NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Aug 05 20:11:32 2012 +0200 (2012-08-05)
changeset 48683 eeb4480b5877
parent 48657 63ef2f0cf8bb
child 48693 ceeea46bdeba
permissions -rw-r--r--
more on isabelle mkroot;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** HOL ***
    34 
    35 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    36 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    37 
    38 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    39 expressions.
    40 
    41 * Quickcheck:
    42 
    43   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    44     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    45     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    46 
    47 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    48 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    49 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    50 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    51 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Sledgehammer:
    54 
    55   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    56     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    57   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    58   - Renamed options:
    59       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    60       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Document preparation ***
    64 
    65 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    66 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    67 
    68 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    69 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    70 document/root.tex.
    71 
    72 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
    73 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 
    76 *** System ***
    77 
    78 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    79 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    80 build" tool and its examples.  Eventual INCOMPATIBILITY, as isabelle
    81 usedir / make / makeall are rendered obsolete.
    82 
    83 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    84 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    85 
    86   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
    87 
    88 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
    89 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
    90 "isabelle usedir".
    91 
    92 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
    93 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
    94 configuration.
    95 
    96 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
    97 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
    98 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
    99 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   100 bundled as Isabelle component.
   101 
   102 
   103 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   104 ------------------------------
   105 
   106 *** General ***
   107 
   108 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   109 
   110   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   111     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   112   - markup for bound variables
   113   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   114   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   115   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   116     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   117 
   118 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   119 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   120 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   121 
   122 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   123 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   124 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   125 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   126 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   127 
   128   context
   129     fixes x y z :: 'a
   130     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   131   begin
   132 
   133   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   134 
   135   end
   136 
   137   thm my_trans
   138 
   139 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   140 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   141 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   142 
   143 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   144 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   145 
   146 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   147 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   148 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   149 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   150 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   151 
   152 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   153 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   154 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   155 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   156 indices of schematic variables.
   157 
   158 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   159 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   160 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   161 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   162 etc. was exploited.
   163 
   164 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   165 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   166 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   167 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   168 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   169 of the material of that old tutorial.
   170 
   171 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   172 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   173 manual.
   174 
   175 
   176 *** Pure ***
   177 
   178 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   179 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   180 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   181 
   182 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   183 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   184 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   185 undocumented feature.)
   186 
   187 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   188 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   189 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   190 
   191   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   192 
   193   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   194     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   195 
   196 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   197 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   198 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   199 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   200 
   201 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   202 
   203     num ~> num_token
   204     xnum ~> xnum_token
   205     xstr ~> str_token
   206 
   207 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   208 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   209 position information via constraints).
   210 
   211 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   212 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   213 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   216 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   217 
   218 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   219 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   220 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   223 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   226 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   227 
   228   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   229 
   230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   233 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   236 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   237 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   238 
   239 
   240 *** HOL ***
   241 
   242 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   243 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   244 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   245 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   246 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   247 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   248 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   249 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   250 possible.
   251 
   252 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   253 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   254 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   255 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   256 
   257 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   258 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   261 
   262 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   263 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   264 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   265 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   266 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   267 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   268 
   269   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   270     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   271 
   272   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   273     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   274     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   275 
   276   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   277     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   278 
   279   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   280     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   281     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   282 
   283   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   284     Redefine using other integer operations.
   285 
   286 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   287 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   288 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   289 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   290 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   291 
   292   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   293     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   294     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   295     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   296     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   297 
   298     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   299     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   300 
   301   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   302     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   303     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   304     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   305     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   306     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   307     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   308     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   309 
   310   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   311     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   312     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   313     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   314 
   315   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   316     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   317     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   318     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   319 
   320   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   321     from type nat to type int.
   322 
   323 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   324 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   325 
   326   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   327     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   328     type.  Example syntax:
   329 
   330     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   331       is List.insert
   332 
   333     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   334     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   335     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   336     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   337     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   338     by the package.
   339 
   340   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   341     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   342     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   343     code generation for each constant.
   344 
   345   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   346     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   347     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   348     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   349     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   350 
   351   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   352     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   353     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   354 
   355 * Quotient package:
   356 
   357   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   358     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   359 
   360   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   361     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   362 
   363   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   364     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   365     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   368     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   369 
   370 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   371 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   372 
   373 * Quickcheck:
   374 
   375   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   376     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   377     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   378     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   379     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   380 
   381     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   382     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   383     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   384 
   385     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   386     continues searching for genuine ones.
   387 
   388     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   389     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   390     show genuine counterexamples.
   391 
   392   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   393     value generators for a given type and operations.
   394 
   395     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   396     constructors of that type.
   397 
   398   - Support for multisets.
   399 
   400   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   401 
   402   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   403     conjectures in a locale context.
   404 
   405 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   406 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   407 
   408 * Sledgehammer:
   409   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   410     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   411   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   412   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   413     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   414   - Sped up the minimizer.
   415   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   416   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   417   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   418 
   419 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   420 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   421 
   422 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   423 
   424 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   427 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   428 
   429   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   430 
   431 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   432 a list and a nat.
   433 
   434 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   435 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   436 
   437 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   438 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   439 default.
   440 
   441 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   442 
   443   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   444 
   445 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   446 
   447 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   448 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   449 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   450 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   451 one_case.
   452 
   453 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   454 the result of the fact expression.
   455 
   456 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   457 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   458 of some relation theorems:
   459 
   460   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   461   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   462   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   463   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   464   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   465   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   466 
   467 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   468 
   469 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   470 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   471 
   472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   475 to match the constant's name:
   476 
   477   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   478   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   479   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   480   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   481   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   482   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   483   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   484   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   485   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   486   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   487   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   488   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   489   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   490   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   491   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   492   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   493   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   494   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   495   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   496   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   497   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   498   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   499   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   500   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   501 
   502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   505 and corresponding theorem names:
   506 
   507   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   508 
   509   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   510 
   511   - Renamed theorems:
   512 
   513     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   514     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   515     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   516     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   517     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   518     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   519     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   520     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   521     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   522     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   523     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   524     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   525     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   526     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   527     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   528     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   529     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   530     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   531     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   532     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   533     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   534     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   535     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   536 
   537     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   538 
   539     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   540 
   541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   542 
   543 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   544 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   545 
   546   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   547   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   548   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   549   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   550   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   551   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   552   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   553   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   554   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   555   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   556   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   557   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   558   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   559   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   560   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   561   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   562   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   563   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   564   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   565   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   566   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   567 
   568 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   569 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   570 
   571 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   572 
   573 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   574 
   575   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   576   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   577   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   578   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   579   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   580   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   581   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   582   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   583   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   584   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   585   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   586   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   587   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   588   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   589   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   590   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   591   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   592   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   593 
   594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   597 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   598 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   599 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   600 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   601 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   602 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   603 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   604 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   605 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   606 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   607 
   608 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   609 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   610 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   611 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   612 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   613 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   614 
   615 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   616 through option types.
   617 
   618 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   619 relations.
   620 
   621 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   624 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   625 
   626   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   627   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   628   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   629   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   630   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   631   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   632   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   633   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   634   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   635   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   636   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   637   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   638   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   639   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   640   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   641   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   642   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   643   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   644   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   645   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   646   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   647   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   648   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   649   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   650   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   651   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   652   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   653   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   654   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   655   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   656   zless_le ~> less_le
   657   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   658   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   659   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   660 
   661 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   662 
   663   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   664 
   665 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   666 
   667 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   668 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   669 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   670 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   672 
   673 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   674 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   675 
   676 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   677 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   678 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   679 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   680 follows:
   681 
   682   Operations:
   683   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   684   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   685   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   686   del -> rbt_del
   687   delete -> rbt_delete
   688   ins -> rbt_ins
   689   insert -> rbt_insert
   690   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   691   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   692   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   693   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   694   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   695   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   696   tree_less -> rbt_less
   697   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   698   union -> rbt_union
   699   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   700   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   701 
   702   Lemmas:
   703   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   704   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   705   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   706   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   707   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   708   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   709   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   710   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   711   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   712   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   713   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   714   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   715   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   716   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   717   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   718   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   719   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   720   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   721   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   722   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   723   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   724   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   725   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   726   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   727   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   728   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   729   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   730   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   731   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   732   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   733   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   734   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   735   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   736   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   737   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   738   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   739   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   740   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   741   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   742   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   743   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   744   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   745   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   746   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   747   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   748   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   749   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   750   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   751   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   752   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   753   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   754   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   755   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   756   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   757   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   758   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   759   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   760   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   761   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   762   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   763   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   764   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   765   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   766   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   767   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   768   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   769   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   770   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   771   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   772   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   773   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   774   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   775   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   776   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   777   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   778   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   779   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   780   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   781   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   782   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   783   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   784   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   785   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   786 
   787 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   788 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   789 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791   Changed Operations:
   792   float_abs -> abs
   793   float_nprt -> nprt
   794   float_pprt -> pprt
   795   pow2 -> use powr
   796   round_down -> float_round_down
   797   round_up -> float_round_up
   798   scale -> exponent
   799 
   800   Removed Operations:
   801   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   802 
   803   Renamed Lemmas:
   804   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   805   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   806   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   807   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   808   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   809   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   810   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   811   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   812   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   813   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   814   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   815   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   816   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   817   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   818   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   819   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   820   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   821   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   822   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   823   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   824   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   825   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   826   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   827   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   828   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   829   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   830   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   831   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   832   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   833   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   834   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   835   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   836   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   837   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   838   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   839   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   840 
   841   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   842   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   843   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   844   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   845   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   846   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   847   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   848   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   849   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   850   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   851 
   852 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   853 association lists with distinct keys.
