NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Apr 15 21:20:37 2015 +0200 (2015-04-15)
changeset 60085 ef5ead433951
parent 60072 dda1e781c7b4
child 60089 8bd5999133d4
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
     8 ------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    13 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    14 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    15 
    16   context
    17   begin
    18 
    19   private definition ...
    20   private lemma ...
    21 
    22   qualified definition ...
    23   qualified lemma ...
    24 
    25   lemma ...
    26   theorem ...
    27 
    28   end
    29 
    30 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    31 naming policy.
    32 
    33 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    34 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    35 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    36 
    37 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    38 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    39 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    40 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    41 
    42 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    43 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    44 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    48 theory context.
    49 
    50 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    51 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    52 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    53 
    54 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    55 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    61 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    62 
    63 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    64 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    65 in the buffer.
    66 
    67 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    68 marker, SideKick parser.
    69 
    70 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    71 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    72 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    73 
    74 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    75 Options / Text Area).
    76 
    77 * Improved graphview panel (with optional output of PNG or PDF)
    78 supersedes the old graph browser from 1996, but the latter remains
    79 available for some time as a fall-back. The old browser is still
    80 required for the massive graphs produced by 'thm_deps', for example.
    81 
    82 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
    83 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
    84 
    85 
    86 *** Document preparation ***
    87 
    88 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
    89 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
    90 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
    91 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
    92 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
    93 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
    94 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
    95 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
    98 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
    99 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   100 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   101 
   102 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   103 style.
   104 
   105 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   106 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   107 
   108 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   109 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   110 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   111 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   112 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   113 
   114 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   115 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   116 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   117 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   118 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   119 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   120 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 
   123 *** Pure ***
   124 
   125 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   126 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   127 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   128 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   129 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   130 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   131 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   132 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   133 
   134 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   135 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   136 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   137 
   138 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   139 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   140 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   141 different index.
   142 
   143 * Command "class_deps" takes optional sort arguments to constrain then
   144 resulting class hierarchy.
   145 
   146 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   147 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   148 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   149 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   150 
   151 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   152 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   153 token category instead.
   154 
   155 
   156 *** HOL ***
   157 
   158 * New (co)datatype package:
   159   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   160     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   161     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   162     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   163     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164   - Renamed theorems:
   165       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   166       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   167       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   168       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   169       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   170       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   171       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   172       sel_map ~> map_sel
   173       sel_set ~> set_sel
   174       sel_split ~> split_sel
   175       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   176       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   177       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   178     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   179   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   180     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   181     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   183     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   184     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   186     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   187     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   188     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   189     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   190     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   191     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192   - Renamed theories:
   193       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   194       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   195       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   196       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   197       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   198       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   199     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Old datatype package:
   202   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   203     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   204     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   205     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   206     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207   - Renamed theorems:
   208       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   209     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210   - Renamed theory:
   211       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   212     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Nitpick:
   215   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   216     operations.
   217 
   218 * Sledgehammer:
   219   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   220     default.
   221   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   222     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   223   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   224     Removed sub-command:
   225       min
   226   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   227     dramatically improved.
   228   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   229 
   230 * Old and new SMT modules:
   231   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   232     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   233     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   234     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   235     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   236     point to it.
   237     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   239     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   241     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   242   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   243     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   244 
   245 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   246 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   247 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   250 
   251 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   252 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   253 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   254 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   257 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   263 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   264 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   267 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   270 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   271 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   272 
   273 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   274 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   275 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   276 needed.
   277 
   278 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   279 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   280 
   281 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   282 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   283 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   284 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   285 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   286 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   287 
   288 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   289 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   290 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   291 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   292 
   293 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   294 type class hierarchy:
   295   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   296   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   297   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   298   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   299 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   302   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   303   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   304 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   307 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   308 
   309 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   310   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   311   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   312   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   313 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   316 and part of theory Main.
   317   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   324 Fact rename:
   325     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   329 
   330 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   331 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   332 
   333 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   334 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   335 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   336 
   337 * Library/Multiset:
   338   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   339   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   340     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   341   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   342       <# ~> #<#
   343       <=# ~> #<=#
   344       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   345       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   346     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   348       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   349       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   350     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351   - Renamed
   352       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   353       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   354       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   357   - Added attributes:
   358       image_mset.id [simp]
   359       image_mset_id [simp]
   360       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   361       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   362       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   363       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   364       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   365       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   366     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   369 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   370 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   371 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   372 
   373 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   374 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   375 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   376 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   377 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   378 examples.
   379 
   380 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   381   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   382   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   383   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   384     projection
   385 
   386 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   387 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   388 
   389 
   390 *** ML ***
   391 
   392 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   393 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   394 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   395 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   396 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   397 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   399 
   400 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   401 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   402 
   403 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   405 
   406 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   407 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   408 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   409 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   410 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   411 nested.
   412 
   413 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   414 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 
   416 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   417 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   418 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   422 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   423 Thm.term_of etc.
   424 
   425 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   426 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   427 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   430 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   431 
   432 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   433 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   434 
   435 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   436 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   437 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   440 Input.source (with formal position information).
   441 
   442 
   443 *** System ***
   444 
   445 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   446 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   447 
   448 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -k and -x.
   449 
   450 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   451 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   452 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   453 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   457 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   458 
   459 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   460 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   461 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   462 
   463 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted.  Minor
   464 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_semicolons" to remove obsolete
   465 semicolons from theory sources.
   466 
   467 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   468 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   469 
   470 
   471 
   472 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   473 ---------------------------------
   474 
   475 *** General ***
   476 
   477 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   478 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   479 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   480 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   481 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   482 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   483 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   484 some examples.
   485 
   486 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   487 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   488 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   489 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   490 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   491 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   492 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   493 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   494 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   495 
   496 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   497 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   498 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   499 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   500 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   501 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   502 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   503 proof tools.
   504 
   505 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   506 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   507 supports input via ` (backquote).
   508 
   509 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   510 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   511 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   512 
   513 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   514 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   515 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   516 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517 
   518 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   519 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   520 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   522 
   523 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   524 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   525 
   526 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   527 not check existence within the file-system.
   528 
   529 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   530 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   531 
   532 
   533 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   534 
   535 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   536 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   537 buffer.
   538 
   539 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   540 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   541 
   542 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   543 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   544 
   545 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   546 auxiliary ML files.
   547 
   548 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   549 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   550 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   551 
   552 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   553 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   554 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   555 
   556 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   557 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   558 
   559 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   560 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   561 caret".
   562 
   563 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   564 completion popup and context-menu.
   565 
   566 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   567 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   568 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   569 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   570 
   571 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   572 to highlight text via regular expression.
   573 
   574 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   575 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   576 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   577 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   578 
   579 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   580 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   581 
   582 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   583 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   584 
   585 * Improved monitor panel.
   586 
   587 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   588 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   589 
   590 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   591 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   592 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   593 
   594 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   595 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   596 within the context.
   597 
   598 
   599 *** Pure ***
   600 
   601 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   602 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   603 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   604 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   605 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   606 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   607 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   608 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   609 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   610 
   611 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   612 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   613 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   614 renaming needs to be applied:
   615 
   616   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   617   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   618   all            ~>  Pure.all
   619   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   620   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   621 
   622 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   623 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   624 old constants:
   625 
   626 setup {*
   627   fn thy => thy
   628     |> Sign.root_path
   629     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   630     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   631     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   632     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   633 *}
   634 
   635 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   636 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   637 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   638 
   639 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   640 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   641 instantiated theorem.
   642 
   643 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   644 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   645 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   646 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   647 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   648 
   649   attribute_setup standard =
   650     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   651 
   652 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   653 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   654 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   655 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   656 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   657 
   658 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   659 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   660 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   661 
   662 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   663 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   664 
   665 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   666 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   667 
   668 
   669 *** HOL ***
   670 
   671 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   672 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   681 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   682 
   683 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   687 with the given constants.
   688 
   689 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   690 operations on records.
   691 
   692 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   693 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   696 
   697 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   698 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   699 
   700 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   703 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   704 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   705 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   706 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   709 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   712   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   713   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   714   part of theory "Main".
   715 
   716   Theory renamings:
   717     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   718     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   719     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   720     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   721     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   722     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   723     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   724     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   725     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   726     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   727     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   728     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   729     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   730     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   731     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   732     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   733     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   734     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   735     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   736     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   737     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   738     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   739 
   740   New theories:
   741     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   742     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   743     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   744     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   745     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   746 
   747   Discontinued theories:
   748     BNF/BNF.thy
   749     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   750 
   751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * New (co)datatype package:
   754   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   755   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   756     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   757   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   758     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   759   - Renamed commands:
   760       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   761       primrec_new ~> primrec
   762       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   763     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   765     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   766     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   768     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   769     using "prim(co)rec".
   770     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   772     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   773     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   775     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   776     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   777     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 
   779 * Old datatype package:
   780   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   781     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   782     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   784     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   785     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   788   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   789   BNF-based datatype package.
