1781   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1782   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1783   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1784   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1785 
  1786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1792 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1793 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1794 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795 
  1796 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1797 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1798 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1802 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1803 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1804 
  1805 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1806 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1807 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808 
  1809 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1810 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1811 
  1812 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1813 
  1814     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1815     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1816 
  1817 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1818 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1819 
  1820 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1821 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1824 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1825 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1826 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827 
  1828   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1829   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1830   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1831   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1832   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1833   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1834   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1835 
  1836 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1837 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1840   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1841   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1842   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1843   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1844   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1845   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1846   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1847   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1848   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1849   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1850   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1851   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1852   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1853   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1854   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1855   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1856   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1857   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1858   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1859   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1860   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1861   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1862   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1863   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1864   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1865   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1866   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1867   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1868   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1869   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1870   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1871   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1872   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1873   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1874   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1875   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1876   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1877   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1878   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1879   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1880   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1881   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1882   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1883   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1884   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1885   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1886   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1887   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1888   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1889   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1890   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1891   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1892   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1893   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1894   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1895   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1896   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1897   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1898   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1899   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1900   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1901   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1902   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1903   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1904   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1905   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1906   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1907   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1908   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1909   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1910   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1911   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1912   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1913   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1914   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1915   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1916   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1917   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1918   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1919   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1920   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1921 
  1922 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1923 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1924 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1925 
  1926 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1927 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1928 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1929 
  1930 * Code generation:
  1931 
  1932   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1933     characters in the target language.
  1934 
  1935   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1936     instead.
  1937 
  1938   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1939 
  1940   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1941     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1942 
  1943       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1944 
  1945 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1948 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1949 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1950 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1951 syntax.
  1952 
  1953 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1954 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1955 
  1956 * Nitpick:
  1957   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1958   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1959   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1960     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962 * Sledgehammer:
  1963   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1964   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1965     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1966   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1967     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1968   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1969     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1970   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1971     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1972   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1973     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * Metis:
  1976   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1978     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Command 'try':
  1981   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1982     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1984     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1985 
  1986 * Quickcheck:
  1987   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1988     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1989   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1990     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1991   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1992     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1993     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1994     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1995   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1996     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1997 
  1998 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1999 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2000 
  2001 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2002 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2003 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2004 
  2005 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2006 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2010 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2011 
  2012 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2013 arithmetic.
  2014 
  2015 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2016 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2017 and lattice type classes.
  2018 
  2019 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2020 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2021 
  2022 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2023 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2024 
  2025 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2026 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2027 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2030   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2031   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2032   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2033 
  2034 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2035 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2036 constants:
  2037 
  2038   type inat   ~> type enat
  2039   Fin         ~> enat
  2040   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2041   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2042   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2043 
  2044 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2045 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2048 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2049 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2050 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2051 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2052 
  2053 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2054 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2055 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2056 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2057 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2058 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2059 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2060 
  2061   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2062   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2063   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2064   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2065 
  2066 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2067 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2068 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2071   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2072   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2073   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2074   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2075   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2076   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2077   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2078   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2079   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2080   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2081   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2082   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2083   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2084   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2085   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2086   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2087   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2088   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2089   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2090   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2091   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2092   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2093   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2094   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2095   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2096   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2097   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2098   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2099   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2100   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2101   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2102   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2103   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2104   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2105   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2106   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2107   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2108   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2109   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2110   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2111   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2112   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2113   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2114   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2115   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2116   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2117   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2118   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2119   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2120   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2121 
  2122 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2123   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2124   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2125   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2126   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2127     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2132   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2133   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2134   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2135   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2136   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2137   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2138   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2139   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2140   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2141   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2142   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2143   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2144   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2145   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2146   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2147   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2148   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2149   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2150   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2151   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2152   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2153   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2154   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2155   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2156 
  2157 
  2158 *** Document preparation ***
  2159 
  2160 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2161 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2162 same.
  2163 
  2164 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2165 result.
  2166 
  2167 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2168 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2169 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2170 
  2171 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2172 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2173 
  2174 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2175 like this:
  2176 
  2177   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2178   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2179 
  2180 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2181 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2182 layouts.
  2183 
  2184 
  2185 *** ML ***
  2186 
  2187 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2188 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2189 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2190 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2191 under external program control.
  2192 
  2193 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2194 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2195 
  2196 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2197 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2198 (better known as Proof General).
  2199 
  2200 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2201 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2202 
  2203 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2204 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2205 
  2206 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2207 (including quotes etc.).
  2208 
  2209 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2210 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2211 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2212 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2213 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2214 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2215 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2216 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2217 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2218 
  2219 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2220 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2221 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2222 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2223 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2224 
  2225 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2226 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2227 
  2228 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2229 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2230 
  2231 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2232 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2233 
  2234 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2235 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2236 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2237 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2238 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2239 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2240 proper Proof.context.
  2241 
  2242 
  2243 *** System ***
  2244 
  2245 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2246 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2247 
  2248 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2249 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2250 
  2251 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2252 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2253 
  2254   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2255   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2256   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2257   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2258   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2259 
  2260 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2261 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2264 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2265 example:
  2266 
  2267   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2268 
  2269 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2270 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2271 
  2272 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2273 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2274 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2275 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2276 
  2277 
  2278 
  2279 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2280 ----------------------------------
  2281 
  2282 *** General ***
  2283 
  2284 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2285 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2286 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2287 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2288 like this:
  2289 
  2290   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2291 
  2292 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2293 
  2294 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2295 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2296 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2297 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2298 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2299 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2300 
  2301 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2302 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2303 the following package declarations:
  2304 
  2305   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2306   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2307 
  2308 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2309 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2310 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2311 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2312 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2313 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2314 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2315 
  2316 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2317 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2318 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2319 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2320 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2321 
  2322 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2323 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2324 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2325 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2326 
  2327 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2328 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2329 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2330 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2331 
  2332   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2333 
  2334   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2335   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2336   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2337   show_types                    show_types
  2338   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2339   show_consts                   show_consts
  2340   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2341 
  2342   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2343   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2344   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2345 
  2346   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2347   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2348 
  2349   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2350 
  2351   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2352   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2353   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2354   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2355   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2356 
  2357 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2358 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2359 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2360 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2361 
  2362 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2366   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2367 
  2368 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2369 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2370 float_token.
