NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Mar 13 11:34:05 2014 +0100 (2014-03-13)
changeset 56135 efa24d31e595
parent 56072 31e427387ab5
child 56148 d94d6a9178b5
permissions -rw-r--r--
added ML antiquotation @{path};
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    44 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    45 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    46 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    47 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    48 to the system option "completion_limit").
    49 
    50 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    51 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    52 
    53 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    54 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    55 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    56 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    57 
    58 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    59 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    60 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Pure ***
    64 
    65 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    66 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    67 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    68 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    69 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    70 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    71 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    72 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    73 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    74 
    75 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    76 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    77 instantiated theorem.
    78 
    79 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    80 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    81 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    82 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    83 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    84 
    85   attribute_setup standard =
    86     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    87 
    88 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    89 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    90 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    91 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    92 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    93 
    94 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    95 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    96 differently).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** HOL ***
   100 
   101 * HOL-Word:
   102   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   103   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   104   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   105   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   106   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   107 
   108 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   110 
   111 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   112 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   118 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   121   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   122   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   123   Theory renamings:
   124     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   125     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   126     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   127     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   128     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   129     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   130     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   131     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   132     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   133     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   134     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   135     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   136     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   137     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   138     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   139     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   140     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   141     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   142     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   143     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   144     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   145     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   146   New theories:
   147     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   148     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   149     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   150     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   151     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   152   Discontinued theories:
   153     BNF/BNF.thy
   154     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   155   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * New datatype package:
   158   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   159   * Renamed commands:
   160       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   161       primrec_new ~> primrec
   162       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   163     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   165     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   166     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   168     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   169     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Old datatype package:
   172   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   173     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   174     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   176     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   180   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   181   datatype package.
   182   Renamed constants:
   183     Option.set ~> set_option
   184     Option.map ~> map_option
   185     option_rel ~> rel_option
   186     option_rec ~> case_option
   187   Renamed theorems:
   188     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   189     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   190     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   191     option.recs ~> option.case
   192     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   193     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   194     map.simps ~> list.map
   195     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   196     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   197     the.simps ~> option.sel
   198   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   201     sum_map ~> map_sum
   202     map_pair ~> map_prod
   203     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   204     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   205     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   206     set_rel ~> rel_set
   207     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   208     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   209     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   210     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   211 
   212 * New theory:
   213     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   214 
   215 * Theory reorganizations:
   216   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   217 
   218 * Sledgehammer:
   219   - New option:
   220       smt_proofs
   221   - Renamed options:
   222       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   223       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   224     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Metis:
   227   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   228     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   231 
   232 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   235 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   236 
   237 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   238 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   239 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   240 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   241 
   242 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   246 with the given constants.
   247 
   248 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   249 
   250 Fact consolidations:
   251     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   252     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   253     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   254     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   255     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   256     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   257     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   258     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   259     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   260     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   261     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   262     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   263     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   264     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   265     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   266     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   267     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   268     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   269     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   270     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   271     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   272     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   273     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   274     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   275     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   276     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   277     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   278     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   279     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   280     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   281     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   282     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   283     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   284     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   285     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   286     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   287     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   288     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   289     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   290     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   291 
   292 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   293 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   294 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   295 
   296 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   297 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   298 
   299 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   300 
   301 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   302 
   303 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   310 operations on records.
   311 
   312 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   316     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   320     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   321     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   325   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   326   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   327   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   328     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   329   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   330     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   331   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   332 INCOMPATBILITY.
   333 
   334 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   335     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   336     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   337     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   338     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341 * Fact name consolidation:
   342     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   343     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   344     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   345     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   346     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   350 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   351 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   352 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   353 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   354 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   355 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   356 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357 
   358 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   359 
   360 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   361 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   362 
   363 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   364 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   365 
   366 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   367 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   368 or the brute way with
   369 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   370 
   371 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   372 
   373 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   374 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375 
   376 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   377 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   378 
   379 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   380 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   381 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY
   383 
   384 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   385 
   386 * Nitpick:
   387   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   388     infinite values.