   854 
   855 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   856 annotated commands.
   857 
   858 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   859 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   860 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   861 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   864 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   865 instead.
   866 
   867   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   868   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   869   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   870   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   871   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   872   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   873   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   874   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   875   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   876   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   877   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   878   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   879   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   880   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   881   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   882   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   883   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   884   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   885   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   886   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   887   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   888   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   889   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   890   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   891   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   892   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   893   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   894   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   895   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   896   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   897   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   898   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   899   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   900   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   901   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   902   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   903   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   904   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   905   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   906   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   907   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   908 
   909 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   910 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   911 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   912 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   913 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   914 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   915 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   916 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   917 
   918 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   919 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   920 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   921 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   922 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   923 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   924 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   925 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   926 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   927 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   928 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   929 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   930 
   931   Renamed constants:
   932   measure -> emeasure
   933   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   934   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   935   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   936   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   937 
   938   Removed locales:
   939   completeable_measure_space
   940   finite_measure_space
   941   finite_prob_space
   942   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   943   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   944   finite_sigma_algebra
   945   measure_space
   946   pair_finite_prob_space
   947   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   948   pair_finite_space
   949   pair_sigma_algebra
   950   product_sigma_algebra
   951 
   952   Removed constants:
   953   conditional_space
   954   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   955   image_space
   956   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   957   pair_measure_generator
   958   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   959   subvimage
   960 
   961   Replacement theorems:
   962   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   963   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   964   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   965   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   966   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   967   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   968   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   969   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   970   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   971   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   972   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   973   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   974   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   975   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   976   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   977   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   978   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   979   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   980   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   981   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   982   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   983   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   984   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   985   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   986   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   987   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   988   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   989   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   990   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   991   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   992   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   993   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   994   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   995   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   996   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   997   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   998   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   999   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1000   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1001   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1002   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1003   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1004   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1005   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1006   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1007   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1008   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1009   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1010   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1011   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1012   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1013   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1014   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1015   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1016   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1017   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1018   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1019   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1020   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1021   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1022   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1023   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1024   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1025   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1026   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1027   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1028   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1029   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1030   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1031   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1032   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1033   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1034   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1035   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1036   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1037   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1038   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1039   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1040   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1041   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1042   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1043   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1044   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1045   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1046   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1047   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1048   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1049   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1050   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1051   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1052   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1053   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1054   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1055   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1056   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1057   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1058   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1059   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1060   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1061   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1062   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1063   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1064   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1065   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1066   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1067   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1068   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1069   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1070   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1071   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1072   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1073   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1074   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1075   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1076   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1077   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1078   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1079   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1080   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1081   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1082   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1083   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1084   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1085   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1086   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1087   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1088   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1089   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1090 
  1091 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1092 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1093 
  1094 
  1095 *** FOL ***
  1096 
  1097 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1098 
  1099 
  1100 *** ZF ***
  1101 
  1102 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1103 analysis.
  1104 
  1105 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1106 
  1107 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 
  1110 *** ML ***
  1111 
  1112 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1113 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1114 
  1115 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1116 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1117 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1118 
  1119 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1120 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1121 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1122 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1123 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1124 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1126 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1127 
  1128 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1129 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1130 
  1131 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1132 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1133 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1134 
  1135 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1136 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1139 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1140 context as well.
  1141 
  1142 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1143 
  1144   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1145   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1146   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1147   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1148   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1149   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1150   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1151   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1152   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1153   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1154   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1155   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1156 
  1157 
  1158 *** System ***
  1159 
  1160 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1161 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1162 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1163 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1164 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1165 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1166 the generic user home was intended.
  1167 
  1168 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1169 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1170 
  1171 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1172 (not just JRE).
  1173 
  1174 
  1175 
  1176 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1177 ------------------------------------
  1178 
  1179 *** General ***
  1180 
  1181 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1182 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1183 
  1184   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1185     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1186     files for checking).
  1187 
  1188   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1189     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1190     positions.
  1191 
  1192   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1193     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1194     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1195 
  1196   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1197     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1198     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1199 
  1200   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1201     cores.
  1202 
  1203   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1204     versions (garbage collection).
  1205 
  1206 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1207 including some remaining limitations.
  1208 
  1209 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1210 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1211 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1212 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1213 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1215 
  1216 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1217 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1218 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1219 
  1220 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1221 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1222 usedir option -Q.
  1223 
  1224 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1225 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1226 
  1227   long_names   ~> names_long
  1228   short_names  ~> names_short
  1229   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1230 
  1231 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1232 
  1233   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1234 
  1235 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1236 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1237 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1238 
  1239 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1240 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1241 
  1242 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1243   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1244   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1245   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1246     "Classical Reasoner".
  1247 
  1248 
  1249 *** HOL ***
  1250 
  1251 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1252 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1253 
  1254 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1255 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1256 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1257 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1258 class complete_linorder.
  1259 
  1260 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1261 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1262 
  1263 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1264 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1265 
  1266   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1267   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1268   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1269   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1270   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1271   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1272   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1273   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1274   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1275   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1276   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1277 
  1278 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1279 
  1280   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1281   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1282   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1283   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1284   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1285   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1286   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1287   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1288   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1289   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1290   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1291   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1292   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1293   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1294   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1295   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1296 
  1297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1298 
  1299 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1303 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1304 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1305 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1306 
  1307 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1308 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1309 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1311 
  1312 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1313 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1314 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1315 
  1316 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1317 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1318 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1321 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1322 
  1323 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1324 
  1325     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1326     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1327 
  1328 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1329 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1330 
  1331 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1332 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1335 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1336 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1337 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1340   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1341   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1342   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1343   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1344   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1345   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1346 
  1347 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1348 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1351   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1352   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1353   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1354   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1355   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1356   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1357   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1358   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1359   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1360   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1361   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1362   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1363   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1364   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1365   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1366   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1367   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1368   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1369   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1370   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1371   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1372   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1373   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1374   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1375   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1376   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1377   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1378   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1379   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1380   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1381   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1382   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1383   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1384   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1385   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1386   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1387   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1388   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1389   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1390   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1391   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1392   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1393   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1394   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1395   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1396   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1397   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1398   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1399   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1400   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1401   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1402   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1403   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1404   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1405   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1406   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1407   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1408   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1409   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1410   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1411   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1412   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1413   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1414   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1415   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1416   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1417   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1418   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1419   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1420   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1421   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1422   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1423   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1424   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1425   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1426   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1427   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1428   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1429   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1430   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1431   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1432 
  1433 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1434 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1435 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1436 
  1437 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1438 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1439 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1440 
  1441 * Code generation:
  1442 
  1443   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1444     characters in the target language.
  1445 
  1446   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1447     instead.
  1448 
  1449   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1450 
  1451   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1452     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1453 
  1454       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1455 
  1456 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1459 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1460 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1461 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1462 syntax.
  1463 
  1464 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1465 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1466 
  1467 * Nitpick:
  1468   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1469   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1470   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1471     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Sledgehammer:
  1474   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1475   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1476     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1477   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1478     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1479   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1480     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1482     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1483   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1484     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1485 
  1486 * Metis:
  1487   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1489     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * Command 'try':
  1492   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1493     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1495     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1496 
  1497 * Quickcheck:
  1498   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1499     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1500   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1501     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1502   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1503     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1504     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1505     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1506   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1507     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1508 
  1509 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1510 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1511 
  1512 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1513 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1514 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1515 
  1516 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1517 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1521 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1524 arithmetic.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1527 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1528 and lattice type classes.