  2371 
  2372 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2373 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2377 DejaVu Sans.
  2378 
  2379 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2380 
  2381 
  2382 *** Pure ***
  2383 
  2384 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2385 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2386 time.
  2387 
  2388 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2389 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2392 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2395 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2396 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2397 command already provided this functionality.
  2398 
  2399 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2400 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2401 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2402 without interpretations.
  2403 
  2404 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2405 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2406 
  2407 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2408 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2409 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2410 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2411 
  2412 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2413 'definition' instead.
  2414 
  2415 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2416 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2417 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2418 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2419 
  2420 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2421 constructors.
  2422 
  2423 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2424 the local file system.
  2425 
  2426 
  2427 *** HOL ***
  2428 
  2429 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2430 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2431 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2432 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2433 
  2434   declare [[coercion f]]
  2435 
  2436 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2437 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2438 
  2439   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2440 
  2441 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2442 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2443 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2444 other theories like this:
  2445 
  2446   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2447 
  2448 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2449 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2450 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2451 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2452 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2453 for examples.
  2454 
  2455 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2456 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2459 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2460 
  2461 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2462 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2463 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2464 
  2465 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2466 functorial structure of types.
  2467 
  2468 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2469 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2470 
  2471 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2472 languages.
  2473 
  2474 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2475 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2479 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2482 combinators any longer.
  2483 
  2484 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2485 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2486 
  2487 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2488 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2489 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2490 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2491 
  2492   record 'a foo = ...
  2493   ...
  2494   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2495 
  2496 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2497 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2501 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2502 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2503 
  2504 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2505 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2506 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2507 
  2508 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2509 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2512 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2513 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2514 independently.
  2515 
  2516 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2517 counter example search.
  2518 
  2519 * Sledgehammer:
  2520   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2521     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2522     sledgehammer").
  2523   - Renamed commands:
  2524     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2525     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2526     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2527     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528   - Renamed options:
  2529     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2530     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2531     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2532     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2533     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Nitpick:
  2536   - Renamed options:
  2537     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2538     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2539     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2541   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2542   - Added "whack" option.
  2543   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2544   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2545   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2546   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2547     higher cardinalities.
  2548   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2549 
  2550 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2551 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2552 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2553 
  2554     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2555 
  2556 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2557 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2558 
  2559 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2560 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2561 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2562 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2563 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2564 "smt_solver".
  2565 
  2566 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2567 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2568 
  2569 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2570 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2571 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2572 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2575   - Renamed:
  2576     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2577     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2578     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579   - Added:
  2580     smt_verbose
  2581     smt_random_seed
  2582     smt_datatypes
  2583     smt_infer_triggers
  2584     smt_monomorph_limit
  2585     cvc3_options
  2586     remote_cvc3_options
  2587     remote_z3_options
  2588     yices_options
  2589 
  2590 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2591 header.
  2592 
  2593 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2594 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2595 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2596 
  2597   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2598 
  2599 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2602 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2607 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2610 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2611 
  2612 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2613 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2616 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2617 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2625 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2628 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2629 for congruent(2)).
  2630 
  2631 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2632 
  2633   types
  2634     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2635     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2636 
  2637   constants
  2638     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2639     True ~> HOL.True
  2640     False ~> HOL.False
  2641     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2642     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2643     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2644     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2645     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2646     The ~> HOL.The
  2647     All ~> HOL.All
  2648     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2649     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2650     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2651     If ~> HOL.If
  2652     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2653     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2654     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2655     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2656     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2657     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2658     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2659     op : ~> Set.member
  2660     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2661 
  2662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2665 
  2666     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2667     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2668     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2669     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2670     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2671     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2672     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2673     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2674 
  2675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * More stylized fact names:
  2678 
  2679   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2680   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2681   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2682   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2683 
  2684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685 
  2686 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2687 
  2688   constants
  2689     null ~> List.null
  2690 
  2691   facts
  2692     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2693     null_empty ~> null_def
  2694 
  2695 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2696 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2697 generation.
  2698 
  2699 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2700 Haskell code.
  2701 
  2702 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2703 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2704 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2707 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2708 
  2709 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2710 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2711 
  2712 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2713 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2714 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2717 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2723 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2724 referred to by its qualified name.
  2725 
  2726   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2727   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2728   product ~>  Enum.product
  2729 
  2730 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2731 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2735 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2736 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2740 sort_key.
  2741 
  2742 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2746 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2747 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2748 
  2749   types
  2750     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2751               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2752               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2753         (depends on your needs)
  2754 
  2755   constants
  2756      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2757      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2758      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2759 
  2760 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2761 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2762 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2763 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2766 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2767 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2768 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2769 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2775 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2776 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2777 
  2778 
  2779 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2780 
  2781 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2782 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2783 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2784 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2785 compatibility.
  2786 
  2787 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2788 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2789 
  2790 
  2791 *** HOLCF ***
  2792 
  2793 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2794 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2795 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2799 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2800 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2803   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2804   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2805 
  2806 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2807 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2808 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2811 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2812 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2813 domain definition now works:
  2814 
  2815   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2816 
  2817 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2818 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2819 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2820 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2821 
  2822   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2823     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2824 
  2825   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2826 
  2827 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2828 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2829 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2832 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2835 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2836 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2837 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2838 
  2839 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2840 
  2841 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2849 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2850 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2851 
  2852 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2853 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2854 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2857 still supported as an input translation.
  2858 
  2859 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2860 
  2861   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2862   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2863   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2864   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2865   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2866   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2867   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2868 
  2869 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2870 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2871 
  2872   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2873   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2874   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2875   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2876   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2877   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2878 
  2879 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2880 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2883 
  2884   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2885   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2886   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2887   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2888 
  2889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2892 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2895 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2898   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2899   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2900   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2901   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2902   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2903   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2904   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2905   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2906   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2907   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2908   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2909   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2910   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2911   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2912   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2913   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2914   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2915   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2916   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2917 
  2918 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2919 
  2920   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2921   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2922   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2923   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2924   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2925   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2926   box_less             ~> box_below
  2927   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2928   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2929   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2930   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2931   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2932   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2933   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2934   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2935   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2936   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2937   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2938   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2939   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2940   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2941   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2942   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2943   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2944   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2945   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2946   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2947   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2948   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2949   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2950   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2951   up_less              ~> up_below
  2952   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2953   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2954   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2955   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2956   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2957   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2958   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2959   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2960   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2961   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2962   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2963   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2964   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2965 
  2966 
  2967 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2968 
  2969 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2970 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 
  2973 *** ML ***
  2974 
  2975 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2976 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2977 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2978 
  2979 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2980 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2981 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2982 
  2983 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2984 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2985 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2986 
  2987 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2988 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2989 
  2990 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2991 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2992 
  2993 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2994 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2995 
  2996 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2997 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2998 
  2999 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3000 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3001 almost all situations.