   790 
   791   Renamed constants:
   792     Option.set ~> set_option
   793     Option.map ~> map_option
   794     option_rel ~> rel_option
   795 
   796   Renamed theorems:
   797     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   798     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   799     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   800     option.recs ~> option.rec
   801     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   802     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   803     map.simps ~> list.map
   804     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   805     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   806     the.simps ~> option.sel
   807 
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   811     sum_map ~> map_sum
   812     map_pair ~> map_prod
   813     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   814     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   815     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   816     set_rel ~> rel_set
   817     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   818     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   819     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   820     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   821 
   822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824 * Lifting and Transfer:
   825   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   826   - stronger reflexivity prover
   827   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   828   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   829     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   830     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   831       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   832       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   833       automatically
   834     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   835     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   836       automatically for datatypes
   837   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   838     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   839       more
   840       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   841     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   842       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   843       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   845       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   846       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   847   - registration of code equations is more robust
   848     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   850     form
   851     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   853     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   855     Code_Numeral.natural
   856     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   858     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859 
   860 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   861 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   862 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   863 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   864 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   865 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   866 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   869 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   870 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   871 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   872 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   873 
   874 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   875 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   876 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   877 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   878 
   879 * Sledgehammer:
   880   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   881   - MaSh overhaul:
   882     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   883       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   884     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   885       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   886       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   887       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   888   - New option:
   889       smt_proofs
   890   - Renamed options:
   891       isar_compress ~> compress
   892       isar_try0 ~> try0
   893 
   894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   897 
   898 * Nitpick:
   899   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   900     take infinite values.
   901   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   902     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   903   - Removed "std" option.
   904   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   905     "hide_types".
   906 
   907 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   908 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   911 
   912 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   913   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   914   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   915     SUP instead uniformly.
   916   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   917     or SUP and Sup.
   918   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   919   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   920   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   921     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   922     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   923 
   924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   925 
   926 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   927 
   928 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   929 
   930   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   931   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   932   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   933   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   934 
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   938 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   939 
   940 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   941 
   942     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   943     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   944     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   945     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   946     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   947     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   948     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   949     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   950     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   951     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   952     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   953     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   954     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   955     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   956     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   957     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   958     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   959     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   960     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   961     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   962     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   963     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   964     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   965     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   966     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   967     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   968     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   969     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   970     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   971     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   972     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   973     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   974     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   975     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   976     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   977     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   978     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   979     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   980     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   981     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   982     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   983     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   984     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   985     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   986     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   987     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   988     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   989     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   990     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   991     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   992     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   993     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   994     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   995     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   996     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   997     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   998     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   999     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1000     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1001 
  1002   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1003   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1004   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1005     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1006 
  1007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1010 
  1011   Fact consolidations:
  1012     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1013     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1014     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1015     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1016     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1017     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1018     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1019     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1020     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1021     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1022     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1023     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1024     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1025     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1026     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1027     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1028     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1029     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1030     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1031     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1032     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1033     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1034     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1035     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1036     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1037     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1038     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1039     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1040     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1041     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1042     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1043     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1044     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1045     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1046     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1047     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1048     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1049     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1050     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1051     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1052 
  1053 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1054 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1055 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1056 
  1057 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1058 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1059 
  1060 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1061 
  1062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1065 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1071     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1072 
  1073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1076   consolidation:
  1077     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1078     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1079 
  1080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1083   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1084   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1085   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1086     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1087   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1088     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1089   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1090 
  1091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1094 
  1095     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1096     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1097     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1098     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1099     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1100     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1101     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1102     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1103     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1104     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1105     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1106     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1107     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1108 
  1109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1112 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1113 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1114 
  1115 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1116     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1117     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1118     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1119     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1120 
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Fact name consolidation:
  1124     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1125     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1126     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1127     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1128     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1129 
  1130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1133 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1134 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1135 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1136 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1137 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1138 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1142 
  1143 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1144 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1145 
  1146 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1147 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1148 
  1149 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1150 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1151 or the brute way with
  1152 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1153 
  1154 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1155 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1156 stating boundedness of sets.
  1157 
  1158 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1159 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1160 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161 
  1162 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1163   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1164   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1165   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1166   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1167   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1168   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1169   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1170   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1171   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1172   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1173   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1174 
  1175   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1176 
  1177   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1178 
  1179     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1180     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1181     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1182     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1183     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1184 
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1188   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1189 
  1190   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1191 
  1192   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1193 
  1194   - removed constant isDiff
  1195 
  1196   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1197     input syntax.
  1198 
  1199   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1200 
  1201   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1202 
  1203   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1204 
  1205   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1206 
  1207   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1208     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1209     has_vector_derivative.
  1210 
  1211   - Other renamings:
  1212     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1213     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1214     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1215     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1216     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1217     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1218     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1219 
  1220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1221 
  1222 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1223 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1224 in continuous_intros.
  1225 
  1226 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1227 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1228 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1229 
  1230 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1231 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1232 especially removes
  1233 
  1234     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1235 
  1236 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1237     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1238 
  1239 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1240 
  1241   Renamings:
  1242     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1243     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1244     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1245     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1246     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1247     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1248     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1249     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1250     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1251     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1252     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1253     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1254 
  1255     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1256     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1257     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1258 
  1259   Removed theorems:
  1260     complex_zero_def
  1261     complex_add_def
  1262     complex_minus_def
  1263     complex_diff_def
  1264     complex_one_def
  1265     complex_mult_def
  1266     complex_inverse_def
  1267     complex_scaleR_def
  1268 
  1269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1270 
  1271 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1272 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1275 
  1276 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1277 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1278 
  1279 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1280 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1281 
  1282 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1283 
  1284 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1286 
  1287 * HOL-Word:
  1288   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1289     of "word_arith_wis".
  1290   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1291     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1292     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1293 
  1294 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1295   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1296   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1297   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1298     (except the AFP)
  1299 
  1300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1303   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1304   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1305     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1306   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1307     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1308     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1309     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1310     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1311     intervals.
  1312   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1313     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1314     - renamed theorems:
  1315         interval ~> box
  1316         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1317         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1318         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1319         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1320         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1321         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1322         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1323         open_interval ~> open_box
  1324         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1325         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1326         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1327         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1328         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1329         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1330         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1331         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1332         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1333         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1334         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1335         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1336         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1337         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1338         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1339         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1340         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1341         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1342         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1343         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1344         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1345         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1346         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1347         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1348 
  1349     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1350         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1351         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1352         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1353         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1354         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1355         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1356         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1357         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1358         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1359         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1360         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1361         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1362         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1363         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1364         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1365         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1366         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1367 
  1368   - renamed theorems:
  1369     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1370     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1371     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1372 
  1373 * HOL-Probability:
  1374   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1375 
  1376     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1377       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1378 
  1379     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1380 
  1381   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1382     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1383 
  1384     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1385     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1386     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1387     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1388     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1389     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1390     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1391     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1392     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1393     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1394     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1395     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1396     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1397     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1398     integral_indicator          ~>
  1399          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1400     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1401     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1402     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1403 
  1404     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1405          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1406 
  1407     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1408          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1409 
  1410     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1411          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1412 
  1413     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1414          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1415          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1416 
  1417     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1418          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1419 
  1420     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1421          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1422 
  1423     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1424          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1425          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1426 
  1427     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1428          nn_integral_real_affine
  1429 
  1430     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1431          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1432 
  1433     The following theorems where removed:
  1434 
  1435     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1436     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1437     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1438     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1439     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1440     integral_cmul_indicator
  1441     integral_real
  1442 
  1443   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1444     distributed random variables.
  1445 
  1446 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1447 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 
  1451 *** Scala ***
  1452 
  1453 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1454 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1455 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1456 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1457 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1460 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 
  1463 *** ML ***
  1464 
  1465 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1466 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1467 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1468 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1469 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1470 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1471 
  1472 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1473 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1474 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1475 actually belongs to it).
  1476 
  1477 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1478 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1479 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1480 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1481 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1482 of schematic variables.
  1483 
  1484 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1485 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1488 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1489 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1495 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1496 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498 
  1499 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1500 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1502 formal context.
  1503 
  1504 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1505 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1508 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1509 
  1510 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1511 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1512 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1513 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1514 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1515 
  1516 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1517 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1518 purposes.
  1519 
  1520 
  1521 *** System ***
  1522 
  1523 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1524 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1525 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1526 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1527 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1528 
  1529 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1530 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1531 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1532 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1533 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1534 settings variable.
  1535 
  1536 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1537 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1538 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1539 
  1540 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1541 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1542 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1543 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1544 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1545 
  1546 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1547 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1548 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1549 
  1550 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1551 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1552 
  1553 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1554 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1555 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1556 
  1557 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1558 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1559 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1560 processing is started.