  1529 
  1530 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1531 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1532 
  1533 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1534 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1535 
  1536 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1537 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1538 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1541   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1542   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1543   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1544 
  1545 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1546 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1547 constants:
  1548 
  1549   type inat   ~> type enat
  1550   Fin         ~> enat
  1551   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1552   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1553   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1554 
  1555 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1556 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1559 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1560 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1561 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1562 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1563 
  1564 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1565 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1566 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1567 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1568 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1569 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1570 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1571 
  1572   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1573   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1574   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1575   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1576 
  1577 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1578 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1579 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1582   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1583   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1584   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1585   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1586   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1587   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1588   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1589   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1590   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1591   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1592   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1593   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1594   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1595   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1596   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1597   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1598   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1599   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1600   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1601   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1602   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1603   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1604   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1605   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1606   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1607   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1608   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1609   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1610   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1611   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1612   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1613   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1614   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1615   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1616   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1617   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1618   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1619   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1620   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1621   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1622   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1623   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1624   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1625   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1626   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1627   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1628   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1629   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1630   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1631   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1632 
  1633 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1634   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1635   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1636   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1637   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1638     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1643   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1644   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1645   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1646   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1647   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1648   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1649   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1650   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1651   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1652   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1653   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1654   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1655   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1656   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1657   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1658   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1659   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1660   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1661   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1662   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1663   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1664   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1665   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1666   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1667 
  1668 
  1669 *** Document preparation ***
  1670 
  1671 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1672 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1673 same.
  1674 
  1675 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1676 result.
  1677 
  1678 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1679 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1680 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1681 
  1682 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1683 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1684 
  1685 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1686 like this:
  1687 
  1688   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1689   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1690 
  1691 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1692 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1693 layouts.
  1694 
  1695 
  1696 *** ML ***
  1697 
  1698 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1699 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1700 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1701 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1702 under external program control.
  1703 
  1704 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1705 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1706 
  1707 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1708 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1709 (better known as Proof General).
  1710 
  1711 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1712 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1713 
  1714 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1715 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1716 
  1717 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1718 (including quotes etc.).
  1719 
  1720 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1721 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1722 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1723 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1724 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1725 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1726 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1727 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1728 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1729 
  1730 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1731 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1732 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1733 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1734 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1735 
  1736 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1737 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1738 
  1739 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1740 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1741 
  1742 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1743 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1744 
  1745 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1746 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1747 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1748 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1749 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1750 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1751 proper Proof.context.
  1752 
  1753 
  1754 *** System ***
  1755 
  1756 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1757 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1758 
  1759 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1760 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1761 
  1762 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1763 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1764 
  1765   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1766   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1767   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1768   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1769   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1770 
  1771 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1772 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1775 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1776 example:
  1777 
  1778   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1779 
  1780 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1781 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1782 
  1783 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1784 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1785 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1786 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1787 
  1788 
  1789 
  1790 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1791 ----------------------------------
  1792 
  1793 *** General ***
  1794 
  1795 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1796 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1797 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1798 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1799 like this:
  1800 
  1801   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1802 
  1803 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1804 
  1805 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1806 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1807 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1808 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1809 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1810 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1811 
  1812 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1813 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1814 the following package declarations:
  1815 
  1816   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1817   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1818 
  1819 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1820 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1821 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1822 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1823 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1824 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1825 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1826 
  1827 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1828 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1829 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1830 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1831 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1832 
  1833 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1834 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1835 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1836 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1837 
  1838 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1839 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1840 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1841 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1842 
  1843   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1844 
  1845   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1846   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1847   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1848   show_types                    show_types
  1849   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1850   show_consts                   show_consts
  1851   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1852 
  1853   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1854   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1855   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1856 
  1857   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1858   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1859 
  1860   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1861 
  1862   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1863   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1864   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1865   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1866   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1867 
  1868 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1869 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1870 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1871 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1872 
  1873 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875 
  1876   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1877   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1878 
  1879 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1880 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1881 float_token.
  1882 
  1883 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1884 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1888 DejaVu Sans.
  1889 
  1890 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1891 
  1892 
  1893 *** Pure ***
  1894 
  1895 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1896 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1897 time.
  1898 
  1899 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1900 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1903 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1906 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1907 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1908 command already provided this functionality.
  1909 
  1910 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1911 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1912 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1913 without interpretations.
  1914 
  1915 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1916 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1917 
  1918 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1919 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1920 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1921 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1922 
  1923 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1924 'definition' instead.
  1925 
  1926 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1927 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1928 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1929 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1930 
  1931 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1932 constructors.
  1933 
  1934 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1935 the local file system.
  1936 
  1937 
  1938 *** HOL ***
  1939 
  1940 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1941 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1942 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1943 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1944 
  1945   declare [[coercion f]]
  1946 
  1947 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1948 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1949 
  1950   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1951 
  1952 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1953 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1954 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1955 other theories like this:
  1956 
  1957   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1958 
  1959 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1960 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1961 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1962 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1963 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1964 for examples.
  1965 
  1966 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1967 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1970 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1971 
  1972 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1973 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1974 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1975 
  1976 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1977 functorial structure of types.
  1978 
  1979 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1980 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1981 
  1982 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1983 languages.
  1984 
  1985 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1986 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1988 
  1989 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1990 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1993 combinators any longer.
  1994 
  1995 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1996 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1997 
  1998 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1999 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2000 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2001 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2002 
  2003   record 'a foo = ...
  2004   ...
  2005   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2006 
  2007 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2008 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2012 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2013 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2014 
  2015 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2016 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2017 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2018 
  2019 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2020 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2023 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2024 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2025 independently.
  2026 
  2027 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2028 counter example search.
  2029 
  2030 * Sledgehammer:
  2031   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2032     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2033     sledgehammer").
  2034   - Renamed commands:
  2035     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2036     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2037     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2038     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039   - Renamed options:
  2040     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2041     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2042     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2043     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2044     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Nitpick:
  2047   - Renamed options:
  2048     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2049     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2050     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2052   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2053   - Added "whack" option.
  2054   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2055   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2056   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2057   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2058     higher cardinalities.
  2059   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2060 
  2061 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2062 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2063 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2064 
  2065     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2066 
  2067 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2068 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2069 
  2070 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2071 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2072 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2073 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2074 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2075 "smt_solver".
  2076 
  2077 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2078 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2079 
  2080 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2081 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2082 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2083 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2084 
  2085 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2086   - Renamed:
  2087     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2088     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2089     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090   - Added:
  2091     smt_verbose
  2092     smt_random_seed
  2093     smt_datatypes
  2094     smt_infer_triggers
  2095     smt_monomorph_limit
  2096     cvc3_options
  2097     remote_cvc3_options
  2098     remote_z3_options
  2099     yices_options
  2100 
  2101 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2102 header.
  2103 
  2104 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2105 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2106 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2107 
  2108   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2109 
  2110 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2113 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2118 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2121 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2122 
  2123 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2124 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2127 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2128 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2136 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2139 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2140 for congruent(2)).
  2141 
  2142 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2143 
  2144   types
  2145     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2146     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2147 
  2148   constants
  2149     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2150     True ~> HOL.True
  2151     False ~> HOL.False
  2152     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2153     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2154     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2155     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2156     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2157     The ~> HOL.The
  2158     All ~> HOL.All
  2159     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2160     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2161     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2162     If ~> HOL.If
  2163     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2164     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2165     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2166     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2167     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2168     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2169     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2170     op : ~> Set.member
  2171     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2172 
  2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2176 
  2177     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2178     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2179     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2180     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2181     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2182     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2183     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2184     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2185 
  2186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * More stylized fact names:
  2189 
  2190   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2191   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2192   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2193   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2194 
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2198 
  2199   constants
  2200     null ~> List.null
  2201 
  2202   facts
  2203     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2204     null_empty ~> null_def
  2205 
  2206 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2207 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2208 generation.
  2209 
  2210 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2211 Haskell code.
  2212 
  2213 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2214 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2215 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2216 
  2217 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2218 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2221 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2222 
  2223 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2224 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2225 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2228 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2234 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2235 referred to by its qualified name.
  2236 
  2237   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2238   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2239   product ~>  Enum.product
  2240 
  2241 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2242 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2246 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2247 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2251 sort_key.
  2252 
  2253 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2257 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2258 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2259 
  2260   types
  2261     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2262               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2263               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2264         (depends on your needs)
  2265 
  2266   constants
  2267      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2268      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2269      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2270 
  2271 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2272 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2273 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2274 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2277 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2278 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2279 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2280 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2286 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2287 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2288 
  2289 
  2290 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2291 
  2292 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2293 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2294 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2295 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2296 compatibility.
  2297 
  2298 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2299 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2300 
  2301 
  2302 *** HOLCF ***
  2303 
  2304 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2305 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2306 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2310 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2311 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2314   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2315   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2316 
  2317 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2318 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2319 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2320 
  2321 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2322 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2323 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2324 domain definition now works:
  2325 
  2326   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2327 
  2328 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2329 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2330 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2331 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2332 
  2333   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2334     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2335 
  2336   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2337 
  2338 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2339 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2340 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2343 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2346 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2347 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2348 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2349 
  2350 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2351 
  2352 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2360 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2361 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2362 
  2363 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2364 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2365 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2368 still supported as an input translation.