  3002 
  3003 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3004 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3005 Isabelle/ML.
  3006 
  3007 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3008 meaning.
  3009 
  3010 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3011 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3012 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3013 
  3014 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3015 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3016 
  3017 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3018 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3019 
  3020 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3022 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3023 
  3024 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3025 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3026 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3027 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3028 configuration options.
  3029 
  3030 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3031 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3032 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3033 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3034 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3035 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3036 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3037 
  3038 
  3039 
  3040 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3041 ---------------------------------
  3042 
  3043 *** General ***
  3044 
  3045 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3046 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3047 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3048 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3049 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3050 their full internal name.
  3051 
  3052 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3053 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3054 Some hints on upgrading:
  3055 
  3056   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3057     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3058     which are independent of this issue.
  3059 
  3060   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3061     provides the following special forms:
  3062 
  3063       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3064       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3065       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3066 
  3067     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3068     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3069     extra variables".
  3070 
  3071     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3072     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3073     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3074     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3075     "logic".
  3076 
  3077   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3078     antiquotations:
  3079 
  3080       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3081       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3082       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3083       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3084 
  3085   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3086     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3087     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3088     antiquotations.
  3089 
  3090 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3091 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3092 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3093 diagnose syntax problems.
  3094 
  3095 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3096 
  3097 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3098 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3099 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3100 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3101 
  3102 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3103 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3104 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3108 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3109 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3110 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3111 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3114 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3115 
  3116 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3117 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3118 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3119 
  3120   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3121 
  3122 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3123 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3124 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3125 
  3126 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3127 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3131 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3132 
  3133 
  3134 *** Pure ***
  3135 
  3136 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3137 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3138 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3139 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3140 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3141 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3142 inspect proof terms.
  3143 
  3144 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3145 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3146 are added internally.  For example:
  3147 
  3148   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3149 
  3150 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3151 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3156 'class' instead.
  3157 
  3158 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3159 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3163 invariants.
  3164 
  3165 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3166 user space functionality any longer.
  3167 
  3168 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3169 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3173 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3174 
  3175 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3176 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3177 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3178 
  3179 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3180 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3181 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3182 
  3183 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3184 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 
  3187 *** HOL ***
  3188 
  3189 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3190 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3191 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3192 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3193 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3194 
  3195 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3196 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3197 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3198 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3199 
  3200   fun
  3201     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3202   where
  3203     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3204 
  3205   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3206     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3207 
  3208   quotient_definition
  3209     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3210 
  3211 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3212 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3213 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3214 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3215 
  3216 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3217 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3218 
  3219 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3220 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3221 
  3222 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3226 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3227 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3228 
  3229 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3230 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237 
  3238 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3239 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3242 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3243 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3246   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3247   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3248   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3249   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3250   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3251   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3252   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3253   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3254   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3255   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3256   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3257   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3258   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3259   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3260   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3261   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3262   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3263   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3264   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3265   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3266   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3267   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3268   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3269   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3270   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3271   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3272   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3273   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3274   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3275 
  3276 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3277 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3278 
  3279 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3280 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3281 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3282 
  3283 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3284 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3285 
  3286 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3287 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3290 
  3291 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3292 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3295 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3300 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3301 
  3302 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3303 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3304 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3305 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3308   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3309   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3310   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3314 lattices):
  3315 
  3316     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3317     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3318 
  3319     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3320 
  3321     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3322     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3323     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3324     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3325     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3326     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3327     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3328     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3329     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3330     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3331     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3332     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3333     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3334 
  3335     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3336     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3337     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3338     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3339     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3340     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3341     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3342     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3343     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3344     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3345     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3346     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3347     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3348     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3349     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3350     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3351     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3352     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3353 
  3354   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3355   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3356 
  3357     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3358     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3359     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3360     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3361     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3362 
  3363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Refined field classes:
  3366   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3367     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3368     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3369   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3373   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3374   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3375   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3376     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3377   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3378     equal_neg_zero.
  3379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3382 sets to lattices:
  3383 
  3384   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3385   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3386   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3387   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3388   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3389   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3390   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3391   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3392   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3393   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3394 
  3395 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3396 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3397 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3398 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3399 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3400 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3403 multiset order:
  3404 
  3405   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3406     <= and <;
  3407   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3408     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3409     multiset_order;
  3410   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3411     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3412     generation;
  3413   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3414     if needed.
  3415 
  3416 Renamed:
  3417 
  3418   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3419   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3420   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3421 
  3422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3425 
  3426 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3427 
  3428 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3429 
  3430 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3431 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3432 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434   Constants:
  3435   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3436   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3437   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3438   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3439   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3440   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3441   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3442   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3443   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3444   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3445   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3446   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3447   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3448 
  3449   Lemmas:
  3450   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3451   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3452   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3453   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3454   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3455   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3456   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3457   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3458   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3459   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3460   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3461   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3462   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3463 
  3464 * Sledgehammer:
  3465   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3466     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3467     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3468     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3469     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3470     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3471     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3472   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3473   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3474     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3475   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3476     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3477     is still experimental.)
  3478   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3479     full-typed mode.
  3480   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3481 
  3482 * Nitpick:
  3483   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3484   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3485   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3486     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3487   - Added support for quotient types.
  3488   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3489     constructs.
  3490   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3491     "termination" proofs).
  3492   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3493   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3494   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3495   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3496     record getters.
  3497   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3498   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3499   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3500   - Added "atoms" option.
  3501   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3502     problems.