  1561 
  1562 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1563 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1564 
  1565 
  1566 
  1567 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1568 -------------------------------------
  1569 
  1570 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1571 
  1572 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1573 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1574 
  1575 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1576 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1577 
  1578 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1579 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1580 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1581 
  1582 
  1583 *** System ***
  1584 
  1585 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1586 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1587 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1588 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1589 
  1590 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1591 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1592 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1593 
  1594 
  1595 
  1596 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1597 -------------------------------------
  1598 
  1599 *** General ***
  1600 
  1601 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1602 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1603 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1606 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1609 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1610 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1611 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1612 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1613 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1614 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1615 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1616 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1617 syntax.
  1618 
  1619 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1620 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621 
  1622 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1623 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1624 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1625 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1626 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1627 
  1628 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1632 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1633 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1634 
  1635 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1636 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1637 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1638 
  1639 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1640 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1641 
  1642 
  1643 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1644 
  1645 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1646 Documentation panel.
  1647 
  1648 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1649 documentation.
  1650 
  1651 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1652 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1653 
  1654 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1655 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1656 normal editing and checking process.
  1657 
  1658 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1659 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1660 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1661 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1662 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1663 
  1664 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1665 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1666 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1667 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1668 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1669 
  1670 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1671 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1672 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1673 
  1674 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1675 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1676 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1677 to resolve conflict.
  1678 
  1679 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1680 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1681 
  1682 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1683 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1684 such command executions while editing.
  1685 
  1686 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1687 document content.
  1688 
  1689 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1690 toplevel theorem statements.
  1691 
  1692 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1693 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1694 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1695 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1696 
  1697 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1698 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1699 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1700 
  1701 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1702 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1703 
  1704 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1705 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1706 
  1707 
  1708 *** Pure ***
  1709 
  1710 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1711 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1712 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1713 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1714 details.
  1715 
  1716 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1717 
  1718 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1719 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1720 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1721 
  1722 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1726 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1727 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1728 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1729 
  1730 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1731 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1732 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1735 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1736 
  1737 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1738 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1739 situations.
  1740 
  1741 
  1742 *** HOL ***
  1743 
  1744 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1745 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1749 
  1750 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1751 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1752 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1753 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1754 
  1755   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1756 
  1757 * Code generator:
  1758   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1759     'code_instance'.
  1760   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1761     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1762 
  1763 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1764 examples.
  1765 
  1766 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1767 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1768 to distinguish both when desired.
  1769 
  1770 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1771 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1772 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1773 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1776 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1777 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1778 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1779 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1780 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1783 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1784 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1785 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1786 
  1787 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1788 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1789 
  1790 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1791 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1792 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1793 
  1794 * Lifting:
  1795   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1796     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1797       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1798       transfer rules
  1799     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1800       correspondence relation can be generated
  1801     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1802       parametricity
  1803     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1804   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1805   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1806     copies
  1807   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1808     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1809     anonymous context)
  1810   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1811     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1812   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1813     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1814   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1815     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1816 
  1817 * Transfer:
  1818   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1819     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1820   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1821   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1822     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1823   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1824 
  1825 * Reification and reflection:
  1826   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1827     "Reification".
  1828   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1829   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1833   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1834     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1835     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1836   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1837     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1838   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1839     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1840     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1841     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1842     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1843     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1844     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1845     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1846   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1847     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1848   - Fact renames:
  1849       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1850       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1852 
  1853 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1854 
  1855 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1856 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1857 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1861 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1862 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1863 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1864 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1865 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1866 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1867 lemmas.
  1868 
  1869 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1870 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1871 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1874 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1875 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1876 
  1877 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1878 top and bottom elements.
  1879 
  1880 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1881 
  1882 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1883 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1884 
  1885  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1886    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1887    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1888 
  1889  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1890    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1891    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1892 
  1893    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1894    arbitrary filter.
  1895 
  1896  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1897    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1898    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1899    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1900    on a compact set.
  1901 
  1902  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1903    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1904    linear_continuum_topology).
  1905 
  1906  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1907    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1908    on all sequences converging to x.
  1909 
  1910  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1911    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1912    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1913    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1914    left or right.
  1915 
  1916  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1917 
  1918      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1919 
  1920  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1921    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1922 
  1923  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1924    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1925    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1926    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1927    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1928    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1929 
  1930  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1931 
  1932    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1933 
  1934    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1935      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1936 
  1937    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1938 
  1939    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1940      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1941 
  1942    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1943 
  1944    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1945 
  1946  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1947 
  1948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949 
  1950 * Nitpick:
  1951   - Added option "spy".
  1952   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1953 
  1954 * Sledgehammer:
  1955   - Renamed option:
  1956       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1957     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1959   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1960   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1961 
  1962 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1963 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1964 
  1965 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1966   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1967   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1968     generated code.
  1969   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1970   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1971   - Fact renames:
  1972     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1973     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1974     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1975 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1978 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1979 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1980 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1981 
  1982 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1983 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1984 
  1985 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1986 
  1987 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1988 
  1989     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1990     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1991 
  1992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1995 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1996 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1997 
  1998 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1999 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2000 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2001 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003 * HOL-BNF:
  2004   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2005     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2006     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2007     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2008   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2009     coinduct).
  2010   - Renamed keywords:
  2011     data ~> datatype_new
  2012     codata ~> codatatype
  2013     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2014   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2015     discs ~> disc
  2016     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2017     map_id' ~> map_id
  2018     sels ~> sel
  2019     set_map' ~> set_map
  2020     sets ~> set
  2021 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 
  2024 *** ML ***
  2025 
  2026 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2027 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2028 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2029 Examples.thy in particular.
  2030 
  2031 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2032 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2033 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2034 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2035 
  2036 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2037 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2038 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2039 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2043 
  2044     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2045     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2046 
  2047 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2050 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2051 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2052 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2053 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2054 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2055 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2056 
  2057 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2058 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2059 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2060 clasets separately from the context.
  2061 
  2062 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2063 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2064 
  2065 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2066 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2067 
  2068 
  2069 *** System ***
  2070 
  2071 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2072 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2075 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2076 
  2077 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2078 settings variable.
  2079 
  2080 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2081 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2082 always pdf.
  2083 
  2084 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2085 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2086 
  2087 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2088 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2089 
  2090 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2091 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2092 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2093 
  2094 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2095 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2096 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2097 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2098 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2099 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2100 
  2101 
  2102 
  2103 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2104 -----------------------------------
  2105 
  2106 *** General ***
  2107 
  2108 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2109 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2110 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2111 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2112 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2113 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2114 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2115 
  2116 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2117 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2118 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2119 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2120 
  2121 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2122 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2123 
  2124 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2125 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2126 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2127 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2128 dependencies properly.
  2129 
  2130 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2131 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2132 
  2133 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2134 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2135 
  2136 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2137 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2138 and "class ... context ...".
  2139 
  2140 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2141 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2142 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2143 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2144 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2145 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2146 
  2147 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2148 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2149 
  2150 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2151 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2152 
  2153 
  2154 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2155 
  2156 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2157 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2158 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2159 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2160 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2161 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2162 
  2163 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2164 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2165 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2166 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2167 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2168 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2169 
  2170 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2171 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2172 browser on demand.
  2173 
  2174 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2175 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2176 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2177 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2178 
  2179 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2180 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2181 
  2182 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2183 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2184 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2185 potentially infinite message streams.
  2186 
  2187 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2188 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2189 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2190 schemes.
  2191 
  2192 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2193 symbols.
  2194 
  2195 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2196 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2197 
  2198 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2199 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2200 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2201 
  2202 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2203 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2204 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2205 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2206 
  2207 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2208 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2209 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2210 
  2211 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2212 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2213 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2214 Isabelle distribution.
  2215 
  2216 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2217 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2218 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2219 
  2220 
  2221 *** Pure ***
  2222 
  2223 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2224 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2225 
  2226 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2227 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2228 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2231 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2232 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2233 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2234 with some care where this is really required.
  2235 
  2236 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2237 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2238 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2239 
  2240   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2241 
  2242 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2243 a Hasse diagram.
  2244 
  2245 
  2246 *** HOL ***
  2247 
  2248 * Sledgehammer:
  2249 
  2250   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2251     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2252   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2253   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2254   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2255   - Renamed options:
  2256       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2257       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2258       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2259       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2260 
  2261 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2262 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2263 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2264 
  2265 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Lifting:
  2269   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2270   - quot_del attribute
  2271   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2272 
  2273 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2274 expressions.
  2275 
  2276 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2277 pointfree expressions.
  2278 
  2279 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2280 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2281 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2282 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2286 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2287 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2288 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2289 accordingly.
  2290 
  2291 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2292 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2295 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2298 
  2299 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2300 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2301 
  2302 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2303 
  2304 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2305 
  2306   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2307   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2308 
  2309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2312 
  2313   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2314   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2315 
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2319 
  2320   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2321     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2322     output f x converges to G.
  2323 
  2324   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2325     infinity (at_bot).