   389   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   390     "Rep_Integ".
   391   - Removed "std" option.
   392   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   393     "hide_types".
   394 
   395 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   396   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   397   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   398     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   399     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   400     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   401     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   402     intervals.
   403 
   404 
   405 *** Scala ***
   406 
   407 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   408 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   409 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   410 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   411 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   412 
   413 
   414 *** ML ***
   415 
   416 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   417 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   418 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   419 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   420 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   421 of schematic variables.
   422 
   423 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   424 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   426 formal context.
   427 
   428 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   429 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   430 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   431 actually belongs to it).
   432 
   433 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   434 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   435 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   436 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   437 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   438 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   439 
   440 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations (to
   441 make it more close to the analogous Thy_Output.antiquotation).  See
   442 ML_Context.antiquotation and structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor
   443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   446 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   447 
   448 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   449 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   450 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   451 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   452 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   453 
   454 
   455 *** System ***
   456 
   457 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   458 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   459 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   460 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   462 
   463 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   464 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   465 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   466 
   467 
   468 
   469 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   470 -------------------------------------
   471 
   472 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   473 
   474 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   475 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   476 
   477 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   478 after edits surrounding the command location.
   479 
   480 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   481 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   482 e.g. out-of-memory).
   483 
   484 
   485 *** System ***
   486 
   487 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   488 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   489 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   490 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   491 
   492 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   493 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   494 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   495 
   496 
   497 
   498 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   499 -------------------------------------
   500 
   501 *** General ***
   502 
   503 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   504 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   505 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   508 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   509 
   510 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   511 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   512 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   513 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   514 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   515 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   516 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   517 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   518 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   519 syntax.
   520 
   521 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   522 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   525 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   526 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   527 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   528 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   529 
   530 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   534 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   535 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   536 
   537 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   538 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   539 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   540 
   541 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   542 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   543 
   544 
   545 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   546 
   547 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   548 Documentation panel.
   549 
   550 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   551 documentation.
   552 
   553 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   554 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   555 
   556 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   557 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   558 normal editing and checking process.
   559 
   560 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   561 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   562 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   563 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   564 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   565 
   566 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   567 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   568 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   569 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   570 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   571 
   572 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   573 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   574 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   575 
   576 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   577 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   578 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   579 to resolve conflict.
   580 
   581 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   582 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   583 
   584 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   585 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   586 such command executions while editing.
   587 
   588 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   589 document content.
   590 
   591 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   592 toplevel theorem statements.
   593 
   594 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   595 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   596 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   597 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   598 
   599 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   600 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   601 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   602 
   603 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   604 / Global Options / Appearance".
   605 
   606 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   607 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   608 
   609 
   610 *** Pure ***
   611 
   612 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   613 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   614 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   615 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   616 details.
   617 
   618 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   619 
   620 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   621 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   622 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   623 
   624 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   628 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   629 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   630 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   633 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   634 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   637 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   638 
   639 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   640 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   641 situations.
   642 
   643 
   644 *** HOL ***
   645 
   646 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   647 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   651 
   652 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   653 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   654 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   655 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   656 
   657   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   658 
   659 * Code generator:
   660   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   661     'code_instance'.
   662   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   663     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   664 
   665 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   666 examples.
   667 
   668 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   669 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   670 to distinguish both when desired.
   671 
   672 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   673 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   674 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   675 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   678 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   679 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   680 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   681 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   682 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   685 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   686 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   687 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   688 
   689 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   690 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   691 
   692 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   693 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   694 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   695 
   696 * Lifting:
   697   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   698     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   699       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   700       transfer rules
   701     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   702       correspondence relation can be generated
   703     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   704       parametricity
   705     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   706   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   707   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   708     copies
   709   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   710     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   711     anonymous context)
   712   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   713     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   714   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   715     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   716   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   717     INCOMPATIBILITY
   718 
   719 * Transfer:
   720   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   721     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   722   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   723   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   724     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   725   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   726 
   727 * Reification and reflection:
   728   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   729     "Reification".