  3503   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3504     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3505     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3507     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3511   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3512   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3513   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3514   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3515   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3516   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3517   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3518   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3519   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 
  3522 *** HOLCF ***
  3523 
  3524 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3525 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3526 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3529 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3530 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3531 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3534 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3535 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3536 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3537 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3540 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3541 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3544 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3547   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3548 
  3549 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3550 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3553   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3554   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3555   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3556   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3557 
  3558 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3559 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3562   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3563   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3564 
  3565 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3566 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3570 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3575 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 
  3578 *** ML ***
  3579 
  3580 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3581 
  3582     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3583     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3584 
  3585     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3586     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3587     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3588     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3589 
  3590     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3591     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3592     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3593 
  3594 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3595 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3596 
  3597 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3598 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3599 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3600 
  3601 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3602 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3603 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3604 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3605 
  3606 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3607 the context or even global references.
  3608 
  3609 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3610 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3611 
  3612 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3613 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3614 
  3615   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3616   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3617   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3618   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3619   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3620   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3621   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3622   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3623   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3624   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3625 
  3626 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3627 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3628 
  3629 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3630 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3631 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3632 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3633 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3634 
  3635 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3636 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3637 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3638 Theory_Data version.
  3639 
  3640 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3641 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3642 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3643 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3644 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3645 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3646 explicitly in rare situations.
  3647 
  3648 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3649 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3653 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3656 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3657 quite rare).
  3658 
  3659 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3660 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661 
  3662 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3663 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3664 terms.
  3665 
  3666 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3667 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3668 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3669 
  3670 
  3671 *** System ***
  3672 
  3673 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3674 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3675 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3676 
  3677 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3678 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3679 respectively.
  3680 
  3681 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3682 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3683 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3684 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3685 
  3686   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3687 
  3688 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3689 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3690 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3691 component.
  3692 
  3693 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3694 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3695 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3696 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3697 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3698 the user for manual installation.
  3699 
  3700 
  3701 
  3702 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3703 -------------------------------------
  3704 
  3705 *** General ***
  3706 
  3707 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3708 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3709 
  3710 
  3711 *** Pure ***
  3712 
  3713 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3714 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3715 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3716 
  3717 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3718 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3719 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3720 
  3721 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3722 interpretation.
  3723 
  3724 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3725 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727 
  3728 *** Document preparation ***
  3729 
  3730 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3731 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3732 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3733 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3734 
  3735 
  3736 *** HOL ***
  3737 
  3738 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3739 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3740 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3741 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3742 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3743 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3744 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3745 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3746 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3747 
  3748 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3749 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3750 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3751 
  3752 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3753 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3754 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3755 
  3756 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3757 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3758 
  3759 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3760 
  3761 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3762 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3763 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3764 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3765 
  3766 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3767 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3768 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3769 "mirabelle" utility.
  3770 
  3771 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3772 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3773 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3774 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3775 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3776 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3777 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3778 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3779 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3780 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3781 
  3782 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3783 procedure only.
  3784 
  3785 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3786 
  3787 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3788 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3789 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3790 that fail later.
  3791 
  3792 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3793 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3794 
  3795 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3796 the same method as the approximation method.
  3797 
  3798 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3799 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3800 series expansion.
  3801 
  3802 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3803 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3804 
  3805 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3806 reals.
  3807 
  3808 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3809 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3810 
  3811 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3812 fixpoint theorem.
  3813 
  3814 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3815   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3816     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3817   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3818     accordingly
  3819   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3820     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3821   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3822     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3823 
  3824 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3825 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3826 lattice.
  3827 
  3828 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3829 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3830 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3831 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3832 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3833 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3837   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3838     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3839   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3840     le_inf_iff
  3841   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3842     sup_aci)
  3843   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3844   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3845   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3846     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3847     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3848     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3849     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3850     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3851     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3852     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3853     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3854     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3855     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3856   - authentic syntax for
  3857     Set.Pow
  3858     Set.image
  3859   - mere abbreviations:
  3860     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3861     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3862     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3863     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3864     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3865     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3866     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3867     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3868   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3869 
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3871 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3872 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3873 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3874 
  3875 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3876 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3877 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3880 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3883 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3884 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3885 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3888 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3889 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3890 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3891 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3892 
  3893 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3894 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3898 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3901 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3902 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3903 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3904 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3905 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3906 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3910     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3911     code_post       replaces    code post
  3912     etc.
  3913   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915 * Renamed methods:
  3916     sizechange -> size_change
  3917     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3918   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3921 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3922 
  3923 * Renamed theorems:
  3924     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3925     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3926     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3927     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3928     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3929   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 
  3938 *** HOLCF ***
  3939 
  3940 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3941 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3942 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3943 
  3944 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3945 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3946 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3947 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3948 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3949 
  3950 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3951 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3952 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3953 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3954 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3955 
  3956 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3957 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3958 constructor are pre-configured.
  3959 
  3960 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3961 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3962 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3963 
  3964 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3965 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3966 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3967 as well.)
  3968 
  3969 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3970 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3971 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3972 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3973 examples.
  3974 
  3975 
  3976 *** ML ***
  3977 
  3978 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3979 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3980 
  3981 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3982 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3983 position, logical grouping etc.
  3984 
  3985 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3986 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3987 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3988 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3989 
  3990 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3991 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3992 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3993 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3994 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3995 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3996 
  3997 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3998 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3999 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4000 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4001 experiments with references.
  4002 
  4003 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4004 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4005 
  4006 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4007 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4008 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4009 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4010 
  4011 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4012 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4013 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4014 
  4015 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4016 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4017 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4025 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4026 
  4027 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4028 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4029 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4030 
  4031 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4032 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4033 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4036 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4037 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039 
  4040 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4041 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4042 instead of global theory.
  4043 
  4044 
  4045 *** System ***
  4046 
  4047 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4048 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4049 usedir option -q.
  4050 
  4051 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4052 also the system manual.
  4053 
  4054 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4055 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4056 
  4057 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4058 this is always enabled.
  4059 
  4060 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4061 
  4062 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4063 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4064 currently supported on Linux only.
  4065 
  4066 
  4067 
  4068 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4069 --------------------------------
  4070 
  4071 *** General ***
  4072 
  4073 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4074 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4075 
  4076   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4077     "isatool."
  4078 
  4079   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4080     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4081 
  4082   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4083     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4084 
  4085 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4086 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4087 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4088 
  4089 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4090 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4091 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4092 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4093 via "isabelle emacs".