  2326 
  2327   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2328     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2329 
  2330   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2331     at_top".
  2332 
  2333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2336 lattice type classes.
  2337 
  2338 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2339 
  2340     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2341     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2342 
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2346 changes as follows.
  2347 
  2348   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2349 
  2350       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2351       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2352 
  2353   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2354     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2355     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2356     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2357 
  2358   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2359     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2360     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2361 
  2362   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2363     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2364     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2365     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2366 
  2367   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2368     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2369 
  2370       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2371       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2372       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2373       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2374       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2375       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2376       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2377       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2378       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2379       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2380       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2381       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2382       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2383       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2384       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2385       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2386 
  2387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2390 
  2391 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2392 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2393 
  2394 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2395 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2396 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2397 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2398 
  2399   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2400   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2401   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2402   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2403   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2404   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2405   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2406   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2407   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2408   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2409 
  2410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2413 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2414 Data").
  2415 
  2416 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2417 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2418 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2419 code.
  2420 
  2421 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2422 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2423 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2425 
  2426 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2427 
  2428 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2429 
  2430 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2431 
  2432   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2433   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2434 
  2435 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2436 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2437 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2438 
  2439   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2440 
  2441     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2442     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2443     cart_base i  removed
  2444     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2445 
  2446   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2447 
  2448   Renamed lemmas:
  2449 
  2450     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2451     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2452     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2453     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2454     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2455     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2456     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2457     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2458     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2459     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2460 
  2461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463 * HOL/Probability:
  2464 
  2465   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2466 
  2467   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2468     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2469     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2470 
  2471   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2472     projective family).
  2473 
  2474 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2475 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2476 
  2477 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2478 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2479 datatypes.
  2480 
  2481 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2482 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2483 
  2484 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2485 trees for the code generator.
  2486 
  2487 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2488 Lifting/Transfer.
  2489 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 
  2495 *** Document preparation ***
  2496 
  2497 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2498 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2499 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2500 
  2501 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2502 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2503 
  2504 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2505 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2506 document/root.tex.
  2507 
  2508 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2509 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 
  2512 *** ML ***
  2513 
  2514 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2515 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2516 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2517 
  2518 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2519 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2520 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2521 
  2522 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2523 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2524 necessarily printing visible text.
  2525 
  2526 
  2527 *** System ***
  2528 
  2529 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2530 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2531 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2532 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2533 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2534 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2535 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2536 
  2537 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2538 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2539 
  2540   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2541 
  2542 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2543 
  2544 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2545 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2546 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2547 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2548 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2549 
  2550 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2551 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2552 
  2553 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2554 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2555 
  2556 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2560 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2561 version of Isabelle.
  2562 
  2563 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2564 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2565 
  2566 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2567 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2568 for home-made settings.
  2569 
  2570 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2571 
  2572 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2573 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2574 configuration.
  2575 
  2576 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2577 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2578 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2579 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2580 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2581 
  2582 
  2583 
  2584 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2585 ------------------------------
  2586 
  2587 *** General ***
  2588 
  2589 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2590 
  2591   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2592     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2593   - markup for bound variables
  2594   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2595   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2596   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2597     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2598 
  2599 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2600 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2601 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2602 
  2603 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2604 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2605 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2606 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2607 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2608 
  2609   context
  2610     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2611     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2612   begin
  2613 
  2614   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2615 
  2616   end
  2617 
  2618   thm my_trans
  2619 
  2620 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2621 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2622 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2623 
  2624 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2625 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2626 
  2627 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2628 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2629 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2630 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2631 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2632 
  2633 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2634 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2635 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2636 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2637 indices of schematic variables.
  2638 
  2639 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2640 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2641 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2642 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2643 etc. was exploited.
  2644 
  2645 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2646 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2647 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2648 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2649 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2650 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2651 
  2652 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2653 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2654 manual.
  2655 
  2656 
  2657 *** Pure ***
  2658 
  2659 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2660 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2661 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2662 
  2663 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2664 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2665 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2666 undocumented feature.)
  2667 
  2668 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2669 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2670 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2671 
  2672   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2673 
  2674   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2675     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2676 
  2677 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2678 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2679 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2680 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2681 
  2682 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2683 
  2684     num ~> num_token
  2685     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2686     xstr ~> str_token
  2687 
  2688 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2689 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2690 position information via constraints).
  2691 
  2692 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2693 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2694 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2697 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2698 
  2699 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2700 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2701 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2704 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2707 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2708 
  2709   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2710 
  2711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2714 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2717 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2718 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2719 
  2720 
  2721 *** HOL ***
  2722 
  2723 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2724 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2725 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2726 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2727 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2728 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2729 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2730 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2731 possible.
  2732 
  2733 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2734 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2735 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2736 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2737 
  2738 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2739 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2742 
  2743 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2744 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2745 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2746 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2747 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2748 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2749 
  2750   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2751     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2752 
  2753   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2754     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2755     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2756 
  2757   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2758     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2759 
  2760   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2761     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2762     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2763 
  2764   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2765     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2766 
  2767 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2768 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2769 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2770 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2771 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2772 
  2773   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2774     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2775     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2776     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2777     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2778 
  2779     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2780     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2781 
  2782   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2783     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2784     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2785     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2786     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2787     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2788     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2789     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2790 
  2791   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2792     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2793     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2794     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2795 
  2796   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2797     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2798     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2799     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2800 
  2801   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2802     from type nat to type int.
  2803 
  2804 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2805 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2806 
  2807   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2808     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2809     type.  Example syntax:
  2810 
  2811     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2812       is List.insert
  2813 
  2814     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2815     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2816     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2817     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2818     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2819     by the package.
  2820 
  2821   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2822     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2823     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2824     code generation for each constant.
  2825 
  2826   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2827     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2828     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2829     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2830     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2831 
  2832   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2833     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2834     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2835 
  2836 * Quotient package:
  2837 
  2838   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2839     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2840 
  2841   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2842     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2843 
  2844   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2845     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2846     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2849     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2852 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2853 
  2854 * Quickcheck:
  2855 
  2856   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2857     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2858     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2859     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2860     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2861 
  2862     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2863     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2864     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2865 
  2866     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2867     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2868 
  2869     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2870     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2871     show genuine counterexamples.
  2872 
  2873   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2874     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2875 
  2876     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2877     constructors of that type.
  2878 
  2879   - Support for multisets.
  2880 
  2881   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2882 
  2883   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2884     conjectures in a locale context.
  2885 
  2886 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2887 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2888 
  2889 * Sledgehammer:
  2890   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2891     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2892   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2893   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2894     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2895   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2896   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2897   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2898   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2899 
  2900 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2901 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2902 
  2903 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2904 
  2905 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2908 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2909 
  2910   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2911 
  2912 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2913 a list and a nat.
  2914 
  2915 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2916 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2917 
  2918 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2919 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2920 default.
  2921 
  2922 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2923 
  2924   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2925 
  2926 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2927 
  2928 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2929 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2930 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2931 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2932 one_case.
  2933 
  2934 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2935 the result of the fact expression.
  2936 
  2937 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2938 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2939 of some relation theorems:
  2940 
  2941   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2942   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2943   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2944   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2945   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2946   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2947 
  2948 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2949 
  2950 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2951 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2952 
  2953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2956 to match the constant's name:
  2957 
  2958   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2959   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2960   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2961   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2962   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2963   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2964   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2965   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2966   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2967   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2968   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2969   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2970   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2971   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2972   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2973   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2974   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2975   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2976   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2977   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2978   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2979   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2980   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2981   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2982 
  2983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2986 and corresponding theorem names:
  2987 
  2988   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2989 
  2990   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2991 
  2992   - Renamed theorems:
  2993 
  2994     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2995     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2996     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2997     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2998     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2999     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3000     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3001     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3002     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3003     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3004     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3005     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3006     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3007     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3008     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3009     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3010     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3011     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3012     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3013     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3014     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3015     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3016     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3017 
  3018     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3019 
  3020     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3021 
  3022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3025 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3026 
  3027   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3028   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3029   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3030   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3031   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3032   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3033   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3034   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3035   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3036   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3037   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3038   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3039   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3040   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3041   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3042   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3043   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3044   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3045   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3046   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3047   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3048 
  3049 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3050 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3055 
  3056   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3057   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3058   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3059   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3060   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3061   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3062   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3063   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3064   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3065   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3066   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3067   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3068   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3069   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3070   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3071   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3072   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3073   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3074 
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3078 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3079 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3080 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3081 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3082 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3083 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3084 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3085 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3086 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3087 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3088 
  3089 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3090 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3091 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3092 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3093 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3094 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3095 
  3096 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3097 through option types.
  3098 
  3099 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3100 relations.
