NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue May 06 16:57:17 2014 +0200 (2014-05-06)
changeset 56879 ee2b61f37ad9
parent 56851 35ff4ede3409
child 56889 48a745e1bde7
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed "Find" to "Query", with more general operations;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   121 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   122 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   123 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   124 
   125 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   126 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   127 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   128 
   129 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   130 
   131 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   132 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   133 
   134 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   135 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   136 
   137 
   138 *** Pure ***
   139 
   140 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   141 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   142 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   143 renaming needs to be applied:
   144 
   145   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   146   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   147   all            ~>  Pure.all
   148   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   149   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   150 
   151 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   152 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   153 old constants:
   154 
   155 setup {*
   156   fn thy => thy
   157     |> Sign.root_path
   158     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   159     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   160     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   161     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   162 *}
   163 
   164 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   165 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   166 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   167 
   168 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   169 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   170 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   171 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   172 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   173 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   174 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   175 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   176 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   177 
   178 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   179 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   180 instantiated theorem.
   181 
   182 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   183 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   184 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   185 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   186 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   187 
   188   attribute_setup standard =
   189     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   190 
   191 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   192 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   193 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   194 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   195 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   196 
   197 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   198 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   199 differently).
   200 
   201 
   202 *** HOL ***
   203 
   204 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   205   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   206   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   207   and SUP instead uniformly.
   208   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   209   or SUP and Sup.
   210   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   211   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   212   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   213   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   214   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   218   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   219   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   220   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   221   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   222   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   225   can now deal with conjunctions.
   226   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   227   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   228   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   229 
   230 * HOL-Word:
   231   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   232   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   233   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   234   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   235   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   236 
   237 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   238 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   244 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   247 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   250 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   253   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   254   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   255   Theory renamings:
   256     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   257     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   258     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   259     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   260     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   261     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   262     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   263     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   264     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   265     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   266     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   267     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   268     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   269     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   270     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   271     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   272     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   273     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   274     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   275     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   276     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   277     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   278   New theories:
   279     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   280     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   281     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   282     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   283     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   284   Discontinued theories:
   285     BNF/BNF.thy
   286     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   287   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * New (co)datatype package:
   290   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   291   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   292     required by "fun".
   293   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   294     with Transfer.
   295   * Renamed commands:
   296       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   297       primrec_new ~> primrec
   298       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   301     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   302     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   304     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Old datatype package:
   308   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   309     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   310     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   312     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   313     "case_prod").
   314     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   317   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   318   datatype package.
   319   Renamed constants:
   320     Option.set ~> set_option
   321     Option.map ~> map_option
   322     option_rel ~> rel_option
   323   Renamed theorems:
   324     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   325     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   326     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   327     option.recs ~> option.rec
   328     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   329     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   330     map.simps ~> list.map
   331     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   332     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   333     the.simps ~> option.sel
   334   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   337     sum_map ~> map_sum
   338     map_pair ~> map_prod
   339     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   340     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   341     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   342     set_rel ~> rel_set
   343     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   344     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   345     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   346     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   347 
   348 * New theory:
   349     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   350 
   351 * Theory reorganizations:
   352   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   353 
   354 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   355   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   356   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   357   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   358   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   359   the old default can be restored using
   360   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * SMT module:
   363   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   364     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   365     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   366     elsewhere.
   367 
   368 * Sledgehammer:
   369   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   370   - New option:
   371       smt_proofs
   372   - Renamed options:
   373       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   374       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * Metis:
   378   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   379     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   382 
   383 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   386 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   387 
   388 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   389 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   390 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   391 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   392 
   393 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   397 with the given constants.
   398 
   399 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   400 
   401 Fact consolidations:
   402     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   403     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   404     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   405     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   406     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   407     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   408     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   409     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   410     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   411     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   412     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   413     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   414     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   415     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   416     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   417     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   418     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   419     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   420     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   421     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   422     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   423     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   424     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   425     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   426     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   427     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   428     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   429     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   430     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   431     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   432     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   433     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   434     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   435     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   436     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   437     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   438     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   439     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   440     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   441     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   442 
   443 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   444 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   445 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   446 
   447 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   448 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   449 
   450 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   451 
   452 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   453 
   454 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   461 operations on records.
   462 
   463 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   465 
   466 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   467     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   471     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   472     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   476   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   477   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   478   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   479     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   480   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   481     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   482   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   483 INCOMPATBILITY.
   484 
   485 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   486     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   487     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   488     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   489     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 * Fact name consolidation:
   493     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   494     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   495     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   496     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   497     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   501 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   502 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   503 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   504 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   505 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   506 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   507 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   510 
   511 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   512 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   513 
   514 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   515 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   516 
   517 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   518 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   519 or the brute way with
   520 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   521 
   522 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   523 
   524 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   525 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   528 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   529 
   530 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   531 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   532 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY
   534 
   535 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   536   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   537   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   538   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   539   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   540   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   541   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   542   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   543   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   544   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   545   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   546   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   547 
   548   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   549 
   550   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   551     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   552     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   553     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   554     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   558   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   559 
   560   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   561 
   562   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   563 
   564   - removed constant isDiff
   565 
   566   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   567     syntax.
   568 
   569   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   570 
   571   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   572 
   573   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   574 
   575   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   576 
   577   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   578     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   579 
   580   - Other renamings:
   581     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   582     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   583     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   584     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   585     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   586     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   587     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   591   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   592 
   593 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   594 
   595 * Nitpick:
   596   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   597     infinite values.
   598   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   599     "Rep_Integ".
   600   - Removed "std" option.
   601   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   602     "hide_types".
   603 
   604 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   605   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   606   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   607     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   608     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   609     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   610     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   611     intervals.
   612 
   613   - renamed theorems:
   614     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   615     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   616     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   617 
   618 
   619 *** Scala ***
   620 
   621 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   622 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   623 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   624 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   625 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 
   628 *** ML ***
   629 
   630 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   631 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   632 
   633 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   634 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   635 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   639 
   640 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   641 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   642 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   644 
   645 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   646 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   647 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   648 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   649 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   650 of schematic variables.
   651 
   652 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   653 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   655 formal context.
   656 
   657 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   658 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   659 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   660 actually belongs to it).
   661 
   662 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   663 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   664 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   665 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   666 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   667 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   668 
   669 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   670 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   673 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   674 
   675 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   676 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   677 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   678 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   679 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   680 
   681 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   682 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   683 purposes.
   684 
   685 
   686 *** System ***
   687 
   688 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   689 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   690 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   691 processing is started.
   692 
   693 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   694 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   695 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   696 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   697 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   698 
   699 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   700 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   701 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   702 
   703 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   704 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   705 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   706 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   707 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   708 settings variable yet.
   709 
   710 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   711 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   712 
   713 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   714 -------------------------------------
   715 
   716 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   717 
   718 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   719 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   720 
   721 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   722 after edits surrounding the command location.
   723 
   724 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   725 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   726 e.g. out-of-memory).
   727 
   728 
   729 *** System ***
   730 
   731 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   732 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   733 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   734 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   735 
   736 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   737 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   738 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   739 
   740 
   741 
   742 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   743 -------------------------------------
   744 
   745 *** General ***
   746 
   747 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   748 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   749 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   752 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   755 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   756 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   757 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   758 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   759 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   760 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   761 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   762 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   763 syntax.
   764 
   765 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   766 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   769 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   770 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   772 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   773 
   774 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   778 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   779 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   780 
   781 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   782 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   783 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   784 
   785 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   786 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   787 
   788 
   789 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   790 
   791 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   792 Documentation panel.
   793 
   794 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   795 documentation.
   796 
   797 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   798 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   799 
   800 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   801 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   802 normal editing and checking process.
   803 
   804 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   805 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   806 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   807 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   808 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   809 
   810 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   811 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   812 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   813 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   814 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   815 
   816 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   817 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   818 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   819 
   820 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   821 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   822 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   823 to resolve conflict.
   824 
   825 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   826 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   827 
   828 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   829 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   830 such command executions while editing.
   831 
   832 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   833 document content.
   834 
   835 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   836 toplevel theorem statements.
   837 
   838 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   839 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   840 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   841 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   842 
   843 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   844 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   845 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   846 
   847 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   848 / Global Options / Appearance".
   849 
   850 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   851 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   852 
   853 
   854 *** Pure ***
   855 
   856 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   857 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   858 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   859 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   860 details.
   861 
   862 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   863 
   864 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   865 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   866 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   867 
   868 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   872 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   873 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   874 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   875 
   876 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   877 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   878 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   881 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   882 
   883 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   884 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   885 situations.