  4094 
  4095 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4096 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4097 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4098 
  4099 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4100 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4101 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4102 
  4103 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4104 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4105 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4106 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4107 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4108 
  4109 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4110 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4111 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4112 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4113 
  4114 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4115 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4116 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4117 
  4118 
  4119 *** Pure ***
  4120 
  4121 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4122 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4123 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4124 
  4125 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4126 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4127 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4128 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4129 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4130 
  4131 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4132 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4133 useful in locale declarations.
  4134 
  4135 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4136 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4137 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4138 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4139 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4140 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4141 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4142 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4143 no longer generated.
  4144 
  4145 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4146 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4147 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4148 
  4149 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4150 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4151 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4152 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4153 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4154 
  4155 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4157 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4158 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4159 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4160 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4161 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4162 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4163 
  4164 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4165 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4166 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4167 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4168 
  4169 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4172 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4173 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4174 
  4175 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4176 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4177 
  4178 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4179 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4180 in HOL, write
  4181 
  4182     class foo = ...
  4183 
  4184 instead of
  4185 
  4186     class foo = type + ...
  4187 
  4188 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4189 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4192 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4193 
  4194 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4195 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4196 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4197 
  4198 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4199 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4200 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4201 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4202 directly in regular applications.
  4203 
  4204 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4205 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4206 
  4207 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4208 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4209 
  4210 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4211 theory context.
  4212 
  4213 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4214 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4217 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4218 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4219 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4220 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4221 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4222 
  4223   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4224 
  4225 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4226 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4227 normalization.
  4228 
  4229 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4230 addressing etc.
  4231 
  4232 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4233 
  4234   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4235   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4236 
  4237 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4238 
  4239   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4240      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4241      parts of the code generator framework).
  4242 
  4243   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4244      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4245      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4246 
  4247 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4250 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4253 patterns, e.g.
  4254 
  4255     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4256 
  4257 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4258 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4259 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4260 hyphen:
  4261 
  4262     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4263 
  4264 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4265 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4266 
  4267 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4268 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4269 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4270 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4271 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4272 higher-order unification.
  4273 
  4274 
  4275 *** Document preparation ***
  4276 
  4277 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4278 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4279 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4280 
  4281 
  4282 *** HOL ***
  4283 
  4284 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4285 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4286 
  4287 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4288 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4289 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4290 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4291 Main, as before.
  4292 
  4293 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4294 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4295 
  4296 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4297 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4298 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4299 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4300 
  4301 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4302 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4303 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4304 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4305 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4306 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4307 
  4308 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4309 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4310 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4311 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4312 
  4313 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4314 menu.
  4315 
  4316 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4317 (contains the empty clause).
  4318 
  4319 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4320 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4321 
  4322 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4323 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4324 
  4325 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4326 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4327 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4330 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4331 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4332 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4333 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4334 
  4335 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4336 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4337 
  4338 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4339 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4340 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4341 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4342 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4343 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4344 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4345 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4346 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4347 
  4348 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4349 
  4350 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4351 
  4352 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4353 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4354 
  4355 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4356 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4357 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4358 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4359 
  4360 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4361 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4362 
  4363     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4364     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4365     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4366     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4367     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4368     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4369     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4370     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4371 
  4372 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4373 theory Set.
  4374 
  4375 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4376 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4377 
  4378 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4379 
  4380 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4381 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4382 
  4383 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4384 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4385 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4386 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4387 allowed. For examples see
  4388 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4389 
  4390 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4391 
  4392 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4396 structure:
  4397 
  4398     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4399     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4400     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4401     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4402     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4403     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4404     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4405     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4406     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4407     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4408     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4409     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4410     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4411     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4412     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4413     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4414     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4415     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4416     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4417     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4418     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4419     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4420     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4421     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4422     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4423     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4424     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4425     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4426     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4427     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4428     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4429     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4430     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4431 
  4432     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4433     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4434     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4435     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4436     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4437     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4438     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4439     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4440     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4441     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4442 
  4443     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4444     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4445     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4446     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4447     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4448     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4449 
  4450 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4451 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4452 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4453 
  4454 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4455 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4456 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4457 
  4458 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4459 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4462 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4463 
  4464 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4465 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4466 proofs, e.g.
  4467 
  4468   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4469 
  4470 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4471 
  4472 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4473 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4474 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4475 
  4476 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4477 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4481 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4482 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4487 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4488 preorder_class.*.
  4489 
  4490 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4491 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4492 
  4493 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4494 
  4495   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4496 
  4497 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4498 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4499 fold_image.
  4500 
  4501 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4502 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4503 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4504 the former will disappear at some point.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4507 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4508 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4509 
  4510 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4511 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4512 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4513 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4514 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4515 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4516 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4517 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4518 
  4519 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4520 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4521 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4522 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4523 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4524 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4525 
  4526     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4527     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4528     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4529     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4530     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4531     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4532     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4533 
  4534 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4535 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4536 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4537 
  4538 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4539 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4540 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4541 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4542 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4543 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4544 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4545 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4546 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4547 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4548 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4549 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4550 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4551 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4552 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4553 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4554 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4555 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4556 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4557 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4558 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4559 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4560 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4561 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4562 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4563 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4564 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4565 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4566 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4567 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4568 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4569 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4570 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4571 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4572 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4573 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4574 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4575 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4576 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4577 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4578 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4579 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4580 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4581 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4582 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4583 
  4584 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4587 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4588 
  4589 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4590 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4591 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4592 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4593 
  4594 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4595 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4596 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4597 theory RealVector.
  4598 
  4599 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4600 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4601 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4602 and inner products are included.
  4603 
  4604 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4605 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4606 supported.
  4607 
  4608 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4609 first diagonalization argument.
  4610 
  4611 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4612 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4613 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4614 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4615 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4616 
  4617     hide (open) const gcd
  4618     abbreviation gcd where
  4619       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4620     notation (output)
  4621       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4622 
  4623 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4624 
  4625 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4626 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4627 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4630 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4631 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4632 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4633 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4634 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4635 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4636 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4637 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4638 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4639 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4640 cases.
  4641 
  4642 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4643 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4644 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4645 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4646 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4647 
  4648     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4649     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4650     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4651     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4652     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4653 
  4654 
  4655 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4656 
  4657 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4658 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4659 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4660 
  4661 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4662 
  4663 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4664 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4665 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4666 
  4667 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4668 
  4669 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4670 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4671 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4672 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4673 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4674 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4675 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4676 
  4677 
  4678 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4679 
  4680 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4681 
  4682 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4683 theory targets.