  2369 
  2370 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2371 
  2372   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2373   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2374   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2375   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2376   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2377   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2378   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2379 
  2380 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2381 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2384   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2385   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2386   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2387   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2388   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2389 
  2390 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2391 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2394 
  2395   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2396   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2397   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2398   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2399 
  2400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2403 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2406 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2409   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2410   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2411   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2412   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2413   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2414   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2415   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2416   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2417   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2418   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2419   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2420   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2421   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2422   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2423   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2424   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2425   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2426   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2427   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2428 
  2429 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2432   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2433   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2434   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2435   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2436   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2437   box_less             ~> box_below
  2438   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2439   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2440   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2441   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2442   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2443   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2444   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2445   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2446   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2447   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2448   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2449   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2450   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2451   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2452   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2453   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2454   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2455   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2456   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2457   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2458   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2459   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2460   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2461   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2462   up_less              ~> up_below
  2463   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2464   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2465   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2466   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2467   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2468   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2469   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2470   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2471   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2472   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2473   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2474   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2475   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2476 
  2477 
  2478 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2479 
  2480 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2481 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482 
  2483 
  2484 *** ML ***
  2485 
  2486 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2487 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2488 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2489 
  2490 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2491 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2492 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2493 
  2494 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2495 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2496 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2497 
  2498 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2499 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2500 
  2501 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2502 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2503 
  2504 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2505 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2506 
  2507 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2508 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2509 
  2510 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2511 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2512 almost all situations.
  2513 
  2514 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2515 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2516 Isabelle/ML.
  2517 
  2518 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2519 meaning.
  2520 
  2521 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2522 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2523 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2524 
  2525 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2526 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2527 
  2528 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2529 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2530 
  2531 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2532 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2533 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2534 
  2535 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2536 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2537 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2538 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2539 configuration options.
  2540 
  2541 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2542 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2543 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2544 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2545 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2546 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2547 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2548 
  2549 
  2550 
  2551 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2552 ---------------------------------
  2553 
  2554 *** General ***
  2555 
  2556 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2557 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2558 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2559 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2560 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2561 their full internal name.
  2562 
  2563 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2564 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2565 Some hints on upgrading:
  2566 
  2567   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2568     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2569     which are independent of this issue.
  2570 
  2571   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2572     provides the following special forms:
  2573 
  2574       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2575       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2576       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2577 
  2578     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2579     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2580     extra variables".
  2581 
  2582     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2583     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2584     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2585     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2586     "logic".
  2587 
  2588   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2589     antiquotations:
  2590 
  2591       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2592       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2593       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2594       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2595 
  2596   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2597     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2598     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2599     antiquotations.
  2600 
  2601 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2602 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2603 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2604 diagnose syntax problems.
  2605 
  2606 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2607 
  2608 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2609 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2610 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2611 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2612 
  2613 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2614 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2615 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2616 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617 
  2618 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2619 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2620 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2621 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2622 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2625 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2626 
  2627 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2628 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2629 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2630 
  2631   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2632 
  2633 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2634 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2635 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2636 
  2637 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2638 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2642 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2643 
  2644 
  2645 *** Pure ***
  2646 
  2647 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2648 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2649 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2650 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2651 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2652 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2653 inspect proof terms.
  2654 
  2655 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2656 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2657 are added internally.  For example:
  2658 
  2659   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2660 
  2661 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2662 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2667 'class' instead.
  2668 
  2669 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2670 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2674 invariants.
  2675 
  2676 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2677 user space functionality any longer.
  2678 
  2679 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2680 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2682 
  2683 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2684 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2685 
  2686 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2687 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2688 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2689 
  2690 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2691 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2692 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2693 
  2694 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2695 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 
  2698 *** HOL ***
  2699 
  2700 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2701 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2702 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2703 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2704 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2705 
  2706 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2707 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2708 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2709 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2710 
  2711   fun
  2712     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2713   where
  2714     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2715 
  2716   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2717     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2718 
  2719   quotient_definition
  2720     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2721 
  2722 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2723 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2724 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2725 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2726 
  2727 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2728 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2729 
  2730 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2731 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2732 
  2733 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2737 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2738 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2739 
  2740 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2741 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2750 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2753 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2754 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755 
  2756   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2757   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2758   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2759   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2760   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2761   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2762   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2763   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2764   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2765   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2766   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2767   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2768   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2769   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2770   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2771   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2772   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2773   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2774   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2775   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2776   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2777   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2778   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2779   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2780   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2781   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2782   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2783   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2784   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2785   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2786 
  2787 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2788 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2789 
  2790 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2791 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2792 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2793 
  2794 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2795 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2796 
  2797 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2798 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2801 
  2802 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2803 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2806 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2811 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2812 
  2813 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2814 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2815 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2816 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2817 
  2818 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2819   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2820   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2821   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2825 lattices):
  2826 
  2827     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2828     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2829 
  2830     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2831 
  2832     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2833     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2834     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2835     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2836     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2837     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2838     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2839     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2840     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2841     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2842     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2843     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2844     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2845 
  2846     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2847     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2848     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2849     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2850     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2851     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2852     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2853     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2854     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2855     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2856     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2857     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2858     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2859     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2860     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2861     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2862     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2863     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2864 
  2865   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2866   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2867 
  2868     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2869     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2870     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2871     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2872     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2873 
  2874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Refined field classes:
  2877   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2878     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2879     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2880   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2884   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2885   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2886   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2887     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2888   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2889     equal_neg_zero.
  2890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891 
  2892 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2893 sets to lattices:
  2894 
  2895   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2896   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2897   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2898   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2899   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2900   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2901   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2902   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2903   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2904   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2905 
  2906 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2907 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2908 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2909 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2910 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2911 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2914 multiset order:
  2915 
  2916   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2917     <= and <;
  2918   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2919     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2920     multiset_order;
  2921   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2922     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2923     generation;
  2924   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2925     if needed.
  2926 
  2927 Renamed:
  2928 
  2929   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2930   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2931   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2932 
  2933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2934 
  2935 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2936 
  2937 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2938 
  2939 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2940 
  2941 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2942 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2943 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945   Constants:
  2946   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2947   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2948   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2949   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2950   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2951   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2952   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2953   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2954   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2955   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2956   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2957   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2958   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2959 
  2960   Lemmas:
  2961   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2962   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2963   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2964   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2965   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2966   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2967   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2968   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2969   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2970   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2971   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2972   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2973   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2974 
  2975 * Sledgehammer:
  2976   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2977     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2978     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2979     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2980     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2981     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2982     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2984   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2985     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2986   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2987     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2988     is still experimental.)
  2989   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2990     full-typed mode.
  2991   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2992 
  2993 * Nitpick:
  2994   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2995   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2996   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2997     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2998   - Added support for quotient types.
  2999   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3000     constructs.
  3001   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3002     "termination" proofs).
  3003   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3004   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3005   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3006   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3007     record getters.
  3008   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3009   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3010   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3011   - Added "atoms" option.
  3012   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3013     problems.
  3014   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3015     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3016     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3018     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3022   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3023   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3024   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3025   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3026   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3027   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3028   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3029   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3030   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 
  3033 *** HOLCF ***
  3034 
  3035 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3036 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3037 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3040 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3041 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3042 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3045 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3046 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3047 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3048 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3051 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3052 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3055 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3058   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3059 
  3060 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3061 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3064   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3065   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3066   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3067   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3068 
  3069 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3070 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3073   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3074   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3075 
  3076 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3077 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3081 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3086 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 
  3089 *** ML ***
  3090 
  3091 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3092 
  3093     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3094     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3095 
  3096     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3097     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3098     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3099     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3100 
  3101     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3102     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3103     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3104 
  3105 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3106 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3107 
  3108 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3109 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3110 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3111 
  3112 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3113 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3114 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3115 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3116 
  3117 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3118 the context or even global references.
  3119 
  3120 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3121 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3122 
  3123 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3124 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3125 
  3126   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3127   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3128   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3129   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3130   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3131   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3132   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3133   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3134   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3135   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3136 
  3137 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3138 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3139 
  3140 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3141 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3142 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3143 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3144 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3145 
  3146 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3147 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3148 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3149 Theory_Data version.
  3150 
  3151 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3152 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3153 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3154 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3155 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3156 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3157 explicitly in rare situations.
  3158 
  3159 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3160 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3164 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3167 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3168 quite rare).
  3169 
  3170 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3171 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3174 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3175 terms.
  3176 
  3177 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3178 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3179 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3180 
  3181 
  3182 *** System ***
  3183 
  3184 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3185 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3186 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3187 
  3188 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3189 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3190 respectively.