   730   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   731   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   735   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   736     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   737     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   738   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   739     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   740   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   741     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   742     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   743     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   744     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   745     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   746     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   747     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   748   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   749     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   750   - Fact renames:
   751       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   752       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   756 
   757 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   758 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   759 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   763 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   764 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   765 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   766 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   767 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   768 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   769 lemmas.
   770 
   771 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   772 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   773 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   776 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   777 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   778 
   779 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   780 top and bottom elements.
   781 
   782 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   783 
   784 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   785 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   786 
   787  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   788    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   789    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   790 
   791  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   792    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   793    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   794 
   795    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   796    arbitrary filter.
   797 
   798  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   799    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   800    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   801    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   802    on a compact set.
   803 
   804  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   805    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   806    linear_continuum_topology).
   807 
   808  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   809    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   810    on all sequences converging to x.
   811 
   812  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   813    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   814    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   815    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   816    left or right.
   817 
   818  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   819 
   820      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   821 
   822  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   823    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   824 
   825  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   826    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   827    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   828    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   829    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   830    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   831 
   832  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   833 
   834    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   835 
   836    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   837      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   838 
   839    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   840 
   841    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   842      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   843 
   844    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   845 
   846    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   847 
   848  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   849 
   850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * Nitpick:
   853   - Added option "spy".
   854   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   855 
   856 * Sledgehammer:
   857   - Renamed option:
   858       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   859     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   861   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   862   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   863 
   864 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   865 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   866 
   867 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   868   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   869   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   870     generated code.
   871   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   872   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   873   - Fact renames:
   874     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   875     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   876     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   877 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   880 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   881 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   882 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   883 
   884 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   885 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   886 
   887 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   890 
   891     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   892     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   893 
   894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   897 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   898 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   899 
   900 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   901 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   902 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   903 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * HOL-BNF:
   906   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   907     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   908     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   909     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   910   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   911     coinduct).
   912   - Renamed keywords:
   913     data ~> datatype_new
   914     codata ~> codatatype
   915     bnf_def ~> bnf
   916   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   917     discs ~> disc
   918     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   919     map_id' ~> map_id
   920     sels ~> sel
   921     set_map' ~> set_map
   922     sets ~> set
   923 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 
   926 *** ML ***
   927 
   928 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   929 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   930 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   931 Examples.thy in particular.
   932 
   933 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   934 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   935 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   936 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   937 
   938 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   939 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   940 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   941 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   943 
   944 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   945 
   946     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   947     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   948 
   949 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   952 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   953 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   954 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   955 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   956 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   957 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   958 
   959 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   960 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   961 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   962 clasets separately from the context.
   963 
   964 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   965 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   966 
   967 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   968 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   969 
   970 
   971 *** System ***
   972 
   973 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   974 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   977 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   980 settings variable.
   981 
   982 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   983 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   984 always pdf.
   985 
   986 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   987 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   988 
   989 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   990 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   991 
   992 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   993 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   994 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   995 
   996 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   997 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   998 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   999 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1000 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1001 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1002 
  1003 
  1004 
  1005 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1006 -----------------------------------
  1007 
  1008 *** General ***
  1009 
  1010 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1011 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1012 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1013 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1014 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1015 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1016 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1017 
  1018 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1019 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1020 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1021 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1022 
  1023 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1024 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1025 
  1026 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1027 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1028 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1029 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1030 dependencies properly.
  1031 
  1032 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1033 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1034 
  1035 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1036 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1037 
  1038 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1039 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1040 and "class ... context ...".
  1041 
  1042 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1043 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1044 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1045 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1046 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1047 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1048 
  1049 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1050 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1051 
  1052 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1053 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1054 
  1055 
  1056 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1057 
  1058 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1059 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1060 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1061 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1062 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1063 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1064 
  1065 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1066 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1067 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1068 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1069 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1070 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1071 
  1072 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1073 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1074 browser on demand.