  3101 
  3102 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3105 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3106 
  3107   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3108   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3109   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3110   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3111   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3112   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3113   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3114   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3115   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3116   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3117   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3118   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3119   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3120   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3121   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3122   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3123   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3124   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3125   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3126   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3127   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3128   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3129   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3130   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3131   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3132   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3133   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3134   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3135   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3136   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3137   zless_le ~> less_le
  3138   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3139   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3140   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3141 
  3142 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3143 
  3144   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3145 
  3146 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3147 
  3148 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3149 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3150 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3151 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3155 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3156 
  3157 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3158 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3159 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3160 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3161 follows:
  3162 
  3163   Operations:
  3164   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3165   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3166   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3167   del -> rbt_del
  3168   delete -> rbt_delete
  3169   ins -> rbt_ins
  3170   insert -> rbt_insert
  3171   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3172   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3173   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3174   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3175   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3176   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3177   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3178   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3179   union -> rbt_union
  3180   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3181   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3182 
  3183   Lemmas:
  3184   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3185   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3186   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3187   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3188   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3189   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3190   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3191   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3192   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3193   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3194   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3195   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3196   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3197   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3198   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3199   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3200   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3201   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3202   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3203   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3204   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3205   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3206   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3207   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3208   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3209   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3210   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3211   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3212   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3213   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3214   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3215   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3216   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3217   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3218   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3219   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3220   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3221   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3222   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3223   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3224   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3225   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3226   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3227   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3228   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3229   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3230   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3231   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3232   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3233   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3234   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3235   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3236   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3237   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3238   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3239   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3240   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3241   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3242   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3243   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3244   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3245   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3246   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3247   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3248   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3249   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3250   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3251   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3252   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3253   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3254   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3255   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3256   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3257   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3258   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3259   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3260   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3261   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3262   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3263   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3264   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3265   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3266   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3267 
  3268 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3269 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3270 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272   Changed Operations:
  3273   float_abs -> abs
  3274   float_nprt -> nprt
  3275   float_pprt -> pprt
  3276   pow2 -> use powr
  3277   round_down -> float_round_down
  3278   round_up -> float_round_up
  3279   scale -> exponent
  3280 
  3281   Removed Operations:
  3282   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3283 
  3284   Renamed Lemmas:
  3285   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3286   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3287   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3288   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3289   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3290   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3291   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3292   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3293   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3294   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3295   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3296   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3297   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3298   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3299   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3300   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3301   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3302   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3303   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3304   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3305   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3306   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3307   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3308   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3309   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3310   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3311   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3312   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3313   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3314   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3315   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3316   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3317   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3318   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3319   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3320   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3321 
  3322   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3323   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3324   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3325   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3326   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3327   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3328   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3329   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3330   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3331   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3332 
  3333 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3334 association lists with distinct keys.
  3335 
  3336 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3337 annotated commands.
  3338 
  3339 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3340 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3341 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3342 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3345 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3346 instead.
  3347 
  3348   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3349   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3350   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3351   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3352   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3353   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3354   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3355   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3356   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3357   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3358   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3359   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3360   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3361   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3362   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3363   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3364   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3365   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3366   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3367   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3368   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3369   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3370   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3371   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3372   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3373   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3374   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3375   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3376   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3377   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3378   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3379   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3380   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3381   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3382   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3383   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3384   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3385   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3386   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3387   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3388   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3389 
  3390 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3391 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3392 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3393 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3394 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3395 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3396 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3397 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3398 
  3399 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3400 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3401 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3402 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3403 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3404 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3405 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3406 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3407 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3408 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3409 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3410 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411 
  3412   Renamed constants:
  3413   measure -> emeasure
  3414   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3415   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3416   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3417   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3418 
  3419   Removed locales:
  3420   completeable_measure_space
  3421   finite_measure_space
  3422   finite_prob_space
  3423   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3424   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3425   finite_sigma_algebra
  3426   measure_space
  3427   pair_finite_prob_space
  3428   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3429   pair_finite_space
  3430   pair_sigma_algebra
  3431   product_sigma_algebra
  3432 
  3433   Removed constants:
  3434   conditional_space
  3435   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3436   image_space
  3437   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3438   pair_measure_generator
  3439   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3440   subvimage
  3441 
  3442   Replacement theorems:
  3443   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3444   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3445   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3446   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3447   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3448   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3449   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3450   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3451   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3452   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3453   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3454   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3455   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3456   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3457   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3458   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3459   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3460   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3461   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3462   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3463   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3464   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3465   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3466   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3467   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3468   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3469   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3470   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3471   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3472   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3473   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3474   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3475   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3476   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3477   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3478   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3479   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3480   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3481   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3482   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3483   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3484   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3485   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3486   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3487   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3488   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3489   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3490   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3491   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3492   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3493   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3494   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3495   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3496   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3497   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3498   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3499   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3500   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3501   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3502   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3503   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3504   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3505   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3506   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3507   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3508   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3509   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3510   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3511   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3512   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3513   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3514   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3515   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3516   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3517   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3518   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3519   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3520   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3521   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3522   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3523   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3524   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3525   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3526   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3527   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3528   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3529   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3530   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3531   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3532   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3533   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3534   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3535   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3536   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3537   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3538   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3539   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3540   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3541   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3542   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3543   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3544   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3545   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3546   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3547   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3548   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3549   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3550   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3551   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3552   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3553   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3554   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3555   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3556   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3557   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3558   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3559   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3560   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3561   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3562   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3563   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3564   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3565   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3566   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3567   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3568   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3569   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3570   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3571 
  3572 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3573 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3574 
  3575 
  3576 *** FOL ***
  3577 
  3578 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3579 
  3580 
  3581 *** ZF ***
  3582 
  3583 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3584 analysis.
  3585 
  3586 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3587 
  3588 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3589 
  3590 
  3591 *** ML ***
  3592 
  3593 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3594 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3595 
  3596 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3597 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3598 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3599 
  3600 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3601 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3602 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3603 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3604 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3605 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3607 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3608 
  3609 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3610 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3611 
  3612 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3613 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3614 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3615 
  3616 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3617 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3620 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3621 context as well.
  3622 
  3623 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3624 
  3625   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3626   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3627   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3628   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3629   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3630   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3631   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3632   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3633   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3634   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3635   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3636   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3637 
  3638 
  3639 *** System ***
  3640 
  3641 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3642 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3643 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3644 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3645 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3646 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3647 the generic user home was intended.
  3648 
  3649 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3650 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3651 
  3652 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3653 (not just JRE).
  3654 
  3655 
  3656 
  3657 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3658 ------------------------------------
  3659 
  3660 *** General ***
  3661 
  3662 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3663 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3664 
  3665   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3666     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3667     files for checking).
  3668 
  3669   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3670     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3671     positions.
  3672 
  3673   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3674     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3675     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3676 
  3677   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3678     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3679     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3680 
  3681   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3682     cores.
  3683 
  3684   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3685     versions (garbage collection).
  3686 
  3687 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3688 including some remaining limitations.
  3689 
  3690 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3691 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3692 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3693 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3694 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3698 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3699 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3700 
  3701 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3702 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3703 usedir option -Q.
  3704 
  3705 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3706 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3707 
  3708   long_names   ~> names_long
  3709   short_names  ~> names_short
  3710   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3711 
  3712 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3713 
  3714   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3715 
  3716 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3717 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3718 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3719 
  3720 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3721 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3722 
  3723 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3724   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3725   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3726   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3727     "Classical Reasoner".
  3728 
  3729 
  3730 *** HOL ***
  3731 
  3732 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3733 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3734 
  3735 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3736 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3737 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3738 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3739 class complete_linorder.
  3740 
  3741 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3742 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3743 
  3744 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3745 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3746 
  3747   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3748   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3749   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3750   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3751   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3752   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3753   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3754   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3755   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3756   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3757   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3758 
  3759 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3760 
  3761   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3762   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3763   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3764   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3765   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3766   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3767   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3768   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3769   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3770   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3771   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3772   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3773   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3774   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3775   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3776   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3777 
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3784 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3785 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3786 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3789 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3790 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3794 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3795 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3796 
  3797 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3798 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3799 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3802 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3803 
  3804 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3805 
  3806     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3807     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3808 
  3809 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3810 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3813 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3814 
  3815 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3816 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3817 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3818 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3821   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3822   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3823   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3824   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3825   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3826   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3827 
  3828 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3829 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3832   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3833   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3834   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3835   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3836   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3837   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3838   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3839   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3840   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3841   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3842   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3843   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3844   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3845   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3846   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3847   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3848   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3849   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3850   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3851   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3852   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3853   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3854   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3855   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3856   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3857   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3858   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3859   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3860   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3861   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3862   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3863   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3864   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3865   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3866   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3867   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3868   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3869   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3870   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3871   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3872   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3873   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3874   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3875   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3876   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3877   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3878   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3879   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3880   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3881   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3882   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3883   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3884   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3885   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3886   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3887   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3888   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3889   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3890   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3891   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3892   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3893   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3894   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3895   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3896   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3897   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3898   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3899   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3900   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3901   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3902   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3903   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3904   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3905   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3906   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3907   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3908   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3909   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3910   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3911   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3912   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3913 
  3914 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3915 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3916 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3917 
  3918 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3919 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3920 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3921 
  3922 * Code generation:
  3923 
  3924   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3925     characters in the target language.