  3191 
  3192 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3193 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3194 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3195 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3196 
  3197   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3198 
  3199 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3200 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3201 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3202 component.
  3203 
  3204 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3205 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3206 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3207 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3208 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3209 the user for manual installation.
  3210 
  3211 
  3212 
  3213 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3214 -------------------------------------
  3215 
  3216 *** General ***
  3217 
  3218 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3219 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3220 
  3221 
  3222 *** Pure ***
  3223 
  3224 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3225 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3226 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3227 
  3228 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3229 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3230 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3231 
  3232 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3233 interpretation.
  3234 
  3235 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3236 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237 
  3238 
  3239 *** Document preparation ***
  3240 
  3241 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3242 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3243 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3244 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3245 
  3246 
  3247 *** HOL ***
  3248 
  3249 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3250 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3251 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3252 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3253 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3254 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3255 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3256 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3257 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3258 
  3259 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3260 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3261 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3262 
  3263 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3264 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3265 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3266 
  3267 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3268 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3269 
  3270 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3271 
  3272 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3273 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3274 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3275 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3276 
  3277 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3278 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3279 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3280 "mirabelle" utility.
  3281 
  3282 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3283 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3284 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3285 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3286 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3287 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3288 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3289 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3290 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3291 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3292 
  3293 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3294 procedure only.
  3295 
  3296 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3297 
  3298 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3299 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3300 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3301 that fail later.
  3302 
  3303 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3304 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3305 
  3306 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3307 the same method as the approximation method.
  3308 
  3309 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3310 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3311 series expansion.
  3312 
  3313 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3314 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3315 
  3316 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3317 reals.
  3318 
  3319 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3320 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3321 
  3322 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3323 fixpoint theorem.
  3324 
  3325 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3326   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3327     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3328   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3329     accordingly
  3330   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3331     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3332   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3333     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3334 
  3335 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3336 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3337 lattice.
  3338 
  3339 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3340 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3341 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3342 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3343 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3344 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3348   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3349     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3350   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3351     le_inf_iff
  3352   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3353     sup_aci)
  3354   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3355   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3356   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3357     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3358     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3359     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3360     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3361     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3362     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3363     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3364     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3365     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3366     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3367   - authentic syntax for
  3368     Set.Pow
  3369     Set.image
  3370   - mere abbreviations:
  3371     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3372     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3373     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3374     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3375     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3376     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3377     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3378     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3379   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3380 
  3381 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3382 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3383 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3384 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3385 
  3386 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3387 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3388 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3391 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3394 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3395 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3396 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397 
  3398 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3399 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3400 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3401 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3402 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3403 
  3404 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3405 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3409 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3412 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3413 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3414 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3415 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3416 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3417 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3421     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3422     code_post       replaces    code post
  3423     etc.
  3424   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426 * Renamed methods:
  3427     sizechange -> size_change
  3428     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3429   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3433 
  3434 * Renamed theorems:
  3435     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3436     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3437     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3438     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3439     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3440   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 
  3449 *** HOLCF ***
  3450 
  3451 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3452 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3453 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3454 
  3455 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3456 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3457 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3458 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3459 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3460 
  3461 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3462 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3463 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3464 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3465 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3466 
  3467 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3468 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3469 constructor are pre-configured.
  3470 
  3471 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3472 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3473 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3474 
  3475 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3476 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3477 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3478 as well.)
  3479 
  3480 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3481 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3482 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3483 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3484 examples.
  3485 
  3486 
  3487 *** ML ***
  3488 
  3489 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3490 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3491 
  3492 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3493 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3494 position, logical grouping etc.
  3495 
  3496 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3497 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3498 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3499 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3500 
  3501 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3502 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3503 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3504 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3505 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3506 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3507 
  3508 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3509 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3510 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3511 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3512 experiments with references.
  3513 
  3514 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3515 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3516 
  3517 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3518 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3519 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3520 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3521 
  3522 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3523 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3524 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3525 
  3526 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3527 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3528 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3536 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3537 
  3538 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3539 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3540 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3541 
  3542 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3543 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3544 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3547 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3548 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3552 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3553 instead of global theory.
  3554 
  3555 
  3556 *** System ***
  3557 
  3558 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3559 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3560 usedir option -q.
  3561 
  3562 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3563 also the system manual.
  3564 
  3565 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3566 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3567 
  3568 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3569 this is always enabled.
  3570 
  3571 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3572 
  3573 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3574 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3575 currently supported on Linux only.
  3576 
  3577 
  3578 
  3579 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3580 --------------------------------
  3581 
  3582 *** General ***
  3583 
  3584 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3585 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3586 
  3587   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3588     "isatool."
  3589 
  3590   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3591     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3592 
  3593   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3594     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3595 
  3596 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3597 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3598 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3599 
  3600 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3601 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3602 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3603 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3604 via "isabelle emacs".
  3605 
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3607 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3608 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3609 
  3610 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3611 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3612 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3613 
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3615 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3616 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3617 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3618 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3619 
  3620 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3621 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3622 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3623 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3624 
  3625 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3626 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3627 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3628 
  3629 
  3630 *** Pure ***
  3631 
  3632 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3633 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3634 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3635 
  3636 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3637 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3638 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3639 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3640 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3641 
  3642 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3643 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3644 useful in locale declarations.
  3645 
  3646 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3647 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3648 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3649 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3650 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3651 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3652 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3653 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3654 no longer generated.
  3655 
  3656 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3657 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3658 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3659 
  3660 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3661 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3662 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3663 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3664 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3665 
  3666 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3668 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3669 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3670 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3671 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3672 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3673 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3674 
  3675 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3676 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3677 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3678 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3679 
  3680 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3683 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3684 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3685 
  3686 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3687 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3690 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3691 in HOL, write
  3692 
  3693     class foo = ...
  3694 
  3695 instead of
  3696 
  3697     class foo = type + ...
  3698 
  3699 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3700 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3703 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3704 
  3705 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3706 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3707 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3708 
  3709 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3710 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3711 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3712 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3713 directly in regular applications.
  3714 
  3715 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3716 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3717 
  3718 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3719 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3720 
  3721 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3722 theory context.
  3723 
  3724 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3725 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3728 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3729 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3730 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3731 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3732 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3733 
  3734   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3735 
  3736 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3737 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3738 normalization.
  3739 
  3740 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3741 addressing etc.
  3742 
  3743 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3744 
  3745   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3746   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3747 
  3748 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3749 
  3750   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3751      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3752      parts of the code generator framework).
  3753 
  3754   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3755      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3756      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3757 
  3758 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3761 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3764 patterns, e.g.
  3765 
  3766     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3767 
  3768 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3769 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3770 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3771 hyphen:
  3772 
  3773     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3774 
  3775 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3776 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3777 
  3778 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3779 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3780 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3781 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3782 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3783 higher-order unification.
  3784 
  3785 
  3786 *** Document preparation ***
  3787 
  3788 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3789 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3790 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3791 
  3792 
  3793 *** HOL ***
  3794 
  3795 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3796 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3797 
  3798 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3799 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3800 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3801 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3802 Main, as before.
  3803 
  3804 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3805 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3806 
  3807 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3808 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3809 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3810 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3811 
  3812 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3813 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3814 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3815 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3816 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3817 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3818 
  3819 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3820 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3821 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3822 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3823 
  3824 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3825 menu.
  3826 
  3827 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3828 (contains the empty clause).
  3829 
  3830 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3831 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3832 
  3833 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3834 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3835 
  3836 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3837 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3838 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3841 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3842 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3843 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3844 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3845 
  3846 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3847 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3848 
  3849 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3850 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3851 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3852 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3853 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3854 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3855 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3856 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3857 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3858 
  3859 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3860 
  3861 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3862 
  3863 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3864 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3867 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3868 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3869 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3870 
  3871 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3872 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3873 
  3874     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3875     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3876     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3877     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3878     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3879     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3880     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3881     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3882 
  3883 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3884 theory Set.
  3885 
  3886 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3887 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3888 
  3889 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3890 
  3891 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3892 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3893 
  3894 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3895 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3896 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3897 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3898 allowed. For examples see
  3899 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3900 
  3901 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3902 
  3903 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3907 structure:
  3908 
  3909     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3910     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3911     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3912     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3913     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3914     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3915     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3916     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3917     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3918     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3919     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3920     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3921     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3922     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3923     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3924     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3925     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3926     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3927     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3928     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3929     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3930     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3931     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3932     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3933     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3934     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3935     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3936     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3937     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3938     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3939     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3940     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3941     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3942 
  3943     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3944     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3945     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3946     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3947     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3948     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3949     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3950     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3951     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3952     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3953 
  3954     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3955     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3956     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3957     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3958     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3959     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3960 
  3961 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3962 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3963 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3964 
  3965 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3966 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3967 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3968 
  3969 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3970 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3973 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3974 
  3975 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3976 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3977 proofs, e.g.