  1075 
  1076 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1077 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1078 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1079 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1080 
  1081 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1082 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1083 
  1084 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1085 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1086 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1087 potentially infinite message streams.
  1088 
  1089 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1090 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1091 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1092 schemes.
  1093 
  1094 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1095 symbols.
  1096 
  1097 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1098 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1099 
  1100 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1101 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1102 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1103 
  1104 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1105 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1106 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1107 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1108 
  1109 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1110 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1111 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1112 
  1113 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1114 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1115 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1116 Isabelle distribution.
  1117 
  1118 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1119 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1120 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1121 
  1122 
  1123 *** Pure ***
  1124 
  1125 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1126 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1127 
  1128 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1129 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1130 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1133 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1134 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1135 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1136 with some care where this is really required.
  1137 
  1138 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1139 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1140 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1141 
  1142   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1143 
  1144 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1145 a Hasse diagram.
  1146 
  1147 
  1148 *** HOL ***
  1149 
  1150 * Sledgehammer:
  1151 
  1152   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1153     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1154   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1155   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1156   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1157   - Renamed options:
  1158       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1159       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1160       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1161       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1162 
  1163 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1164 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1165 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1166 
  1167 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * Lifting:
  1171   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1172   - quot_del attribute
  1173   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1174 
  1175 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1176 expressions.
  1177 
  1178 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1179 pointfree expressions.
  1180 
  1181 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1182 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1183 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1184 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1188 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1189 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1190 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1191 accordingly.
  1192 
  1193 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1194 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1197 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1200 
  1201 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1202 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1203 
  1204 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1205 
  1206 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1207 
  1208   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1209   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1210 
  1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1214 
  1215   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1216   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1217 
  1218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1221 
  1222   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1223     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1224     output f x converges to G.
  1225 
  1226   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1227     infinity (at_bot).
  1228 
  1229   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1230     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1231 
  1232   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1233     at_top".
  1234 
  1235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1238 lattice type classes.
  1239 
  1240 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1241 
  1242     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1243     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1244 
  1245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1246 
  1247 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1248 changes as follows.
  1249 
  1250   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1251 
  1252       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1253       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1254 
  1255   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1256     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1257     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1258     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1259 
  1260   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1261     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1262     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1263 
  1264   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1265     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1266     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1267     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1268 
  1269   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1270     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1271 
  1272       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1273       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1274       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1275       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1276       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1277       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1278       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1279       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1280       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1281       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1282       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1283       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1284       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1285       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1286       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1287       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1288 
  1289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1290 
  1291 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1292 
  1293 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1294 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1295 
  1296 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1297 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1298 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1299 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1300 
  1301   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1302   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1303   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1304   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1305   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1306   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1307   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1308   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1309   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1310   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1311 
  1312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1313 
  1314 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1315 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1316 Data").
  1317 
  1318 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1319 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1320 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1321 code.
  1322 
  1323 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1324 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1325 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1329 
  1330 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1331 
  1332 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1333 
  1334   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1335   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1336 
  1337 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1338 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1339 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1340 
  1341   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1342 
  1343     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1344     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1345     cart_base i  removed
  1346     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1347 
  1348   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1349 
  1350   Renamed lemmas:
  1351 
  1352     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1353     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1354     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1355     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1356     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1357     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1358     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1359     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1360     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1361     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1362 
  1363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * HOL/Probability:
  1366 
  1367   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1368 
  1369   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1370     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1371     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1372 
  1373   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1374     projective family).
  1375 
  1376 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1377 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1378 
  1379 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1380 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1381 datatypes.
  1382 
  1383 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1384 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1385 
  1386 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1387 trees for the code generator.
  1388 
  1389 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1390 Lifting/Transfer.
  1391 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1395 
  1396 
  1397 *** Document preparation ***
  1398 
  1399 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1400 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1401 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1402 
  1403 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1404 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1405 
  1406 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1407 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1408 document/root.tex.