   886 
   887 
   888 *** HOL ***
   889 
   890 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   891 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   895 
   896 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   897 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   898 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   899 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   900 
   901   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   902 
   903 * Code generator:
   904   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   905     'code_instance'.
   906   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   907     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   908 
   909 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   910 examples.
   911 
   912 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   913 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   914 to distinguish both when desired.
   915 
   916 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   917 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   918 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   919 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   922 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   923 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   924 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   925 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   926 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   929 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   930 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   931 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   932 
   933 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   934 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   935 
   936 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   937 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   938 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   939 
   940 * Lifting:
   941   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   942     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   943       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   944       transfer rules
   945     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   946       correspondence relation can be generated
   947     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   948       parametricity
   949     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   950   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   951   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   952     copies
   953   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   954     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   955     anonymous context)
   956   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   957     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   958   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   959     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   960   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   961     INCOMPATIBILITY
   962 
   963 * Transfer:
   964   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   965     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   966   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   967   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   968     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   969   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   970 
   971 * Reification and reflection:
   972   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   973     "Reification".
   974   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   975   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   979   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   980     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   981     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   982   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   983     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   984   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   985     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   986     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   987     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   988     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   989     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   990     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   991     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   992   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   993     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   994   - Fact renames:
   995       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   996       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1000 
  1001 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1002 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1003 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1007 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1008 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1009 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1010 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1011 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1012 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1013 lemmas.
  1014 
  1015 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1016 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1017 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1020 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1021 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1022 
  1023 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1024 top and bottom elements.
  1025 
  1026 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1027 
  1028 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1029 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1030 
  1031  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1032    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1033    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1034 
  1035  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1036    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1037    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1038 
  1039    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1040    arbitrary filter.
  1041 
  1042  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1043    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1044    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1045    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1046    on a compact set.
  1047 
  1048  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1049    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1050    linear_continuum_topology).
  1051 
  1052  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1053    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1054    on all sequences converging to x.
  1055 
  1056  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1057    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1058    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1059    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1060    left or right.
  1061 
  1062  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1063 
  1064      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1065 
  1066  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1067    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1068 
  1069  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1070    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1071    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1072    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1073    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1074    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1075 
  1076  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1077 
  1078    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1079 
  1080    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1081      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1082 
  1083    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1084 
  1085    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1086      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1087 
  1088    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1089 
  1090    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1091 
  1092  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1093 
  1094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * Nitpick:
  1097   - Added option "spy".
  1098   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1099 
  1100 * Sledgehammer:
  1101   - Renamed option:
  1102       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1103     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1104   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1105   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1106   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1107 
  1108 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1109 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1110 
  1111 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1112   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1113   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1114     generated code.
  1115   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1116   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1117   - Fact renames:
  1118     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1119     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1120     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1121 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1124 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1125 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1126 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1127 
  1128 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1129 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1130 
  1131 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1134 
  1135     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1136     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1137 
  1138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1141 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1142 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1143 
  1144 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1145 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1146 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1147 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * HOL-BNF:
  1150   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1151     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1152     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1153     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1154   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1155     coinduct).
  1156   - Renamed keywords:
  1157     data ~> datatype_new
  1158     codata ~> codatatype
  1159     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1160   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1161     discs ~> disc
  1162     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1163     map_id' ~> map_id
  1164     sels ~> sel
  1165     set_map' ~> set_map
  1166     sets ~> set
  1167 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1168 
  1169 
  1170 *** ML ***
  1171 
  1172 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1173 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1174 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1175 Examples.thy in particular.
  1176 
  1177 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1178 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1179 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1180 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1181 
  1182 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1183 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1184 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1185 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1187 
  1188 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1189 
  1190     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1191     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1192 
  1193 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1196 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1197 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1198 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1199 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1200 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1201 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1202 
  1203 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1204 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1205 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1206 clasets separately from the context.
  1207 
  1208 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1209 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1210 
  1211 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1212 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1213 
  1214 
  1215 *** System ***
  1216 
  1217 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1218 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1221 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1222 
  1223 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1224 settings variable.
  1225 
  1226 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1227 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1228 always pdf.
  1229 
  1230 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1231 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1232 
  1233 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1234 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1235 
  1236 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1237 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1238 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1239 
  1240 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1241 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1242 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1243 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1244 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1245 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1246 
  1247 
  1248 
  1249 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1250 -----------------------------------
  1251 
  1252 *** General ***
  1253 
  1254 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1255 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1256 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1257 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1258 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1259 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1260 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1261 
  1262 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1263 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1264 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1265 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1266 
  1267 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1268 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1269 
  1270 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1271 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1272 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1273 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1274 dependencies properly.
  1275 
  1276 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1277 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1278 
  1279 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1280 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1281 
  1282 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1283 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1284 and "class ... context ...".
  1285 
  1286 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1287 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1288 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1289 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1290 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1291 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1292 
  1293 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1294 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1295 
  1296 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1297 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1298 
  1299 
  1300 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1301 
  1302 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1303 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1304 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1305 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1306 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1307 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1308 
  1309 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1310 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1311 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1312 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1313 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1314 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1315 
  1316 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1317 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1318 browser on demand.
  1319 
  1320 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1321 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1322 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1323 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1324 
  1325 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1326 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1327 
  1328 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1329 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1330 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1331 potentially infinite message streams.
  1332 
  1333 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1334 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1335 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1336 schemes.
  1337 
  1338 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1339 symbols.
  1340 
  1341 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1342 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1343 
  1344 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1345 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1346 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1347 
  1348 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1349 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1350 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1351 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1352 
  1353 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1354 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1355 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1356 
  1357 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1358 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1359 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1360 Isabelle distribution.
  1361 
  1362 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1363 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1364 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1365 
  1366 
  1367 *** Pure ***
  1368 
  1369 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1370 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1371 
  1372 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1373 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1374 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1377 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1378 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1379 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1380 with some care where this is really required.
  1381 
  1382 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1383 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1384 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1385 
  1386   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1387 
  1388 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1389 a Hasse diagram.
  1390 
  1391 
  1392 *** HOL ***
  1393 
  1394 * Sledgehammer:
  1395 
  1396   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1397     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1398   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1399   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1400   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1401   - Renamed options:
  1402       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1403       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1404       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1405       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1406 
  1407 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1408 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1409 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1410 
  1411 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Lifting:
  1415   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1416   - quot_del attribute
  1417   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1418 
  1419 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1420 expressions.
  1421 
  1422 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1423 pointfree expressions.
  1424 
  1425 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1426 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1427 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1428 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1432 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1433 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1434 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1435 accordingly.
  1436 
  1437 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1438 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1441 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1446 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1447 
  1448 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1449 
  1450 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1451 
  1452   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1453   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1454 
  1455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1458 
  1459   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1460   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1461 
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1465 
  1466   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1467     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1468     output f x converges to G.
  1469 
  1470   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1471     infinity (at_bot).
  1472 
  1473   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1474     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1475 
  1476   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1477     at_top".
  1478 
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1482 lattice type classes.
  1483 
  1484 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1485 
  1486     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1487     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1488 
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1492 changes as follows.
  1493 
  1494   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1495 
  1496       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1497       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1498 
  1499   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1500     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1501     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1502     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1503 
  1504   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1505     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1506     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1507 
  1508   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1509     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1510     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1511     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1512 
  1513   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1514     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1515 
  1516       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1517       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1518       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1519       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1520       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1521       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1522       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1523       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1524       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1525       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1526       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1527       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1528       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1529       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1530       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1531       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1532 
  1533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1538 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1539 
  1540 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1541 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1542 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1543 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1544 
  1545   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1546   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1547   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1548   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1549   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1550   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1551   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1552   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1553   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1554   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1555 
  1556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1559 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1560 Data").
  1561 
  1562 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1563 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1564 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1565 code.
  1566 
  1567 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1568 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1569 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1573 
  1574 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1575 
  1576 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1577 
  1578   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1579   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1580 
  1581 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1582 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1583 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1584 
  1585   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1586 
  1587     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1588     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1589     cart_base i  removed
  1590     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1591 
  1592   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1593 
  1594   Renamed lemmas:
  1595 
  1596     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1597     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1598     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1599     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1600     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1601     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1602     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1603     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1604     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1605     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1606 
  1607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * HOL/Probability:
  1610 
  1611   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1612 
  1613   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1614     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1615     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1616 
  1617   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1618     projective family).
  1619 
  1620 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1621 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1622 
  1623 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1624 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1625 datatypes.
  1626 
  1627 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1628 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1629 
  1630 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1631 trees for the code generator.
  1632 
  1633 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1634 Lifting/Transfer.
  1635 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 
  1641 *** Document preparation ***
  1642 
  1643 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1644 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1645 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1646 
  1647 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1648 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1649 
  1650 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1651 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1652 document/root.tex.