  3978 
  3979   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3980 
  3981 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3982 
  3983 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3984 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3985 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3988 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3992 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3993 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3998 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3999 preorder_class.*.
  4000 
  4001 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4002 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4003 
  4004 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4005 
  4006   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4007 
  4008 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4009 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4010 fold_image.
  4011 
  4012 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4013 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4014 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4015 the former will disappear at some point.
  4016 
  4017 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4018 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4019 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4020 
  4021 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4022 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4023 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4024 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4025 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4026 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4027 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4028 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4029 
  4030 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4031 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4032 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4033 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4034 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4035 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4036 
  4037     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4038     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4039     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4040     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4041     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4042     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4043     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4044 
  4045 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4046 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4047 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4048 
  4049 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4050 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4051 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4052 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4053 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4054 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4055 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4056 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4057 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4058 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4059 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4060 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4061 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4062 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4063 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4064 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4065 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4066 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4067 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4068 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4069 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4070 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4071 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4072 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4073 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4074 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4075 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4076 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4077 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4078 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4079 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4080 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4081 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4082 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4083 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4084 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4085 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4086 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4087 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4088 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4089 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4090 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4091 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4092 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4093 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4094 
  4095 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4098 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4099 
  4100 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4101 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4102 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4103 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4104 
  4105 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4106 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4107 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4108 theory RealVector.
  4109 
  4110 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4111 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4112 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4113 and inner products are included.
  4114 
  4115 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4116 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4117 supported.
  4118 
  4119 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4120 first diagonalization argument.
  4121 
  4122 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4123 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4124 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4125 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4126 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4127 
  4128     hide (open) const gcd
  4129     abbreviation gcd where
  4130       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4131     notation (output)
  4132       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4133 
  4134 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4135 
  4136 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4137 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4138 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4141 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4142 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4143 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4144 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4145 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4146 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4147 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4148 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4149 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4150 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4151 cases.
  4152 
  4153 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4154 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4155 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4156 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4157 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4158 
  4159     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4160     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4161     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4162     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4163     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4164 
  4165 
  4166 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4167 
  4168 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4169 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4170 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4171 
  4172 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4173 
  4174 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4175 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4176 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4177 
  4178 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4179 
  4180 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4181 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4182 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4183 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4184 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4185 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4186 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4187 
  4188 
  4189 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4190 
  4191 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4192 
  4193 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4194 theory targets.
  4195 
  4196 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4197 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4198 'inductive' etc.
  4199 
  4200 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4201 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4202 
  4203 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4204 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4205 
  4206 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4207 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4208 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4209 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4210 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4211 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4212 the algorithm W:
  4213 
  4214  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4215  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4216          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4217 
  4218 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4219 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4220 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4221 
  4222 
  4223 *** HOLCF ***
  4224 
  4225 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4226 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4227 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4228 
  4229 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4230 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4231 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4232 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4233 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4236 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4237 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4238 
  4239 
  4240 *** ZF ***
  4241 
  4242 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4243 
  4244 
  4245 *** ML ***
  4246 
  4247 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4248 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4249 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4250 5.2.1!
  4251 
  4252 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4253 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4254 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4255 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4256 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4257 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4258 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4259 
  4260 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4261 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4262 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4263 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4264 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4265 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4266 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4267 
  4268 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4269 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4270 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4271 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4272 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4273 
  4274 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4275 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4276 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4277 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4278 Method.add_method.
  4279 
  4280 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4281 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4282 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4283 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4284 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4285 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4286 
  4287 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4288 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4289 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4290 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4291 examples.
  4292 
  4293 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4294 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4295 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4296 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4297 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4298 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4299 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4300 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4301 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4302 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4303 
  4304 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4305 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4306 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4307 
  4308 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4309 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4310 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4311 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4312 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4313 resort for legacy applications.
  4314 
  4315 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4316 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4317 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4318 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4319 explicit runtime argument.
  4320 
  4321 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4322 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4323 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4324 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4325 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4328 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4329 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4330 theory state.
  4331 
  4332 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4333 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4334 
  4335   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4336   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4337   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4338   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4339   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4340   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4341   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4342   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4343   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4344   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4345 
  4346 
  4347 *** System ***
  4348 
  4349 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4350 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4351 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4352 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4353 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4354 
  4355 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4356 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4357 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4358 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4359 
  4360 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4361 
  4362 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4363 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4364 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4365 prover operations.
  4366 
  4367 
  4368 
  4369 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4370 -------------------------------
  4371 
  4372 *** General ***
  4373 
  4374 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4375 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4376 
  4377 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4378 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4379 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4380 provides a proper context already.
  4381 
  4382 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4383 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4384 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4385 
  4386 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4387 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4388 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4389 swap theory imports.
  4390 
  4391 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4392 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4393 
  4394 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4395 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4396 white space without escapes.
  4397 
  4398 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4399 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4400 "foo_bar".
  4401 
  4402 
  4403 *** Pure ***
  4404 
  4405 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4406 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4407 
  4408 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4409 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4410 
  4411 (1) unused_thms
  4412      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4413 
  4414 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4415      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4416      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4417 
  4418 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4419      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4420      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4421      their ancestors.
  4422 
  4423 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4424 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4425 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4426 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4427 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4428 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4429 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4430 
  4431 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4432 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4433 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4434 
  4435 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4436 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4437 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4438 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4439 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4440 
  4441 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4442 
  4443 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4444 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4445 update of theories within ML code.
  4446 
  4447 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4448 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4449 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4450 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4451 
  4452 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4453 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4454 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4458 
  4459 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4460 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4461 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4462 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4463 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4464 
  4465 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4466 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4467 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4468 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4469 situations.
  4470 
  4471 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4472 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4473 proof text.
  4474 
  4475 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4476 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4477 
  4478 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4479 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4480 predicates.
  4481 
  4482 
  4483 *** Document preparation ***
  4484 
  4485 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4486 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4487 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4488 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4489 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4490 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4491 
  4492 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4493 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4494 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4495 
  4496 
  4497 *** HOL ***
  4498 
  4499 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4500 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4501 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4502 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4503 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4504 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4505 
  4506 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4507 with multithreading.
  4508 
  4509 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4510 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4511 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4512 
  4513 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4514 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4515 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4516 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4519 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4520 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4521 and makes them available separately.  See
  4522 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4523 
  4524 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4525 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4526 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4527 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4528 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4529 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4530 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4531 the declared rules.
  4532 
  4533 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4534 
  4535   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4536 
  4537 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4538 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4539 
  4540 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4541 
  4542   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4543 
  4544   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4545     definitions on => and bool.
  4546 
  4547   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4548     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4549     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4550 
  4551       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4552       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4553       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4554       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4555       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4556       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4557       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4558       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4559 
  4560   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4561     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4562     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4563 
  4564   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4565     The proof pattern
  4566 
  4567       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4568       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4569 
  4570     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4571     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4572 
  4573       have "EX S. P S"
  4574       proof
  4575         show "P S" <...>
  4576       qed
  4577 
  4578   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4579     The proof pattern
  4580 
  4581       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4582       also have "S = T" <...>
  4583       finally have "P T" .
  4584 
  4585     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4586     must be replaced by something like
  4587 
  4588       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4589       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4590       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4591 
  4592   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4593     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4594 
  4595       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4596 
  4597     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4598     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4599     type of the form
  4600 
  4601       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4602 
  4603     rather than
  4604 
  4605       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4606 
  4607 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4608 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4609 
  4610 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4613 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4617 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4620 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4623 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4624 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4627 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4628 
  4629   less_trans
  4630   less_linear
  4631   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4632   le_less_trans
  4633   less_le_trans
  4634   less_not_sym
  4635   less_asym
  4636 
  4637 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4638 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4639 and different variable names.
  4640 
  4641 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4642 
  4643 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4644 finite maps.
  4645 
  4646 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4647 
  4648 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4649 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4650 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4651 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4652 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4653 accordingly.
  4654 
  4655 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4656 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4657 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4658 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4659 
  4660 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4661 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4662 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4663 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4664 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4668 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4671 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4672 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4673 
  4674 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4678 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4679 
  4680 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4681 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4684 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4687 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4691 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4694 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4695 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4696 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4697 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4698 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4701 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4703 
  4704 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4705 
  4706 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4707 
  4708 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4709 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4710 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4711 
  4712 
  4713 *** ZF ***
  4714 
  4715 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4716 same session:
  4717 
  4718   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4719   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4720   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4721   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4722   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4723   List      -> List_ZF
  4724   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4725 
  4726 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4727 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4728 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4729 
  4730 
  4731 *** ML ***
  4732 
  4733 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4734 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4735 
  4736 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4737 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4738 
  4739 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4740 
  4741 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4742 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4743 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4744 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4745 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4748 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4749 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** System ***
  4753 
  4754 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4755 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4756 
  4757 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4758 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4759 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4760 
  4761 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4762 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4763 
  4764 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4765 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4766 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4767 
  4768 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4769 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4770 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4771 
  4772 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4773 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4774 
  4775 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4776 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4777 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4778 script.