  4684 
  4685 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4686 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4687 'inductive' etc.
  4688 
  4689 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4690 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4691 
  4692 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4693 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4694 
  4695 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4696 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4697 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4698 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4699 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4700 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4701 the algorithm W:
  4702 
  4703  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4704  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4705          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4706 
  4707 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4708 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4709 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4710 
  4711 
  4712 *** HOLCF ***
  4713 
  4714 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4715 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4716 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4717 
  4718 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4719 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4720 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4721 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4722 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4723 
  4724 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4725 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4726 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4727 
  4728 
  4729 *** ZF ***
  4730 
  4731 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4732 
  4733 
  4734 *** ML ***
  4735 
  4736 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4737 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4738 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4739 5.2.1!
  4740 
  4741 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4742 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4743 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4744 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4745 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4746 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4747 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4748 
  4749 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4750 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4751 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4752 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4754 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4755 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4756 
  4757 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4758 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4759 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4760 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4761 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4762 
  4763 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4764 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4765 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4766 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4767 Method.add_method.
  4768 
  4769 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4770 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4771 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4772 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4773 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4774 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4775 
  4776 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4777 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4778 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4779 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4780 examples.
  4781 
  4782 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4783 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4784 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4785 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4786 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4787 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4788 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4789 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4790 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4791 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4792 
  4793 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4794 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4795 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4796 
  4797 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4798 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4799 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4800 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4801 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4802 resort for legacy applications.
  4803 
  4804 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4805 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4806 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4807 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4808 explicit runtime argument.
  4809 
  4810 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4811 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4812 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4813 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4814 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4815 
  4816 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4817 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4818 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4819 theory state.
  4820 
  4821 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4822 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4823 
  4824   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4825   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4826   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4827   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4828   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4829   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4830   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4831   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4832   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4833   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4834 
  4835 
  4836 *** System ***
  4837 
  4838 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4839 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4840 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4841 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4842 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4843 
  4844 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4845 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4846 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4847 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4848 
  4849 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4850 
  4851 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4852 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4853 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4854 prover operations.
  4855 
  4856 
  4857 
  4858 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4859 -------------------------------
  4860 
  4861 *** General ***
  4862 
  4863 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4864 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4865 
  4866 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4867 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4868 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4869 provides a proper context already.
  4870 
  4871 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4872 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4873 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4874 
  4875 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4876 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4877 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4878 swap theory imports.
  4879 
  4880 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4881 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4882 
  4883 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4884 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4885 white space without escapes.
  4886 
  4887 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4888 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4889 "foo_bar".
  4890 
  4891 
  4892 *** Pure ***
  4893 
  4894 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4895 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4896 
  4897 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4898 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4899 
  4900 (1) unused_thms
  4901      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4902 
  4903 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4904      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4905      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4906 
  4907 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4908      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4909      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4910      their ancestors.
  4911 
  4912 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4913 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4914 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4915 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4916 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4917 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4918 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4919 
  4920 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4921 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4922 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4923 
  4924 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4925 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4926 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4927 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4928 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4929 
  4930 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4931 
  4932 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4933 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4934 update of theories within ML code.
  4935 
  4936 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4937 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4938 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4939 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4940 
  4941 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4942 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4943 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4947 
  4948 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4949 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4950 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4951 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4952 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4953 
  4954 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4955 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4956 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4957 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4958 situations.
  4959 
  4960 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4961 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4962 proof text.
  4963 
  4964 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4965 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4966 
  4967 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4968 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4969 predicates.
  4970 
  4971 
  4972 *** Document preparation ***
  4973 
  4974 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4975 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4976 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4977 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4978 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4979 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4980 
  4981 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4982 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4983 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 *** HOL ***
  4987 
  4988 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4989 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4990 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4991 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4992 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4993 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4994 
  4995 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4996 with multithreading.
  4997 
  4998 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4999 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5000 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5001 
  5002 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5003 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5004 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5005 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5008 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5009 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5010 and makes them available separately.  See
  5011 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5012 
  5013 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5014 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5015 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5016 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5017 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5018 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5019 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5020 the declared rules.
  5021 
  5022 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5023 
  5024   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5025 
  5026 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5027 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5028 
  5029 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5030 
  5031   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5032 
  5033   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5034     definitions on => and bool.
  5035 
  5036   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5037     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5038     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5039 
  5040       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5041       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5042       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5043       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5044       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5045       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5046       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5047       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5048 
  5049   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5050     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5051     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5052 
  5053   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5054     The proof pattern
  5055 
  5056       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5057       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5058 
  5059     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5060     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5061 
  5062       have "EX S. P S"
  5063       proof
  5064         show "P S" <...>
  5065       qed
  5066 
  5067   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5068     The proof pattern
  5069 
  5070       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5071       also have "S = T" <...>
  5072       finally have "P T" .
  5073 
  5074     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5075     must be replaced by something like
  5076 
  5077       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5078       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5079       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5080 
  5081   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5082     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5083 
  5084       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5085 
  5086     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5087     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5088     type of the form
  5089 
  5090       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5091 
  5092     rather than
  5093 
  5094       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5095 
  5096 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5097 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5098 
  5099 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100 
  5101 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5102 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5104 
  5105 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5106 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5107 
  5108 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5109 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5110 
  5111 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5112 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5113 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5114 
  5115 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5116 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5117 
  5118   less_trans
  5119   less_linear
  5120   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5121   le_less_trans
  5122   less_le_trans
  5123   less_not_sym
  5124   less_asym
  5125 
  5126 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5127 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5128 and different variable names.
  5129 
  5130 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5131 
  5132 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5133 finite maps.
  5134 
  5135 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5136 
  5137 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5138 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5139 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5140 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5141 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5142 accordingly.