  3926 
  3927   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3928     instead.
  3929 
  3930   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3931 
  3932   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3933     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3934 
  3935       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3936 
  3937 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3940 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3941 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3942 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3943 syntax.
  3944 
  3945 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3946 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3947 
  3948 * Nitpick:
  3949   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3950   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3951   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3952     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Sledgehammer:
  3955   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3956   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3957     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3958   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3959     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3960   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3961     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3963     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3964   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3965     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * Metis:
  3968   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3970     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Command 'try':
  3973   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3974     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3976     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3977 
  3978 * Quickcheck:
  3979   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3980     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3981   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3982     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3983   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3984     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3985     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3986     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3987   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3988     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3989 
  3990 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3991 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3992 
  3993 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3994 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3995 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3996 
  3997 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3998 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4002 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4005 arithmetic.
  4006 
  4007 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4008 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4009 and lattice type classes.
  4010 
  4011 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4012 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4013 
  4014 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4015 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4016 
  4017 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4018 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4019 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4022   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4023   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4024   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4027 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4028 constants:
  4029 
  4030   type inat   ~> type enat
  4031   Fin         ~> enat
  4032   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4033   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4034   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4035 
  4036 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4037 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4040 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4041 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4042 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4043 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4044 
  4045 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4046 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4047 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4048 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4049 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4050 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4051 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4052 
  4053   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4054   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4055   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4056   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4057 
  4058 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4059 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4060 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4063   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4064   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4065   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4066   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4067   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4068   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4069   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4070   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4071   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4072   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4073   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4074   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4075   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4076   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4077   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4078   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4079   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4080   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4081   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4082   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4083   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4084   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4085   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4086   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4087   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4088   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4089   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4090   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4091   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4092   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4093   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4094   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4095   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4096   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4097   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4098   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4099   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4100   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4101   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4102   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4103   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4104   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4105   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4106   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4107   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4108   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4109   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4110   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4111   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4112   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4113 
  4114 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4115   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4116   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4117   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4118   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4119     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4124   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4125   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4126   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4127   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4128   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4129   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4130   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4131   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4132   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4133   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4134   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4135   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4136   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4137   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4138   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4139   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4140   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4141   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4142   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4143   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4144   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4145   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4146   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4147   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4148 
  4149 
  4150 *** Document preparation ***
  4151 
  4152 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4153 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4154 same.
  4155 
  4156 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4157 result.
  4158 
  4159 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4160 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4161 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4162 
  4163 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4164 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4165 
  4166 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4167 like this:
  4168 
  4169   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4170   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4171 
  4172 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4173 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4174 layouts.
  4175 
  4176 
  4177 *** ML ***
  4178 
  4179 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4180 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4181 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4182 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4183 under external program control.
  4184 
  4185 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4186 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4187 
  4188 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4189 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4190 (better known as Proof General).
  4191 
  4192 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4193 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4194 
  4195 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4196 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4197 
  4198 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4199 (including quotes etc.).
  4200 
  4201 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4202 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4203 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4204 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4205 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4206 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4207 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4208 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4209 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4210 
  4211 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4212 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4213 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4214 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4215 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4216 
  4217 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4218 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4219 
  4220 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4221 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4222 
  4223 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4224 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4225 
  4226 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4227 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4228 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4229 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4230 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4231 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4232 proper Proof.context.
  4233 
  4234 
  4235 *** System ***
  4236 
  4237 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4238 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4239 
  4240 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4241 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4242 
  4243 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4244 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4245 
  4246   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4247   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4248   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4249   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4250   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4251 
  4252 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4253 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4256 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4257 example:
  4258 
  4259   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4260 
  4261 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4262 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4263 
  4264 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4265 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4266 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4267 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4268 
  4269 
  4270 
  4271 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4272 ----------------------------------
  4273 
  4274 *** General ***
  4275 
  4276 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4277 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4278 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4279 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4280 like this:
  4281 
  4282   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4283 
  4284 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4285 
  4286 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4287 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4288 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4289 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4290 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4291 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4292 
  4293 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4294 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4295 the following package declarations:
  4296 
  4297   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4298   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4299 
  4300 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4301 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4302 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4303 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4304 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4305 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4306 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4307 
  4308 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4309 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4310 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4311 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4312 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4313 
  4314 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4315 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4316 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4317 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4320 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4321 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4322 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4323 
  4324   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4325 
  4326   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4327   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4328   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4329   show_types                    show_types
  4330   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4331   show_consts                   show_consts
  4332   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4333 
  4334   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4335   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4336   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4337 
  4338   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4339   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4340 
  4341   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4342 
  4343   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4344   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4345   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4346   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4347   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4348 
  4349 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4350 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4351 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4352 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4353 
  4354 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4358   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4359 
  4360 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4361 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4362 float_token.
  4363 
  4364 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4365 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4369 DejaVu Sans.
  4370 
  4371 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4372 
  4373 
  4374 *** Pure ***
  4375 
  4376 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4377 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4378 time.
  4379 
  4380 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4381 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4382 
  4383 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4384 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4385 
  4386 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4387 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4388 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4389 command already provided this functionality.
  4390 
  4391 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4392 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4393 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4394 without interpretations.
  4395 
  4396 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4397 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4398 
  4399 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4400 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4401 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4402 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4403 
  4404 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4405 'definition' instead.
  4406 
  4407 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4408 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4409 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4410 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4411 
  4412 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4413 constructors.
  4414 
  4415 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4416 the local file system.
  4417 
  4418 
  4419 *** HOL ***
  4420 
  4421 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4422 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4423 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4424 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4425 
  4426   declare [[coercion f]]
  4427 
  4428 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4429 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4430 
  4431   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4432 
  4433 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4434 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4435 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4436 other theories like this:
  4437 
  4438   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4439 
  4440 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4441 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4442 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4443 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4444 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4445 for examples.
  4446 
  4447 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4448 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4451 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4452 
  4453 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4454 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4455 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4456 
  4457 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4458 functorial structure of types.
  4459 
  4460 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4461 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4462 
  4463 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4464 languages.
  4465 
  4466 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4467 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4471 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4472 
  4473 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4474 combinators any longer.
  4475 
  4476 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4477 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4478 
  4479 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4480 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4481 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4482 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4483 
  4484   record 'a foo = ...
  4485   ...
  4486   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4487 
  4488 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4489 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4491 
  4492 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4493 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4494 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4495 
  4496 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4497 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4498 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4499 
  4500 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4501 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4504 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4505 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4506 independently.
  4507 
  4508 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4509 counter example search.
  4510 
  4511 * Sledgehammer:
  4512   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4513     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4514     sledgehammer").
  4515   - Renamed commands:
  4516     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4517     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4518     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4519     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520   - Renamed options:
  4521     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4522     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4523     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4524     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4525     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * Nitpick:
  4528   - Renamed options:
  4529     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4530     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4531     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4533   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4534   - Added "whack" option.
  4535   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4536   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4537   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4538   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4539     higher cardinalities.
  4540   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4541 
  4542 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4543 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4544 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4545 
  4546     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4547 
  4548 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4549 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4550 
  4551 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4552 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4553 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4554 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4555 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4556 "smt_solver".
  4557 
  4558 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4559 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4560 
  4561 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4562 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4563 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4564 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4567   - Renamed:
  4568     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4569     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4570     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571   - Added:
  4572     smt_verbose
  4573     smt_random_seed
  4574     smt_datatypes
  4575     smt_infer_triggers
  4576     smt_monomorph_limit
  4577     cvc3_options
  4578     remote_cvc3_options
  4579     remote_z3_options
  4580     yices_options
  4581 
  4582 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4583 header.
  4584 
  4585 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4586 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4587 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4588 
  4589   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4590 
  4591 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4594 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4599 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4602 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4603 
  4604 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4605 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4608 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4609 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4612 
  4613 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4617 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4620 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4621 for congruent(2)).
  4622 
  4623 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4624 
  4625   types
  4626     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4627     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4628 
  4629   constants
  4630     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4631     True ~> HOL.True
  4632     False ~> HOL.False
  4633     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4634     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4635     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4636     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4637     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4638     The ~> HOL.The
  4639     All ~> HOL.All
  4640     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4641     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4642     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4643     If ~> HOL.If
  4644     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4645     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4646     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4647     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4648     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4649     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4650     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4651     op : ~> Set.member
  4652     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4653 
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4657 
  4658     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4659     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4660     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4661     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4662     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4663     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4664     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4665     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4666 
  4667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4668 
  4669 * More stylized fact names:
  4670 
  4671   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4672   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4673   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4674   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4675 
  4676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4677 
  4678 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4679 
  4680   constants
  4681     null ~> List.null
  4682 
  4683   facts
  4684     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4685     null_empty ~> null_def
  4686 
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4688 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4689 generation.