  1653 
  1654 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1655 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 
  1658 *** ML ***
  1659 
  1660 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1661 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1662 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1663 
  1664 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1665 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1666 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1667 
  1668 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1669 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1670 necessarily printing visible text.
  1671 
  1672 
  1673 *** System ***
  1674 
  1675 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1676 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1677 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1678 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1679 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1680 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1681 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1682 
  1683 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1684 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1685 
  1686   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1687 
  1688 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1689 
  1690 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1691 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1692 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1693 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1694 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1695 
  1696 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1697 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1698 
  1699 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1700 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1701 
  1702 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1706 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1707 version of Isabelle.
  1708 
  1709 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1710 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1711 
  1712 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1713 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1714 for home-made settings.
  1715 
  1716 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1717 
  1718 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1719 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1720 configuration.
  1721 
  1722 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1723 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1724 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1725 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1726 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1727 
  1728 
  1729 
  1730 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1731 ------------------------------
  1732 
  1733 *** General ***
  1734 
  1735 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1736 
  1737   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1738     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1739   - markup for bound variables
  1740   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1741   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1742   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1743     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1744 
  1745 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1746 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1747 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1748 
  1749 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1750 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1751 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1752 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1753 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1754 
  1755   context
  1756     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1757     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1758   begin
  1759 
  1760   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1761 
  1762   end
  1763 
  1764   thm my_trans
  1765 
  1766 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1767 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1768 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1769 
  1770 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1771 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1772 
  1773 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1774 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1775 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1776 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1777 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1778 
  1779 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1780 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1781 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1782 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1783 indices of schematic variables.
  1784 
  1785 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1786 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1787 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1788 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1789 etc. was exploited.
  1790 
  1791 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1792 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1793 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1794 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1795 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1796 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1797 
  1798 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1799 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1800 manual.
  1801 
  1802 
  1803 *** Pure ***
  1804 
  1805 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1806 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1807 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1808 
  1809 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1810 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1811 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1812 undocumented feature.)
  1813 
  1814 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1815 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1816 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1817 
  1818   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1819 
  1820   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1821     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1822 
  1823 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1824 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1825 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1826 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1827 
  1828 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1829 
  1830     num ~> num_token
  1831     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1832     xstr ~> str_token
  1833 
  1834 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1835 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1836 position information via constraints).
  1837 
  1838 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1839 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1840 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1843 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1844 
  1845 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1846 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1847 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1850 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1853 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1854 
  1855   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1856 
  1857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1860 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1863 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1864 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1865 
  1866 
  1867 *** HOL ***
  1868 
  1869 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1870 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1871 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1872 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1873 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1874 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1875 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1876 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1877 possible.
  1878 
  1879 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1880 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1881 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1882 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1883 
  1884 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1885 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1888 
  1889 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1890 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1891 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1892 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1893 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1894 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1895 
  1896   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1897     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1898 
  1899   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1900     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1901     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1902 
  1903   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1904     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1905 
  1906   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1907     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1908     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1909 
  1910   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1911     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1912 
  1913 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1914 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1915 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1916 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1917 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1918 
  1919   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1920     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1921     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1922     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1923     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1924 
  1925     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1926     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1927 
  1928   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1929     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1930     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1931     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1932     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1933     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1934     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1935     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1936 
  1937   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1938     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1939     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1940     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1941 
  1942   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1943     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1944     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1945     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1946 
  1947   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1948     from type nat to type int.
  1949 
  1950 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1951 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1952 
  1953   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1954     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1955     type.  Example syntax:
  1956 
  1957     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1958       is List.insert
  1959 
  1960     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1961     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1962     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1963     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1964     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1965     by the package.
  1966 
  1967   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1968     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1969     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1970     code generation for each constant.
  1971 
  1972   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1973     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1974     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1975     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1976     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1977 
  1978   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1979     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1980     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1981 
  1982 * Quotient package:
  1983 
  1984   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1985     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1986 
  1987   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1988     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1989 
  1990   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1991     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1992     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1995     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1998 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1999 
  2000 * Quickcheck:
  2001 
  2002   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2003     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2004     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2005     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2006     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2007 
  2008     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2009     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2010     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2011 
  2012     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2013     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2014 
  2015     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2016     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2017     show genuine counterexamples.
  2018 
  2019   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2020     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2021 
  2022     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2023     constructors of that type.
  2024 
  2025   - Support for multisets.
  2026 
  2027   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2028 
  2029   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2030     conjectures in a locale context.
  2031 
  2032 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2033 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2034 
  2035 * Sledgehammer:
  2036   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2037     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2038   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2039   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2040     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2041   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2042   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2043   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2044   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2045 
  2046 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2047 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2048 
  2049 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2050 
  2051 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2054 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2055 
  2056   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2057 
  2058 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2059 a list and a nat.
  2060 
  2061 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2062 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2063 
  2064 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2065 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2066 default.
  2067 
  2068 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2069 
  2070   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2071 
  2072 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2073 
  2074 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2075 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2077 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2078 one_case.
  2079 
  2080 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2081 the result of the fact expression.
  2082 
  2083 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2084 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2085 of some relation theorems:
  2086 
  2087   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2088   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2089   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2090   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2091   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2092   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2093 
  2094 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2095 
  2096 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2097 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2098 
  2099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2102 to match the constant's name:
  2103 
  2104   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2105   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2106   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2107   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2108   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2109   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2110   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2111   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2112   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2113   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2114   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2115   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2116   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2117   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2118   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2119   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2120   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2121   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2122   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2123   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2124   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2125   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2126   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2127   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2128 
  2129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2132 and corresponding theorem names:
  2133 
  2134   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2135 
  2136   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2137 
  2138   - Renamed theorems:
  2139 
  2140     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2141     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2142     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2143     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2144     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2145     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2146     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2147     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2148     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2149     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2150     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2151     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2152     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2153     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2154     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2155     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2156     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2157     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2158     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2159     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2160     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2161     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2162     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2163 
  2164     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2165 
  2166     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2167 
  2168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2171 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2172 
  2173   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2174   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2175   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2176   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2177   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2178   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2179   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2180   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2181   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2182   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2183   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2184   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2185   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2186   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2187   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2188   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2189   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2190   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2191   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2192   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2193   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2194 
  2195 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2196 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2201 
  2202   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2203   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2204   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2205   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2206   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2207   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2208   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2209   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2210   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2211   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2212   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2213   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2214   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2215   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2216   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2217   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2218   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2219   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2220 
  2221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2224 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2225 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2226 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2227 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2228 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2229 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2230 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2231 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2232 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2233 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2234 
  2235 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2236 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2237 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2238 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2239 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2240 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2241 
  2242 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2243 through option types.
  2244 
  2245 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2246 relations.
  2247 
  2248 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2251 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2252 
  2253   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2254   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2255   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2256   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2257   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2258   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2259   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2260   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2261   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2262   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2263   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2264   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2265   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2266   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2267   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2268   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2269   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2270   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2271   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2272   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2273   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2274   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2275   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2276   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2277   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2278   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2279   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2280   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2281   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2282   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2283   zless_le ~> less_le
  2284   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2285   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2286   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2287 
  2288 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2289 
  2290   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2291 
  2292 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2293 
  2294 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2295 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2296 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2297 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2301 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2302 
  2303 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2304 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2305 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2306 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2307 follows:
  2308 
  2309   Operations:
  2310   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2311   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2312   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2313   del -> rbt_del
  2314   delete -> rbt_delete
  2315   ins -> rbt_ins
  2316   insert -> rbt_insert
  2317   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2318   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2319   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2320   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2321   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2322   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2323   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2324   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2325   union -> rbt_union
  2326   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2327   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2328 
  2329   Lemmas:
  2330   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2331   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2332   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2333   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2334   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2335   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2336   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2337   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2338   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2339   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2340   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2341   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2342   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2343   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2344   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2345   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2346   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2347   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2348   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2349   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2350   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2351   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2352   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2353   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2354   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2355   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2356   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2357   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2358   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2359   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2360   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2361   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2362   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2363   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2364   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2365   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2366   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2367   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2368   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2369   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2370   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2371   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2372   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2373   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2374   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2375   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2376   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2377   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2378   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2379   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2380   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2381   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2382   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2383   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2384   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2385   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2386   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2387   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2388   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2389   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2390   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2391   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2392   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2393   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2394   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2395   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2396   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2397   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2398   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2399   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2400   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2401   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2402   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2403   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2404   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2405   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2406   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2407   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2408   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2409   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2410   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2411   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2412   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2413 
  2414 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2415 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2416 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2417 
  2418   Changed Operations:
  2419   float_abs -> abs
  2420   float_nprt -> nprt
  2421   float_pprt -> pprt
  2422   pow2 -> use powr
  2423   round_down -> float_round_down
  2424   round_up -> float_round_up
  2425   scale -> exponent
  2426 
  2427   Removed Operations:
  2428   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2429 
  2430   Renamed Lemmas:
  2431   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2432   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2433   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2434   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2435   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2436   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2437   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2438   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2439   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2440   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2441   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2442   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2443   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2444   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2445   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2446   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2447   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2448   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2449   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2450   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2451   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2452   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2453   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2454   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2455   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2456   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2457   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2458   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2459   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2460   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2461   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2462   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2463   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2464   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2465   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2466   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2467 
  2468   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2469   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2470   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2471   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2472   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2473   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2474   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2475   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2476   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2477   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2478 
  2479 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2480 association lists with distinct keys.