  5143 
  5144 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5145 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5146 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5147 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5148 
  5149 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5150 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5151 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5152 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5153 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5155 
  5156 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5157 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5158 
  5159 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5160 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5161 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5162 
  5163 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5165 
  5166 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5167 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5168 
  5169 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5170 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5173 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5176 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5178 
  5179 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5180 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5183 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5184 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5185 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5186 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5187 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5190 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5191 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5192 
  5193 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5194 
  5195 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5196 
  5197 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5198 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5199 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5200 
  5201 
  5202 *** ZF ***
  5203 
  5204 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5205 same session:
  5206 
  5207   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5208   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5209   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5210   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5211   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5212   List      -> List_ZF
  5213   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5214 
  5215 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5216 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5217 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5218 
  5219 
  5220 *** ML ***
  5221 
  5222 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5223 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5224 
  5225 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5226 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5227 
  5228 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5229 
  5230 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5231 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5232 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5233 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5234 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5235 
  5236 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5237 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5238 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5239 
  5240 
  5241 *** System ***
  5242 
  5243 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5244 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5245 
  5246 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5247 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5248 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5249 
  5250 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5251 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5252 
  5253 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5254 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5255 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5256 
  5257 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5258 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5259 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5260 
  5261 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5262 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5263 
  5264 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5265 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5266 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5267 script.
  5268 
  5269 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5270 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5271 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5272 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5273 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5274 
  5275 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5276 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5277 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5278 
  5279 
  5280 
  5281 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5282 -----------------------------------
  5283 
  5284 *** General ***
  5285 
  5286 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5287 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5288 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5289 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5290 
  5291 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5292 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5293 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5294 
  5295 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5296 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5297 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5298 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5299 
  5300 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5301 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5302 quotes.
  5303 
  5304 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5305 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5306 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5307 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5308 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5309 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5310 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5311 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5312 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5313 
  5314 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5315 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5316 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5317 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5318 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5319 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5320 
  5321 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5322 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5323 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5324 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5325 
  5326 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5327 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5328 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5329 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5330 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5331 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5332 
  5333 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5334 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5335 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5336 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5337 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5338 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5339 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5340 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5341 
  5342 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5343 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5344 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5345 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5346 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5347 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5348 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5349 
  5350 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5351 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5352 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5353 
  5354 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5355 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5356 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5357 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5358 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5359 limit is imposed.
  5360 
  5361 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5362 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5363 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5364 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5365 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5366 and scalability.
  5367 
  5368 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5369 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5370 
  5371 
  5372 *** Document preparation ***
  5373 
  5374 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5375 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5376 current context.
  5377 
  5378 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5379 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5380 
  5381 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5382 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5383 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5384 
  5385 
  5386 *** Pure ***
  5387 
  5388 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5389 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5390 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5391 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5392 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5393 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5394 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5395 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5396 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5397 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5398 
  5399 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5400 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5401 sketch:
  5402 
  5403     internal compilation:
  5404         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5405     writing SML code to a file:
  5406         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5407     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5408         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5409     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5410         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5411 
  5412     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5413         method ``eval''
  5414 
  5415 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5416 
  5417 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5418 
  5419     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5420     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5421     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5422     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5423 
  5424 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5425 
  5426     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5427       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5428 
  5429     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5430       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5431 
  5432     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5433       {(target)}+
  5434         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5435 
  5436     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5437       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5438         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5439 
  5440 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5441 
  5442 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5443 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5444 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5445 codegen".
  5446 
  5447 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5448 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5449 annotations).
  5450 
  5451 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5452 syntax.
  5453 
  5454 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5455 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5456 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5457 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5458 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5459 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5460 
  5461 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5462 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5463 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5464 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5465 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5466 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5467 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5468 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5469 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5470 equations, see section "definitions".
  5471 
  5472 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5473 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5474 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5475 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5476 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5477 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5478 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5479 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5480 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5481 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5482 
  5483 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5484 configuration options:
  5485 
  5486   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5487   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5488   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5489   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5490   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5491   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5492   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5493   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5494   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5495 
  5496 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5497 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5498 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5499 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5500 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5501 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5502 order.
  5503 
  5504 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5505 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5506 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5507 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5508 context encountered later on.
  5509 
  5510 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5511 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5512 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5513 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5514 
  5515 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5516 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5517 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5518 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5519 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5520 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5521 
  5522 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5523 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5524 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5525 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5526 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5527 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5528 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5529 more permissive.
  5530 
  5531 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5532 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5533 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5534 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5535 maintainability of proof texts.
  5536 
  5537 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5538 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5539 
  5540   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5541   then guess x and y by clarify
  5542 
  5543 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5544 proof tools being involved here.
  5545 
  5546 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5547 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5548 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5549 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5550 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5551 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5552 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5553 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5554 
  5555 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5556 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5557 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5558 
  5559   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5560   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5561   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5562   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5563 
  5564 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5565 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5566 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5567 
  5568 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5569 both named and unnamed ones.
  5570 
  5571 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5572 
  5573   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5574 
  5575 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5576 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5577 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5578 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5579 
  5580 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5581 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5582 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5583 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5584 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5585 
  5586 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5587 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5588 
  5589 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5590 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5591 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5592 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5593 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5594 originally first one.
  5595 
  5596 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5597 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5598 expected.
  5599 
  5600 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5601 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5602 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5603 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5604 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5605 
  5606   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5607     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5608     obtains x where "P x"
  5609 
  5610   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5611     assumes "A & B"
  5612     obtains A and B
  5613 
  5614   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5615     assumes "A | B"
  5616     obtains
  5617       A
  5618     | B
  5619 
  5620 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5621 explicitly:
  5622 
  5623   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5624     obtains "~ thesis"
  5625 
  5626   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5627     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5628 
  5629 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5630 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5631 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5632 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5633 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5634 case_names).
  5635 
  5636 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5637 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5638 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5639 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5640 
  5641 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5642 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5643 top-level lemma.
  5644 
  5645 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5646 introduction rule (default "that").
  5647 
  5648 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5649 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5650 to occur.
  5651 
  5652 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5653 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5654 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5655 representations independently of name spaces.
  5656 
  5657 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5658 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5659 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5660 
  5661 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5662 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5663 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5664 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5665 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5666 current context.
  5667 
  5668 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5669 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5670 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5671 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5672 
  5673   axiomatization
  5674     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5675     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5676 
  5677   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5678   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5679 
  5680   abbreviation
  5681     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5682     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5683 
  5684 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5685 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5686 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5687 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5688 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5689 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5690 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5691 
  5692 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5693 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5694 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5695 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5696 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5697 
  5698 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5699 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5700 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5701 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5702 
  5703 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5704 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5705 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5706 
  5707   definition "K x _ = x"
  5708 
  5709   inductive conj for A B
  5710   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5711 
  5712 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5713 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5714 abbreviations on output.