  4690 
  4691 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4692 Haskell code.
  4693 
  4694 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4695 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4696 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4699 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4702 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4703 
  4704 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4705 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4706 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4709 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4715 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4716 referred to by its qualified name.
  4717 
  4718   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4719   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4720   product ~>  Enum.product
  4721 
  4722 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4723 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4727 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4728 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4732 sort_key.
  4733 
  4734 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4736 
  4737 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4738 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4739 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4740 
  4741   types
  4742     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4743               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4744               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4745         (depends on your needs)
  4746 
  4747   constants
  4748      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4749      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4750      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4751 
  4752 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4753 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4754 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4755 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4758 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4759 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4760 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4761 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4767 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4768 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4769 
  4770 
  4771 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4772 
  4773 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4774 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4775 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4776 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4777 compatibility.
  4778 
  4779 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4780 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4781 
  4782 
  4783 *** HOLCF ***
  4784 
  4785 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4786 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4787 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4791 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4792 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4795   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4796   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4797 
  4798 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4799 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4800 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4801 
  4802 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4803 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4804 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4805 domain definition now works:
  4806 
  4807   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4808 
  4809 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4810 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4811 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4812 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4813 
  4814   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4815     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4816 
  4817   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4818 
  4819 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4820 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4821 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4824 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4827 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4828 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4829 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4830 
  4831 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4832 
  4833 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4841 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4842 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4843 
  4844 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4845 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4846 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4849 still supported as an input translation.
  4850 
  4851 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4852 
  4853   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4854   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4855   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4856   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4857   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4858   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4859   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4860 
  4861 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4862 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4863 
  4864   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4865   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4866   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4867   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4868   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4869   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4870 
  4871 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4872 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4875 
  4876   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4877   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4878   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4879   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4880 
  4881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4884 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4885 
  4886 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4887 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4890   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4891   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4892   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4893   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4894   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4895   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4896   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4897   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4898   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4899   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4900   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4901   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4902   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4903   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4904   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4905   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4906   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4907   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4908   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4909 
  4910 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4911 
  4912   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4913   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4914   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4915   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4916   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4917   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4918   box_less             ~> box_below
  4919   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4920   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4921   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4922   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4923   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4924   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4925   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4926   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4927   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4928   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4929   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4930   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4931   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4932   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4933   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4934   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4935   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4936   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4937   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4938   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4939   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4940   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4941   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4942   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4943   up_less              ~> up_below
  4944   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4945   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4946   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4947   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4948   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4949   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4950   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4951   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4952   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4953   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4954   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4955   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4956   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4957 
  4958 
  4959 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4960 
  4961 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4962 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964 
  4965 *** ML ***
  4966 
  4967 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4968 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4969 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4970 
  4971 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4972 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4973 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4974 
  4975 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4976 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4977 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4978 
  4979 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4980 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4981 
  4982 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4983 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4984 
  4985 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4986 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4987 
  4988 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4989 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4990 
  4991 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4992 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4993 almost all situations.
  4994 
  4995 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4996 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4997 Isabelle/ML.
  4998 
  4999 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5000 meaning.
  5001 
  5002 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5003 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5004 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5005 
  5006 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5007 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5008 
  5009 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5010 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5011 
  5012 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5013 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5014 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5015 
  5016 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5017 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5018 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5019 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5020 configuration options.
  5021 
  5022 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5023 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5024 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5025 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5026 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5027 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5028 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5029 
  5030 
  5031 
  5032 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5033 ---------------------------------
  5034 
  5035 *** General ***
  5036 
  5037 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5038 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5039 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5040 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5041 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5042 their full internal name.
  5043 
  5044 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5045 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5046 Some hints on upgrading:
  5047 
  5048   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5049     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5050     which are independent of this issue.
  5051 
  5052   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5053     provides the following special forms:
  5054 
  5055       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5056       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5057       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5058 
  5059     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5060     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5061     extra variables".
  5062 
  5063     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5064     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5065     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5066     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5067     "logic".
  5068 
  5069   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5070     antiquotations:
  5071 
  5072       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5073       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5074       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5075       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5076 
  5077   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5078     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5079     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5080     antiquotations.
  5081 
  5082 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5083 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5084 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5085 diagnose syntax problems.
  5086 
  5087 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5088 
  5089 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5090 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5091 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5092 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5093 
  5094 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5095 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5096 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5097 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5098 
  5099 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5100 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5101 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5102 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5103 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5104 
  5105 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5106 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5107 
  5108 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5109 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5110 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5111 
  5112   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5113 
  5114 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5115 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5116 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5117 
  5118 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5119 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5123 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5124 
  5125 
  5126 *** Pure ***
  5127 
  5128 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5129 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5130 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5131 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5132 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5133 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5134 inspect proof terms.
  5135 
  5136 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5137 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5138 are added internally.  For example:
  5139 
  5140   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5141 
  5142 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5143 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5148 'class' instead.
  5149 
  5150 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5151 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5153 
  5154 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5155 invariants.
  5156 
  5157 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5158 user space functionality any longer.
  5159 
  5160 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5161 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5163 
  5164 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5165 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5166 
  5167 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5168 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5169 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5170 
  5171 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5172 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5173 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5174 
  5175 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5176 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5177 
  5178 
  5179 *** HOL ***
  5180 
  5181 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5182 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5183 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5184 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5185 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5186 
  5187 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5188 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5189 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5190 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5191 
  5192   fun
  5193     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5194   where
  5195     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5196 
  5197   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5198     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5199 
  5200   quotient_definition
  5201     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5202 
  5203 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5204 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5205 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5206 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5207 
  5208 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5209 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5210 
  5211 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5212 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5213 
  5214 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5216 
  5217 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5218 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5219 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5220 
  5221 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5222 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5223 
  5224 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5226 
  5227 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5229 
  5230 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5231 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5232 
  5233 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5234 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5235 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5236 
  5237   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5238   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5239   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5240   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5241   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5242   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5243   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5244   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5245   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5246   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5247   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5248   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5249   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5250   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5251   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5252   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5253   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5254   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5255   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5256   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5257   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5258   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5259   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5260   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5261   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5262   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5263   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5264   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5265   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5266   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5267 
  5268 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5269 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5270 
  5271 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5272 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5273 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5276 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5277 
  5278 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5279 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5280 
  5281 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5282 
  5283 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5284 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5285 
  5286 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5287 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5288 
  5289 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5290 
  5291 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5292 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5293 
  5294 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5295 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5296 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5297 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5300   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5301   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5302   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304 
  5305 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5306 lattices):
  5307 
  5308     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5309     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5310 
  5311     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5312 
  5313     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5314     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5315     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5316     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5317     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5318     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5319     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5320     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5321     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5322     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5323     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5324     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5325     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5326 
  5327     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5328     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5329     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5330     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5331     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5332     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5333     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5334     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5335     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5336     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5337     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5338     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5339     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5340     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5341     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5342     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5343     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5344     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5345 
  5346   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5347   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5348 
  5349     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5350     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5351     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5352     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5353     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5354 
  5355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5356 
  5357 * Refined field classes:
  5358   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5359     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5360     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5361   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5365   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5366   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5367   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5368     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5369   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5370     equal_neg_zero.
  5371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5372 
  5373 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5374 sets to lattices:
  5375 
  5376   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5377   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5378   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5379   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5380   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5381   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5382   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5383   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5384   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5385   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5386 
  5387 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5388 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5389 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5390 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5391 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5392 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5393 
  5394 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5395 multiset order:
  5396 
  5397   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5398     <= and <;
  5399   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5400     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5401     multiset_order;
  5402   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5403     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5404     generation;
  5405   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5406     if needed.
  5407 
  5408 Renamed:
  5409 
  5410   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5411   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5412   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5413 
  5414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5415 
  5416 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5417 
  5418 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5419 
  5420 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5421 
  5422 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5423 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5424 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5425 
  5426   Constants:
  5427   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5428   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5429   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5430   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5431   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5432   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5433   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5434   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5435   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5436   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5437   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5438   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5439   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5440 
  5441   Lemmas:
  5442   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5443   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5444   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5445   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5446   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5447   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5448   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5449   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5450   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5451   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5452   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5453   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5454   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5455 
  5456 * Sledgehammer:
  5457   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5458     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5459     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5460     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5461     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5462     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5463     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5465   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5466     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5467   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5468     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5469     is still experimental.)
  5470   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5471     full-typed mode.
  5472   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5473 
  5474 * Nitpick:
  5475   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5476   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5477   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5478     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5479   - Added support for quotient types.
  5480   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5481     constructs.
  5482   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5483     "termination" proofs).
  5484   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5485   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5486   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5487   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5488     record getters.
  5489   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5490   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5491   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5492   - Added "atoms" option.
  5493   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5494     problems.