  2481 
  2482 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2483 annotated commands.
  2484 
  2485 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2486 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2487 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2488 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2489 
  2490 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2491 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2492 instead.
  2493 
  2494   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2495   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2496   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2497   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2498   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2499   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2500   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2501   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2502   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2503   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2504   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2505   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2506   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2507   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2508   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2509   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2510   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2511   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2512   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2513   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2514   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2515   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2516   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2517   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2518   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2519   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2520   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2521   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2522   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2523   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2524   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2525   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2526   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2527   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2528   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2529   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2530   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2531   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2532   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2533   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2534   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2535 
  2536 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2537 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2538 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2539 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2540 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2541 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2542 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2543 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2544 
  2545 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2546 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2547 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2548 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2549 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2550 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2551 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2552 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2553 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2554 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2555 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2556 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558   Renamed constants:
  2559   measure -> emeasure
  2560   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2561   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2562   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2563   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2564 
  2565   Removed locales:
  2566   completeable_measure_space
  2567   finite_measure_space
  2568   finite_prob_space
  2569   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2570   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2571   finite_sigma_algebra
  2572   measure_space
  2573   pair_finite_prob_space
  2574   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2575   pair_finite_space
  2576   pair_sigma_algebra
  2577   product_sigma_algebra
  2578 
  2579   Removed constants:
  2580   conditional_space
  2581   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2582   image_space
  2583   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2584   pair_measure_generator
  2585   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2586   subvimage
  2587 
  2588   Replacement theorems:
  2589   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2590   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2591   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2592   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2593   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2594   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2595   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2596   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2597   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2598   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2599   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2600   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2601   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2602   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2603   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2604   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2605   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2606   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2607   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2608   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2609   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2610   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2611   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2612   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2613   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2614   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2615   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2616   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2617   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2618   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2619   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2620   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2621   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2622   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2623   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2624   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2625   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2626   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2627   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2628   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2629   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2630   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2631   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2632   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2633   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2634   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2635   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2636   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2637   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2638   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2639   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2640   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2641   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2642   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2643   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2644   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2645   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2646   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2647   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2648   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2649   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2650   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2651   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2652   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2653   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2654   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2655   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2656   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2657   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2658   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2659   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2660   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2661   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2662   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2663   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2664   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2665   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2666   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2667   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2668   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2669   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2670   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2671   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2672   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2673   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2674   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2675   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2676   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2677   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2678   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2679   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2680   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2681   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2682   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2683   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2684   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2685   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2686   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2687   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2688   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2689   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2690   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2691   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2692   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2693   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2694   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2695   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2696   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2697   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2698   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2699   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2700   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2701   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2702   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2703   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2704   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2705   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2706   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2707   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2708   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2709   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2710   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2711   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2712   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2713   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2714   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2715   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2716   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2717 
  2718 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2719 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2720 
  2721 
  2722 *** FOL ***
  2723 
  2724 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2725 
  2726 
  2727 *** ZF ***
  2728 
  2729 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2730 analysis.
  2731 
  2732 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2733 
  2734 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 
  2737 *** ML ***
  2738 
  2739 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2740 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2741 
  2742 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2743 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2744 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2745 
  2746 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2747 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2748 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2749 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2750 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2751 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2752 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2753 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2754 
  2755 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2756 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2757 
  2758 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2759 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2760 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2761 
  2762 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2763 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2766 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2767 context as well.
  2768 
  2769 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2770 
  2771   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2772   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2773   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2774   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2775   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2776   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2777   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2778   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2779   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2780   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2781   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2782   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2783 
  2784 
  2785 *** System ***
  2786 
  2787 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2788 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2789 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2790 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2791 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2792 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2793 the generic user home was intended.
  2794 
  2795 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2796 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2797 
  2798 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2799 (not just JRE).
  2800 
  2801 
  2802 
  2803 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2804 ------------------------------------
  2805 
  2806 *** General ***
  2807 
  2808 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2809 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2810 
  2811   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2812     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2813     files for checking).
  2814 
  2815   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2816     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2817     positions.
  2818 
  2819   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2820     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2821     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2822 
  2823   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2824     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2825     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2826 
  2827   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2828     cores.
  2829 
  2830   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2831     versions (garbage collection).
  2832 
  2833 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2834 including some remaining limitations.
  2835 
  2836 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2837 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2838 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2839 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2840 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2844 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2845 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2846 
  2847 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2848 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2849 usedir option -Q.
  2850 
  2851 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2852 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2853 
  2854   long_names   ~> names_long
  2855   short_names  ~> names_short
  2856   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2857 
  2858 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2859 
  2860   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2861 
  2862 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2863 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2864 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2865 
  2866 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2867 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2868 
  2869 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2870   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2871   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2872   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2873     "Classical Reasoner".
  2874 
  2875 
  2876 *** HOL ***
  2877 
  2878 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2879 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2882 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2883 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2884 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2885 class complete_linorder.
  2886 
  2887 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2888 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2889 
  2890 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2891 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2892 
  2893   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2894   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2895   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2896   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2897   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2898   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2899   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2900   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2901   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2902   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2903   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2904 
  2905 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2906 
  2907   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2908   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2909   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2910   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2911   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2912   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2913   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2914   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2915   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2916   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2917   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2918   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2919   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2920   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2921   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2922   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2923 
  2924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2925 
  2926 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2930 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2931 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2932 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2935 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2936 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938 
  2939 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2940 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2941 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2942 
  2943 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2944 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2945 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2948 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2949 
  2950 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2951 
  2952     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2953     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2954 
  2955 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2956 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2957 
  2958 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2959 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2962 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2963 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2964 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965 
  2966   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2967   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2968   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2969   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2970   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2971   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2972   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2973 
  2974 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2975 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2978   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2979   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2980   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2981   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2982   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2983   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2984   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2985   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2986   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2987   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2988   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2989   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2990   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2991   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2992   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2993   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2994   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2995   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2996   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2997   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2998   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2999   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3000   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3001   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3002   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3003   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3004   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3005   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3006   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3007   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3008   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3009   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3010   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3011   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3012   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3013   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3014   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3015   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3016   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3017   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3018   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3019   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3020   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3021   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3022   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3023   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3024   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3025   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3026   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3027   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3028   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3029   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3030   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3031   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3032   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3033   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3034   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3035   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3036   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3037   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3038   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3039   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3040   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3041   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3042   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3043   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3044   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3045   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3046   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3047   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3048   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3049   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3050   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3051   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3052   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3053   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3054   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3055   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3056   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3057   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3058   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3059 
  3060 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3061 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3062 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3063 
  3064 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3065 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3066 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3067 
  3068 * Code generation:
  3069 
  3070   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3071     characters in the target language.
  3072 
  3073   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3074     instead.
  3075 
  3076   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3077 
  3078   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3079     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3080 
  3081       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3082 
  3083 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3086 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3087 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3088 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3089 syntax.
  3090 
  3091 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3092 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3093 
  3094 * Nitpick:
  3095   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3096   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3097   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3098     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Sledgehammer:
  3101   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3102   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3103     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3104   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3105     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3106   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3107     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3109     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3110   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3111     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Metis:
  3114   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3116     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Command 'try':
  3119   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3120     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3122     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3123 
  3124 * Quickcheck:
  3125   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3126     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3127   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3128     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3129   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3130     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3131     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3132     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3133   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3134     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3135 
  3136 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3137 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3138 
  3139 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3140 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3141 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3142 
  3143 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3144 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3148 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3151 arithmetic.
  3152 
  3153 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3154 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3155 and lattice type classes.