  4779 
  4780 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4781 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4782 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4783 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4784 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4785 
  4786 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4787 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4788 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4789 
  4790 
  4791 
  4792 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4793 -----------------------------------
  4794 
  4795 *** General ***
  4796 
  4797 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4798 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4799 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4800 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4801 
  4802 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4803 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4804 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4807 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4808 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4809 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4812 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4813 quotes.
  4814 
  4815 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4816 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4817 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4818 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4819 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4820 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4821 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4822 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4823 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4824 
  4825 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4826 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4827 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4828 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4829 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4830 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4831 
  4832 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4833 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4834 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4835 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4836 
  4837 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4838 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4839 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4840 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4841 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4842 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4843 
  4844 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4845 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4846 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4847 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4848 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4849 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4850 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4851 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4852 
  4853 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4854 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4855 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4856 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4857 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4858 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4859 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4860 
  4861 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4862 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4863 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4864 
  4865 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4866 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4867 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4868 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4869 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4870 limit is imposed.
  4871 
  4872 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4873 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4874 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4875 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4876 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4877 and scalability.
  4878 
  4879 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4880 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4881 
  4882 
  4883 *** Document preparation ***
  4884 
  4885 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4886 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4887 current context.
  4888 
  4889 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4890 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4891 
  4892 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4893 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4894 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4895 
  4896 
  4897 *** Pure ***
  4898 
  4899 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4900 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4901 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4902 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4903 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4904 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4905 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4906 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4907 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4908 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4909 
  4910 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4911 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4912 sketch:
  4913 
  4914     internal compilation:
  4915         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4916     writing SML code to a file:
  4917         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4918     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4919         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4920     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4921         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4922 
  4923     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4924         method ``eval''
  4925 
  4926 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4927 
  4928 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4929 
  4930     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4931     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4932     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4933     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4934 
  4935 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4936 
  4937     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4938       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4939 
  4940     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4941       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4942 
  4943     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4944       {(target)}+
  4945         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4946 
  4947     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4948       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4949         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4950 
  4951 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4952 
  4953 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4954 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4955 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4956 codegen".
  4957 
  4958 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4959 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4960 annotations).
  4961 
  4962 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4963 syntax.
  4964 
  4965 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4966 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4967 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4968 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4969 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4970 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4971 
  4972 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4973 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4974 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4975 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4976 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4977 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4978 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4979 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4980 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4981 equations, see section "definitions".
  4982 
  4983 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4984 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4985 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4986 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4987 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4988 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4989 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4990 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4991 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4992 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4993 
  4994 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4995 configuration options:
  4996 
  4997   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4998   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4999   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5000   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5001   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5002   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5003   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5004   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5005   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5006 
  5007 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5008 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5009 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5010 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5011 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5012 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5013 order.
  5014 
  5015 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5016 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5017 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5018 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5019 context encountered later on.
  5020 
  5021 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5022 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5023 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5024 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5025 
  5026 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5027 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5028 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5029 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5030 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5031 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5032 
  5033 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5034 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5035 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5036 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5037 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5038 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5039 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5040 more permissive.
  5041 
  5042 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5043 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5044 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5045 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5046 maintainability of proof texts.
  5047 
  5048 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5049 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5050 
  5051   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5052   then guess x and y by clarify
  5053 
  5054 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5055 proof tools being involved here.
  5056 
  5057 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5058 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5059 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5060 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5061 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5062 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5063 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5064 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5065 
  5066 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5067 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5068 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5069 
  5070   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5071   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5072   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5073   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5074 
  5075 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5076 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5077 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5078 
  5079 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5080 both named and unnamed ones.
  5081 
  5082 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5083 
  5084   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5085 
  5086 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5087 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5088 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5089 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5090 
  5091 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5092 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5093 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5094 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5095 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5096 
  5097 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5098 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5099 
  5100 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5101 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5102 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5103 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5104 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5105 originally first one.
  5106 
  5107 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5108 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5109 expected.
  5110 
  5111 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5112 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5113 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5114 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5115 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5116 
  5117   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5118     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5119     obtains x where "P x"
  5120 
  5121   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5122     assumes "A & B"
  5123     obtains A and B
  5124 
  5125   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5126     assumes "A | B"
  5127     obtains
  5128       A
  5129     | B
  5130 
  5131 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5132 explicitly:
  5133 
  5134   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5135     obtains "~ thesis"
  5136 
  5137   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5138     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5139 
  5140 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5141 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5142 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5143 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5144 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5145 case_names).
  5146 
  5147 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5148 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5149 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5150 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5151 
  5152 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5153 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5154 top-level lemma.
  5155 
  5156 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5157 introduction rule (default "that").
  5158 
  5159 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5160 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5161 to occur.
  5162 
  5163 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5164 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5165 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5166 representations independently of name spaces.
  5167 
  5168 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5169 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5170 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5173 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5174 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5175 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5176 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5177 current context.
  5178 
  5179 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5180 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5181 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5182 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5183 
  5184   axiomatization
  5185     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5186     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5187 
  5188   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5189   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5190 
  5191   abbreviation
  5192     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5193     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5194 
  5195 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5196 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5197 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5198 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5199 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5200 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5201 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5202 
  5203 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5204 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5205 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5206 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5207 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5208 
  5209 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5210 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5211 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5212 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5213 
  5214 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5215 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5216 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5217 
  5218   definition "K x _ = x"
  5219 
  5220   inductive conj for A B
  5221   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5222 
  5223 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5224 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5225 abbreviations on output.
  5226 
  5227 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5228 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5229 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5230 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5231 
  5232 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5233 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5234 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5235 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5236 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5237 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5238 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5239 
  5240 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5241 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5242 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5243 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5244 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5245 
  5246 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5247 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5248 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5249 
  5250 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5251 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5252 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5253 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5254 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5255 
  5256   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5257     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5258 
  5259 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5260 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5261 partial_order.
  5262 
  5263 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5264 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5265 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5266 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5267 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5268 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5269 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5270 examples.
  5271 
  5272 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5273 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5274 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5275 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5276 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5277 
  5278 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5279 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5280 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5281 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5282 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5283 
  5284   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5285   (induct set: foo bar)
  5286   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5287   (induct type: foo bar)
  5288 
  5289 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5290 new format.
  5291 
  5292 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5293 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5294 
  5295 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5296 considered a legacy feature.
  5297 
  5298 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5299 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5300 
  5301 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5302 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5303 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5304 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5305   
  5306 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5307 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5308 manipulating the claset.
  5309 
  5310 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5311 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5312 least one premise.
  5313 
  5314 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5315 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5316 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5317 rule steps.
  5318 
  5319 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5320 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5321 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5322 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5323 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5324 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5325 
  5326 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5327 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5328 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5329 
  5330 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5331 the graph browser tool.
  5332 
  5333 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5334 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5335 
  5336 
  5337 *** HOL ***
  5338 
  5339 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5340 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5341 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5342 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5343 multi-threading.
  5344   
  5345 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5346 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5347 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5348 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5349 work with multi-threading.
  5350 
  5351 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5352 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5353 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5354 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5355 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5356 
  5357 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5358 
  5359 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5360 equality.
  5361 
  5362 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5363 the new 'class' package:
  5364 
  5365     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5366     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5367     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5368     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5369     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5370     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5371     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5372     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5373     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5374     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5375     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5376     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5377     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5378     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5379     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5380     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5381     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5382     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5383     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5384     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5385 
  5386 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5387 
  5388 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5389 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5390 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5391 names.
  5392 
  5393 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5394 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5395 
  5396 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5397 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5398 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5399 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5400 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5401 
  5402 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5403 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5404 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5405 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5406 
  5407 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5408 
  5409 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5410 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5411 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5412 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5414 
  5415 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5416 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5417 
  5418 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5419 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5420 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5421 
  5422 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5423 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5424 
  5425 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5426 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5427 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5428 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5429 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5430 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5431 in the current context.