  5715 
  5716 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5717 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5718 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5719 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5720 
  5721 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5722 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5723 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5724 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5725 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5726 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5727 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5728 
  5729 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5730 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5731 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5732 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5733 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5734 
  5735 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5736 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5737 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5738 
  5739 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5740 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5741 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5742 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5743 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5744 
  5745   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5746     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5747 
  5748 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5749 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5750 partial_order.
  5751 
  5752 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5753 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5754 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5755 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5756 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5757 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5758 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5759 examples.
  5760 
  5761 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5762 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5763 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5764 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5765 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5766 
  5767 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5768 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5769 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5770 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5771 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5772 
  5773   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5774   (induct set: foo bar)
  5775   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5776   (induct type: foo bar)
  5777 
  5778 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5779 new format.
  5780 
  5781 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5782 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5783 
  5784 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5785 considered a legacy feature.
  5786 
  5787 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5788 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5789 
  5790 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5791 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5792 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5793 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5794   
  5795 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5796 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5797 manipulating the claset.
  5798 
  5799 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5800 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5801 least one premise.
  5802 
  5803 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5804 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5805 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5806 rule steps.
  5807 
  5808 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5809 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5810 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5811 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5812 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5813 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5814 
  5815 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5816 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5817 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5818 
  5819 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5820 the graph browser tool.
  5821 
  5822 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5823 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5824 
  5825 
  5826 *** HOL ***
  5827 
  5828 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5829 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5830 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5831 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5832 multi-threading.
  5833   
  5834 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5835 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5836 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5837 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5838 work with multi-threading.
  5839 
  5840 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5841 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5842 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5843 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5844 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5845 
  5846 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5847 
  5848 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5849 equality.
  5850 
  5851 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5852 the new 'class' package:
  5853 
  5854     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5855     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5856     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5857     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5858     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5859     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5860     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5861     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5862     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5863     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5864     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5865     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5866     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5867     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5868     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5869     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5870     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5871     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5872     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5873     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5874 
  5875 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5876 
  5877 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5878 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5879 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5880 names.
  5881 
  5882 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5883 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5884 
  5885 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5886 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5887 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5888 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5889 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5890 
  5891 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5892 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5893 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5894 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5895 
  5896 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5897 
  5898 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5899 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5900 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5901 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5905 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 
  5907 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5908 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5909 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5912 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5913 
  5914 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5915 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5916 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5917 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5918 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5919 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5920 in the current context.
  5921 
  5922 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5923 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5925 
  5926 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5927 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5928 
  5929 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5930 
  5931     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5932     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5933 
  5934     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5935       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5936     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5937     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5938 
  5939     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5940     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5941 
  5942   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5943 
  5944     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5945     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5946     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5947     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5948     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5949     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5950     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5951     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5952     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5953     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5954     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5955     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5956     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5957     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5958     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5959     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5960     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5961     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5962     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5963     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5964     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5965     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5966     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5967     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5968     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5969     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5970     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5971     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5972     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5973     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5974     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5975     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5976     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5977     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5978     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5979 
  5980     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5981     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5982     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5983     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5984     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5985     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5986     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5987     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5988     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5989     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5990     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5991     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5992     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5993     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5994     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5995     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5996     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5997 
  5998     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5999     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  6000     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  6001     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  6002     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  6003     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  6004     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  6005     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  6006     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  6007     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  6008     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  6009     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  6010     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  6011     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  6012     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  6013     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  6014     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  6015     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  6016     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  6017     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  6018     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6019     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  6020     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6021     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  6022     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  6023     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  6024     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  6025     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  6026 
  6027     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  6028     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  6029     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  6030     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  6031     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  6032     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  6033 
  6034     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  6035     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  6036     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  6037     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  6038 
  6039     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  6040     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  6041 
  6042     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  6043     join_max                ~> sup_max
  6044 
  6045 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  6046 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  6047 
  6048 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  6049 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  6050 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  6051 "*.size".
  6052 
  6053 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  6054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6055 
  6056 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  6057 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  6058 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6059 
  6060 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6063 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6064 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6065 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6066 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6067 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6068 numerals on all operations.
  6069 
  6070 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6071 
  6072 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6073 
  6074 * Code generator library theories:
  6075   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6076     languages.
  6077   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6078     languages.
  6079   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6080     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6081   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6082   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6083     denominator).
  6084   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6085     representable by rational numbers.
  6086   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6087     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6088     includes Code_Integer.
  6089   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6090     target-language built-in integers.
  6091   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6092     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6093 
  6094 * New package for inductive predicates
  6095 
  6096   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6097 
  6098     inductive
  6099       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6100       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6101     where
  6102       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6103     | ...
  6104 
  6105   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6106 
  6107     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6108 
  6109     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6110     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6111 
  6112     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6113     intros
  6114       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6115       ...
  6116 
  6117   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6118   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6119 
  6120     inductive_set
  6121       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6122       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6123     where
  6124       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6125     | ...
  6126 
  6127   or
  6128 
  6129     inductive_set
  6130       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6131       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6132       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6133     where
  6134       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6135     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6136     | ...
  6137 
  6138   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6139 
  6140   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6141   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6142 
  6143   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6144 
  6145   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6146     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6147     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6148     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6149     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6150 
  6151   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6152     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6153     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6154     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6155     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6156     statements of the form
  6157 
  6158       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6159 
  6160     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6161     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6162 
  6163       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6164 
  6165   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6166 
  6167       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6168         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6169         ==> ... ==> P
  6170 
  6171     for predicates and
  6172 
  6173       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6174         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6175         ==> ... ==> P
  6176 
  6177     for sets rather than
  6178 
  6179       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6180         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6181         ==> ... ==> P
  6182 
  6183     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6184     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6185     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6186 
  6187   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6188     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6189     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6190 
  6191 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6192 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6193 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6194 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6195 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6196 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6197 
  6198 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6199 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6200 
  6201 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6202 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6203 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6204 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6205 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6206 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6207 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6208 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6209 variable.
  6210 
  6211 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6212 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6213 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6214 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6215   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6216   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6217 
  6218 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6219 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6220 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6221 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6222 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6223 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6224 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6225 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6226 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6227 
  6228 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6229 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6230 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6231 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6232 rat, etc.
  6233 
  6234 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6235 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6236 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6237 
  6238 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6239 
  6240 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6241 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6242 
  6243 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6244 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6245 
  6246 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6247 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list