  3156 
  3157 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3158 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3159 
  3160 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3161 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3162 
  3163 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3164 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3165 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3168   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3169   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3170   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3171 
  3172 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3173 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3174 constants:
  3175 
  3176   type inat   ~> type enat
  3177   Fin         ~> enat
  3178   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3179   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3180   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3181 
  3182 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3183 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3186 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3187 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3188 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3189 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3190 
  3191 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3192 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3193 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3194 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3195 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3196 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3197 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3198 
  3199   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3200   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3201   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3202   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3203 
  3204 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3205 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3206 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3209   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3210   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3211   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3212   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3213   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3214   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3215   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3216   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3217   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3218   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3219   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3220   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3221   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3222   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3223   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3224   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3225   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3226   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3227   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3228   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3229   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3230   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3231   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3232   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3233   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3234   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3235   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3236   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3237   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3238   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3239   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3240   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3241   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3242   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3243   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3244   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3245   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3246   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3247   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3248   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3249   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3250   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3251   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3252   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3253   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3254   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3255   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3256   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3257   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3258   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3259 
  3260 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3261   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3262   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3263   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3264   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3265     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3270   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3271   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3272   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3273   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3274   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3275   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3276   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3277   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3278   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3279   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3280   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3281   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3282   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3283   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3284   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3285   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3286   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3287   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3288   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3289   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3290   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3291   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3292   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3293   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3294 
  3295 
  3296 *** Document preparation ***
  3297 
  3298 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3299 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3300 same.
  3301 
  3302 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3303 result.
  3304 
  3305 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3306 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3307 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3308 
  3309 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3310 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3311 
  3312 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3313 like this:
  3314 
  3315   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3316   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3317 
  3318 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3319 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3320 layouts.
  3321 
  3322 
  3323 *** ML ***
  3324 
  3325 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3326 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3327 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3328 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3329 under external program control.
  3330 
  3331 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3332 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3333 
  3334 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3335 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3336 (better known as Proof General).
  3337 
  3338 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3339 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3340 
  3341 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3342 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3343 
  3344 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3345 (including quotes etc.).
  3346 
  3347 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3348 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3349 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3350 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3351 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3352 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3353 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3354 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3355 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3356 
  3357 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3358 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3359 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3360 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3361 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3362 
  3363 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3364 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3365 
  3366 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3367 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3368 
  3369 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3370 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3371 
  3372 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3373 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3374 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3375 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3376 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3377 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3378 proper Proof.context.
  3379 
  3380 
  3381 *** System ***
  3382 
  3383 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3384 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3385 
  3386 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3387 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3388 
  3389 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3390 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3391 
  3392   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3393   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3394   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3395   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3396   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3397 
  3398 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3399 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3402 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3403 example:
  3404 
  3405   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3406 
  3407 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3408 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3409 
  3410 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3411 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3412 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3413 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3414 
  3415 
  3416 
  3417 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3418 ----------------------------------
  3419 
  3420 *** General ***
  3421 
  3422 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3423 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3424 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3425 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3426 like this:
  3427 
  3428   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3429 
  3430 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3431 
  3432 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3433 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3434 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3435 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3436 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3437 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3438 
  3439 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3440 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3441 the following package declarations:
  3442 
  3443   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3444   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3445 
  3446 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3447 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3448 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3449 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3450 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3451 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3452 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3453 
  3454 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3455 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3456 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3457 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3458 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3459 
  3460 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3461 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3462 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3463 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3464 
  3465 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3466 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3467 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3468 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3469 
  3470   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3471 
  3472   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3473   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3474   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3475   show_types                    show_types
  3476   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3477   show_consts                   show_consts
  3478   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3479 
  3480   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3481   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3482   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3483 
  3484   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3485   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3486 
  3487   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3488 
  3489   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3490   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3491   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3492   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3493   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3494 
  3495 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3496 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3497 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3498 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3499 
  3500 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3504   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3505 
  3506 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3507 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3508 float_token.
  3509 
  3510 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3511 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3515 DejaVu Sans.
  3516 
  3517 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3518 
  3519 
  3520 *** Pure ***
  3521 
  3522 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3523 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3524 time.
  3525 
  3526 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3527 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3530 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3533 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3534 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3535 command already provided this functionality.
  3536 
  3537 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3538 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3539 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3540 without interpretations.
  3541 
  3542 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3543 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3544 
  3545 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3546 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3547 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3548 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3549 
  3550 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3551 'definition' instead.
  3552 
  3553 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3554 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3555 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3556 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3557 
  3558 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3559 constructors.
  3560 
  3561 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3562 the local file system.
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 *** HOL ***
  3566 
  3567 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3568 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3569 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3570 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3571 
  3572   declare [[coercion f]]
  3573 
  3574 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3575 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3576 
  3577   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3578 
  3579 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3580 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3581 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3582 other theories like this:
  3583 
  3584   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3585 
  3586 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3587 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3588 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3589 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3590 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3591 for examples.
  3592 
  3593 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3594 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595 
  3596 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3597 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3598 
  3599 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3600 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3601 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3602 
  3603 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3604 functorial structure of types.
  3605 
  3606 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3607 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3608 
  3609 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3610 languages.
  3611 
  3612 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3613 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3617 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3620 combinators any longer.
  3621 
  3622 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3623 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3624 
  3625 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3626 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3627 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3628 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3629 
  3630   record 'a foo = ...
  3631   ...
  3632   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3633 
  3634 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3635 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3639 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3640 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3641 
  3642 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3643 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3644 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3645 
  3646 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3647 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3650 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3651 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3652 independently.
  3653 
  3654 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3655 counter example search.
  3656 
  3657 * Sledgehammer:
  3658   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3659     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3660     sledgehammer").
  3661   - Renamed commands:
  3662     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3663     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3664     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3665     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666   - Renamed options:
  3667     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3668     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3669     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3670     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3671     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Nitpick:
  3674   - Renamed options:
  3675     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3676     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3677     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3678   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3679   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3680   - Added "whack" option.
  3681   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3682   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3683   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3684   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3685     higher cardinalities.
  3686   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3687 
  3688 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3689 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3690 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3691 
  3692     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3693 
  3694 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3695 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3696 
  3697 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3698 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3699 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3700 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3701 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3702 "smt_solver".
  3703 
  3704 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3705 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3706 
  3707 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3708 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3709 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3710 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3713   - Renamed:
  3714     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3715     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3716     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717   - Added:
  3718     smt_verbose
  3719     smt_random_seed
  3720     smt_datatypes
  3721     smt_infer_triggers
  3722     smt_monomorph_limit
  3723     cvc3_options
  3724     remote_cvc3_options
  3725     remote_z3_options
  3726     yices_options
  3727 
  3728 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3729 header.
  3730 
  3731 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3732 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3733 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3734 
  3735   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3736 
  3737 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3740 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3745 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3748 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3749 
  3750 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3751 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3754 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3755 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3763 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3766 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3767 for congruent(2)).
  3768 
  3769 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3770 
  3771   types
  3772     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3773     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3774 
  3775   constants
  3776     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3777     True ~> HOL.True
  3778     False ~> HOL.False
  3779     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3780     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3781     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3782     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3783     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3784     The ~> HOL.The
  3785     All ~> HOL.All
  3786     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3787     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3788     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3789     If ~> HOL.If
  3790     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3791     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3792     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3793     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3794     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3795     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3796     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3797     op : ~> Set.member
  3798     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3799 
  3800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3803 
  3804     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3805     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3806     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3807     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3808     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3809     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3810     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3811     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3812 
  3813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3814 
  3815 * More stylized fact names:
  3816 
  3817   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3818   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3819   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3820   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3821 
  3822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3825 
  3826   constants
  3827     null ~> List.null
  3828 
  3829   facts
  3830     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3831     null_empty ~> null_def
  3832 
  3833 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3834 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3835 generation.
  3836 
  3837 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3838 Haskell code.
  3839 
  3840 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3841 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3842 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3845 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3848 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3849 
  3850 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3851 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3852 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3855 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3861 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3862 referred to by its qualified name.
  3863 
  3864   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3865   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3866   product ~>  Enum.product
  3867 
  3868 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3869 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3873 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3874 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3878 sort_key.
  3879 
  3880 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3884 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3885 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3886 
  3887   types
  3888     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3889               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3890               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3891         (depends on your needs)
  3892 
  3893   constants
  3894      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3895      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3896      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3897 
  3898 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3899 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3900 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3901 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3904 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3905 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3906 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3907 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3913 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3914 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3915 
  3916 
  3917 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3918 
  3919 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3920 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3921 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3922 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3923 compatibility.
  3924 
  3925 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3926 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3927 
  3928 
  3929 *** HOLCF ***
  3930 
  3931 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3932 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3933 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3937 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3938 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3939 
  3940   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3941   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3942   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3943 
  3944 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3945 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3946 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3949 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3950 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3951 domain definition now works:
  3952 
  3953   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3954 
  3955 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3956 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3957 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3958 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3959 
  3960   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3961     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3962 
  3963   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3964 
  3965 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3966 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3967 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3970 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3973 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3974 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3975 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3976 
  3977 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3978 
  3979 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3985 
  3986 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3987 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3988 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3989 
  3990 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3991 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3992 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3995 still supported as an input translation.