  5432 
  5433 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5434 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5436 
  5437 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5438 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5439 
  5440 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5441 
  5442     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5443     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5444 
  5445     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5446       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5447     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5448     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5449 
  5450     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5451     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5452 
  5453   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5454 
  5455     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5456     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5457     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5458     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5459     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5460     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5461     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5462     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5463     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5464     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5465     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5466     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5467     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5468     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5469     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5470     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5471     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5472     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5473     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5474     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5475     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5476     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5477     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5478     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5479     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5480     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5481     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5482     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5483     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5484     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5485     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5486     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5487     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5488     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5489     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5490 
  5491     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5492     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5493     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5494     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5495     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5496     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5497     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5498     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5499     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5500     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5501     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5502     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5503     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5504     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5505     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5506     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5507     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5508 
  5509     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5510     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5511     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5512     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5513     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5514     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5515     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5516     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5517     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5518     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5519     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5520     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5521     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5522     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5523     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5524     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5525     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5526     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5527     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5528     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5529     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5530     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5531     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5532     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5533     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5534     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5535     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5536     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5537 
  5538     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5539     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5540     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5541     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5542     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5543     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5544 
  5545     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5546     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5547     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5548     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5549 
  5550     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5551     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5552 
  5553     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5554     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5555 
  5556 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5557 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5558 
  5559 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5560 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5561 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5562 "*.size".
  5563 
  5564 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5566 
  5567 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5568 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5569 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5572 
  5573 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5574 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5575 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5576 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5577 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5578 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5579 numerals on all operations.
  5580 
  5581 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5582 
  5583 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5584 
  5585 * Code generator library theories:
  5586   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5587     languages.
  5588   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5589     languages.
  5590   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5591     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5592   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5593   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5594     denominator).
  5595   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5596     representable by rational numbers.
  5597   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5598     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5599     includes Code_Integer.
  5600   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5601     target-language built-in integers.
  5602   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5603     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5604 
  5605 * New package for inductive predicates
  5606 
  5607   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5608 
  5609     inductive
  5610       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5611       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5612     where
  5613       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5614     | ...
  5615 
  5616   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5617 
  5618     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5619 
  5620     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5621     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5622 
  5623     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5624     intros
  5625       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5626       ...
  5627 
  5628   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5629   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5630 
  5631     inductive_set
  5632       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5633       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5634     where
  5635       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5636     | ...
  5637 
  5638   or
  5639 
  5640     inductive_set
  5641       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5642       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5643       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5644     where
  5645       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5646     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5647     | ...
  5648 
  5649   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5650 
  5651   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5652   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5653 
  5654   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5655 
  5656   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5657     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5658     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5659     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5660     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5661 
  5662   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5663     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5664     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5665     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5666     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5667     statements of the form
  5668 
  5669       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5670 
  5671     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5672     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5673 
  5674       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5675 
  5676   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5677 
  5678       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5679         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5680         ==> ... ==> P
  5681 
  5682     for predicates and
  5683 
  5684       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5685         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5686         ==> ... ==> P
  5687 
  5688     for sets rather than
  5689 
  5690       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5691         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5692         ==> ... ==> P
  5693 
  5694     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5695     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5696     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5697 
  5698   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5699     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5700     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5701 
  5702 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5703 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5704 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5705 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5706 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5707 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5708 
  5709 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5710 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5711 
  5712 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5713 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5714 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5715 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5716 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5717 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5718 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5719 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5720 variable.
  5721 
  5722 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5723 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5724 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5725 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5726   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5727   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5728 
  5729 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5730 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5731 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5732 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5733 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5734 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5735 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5736 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5737 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5738 
  5739 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5740 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5741 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5742 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5743 rat, etc.
  5744 
  5745 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5746 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5747 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5748 
  5749 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5750 
  5751 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5752 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5753 
  5754 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5755 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5756 
  5757 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5758 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5759 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5760 
  5761 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5762 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5764 
  5765 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5766 
  5767 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5768 
  5769 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5770 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5771 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5772 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5773 
  5774 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5775 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5776 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5777 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5778 
  5779 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5780 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5781 algebraic operations.
  5782 
  5783 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5785 
  5786 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5788 
  5789 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5790 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5791 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5792 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5793 adapted.
  5794  
  5795 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5796 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5797 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5798 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5799 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5800 
  5801 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5802 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5803 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5804 
  5805 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5806 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5807 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5808 
  5809 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5812 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5813 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5814   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5815       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5816   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5817   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5818   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5819 
  5820 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5821 
  5822 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5823 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5824 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5825 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5826 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5827 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5828 
  5829 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5830 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5831 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5832 
  5833 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5834 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5835 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5837 
  5838 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5839 
  5840 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5841 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5842 
  5843 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5844 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5845 
  5846 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5847 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5848 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5849 
  5850 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5851 True/False.
  5852 
  5853 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5854 
  5855 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5856 
  5857 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5858 ``rule'' method.
  5859 
  5860 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5861 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5862 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5863 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5864 
  5865 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5866 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5867 
  5868 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5869 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5870 
  5871 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5872 Library.
  5873 
  5874 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5875 
  5876 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5877 as greatest fixed-point.
  5878 
  5879 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5880 association lists.
  5881 
  5882 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5883 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5884 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5885 
  5886 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5887 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5888 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5890 behavior.
  5891 
  5892 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5893 
  5894 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5895 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5896 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5897 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5898 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5899 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5900 
  5901 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5902 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5903 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5904 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5905 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5906 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5907 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5908 
  5909 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5910 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5911 
  5912 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5913 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5914 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5915 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5916 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5917 
  5918 
  5919 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5920 
  5921 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5922 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5923 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5924 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5928 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5929 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5930 
  5931 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5932 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5933 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5934 
  5935 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5936 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5937 
  5938 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5939 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5940 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5944   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5945   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5946   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5947   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5948   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5949   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5950   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5951   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5952   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5953   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5954   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5955   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5956   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5957   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5958 
  5959 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5960 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5961 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5962 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5963 
  5964   approx        <-- capprox
  5965   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5966   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5967   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5968   monad         <-- cmonad
  5969   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5970   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5971   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5972   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5973 
  5974 
  5975 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5976 
  5977 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5978 
  5979 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5981 
  5982 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5983 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5984 
  5985 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5986 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5987 of algebraic structures.
  5988 
  5989 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5990 
  5991 
  5992 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5993 
  5994 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5995 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5996 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5997 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5998 
  5999 
  6000 *** ML ***
  6001 
  6002 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6003 (even on SML/NJ).
  6004 
  6005 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6006 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6007 compile-time.  For example:
  6008 
  6009 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6010 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6011 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6012 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6013 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6014 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6015 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6016 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6017 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6018 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6019 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6020 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6021 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6022 ML {* @{context} *}
  6023 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6024 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6025 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6026 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6027 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6028 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6029 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6030 
  6031 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6032 
  6033 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6034 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6035 
  6036 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6037 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6038 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6039 
  6040 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6041 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6042 
  6043 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6044 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6045 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6046 
  6047 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6048 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6049 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6050 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6051 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6052 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6053 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6054 declarations and definitions.
  6055 
  6056 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6057 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6058 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6059 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6060 
  6061 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6062 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6063 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6064 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6065 
  6066 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6067 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6068 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6069 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6070 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6071 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6072 
  6073 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6074 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6075 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6076 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6077 attributes, methods, etc.
  6078 
  6079 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6080 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6081 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6082 fold_map combinators.
  6083 
  6084 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6085 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6086 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6087 derivation.
  6088 
  6089 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6090 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6091 achieve the old behaviour.
  6092 
  6093 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6094 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6095 statements.
  6096 
  6097 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6098 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6099 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6100 
  6101 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6102 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6103 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6104 
  6105   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6106   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6107   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6108 
  6109 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6110 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6111 
  6112 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6113 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6114 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6115 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6116 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6117 
  6118 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6119 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6120 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6121 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6122 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6123 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6124 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6125 in a locale context).
  6126 
  6127 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6128 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6129 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6130 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6131 
  6132 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6133 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6134 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6135 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6136 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6137 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6138 
  6139 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6140 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6141 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6142 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6143 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6144 
  6145   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6146 
  6147 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6148 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6149 this:
  6150 
  6151   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6152 
  6153 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6154 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6155 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6156 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6157 
  6158 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6159 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6160 
  6161 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6162 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6163 
  6164 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6165 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6166 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6167 batch mode.
  6168 
  6169 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6170 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6171 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6172 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6173 
  6174 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6175 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6176 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6177 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6178 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6179 
  6180 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6181 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6182 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6183 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6185 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6186 
  6187 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6188 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6189 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6191 
  6192 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6193 "Trueprop" etc.
  6194 
  6195 
  6196 *** System ***
  6197 
  6198 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6199 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6200 Isabelle installations.
  6201 
  6202 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6203 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6204 code.
  6205 
  6206 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6207 
  6208 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6209 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6210 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6211 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6212 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6213 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6214 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6215 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6216 Implementation manual.
  6217 
  6218 
  6219 
  6220 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6221 ----------------------------------
  6222 
  6223 *** General ***
  6224 
  6225 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6226 
  6227   theory <name>
  6228   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6229   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6230   begin
  6231 
  6232 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6233 
  6234   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6235 
  6236 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6237 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6238 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6239 
  6240 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6241 relative and absolute paths.