  5495   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5496     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5497     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5499     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5501 
  5502 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5503   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5504   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5505   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5506   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5507   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5508   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5509   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5510   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5511   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5512 
  5513 
  5514 *** HOLCF ***
  5515 
  5516 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5517 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5518 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5521 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5522 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5523 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5526 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5527 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5528 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5529 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5532 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5533 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5536 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5539   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5540 
  5541 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5542 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5545   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5546   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5547   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5548   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5549 
  5550 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5551 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5552 
  5553   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5554   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5555   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5556 
  5557 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5558 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5560 
  5561 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5562 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5567 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5568 
  5569 
  5570 *** ML ***
  5571 
  5572 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5573 
  5574     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5575     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5576 
  5577     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5578     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5579     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5580     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5581 
  5582     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5583     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5584     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5585 
  5586 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5587 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5588 
  5589 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5590 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5591 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5592 
  5593 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5594 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5595 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5596 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5597 
  5598 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5599 the context or even global references.
  5600 
  5601 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5602 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5603 
  5604 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5605 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5606 
  5607   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5608   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5609   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5610   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5611   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5612   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5613   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5614   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5615   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5616   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5617 
  5618 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5619 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5620 
  5621 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5622 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5623 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5624 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5625 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5626 
  5627 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5628 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5629 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5630 Theory_Data version.
  5631 
  5632 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5633 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5634 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5635 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5636 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5637 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5638 explicitly in rare situations.
  5639 
  5640 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5641 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5645 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5648 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5649 quite rare).
  5650 
  5651 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5652 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5653 
  5654 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5655 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5656 terms.
  5657 
  5658 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5659 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5660 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5661 
  5662 
  5663 *** System ***
  5664 
  5665 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5666 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5667 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5668 
  5669 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5670 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5671 respectively.
  5672 
  5673 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5674 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5675 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5676 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5677 
  5678   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5679 
  5680 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5681 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5682 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5683 component.
  5684 
  5685 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5686 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5687 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5688 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5689 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5690 the user for manual installation.
  5691 
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5695 -------------------------------------
  5696 
  5697 *** General ***
  5698 
  5699 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5700 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5701 
  5702 
  5703 *** Pure ***
  5704 
  5705 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5706 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5707 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5708 
  5709 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5710 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5711 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5712 
  5713 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5714 interpretation.
  5715 
  5716 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5717 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5718 
  5719 
  5720 *** Document preparation ***
  5721 
  5722 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5723 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5724 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5725 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5726 
  5727 
  5728 *** HOL ***
  5729 
  5730 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5731 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5732 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5733 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5734 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5735 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5736 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5737 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5738 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5739 
  5740 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5741 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5742 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5743 
  5744 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5745 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5746 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5747 
  5748 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5749 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5750 
  5751 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5752 
  5753 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5754 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5755 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5756 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5757 
  5758 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5759 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5760 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5761 "mirabelle" utility.
  5762 
  5763 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5764 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5765 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5766 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5767 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5768 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5769 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5770 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5771 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5772 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5773 
  5774 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5775 procedure only.
  5776 
  5777 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5778 
  5779 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5780 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5781 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5782 that fail later.
  5783 
  5784 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5785 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5786 
  5787 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5788 the same method as the approximation method.
  5789 
  5790 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5791 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5792 series expansion.
  5793 
  5794 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5795 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5796 
  5797 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5798 reals.
  5799 
  5800 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5801 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5802 
  5803 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5804 fixpoint theorem.
  5805 
  5806 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5807   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5808     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5809   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5810     accordingly
  5811   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5812     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5813   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5814     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5815 
  5816 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5817 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5818 lattice.
  5819 
  5820 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5821 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5822 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5823 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5824 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5825 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5827 
  5828 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5829   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5830     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5831   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5832     le_inf_iff
  5833   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5834     sup_aci)
  5835   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5836   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5837   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5838     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5839     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5840     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5841     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5842     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5843     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5844     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5845     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5846     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5847     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5848   - authentic syntax for
  5849     Set.Pow
  5850     Set.image
  5851   - mere abbreviations:
  5852     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5853     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5854     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5855     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5856     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5857     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5858     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5859     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5860   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5861 
  5862 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5863 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5864 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5865 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5866 
  5867 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5868 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5869 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5872 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5873 
  5874 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5875 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5876 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5877 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5878 
  5879 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5880 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5881 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5882 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5883 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5884 
  5885 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5886 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5890 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5893 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5894 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5895 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5896 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5897 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5898 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5902     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5903     code_post       replaces    code post
  5904     etc.
  5905   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 
  5907 * Renamed methods:
  5908     sizechange -> size_change
  5909     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5910   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5913 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5914 
  5915 * Renamed theorems:
  5916     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5917     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5918     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5919     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5920     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5921   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5925 
  5926 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 
  5930 *** HOLCF ***
  5931 
  5932 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5933 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5934 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5935 
  5936 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5937 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5938 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5939 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5940 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5941 
  5942 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5943 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5944 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5945 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5946 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5947 
  5948 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5949 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5950 constructor are pre-configured.
  5951 
  5952 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5953 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5954 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5955 
  5956 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5957 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5958 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5959 as well.)
  5960 
  5961 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5962 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5963 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5964 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5965 examples.
  5966 
  5967 
  5968 *** ML ***
  5969 
  5970 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5971 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5972 
  5973 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5974 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5975 position, logical grouping etc.
  5976 
  5977 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5978 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5979 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5980 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5981 
  5982 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5983 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5984 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5985 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5986 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5987 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5988 
  5989 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5990 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5991 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5992 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5993 experiments with references.
  5994 
  5995 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5996 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5997 
  5998 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5999 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  6000 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  6001 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6002 
  6003 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6004 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6005 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6006 
  6007 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6008 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6009 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6010 
  6011 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6012 
  6013 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6015 
  6016 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6017 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6018 
  6019 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6020 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6021 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6022 
  6023 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6024 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6025 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6028 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6029 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6031 
  6032 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6033 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6034 instead of global theory.
  6035 
  6036 
  6037 *** System ***
  6038 
  6039 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6040 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6041 usedir option -q.
  6042 
  6043 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6044 also the system manual.
  6045 
  6046 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6047 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6048 
  6049 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6050 this is always enabled.
  6051 
  6052 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6053 
  6054 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6055 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6056 currently supported on Linux only.
  6057 
  6058 
  6059 
  6060 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6061 --------------------------------
  6062 
  6063 *** General ***
  6064 
  6065 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6066 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6067 
  6068   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6069     "isatool."
  6070 
  6071   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6072     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6073 
  6074   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6075     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6076 
  6077 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6078 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6079 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6080 
  6081 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6082 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6083 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6084 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6085 via "isabelle emacs".
  6086 
  6087 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6088 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6089 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6090 
  6091 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6092 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6093 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6094 
  6095 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6096 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6097 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6098 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6099 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6100 
  6101 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6102 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6103 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6104 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6105 
  6106 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6107 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6108 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 *** Pure ***
  6112 
  6113 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6114 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6115 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6116 
  6117 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6118 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6119 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6120 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6121 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6122 
  6123 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6124 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6125 useful in locale declarations.
  6126 
  6127 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6128 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6129 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6130 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6131 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6132 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6133 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6134 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6135 no longer generated.
  6136 
  6137 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6138 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6139 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6140 
  6141 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6142 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6143 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6144 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6145 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6146 
  6147 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6148 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6149 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6150 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6151 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6152 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6153 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6154 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6155 
  6156 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6157 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6158 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6159 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6160 
  6161 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6162 
  6163 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6164 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6165 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6166 
  6167 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6168 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6169 
  6170 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6171 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6172 in HOL, write
  6173 
  6174     class foo = ...
  6175 
  6176 instead of
  6177 
  6178     class foo = type + ...
  6179 
  6180 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6181 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6182 
  6183 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6185 
  6186 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6187 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6188 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6189 
  6190 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6191 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6192 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6194 directly in regular applications.
  6195 
  6196 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6197 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6198 
  6199 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6200 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6201 
  6202 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6203 theory context.
  6204 
  6205 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6206 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6207 
  6208 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6209 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6210 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6211 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6212 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6213 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6214 
  6215   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6216 
  6217 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6218 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6219 normalization.
  6220 
  6221 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6222 addressing etc.
  6223 
  6224 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6225 
  6226   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6227   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6228 
  6229 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6230 
  6231   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6232      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6233      parts of the code generator framework).
  6234 
  6235   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6236      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6237      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6238 
  6239 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6240 
  6241 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6242 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6243 
  6244 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6245 patterns, e.g.
  6246 
  6247     find_consts "_ => bool"
  6248 
  6249 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  6250 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  6251 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  6252 hyphen:
  6253 
  6254     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  6255 
  6256 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  6257 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  6258 
  6259 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  6260 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  6261 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  6262 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  6263 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  6264 higher-order unification.
  6265 
  6266 
  6267 *** Document preparation ***
  6268 
  6269 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  6270 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  6271 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.