  3996 
  3997 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3998 
  3999   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4000   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4001   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4002   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4003   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4004   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4005   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4006 
  4007 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4008 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4011   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4012   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4013   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4014   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4015   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4016 
  4017 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4018 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4021 
  4022   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4023   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4024   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4025   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4026 
  4027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4030 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4033 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4036   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4037   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4038   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4039   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4040   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4041   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4042   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4043   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4044   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4045   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4046   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4047   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4048   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4049   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4050   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4051   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4052   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4053   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4054   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4055 
  4056 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4059   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4060   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4061   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4062   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4063   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4064   box_less             ~> box_below
  4065   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4066   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4067   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4068   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4069   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4070   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4071   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4072   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4073   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4074   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4075   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4076   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4077   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4078   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4079   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4080   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4081   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4082   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4083   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4084   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4085   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4086   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4087   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4088   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4089   up_less              ~> up_below
  4090   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4091   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4092   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4093   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4094   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4095   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4096   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4097   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4098   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4099   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4100   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4101   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4102   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4103 
  4104 
  4105 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4106 
  4107 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4108 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4109 
  4110 
  4111 *** ML ***
  4112 
  4113 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4114 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4115 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4116 
  4117 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4118 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4119 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4120 
  4121 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4122 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4123 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4124 
  4125 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4126 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4127 
  4128 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4129 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4130 
  4131 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4132 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4133 
  4134 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4135 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4136 
  4137 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4138 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4139 almost all situations.
  4140 
  4141 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4142 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4143 Isabelle/ML.
  4144 
  4145 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4146 meaning.
  4147 
  4148 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4149 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4150 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4151 
  4152 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4153 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4154 
  4155 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4156 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4157 
  4158 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4159 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4160 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4161 
  4162 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4163 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4164 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4165 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4166 configuration options.
  4167 
  4168 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4169 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4170 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4171 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4172 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4173 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4174 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4175 
  4176 
  4177 
  4178 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4179 ---------------------------------
  4180 
  4181 *** General ***
  4182 
  4183 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4184 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4185 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4186 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4187 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4188 their full internal name.
  4189 
  4190 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4191 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4192 Some hints on upgrading:
  4193 
  4194   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4195     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4196     which are independent of this issue.
  4197 
  4198   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4199     provides the following special forms:
  4200 
  4201       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4202       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4203       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4204 
  4205     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4206     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4207     extra variables".
  4208 
  4209     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4210     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4211     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4212     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4213     "logic".
  4214 
  4215   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4216     antiquotations:
  4217 
  4218       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4219       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4220       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4221       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4222 
  4223   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4224     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4225     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4226     antiquotations.
  4227 
  4228 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4229 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4230 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4231 diagnose syntax problems.
  4232 
  4233 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4234 
  4235 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4236 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4237 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4238 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4239 
  4240 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4241 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4242 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4243 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4246 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4247 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4248 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4249 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4252 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4253 
  4254 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4255 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4256 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4257 
  4258   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4259 
  4260 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4261 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4262 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4263 
  4264 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4265 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4269 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4270 
  4271 
  4272 *** Pure ***
  4273 
  4274 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4275 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4276 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4277 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4278 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4279 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4280 inspect proof terms.
  4281 
  4282 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4283 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4284 are added internally.  For example:
  4285 
  4286   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4287 
  4288 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4289 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4294 'class' instead.
  4295 
  4296 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4297 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4301 invariants.
  4302 
  4303 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4304 user space functionality any longer.
  4305 
  4306 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4307 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4311 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4312 
  4313 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4314 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4315 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4316 
  4317 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4318 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4319 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4320 
  4321 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4322 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 
  4325 *** HOL ***
  4326 
  4327 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4328 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4329 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4330 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4331 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4332 
  4333 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4334 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4335 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4336 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4337 
  4338   fun
  4339     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4340   where
  4341     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4342 
  4343   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4344     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4345 
  4346   quotient_definition
  4347     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4348 
  4349 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4350 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4351 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4352 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4353 
  4354 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4355 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4356 
  4357 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4358 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4359 
  4360 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4364 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4365 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4366 
  4367 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4368 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4377 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4380 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4381 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4382 
  4383   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4384   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4385   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4386   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4387   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4388   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4389   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4390   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4391   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4392   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4393   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4394   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4395   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4396   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4397   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4398   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4399   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4400   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4401   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4402   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4403   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4404   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4405   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4406   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4407   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4408   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4409   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4410   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4411   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4412   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4413 
  4414 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4415 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4416 
  4417 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4418 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4419 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4420 
  4421 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4422 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4423 
  4424 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4425 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4428 
  4429 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4430 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4433 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4438 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4439 
  4440 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4441 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4442 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4443 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4446   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4447   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4448   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4452 lattices):
  4453 
  4454     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4455     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4456 
  4457     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4458 
  4459     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4460     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4461     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4462     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4463     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4464     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4465     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4466     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4467     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4468     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4469     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4470     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4471     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4472 
  4473     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4474     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4475     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4476     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4477     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4478     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4479     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4480     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4481     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4482     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4483     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4484     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4485     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4486     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4487     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4488     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4489     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4490     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4491 
  4492   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4493   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4494 
  4495     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4496     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4497     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4498     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4499     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4500 
  4501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Refined field classes:
  4504   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4505     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4506     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4507   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4511   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4512   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4513   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4514     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4515   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4516     equal_neg_zero.
  4517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4520 sets to lattices:
  4521 
  4522   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4523   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4524   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4525   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4526   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4527   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4528   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4529   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4530   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4531   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4532 
  4533 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4534 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4535 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4536 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4537 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4538 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4541 multiset order:
  4542 
  4543   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4544     <= and <;
  4545   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4546     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4547     multiset_order;
  4548   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4549     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4550     generation;
  4551   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4552     if needed.
  4553 
  4554 Renamed:
  4555 
  4556   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4557   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4558   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4559 
  4560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4563 
  4564 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4565 
  4566 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4567 
  4568 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4569 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4570 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572   Constants:
  4573   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4574   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4575   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4576   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4577   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4578   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4579   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4580   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4581   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4582   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4583   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4584   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4585   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4586 
  4587   Lemmas:
  4588   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4589   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4590   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4591   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4592   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4593   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4594   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4595   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4596   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4597   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4598   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4599   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4600   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4601 
  4602 * Sledgehammer:
  4603   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4604     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4605     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4606     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4607     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4608     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4609     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4611   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4612     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4613   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4614     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4615     is still experimental.)
  4616   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4617     full-typed mode.
  4618   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4619 
  4620 * Nitpick:
  4621   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4622   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4623   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4624     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4625   - Added support for quotient types.
  4626   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4627     constructs.
  4628   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4629     "termination" proofs).
  4630   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4631   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4632   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4633   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4634     record getters.
  4635   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4636   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4637   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4638   - Added "atoms" option.
  4639   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4640     problems.
  4641   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4642     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4643     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4645     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4647 
  4648 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4649   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4650   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4651   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4652   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4653   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4654   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4655   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4656   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4657   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 
  4660 *** HOLCF ***
  4661 
  4662 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4663 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4664 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4667 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4668 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4669 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4672 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4673 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4674 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4675 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4678 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4679 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4682 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4685   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4686 
  4687 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4688 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4691   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4692   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4693   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4694   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4695 
  4696 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4697 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4700   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4701   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4702 
  4703 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4704 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4708 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4713 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 
  4716 *** ML ***
  4717 
  4718 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4719 
  4720     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4721     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4722 
  4723     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4724     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4725     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4726     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4727 
  4728     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4729     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4730     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4731 
  4732 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4733 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4734 
  4735 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4736 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4737 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4738 
  4739 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4740 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4741 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4742 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4743 
  4744 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4745 the context or even global references.
  4746 
  4747 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4748 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4749 
  4750 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4751 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4752 
  4753   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4754   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4755   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4756   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4757   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4758   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4759   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4760   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4761   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4762   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4763 
  4764 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4765 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4766 
  4767 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4768 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4769 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4770 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4771 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4772 
  4773 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4774 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4775 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4776 Theory_Data version.
  4777 
  4778 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4779 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4780 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4781 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4782 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4783 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4784 explicitly in rare situations.
  4785 
  4786 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4787 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4791 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4792 
  4793 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4794 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4795 quite rare).
  4796 
  4797 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4798 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4801 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4802 terms.
  4803 
  4804 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4805 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4806 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4807 
  4808 
  4809 *** System ***
  4810 
  4811 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4812 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4813 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4814 
  4815 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4816 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4817 respectively.
  4818 
  4819 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4820 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4821 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4822 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4823 
  4824   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4825 
  4826 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4827 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4828 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4829 component.
  4830 
  4831 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4832 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4833 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4834 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4835 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4836 the user for manual installation.
  4837 
  4838 
  4839 
  4840 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4841 -------------------------------------
  4842 
  4843 *** General ***
  4844 
  4845 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4846 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4847 
  4848 
  4849 *** Pure ***
  4850 
  4851 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4852 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4853 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4854 
  4855 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4856 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4857 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4858 
  4859 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4860 interpretation.
  4861 
  4862 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4863 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 
  4866 *** Document preparation ***
  4867 
  4868 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4869 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4870 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4871 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4872 
  4873 
  4874 *** HOL ***
  4875 
  4876 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4877 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4878 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4879 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4880 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4881 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4882 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4883 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4884 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4885 
  4886 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4887 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4888 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4889 
  4890 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4891 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4892 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4893 
  4894 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4895 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4896 
  4897 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4898 
  4899 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4900 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4901 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4902 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4903 
  4904 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4905 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4906 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4907 "mirabelle" utility.
  4908 
  4909 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4910 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4911 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4912 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4913 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4914 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4915 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4916 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4917 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4918 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4919 
  4920 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4921 procedure only.
  4922 
  4923 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4924 
  4925 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4926 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4927 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4928 that fail later.
  4929 
  4930 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4931 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4932 
  4933 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4934 the same method as the approximation method.
  4935 
  4936 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4937 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4938 series expansion.
  4939 
  4940 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4941 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4942 
  4943 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4944 reals.
  4945 
  4946 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4947 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4948 
  4949 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4950 fixpoint theorem.
  4951 
  4952 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4953   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4954     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4955   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4956     accordingly
  4957   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4958     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4959   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4960     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4961 
  4962 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4963 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4964 lattice.
  4965 
  4966 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4967 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4968 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4969 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4970 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4971 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4975   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4976     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4977   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4978     le_inf_iff
  4979   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4980     sup_aci)
  4981   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4982   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4983   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4984     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4985     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4986     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4987     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4988     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4989     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4990     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4991     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4992     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4993     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4994   - authentic syntax for
  4995     Set.Pow
  4996     Set.image
  4997   - mere abbreviations:
  4998     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4999     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5000     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5001     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5002     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5003     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5004     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5005     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5006   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5007 
  5008 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5009 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5010 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5011 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5012 
  5013 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5014 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5015 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5018 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5021 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5022 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5023 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5026 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5027 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5028 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5029 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5030 
  5031 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5032 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5034 
  5035 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5036 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5037 
  5038 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5039 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5040 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5041 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5042 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5043 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5044 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5048     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5049     code_post       replaces    code post
  5050     etc.
  5051   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 * Renamed methods:
  5054     sizechange -> size_change
  5055     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5056   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5059 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5060 
  5061 * Renamed theorems:
  5062     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5063     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5064     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5065     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5066     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5067   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5068 
  5069 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5071 
  5072 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5074 
  5075 
  5076 *** HOLCF ***
  5077 
  5078 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5079 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5080 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5081 
  5082 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5083 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5084 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5085 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5086 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5087 
  5088 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5089 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5090 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5091 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5092 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5093 
  5094 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5095 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5096 constructor are pre-configured.
  5097 
  5098 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5099 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5100 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5101 
  5102 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5103 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5104 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5105 as well.)
  5106 
  5107 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5108 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5109 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5110 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5111 examples.
  5112 
  5113 
  5114 *** ML ***
  5115 
  5116 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5117 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5118 
  5119 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5120 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5121 position, logical grouping etc.
  5122 
  5123 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5124 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5125 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5126 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5127 
  5128 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5129 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5130 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5131 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5132 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5133 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5134 
  5135 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5136 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5137 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5138 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5139 experiments with references.
  5140 
  5141 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5142 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5143 
  5144 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5145 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5146 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5147 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5148 
  5149 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5150 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5151 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5152 
  5153 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5154 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5155 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5158 
  5159 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5161 
  5162 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5163 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5164 
  5165 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5166 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5167 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5168 
  5169 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5170 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5171 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5174 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5175 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5177 
  5178 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5179 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5180 instead of global theory.
  5181 
  5182 
  5183 *** System ***
  5184 
  5185 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5186 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5187 usedir option -q.
  5188 
  5189 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5190 also the system manual.
  5191 
  5192 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5193 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5194 
  5195 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5196 this is always enabled.
  5197 
  5198 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5199 
  5200 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5201 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5202 currently supported on Linux only.
  5203 
  5204 
  5205 
  5206 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5207 --------------------------------
  5208 
  5209 *** General ***
  5210 
  5211 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5212 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5213 
  5214   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5215     "isatool."
  5216 
  5217   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5218     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5219 
  5220   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5221     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5222 
  5223 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5224 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5225 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5226 
  5227 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5228 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5229 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5230 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5231 via "isabelle emacs".
  5232 
  5233 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5234 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5235 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5236 
  5237 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5238 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5239 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5240 
  5241 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5242 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5243 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5244 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5245 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5246 
  5247 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5248 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5249 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5250 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5251 
  5252 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5253 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5254 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5255 
  5256 
  5257 *** Pure ***
  5258 
  5259 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5260 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5261 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5262 
  5263 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5264 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5265 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5266 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5267 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5268 
  5269 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5270 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5271 useful in locale declarations.
  5272 
  5273 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5274 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5275 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5276 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5277 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5278 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5279 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5280 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5281 no longer generated.
  5282 
  5283 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5284 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5285 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5286 
  5287 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5288 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5289 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5290 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5291 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5292 
  5293 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5294 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5295 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5296 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5297 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5298 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5299 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5300 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5301 
  5302 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5303 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5304 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5305 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5306 
  5307 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5308 
  5309 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5310 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5311 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5312 
  5313 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5314 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5315 
  5316 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5317 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5318 in HOL, write
  5319 
  5320     class foo = ...
  5321 
  5322 instead of
  5323 
  5324     class foo = type + ...
  5325 
  5326 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5327 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5330 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5331 
  5332 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5333 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5334 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5335 
  5336 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5337 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5338 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5339 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5340 directly in regular applications.
  5341 
  5342 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5343 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5344 
  5345 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5346 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5347 
  5348 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5349 theory context.
  5350 
  5351 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5352 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5353 
  5354 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5355 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5356 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5357 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5358 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5359 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5360 
  5361   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5362 
  5363 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5364 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5365 normalization.
  5366 
  5367 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5368 addressing etc.
  5369 
  5370 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5371 
  5372   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5373   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5374 
  5375 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5376 
  5377   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5378      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5379      parts of the code generator framework).
  5380 
  5381   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5382      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5383      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5384 
  5385 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5386 
  5387 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5388 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5389 
  5390 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5391 patterns, e.g.
  5392 
  5393     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5394 
  5395 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5396 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5397 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5398 hyphen:
  5399 
  5400     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5401 
  5402 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5403 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5404 
  5405 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5406 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5407 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5408 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5409 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5410 higher-order unification.
  5411 
  5412 
  5413 *** Document preparation ***
  5414 
  5415 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5416 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5417 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5418 
  5419 
  5420 *** HOL ***
  5421 
  5422 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5423 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5424 
  5425 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5426 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5427 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5428 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5429 Main, as before.
  5430 
  5431 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5432 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5433 
  5434 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5435 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5436 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5437 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5438 
  5439 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5440 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5441 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5442 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5443 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5444 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5445 
  5446 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5447 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5448 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5449 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5450 
  5451 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5452 menu.
  5453 
  5454 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5455 (contains the empty clause).
  5456 
  5457 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5458 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5459 
  5460 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5461 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5462 
  5463 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5464 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5465 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5466 
  5467 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5468 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5469 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5470 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5471 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5472 
  5473 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5474 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5475 
  5476 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5477 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5478 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5479 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5480 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5481 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5482 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5483 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5484 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5485 
  5486 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5487 
  5488 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5489 
  5490 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5491 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5494 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5495 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5496 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5497 
  5498 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5499 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5500 
  5501     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5502     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5503     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5504     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5505     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5506     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5507     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5508     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5509 
  5510 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5511 theory Set.
  5512 
  5513 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5514 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5515 
  5516 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5517 
  5518 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5519 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5520 
  5521 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5522 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5523 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5524 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5525 allowed. For examples see
  5526 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5527 
  5528 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5529 
  5530 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5534 structure:
  5535 
  5536     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5537     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5538     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5540     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5541     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5542     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5543     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5544     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5545     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5546     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5547     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5548     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5549     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5550     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5551     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5552     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5553     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5554     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5555     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5556     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5557     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5558     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5559     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5560     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5561     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5562     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5563     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5564     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5565     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5566     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5567     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5568     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5569 
  5570     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5571     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5572     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5573     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5574     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5575     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5576     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5577     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5578     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5579     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5580 
  5581     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5582     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5583     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5584     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5585     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5586     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5587 
  5588 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5589 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5590 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5591 
  5592 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5593 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5594 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5595 
  5596 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5597 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5600 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5601 
  5602 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5603 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5604 proofs, e.g.
  5605 
  5606   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5607 
  5608 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5609 
  5610 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5611 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5612 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5613 
  5614 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5615 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5619 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5620 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5622 
  5623 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5624 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5625 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5626 preorder_class.*.
  5627 
  5628 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5629 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5630 
  5631 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5632 
  5633   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5634 
  5635 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5636 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5637 fold_image.
  5638 
  5639 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5640 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5641 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5642 the former will disappear at some point.
  5643 
  5644 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5645 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5646 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5647 
  5648 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5649 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5650 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5651 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5652 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5653 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5654 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5655 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5656 
  5657 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5658 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5659 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5660 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5661 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5662 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5663 
  5664     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5665     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5666     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5667     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5668     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5669     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5670     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5671 
  5672 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5673 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5674 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5675 
  5676 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5677 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5678 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5679 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5680 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5681 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5682 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5683 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5684 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5685 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5686 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5687 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5688 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5689 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5690 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5691 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5692 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5693 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5694 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5695 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5696 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5697 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5698 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5699 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5700 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5701 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5702 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5703 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5704 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5705 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5706 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5707 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5708 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5709 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5710 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5711 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5712 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5713 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5714 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5715 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5716 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5717 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5718 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5719 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5720 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5721 
  5722 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5723 
  5724 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5725 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5726 
  5727 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5728 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5729 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5730 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5731 
  5732 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5733 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5734 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5735 theory RealVector.
  5736 
  5737 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5738 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5739 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5740 and inner products are included.
  5741 
  5742 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5743 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5744 supported.
  5745 
  5746 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5747 first diagonalization argument.
  5748 
  5749 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5750 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5751 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5752 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5753 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5754 
  5755     hide (open) const gcd
  5756     abbreviation gcd where
  5757       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5758     notation (output)
  5759       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5760 
  5761 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5762 
  5763 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5764 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5765 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5766 
  5767 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5768 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5769 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5770 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5771 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5772 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5773 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5774 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5775 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5776 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5777 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5778 cases.
  5779 
  5780 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5781 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5782 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5783 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5784 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5785 
  5786     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5787     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5788     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5789     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5790     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5791 
  5792 
  5793 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5794 
  5795 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5796 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5797 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5798 
  5799 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5800 
  5801 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5802 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5803 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5804 
  5805 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5806 
  5807 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5808 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5809 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5810 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5811 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5812 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5813 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5814 
  5815 
  5816 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5817 
  5818 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5819 
  5820 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5821 theory targets.
  5822 
  5823 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5824 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5825 'inductive' etc.
  5826 
  5827 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5828 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5829 
  5830 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5831 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5832 
  5833 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5834 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5835 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5836 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5837 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5838 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5839 the algorithm W:
  5840 
  5841  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5842  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5843          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5844 
  5845 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5846 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5847 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5848 
  5849 
  5850 *** HOLCF ***
  5851 
  5852 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5853 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5854 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5855 
  5856 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5857 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5858 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5859 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5860 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5861 
  5862 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5863 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5864 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5865 
  5866 
  5867 *** ZF ***
  5868 
  5869 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5870 
  5871 
  5872 *** ML ***
  5873 
  5874 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5875 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5876 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5877 5.2.1!
  5878 
  5879 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5880 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5881 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5882 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5883 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5884 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5885 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5886 
  5887 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5888 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5889 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5890 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5891 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5892 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5893 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5894 
  5895 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5896 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5897 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5898 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5899 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5900 
  5901 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5902 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5903 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5904 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5905 Method.add_method.
  5906 
  5907 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5908 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5909 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5910 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5911 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5912 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5913 
  5914 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5915 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5916 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5917 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5918 examples.
  5919 
  5920 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5921 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5922 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5923 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5924 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5925 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5926 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5927 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5928 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5929 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5930 
  5931 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5932 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5933 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5934 
  5935 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5936 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5937 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5938 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5939 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5940 resort for legacy applications.
  5941 
  5942 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5943 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5944 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5945 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5946 explicit runtime argument.
  5947 
  5948 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5949 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5950 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5951 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5952 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5955 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5956 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5957 theory state.
  5958 
  5959 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5960 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5961 
  5962   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5963   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5964   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5965   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5966   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5967   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5968   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5969   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5970   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5971   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5972 
  5973 
  5974 *** System ***
  5975 
  5976 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5977 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5978 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5979 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5980 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5981 
  5982 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5983 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5984 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5985 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5986 
  5987 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5988 
  5989 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5990 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5991 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5992 prover operations.
  5993 
  5994 
  5995 
  5996 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5997 -------------------------------
  5998 
  5999 *** General ***
  6000 
  6001 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6002 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6003 
  6004 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6005 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6006 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6007 provides a proper context already.
  6008 
  6009 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6010 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6011 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6012 
  6013 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6014 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6015 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6016 swap theory imports.
  6017 
  6018 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6019 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6020 
  6021 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6022 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6023 white space without escapes.
  6024 
  6025 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6026 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6027 "foo_bar".
  6028 
  6029 
  6030 *** Pure ***
  6031 
  6032 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6033 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6034 
  6035 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6036 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6037 
  6038 (1) unused_thms
  6039      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6040 
  6041 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6042      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6043      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6044 
  6045 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6046      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6047      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6048      their ancestors.
  6049 
  6050 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6051 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6052 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6053 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6054 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6055 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6056 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6057 
  6058 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6059 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6060 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6061 
  6062 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6063 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6064 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6065 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6066 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6067 
  6068 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6069 
  6070 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6071 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6072 update of theories within ML code.
  6073 
  6074 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6075 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6076 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6077 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6078 
  6079 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6080 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6081 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6083 
  6084 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6085 
  6086 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6087 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6088 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6089 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6090 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6091 
  6092 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6093 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6094 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6095 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6096 situations.
  6097 
  6098 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6099 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6100 proof text.
  6101 
  6102 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6103 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6104 
  6105 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6106 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6107 predicates.
  6108 
  6109 
  6110 *** Document preparation ***
  6111 
  6112 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6113 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6114 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6115 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6116 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6117 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6118 
  6119 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6120 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6121 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6122 
  6123 
  6124 *** HOL ***
  6125 
  6126 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6127 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6128 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6129 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6130 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6131 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6132 
  6133 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6134 with multithreading.
  6135 
  6136 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6137 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6138 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6139 
  6140 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6141 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6142 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6143 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6144 
  6145 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6146 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6147 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6148 and makes them available separately.  See
  6149 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6150 
  6151 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6152 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6153 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6154 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6155 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6156 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6157 type and generates all solutions by Prolog-style backward proof using
  6158 the declared rules.
  6159 
  6160 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6161 
  6162   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6163 
  6164 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6165 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6166 
  6167 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6168 
  6169   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6170 
  6171   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6172     definitions on => and bool.
  6173 
  6174   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6175     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6176     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6177 
  6178       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6179       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6180       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6181       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6182       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6183       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6184       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6185       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6186 
  6187   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6188     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6189     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6190 
  6191   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6192     The proof pattern
  6193 
  6194       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6195       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6196 
  6197     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6198     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6199 
  6200       have "EX S. P S"
  6201       proof
  6202         show "P S" <...>
  6203       qed
  6204 
  6205   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6206     The proof pattern
  6207 
  6208       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6209       also have "S = T" <...>
  6210       finally have "P T" .
  6211 
  6212     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6213     must be replaced by something like
  6214 
  6215       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6216       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6217       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6218 
  6219   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6220     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6221 
  6222       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6223 
  6224     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6225     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6226     type of the form
  6227 
  6228       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6229 
  6230     rather than
  6231 
  6232       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6233 
  6234 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6235 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6236 
  6237 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6238 
  6239 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6240 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6242 
  6243 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6244 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6245 
  6246 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6247 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6248 
  6249 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6250 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6251 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6252 
  6253 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6254 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6255 
  6256   less_trans
  6257   less_linear
  6258   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6259   le_less_trans
  6260   less_le_trans
  6261   less_not_sym
  6262   less_asym
  6263 
  6264 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to