  1409 
  1410 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1411 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 
  1414 *** ML ***
  1415 
  1416 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1417 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1418 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1419 
  1420 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1421 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1422 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1423 
  1424 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1425 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1426 necessarily printing visible text.
  1427 
  1428 
  1429 *** System ***
  1430 
  1431 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1432 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1433 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1434 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1435 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1436 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1437 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1438 
  1439 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1440 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1441 
  1442   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1443 
  1444 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1445 
  1446 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1447 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1448 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1449 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1450 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1451 
  1452 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1453 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1454 
  1455 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1456 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1457 
  1458 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1462 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1463 version of Isabelle.
  1464 
  1465 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1466 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1467 
  1468 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1469 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1470 for home-made settings.
  1471 
  1472 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1473 
  1474 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1475 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1476 configuration.
  1477 
  1478 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1479 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1480 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1481 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1482 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1483 
  1484 
  1485 
  1486 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1487 ------------------------------
  1488 
  1489 *** General ***
  1490 
  1491 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1492 
  1493   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1494     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1495   - markup for bound variables
  1496   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1497   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1498   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1499     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1500 
  1501 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1502 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1503 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1504 
  1505 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1506 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1507 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1508 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1509 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1510 
  1511   context
  1512     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1513     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1514   begin
  1515 
  1516   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1517 
  1518   end
  1519 
  1520   thm my_trans
  1521 
  1522 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1523 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1524 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1525 
  1526 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1527 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1528 
  1529 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1530 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1531 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1532 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1533 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1534 
  1535 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1536 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1537 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1538 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1539 indices of schematic variables.
  1540 
  1541 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1542 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1543 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1544 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1545 etc. was exploited.
  1546 
  1547 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1548 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1549 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1550 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1551 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1552 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1553 
  1554 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1555 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1556 manual.
  1557 
  1558 
  1559 *** Pure ***
  1560 
  1561 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1562 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1563 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1564 
  1565 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1566 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1567 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1568 undocumented feature.)
  1569 
  1570 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1571 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1572 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1573 
  1574   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1575 
  1576   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1577     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1578 
  1579 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1580 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1581 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1582 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1583 
  1584 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1585 
  1586     num ~> num_token
  1587     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1588     xstr ~> str_token
  1589 
  1590 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1591 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1592 position information via constraints).
  1593 
  1594 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1595 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1596 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1599 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1600 
  1601 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1602 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1603 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1606 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1609 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1610 
  1611   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1612 
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1616 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1619 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1620 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1621 
  1622 
  1623 *** HOL ***
  1624 
  1625 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1626 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1627 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1628 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1629 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1630 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1631 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1632 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1633 possible.
  1634 
  1635 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1636 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1637 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1638 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1639 
  1640 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1641 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1644 
  1645 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1646 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1647 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1648 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1649 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1650 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1651 
  1652   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1653     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1654 
  1655   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1656     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1657     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1658 
  1659   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1660     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1661 
  1662   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1663     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1664     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1665 
  1666   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1667     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1668 
  1669 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1670 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1671 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1672 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1673 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1674 
  1675   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1676     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1677     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1678     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1679     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1680 
  1681     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1682     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1683 
  1684   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1685     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1686     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1687     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1688     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1689     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1690     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1691     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1692 
  1693   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1694     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1695     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1696     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1697 
  1698   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1699     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1700     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1701     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1702 
  1703   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1704     from type nat to type int.
  1705 
  1706 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1707 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1708 
  1709   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1710     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1711     type.  Example syntax:
  1712 
  1713     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1714       is List.insert
  1715 
  1716     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1717     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1718     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1719     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1720     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1721     by the package.
  1722 
  1723   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1724     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1725     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1726     code generation for each constant.
  1727 
  1728   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1729     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1730     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1731     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1732     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1733 
  1734   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1735     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1736     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1737 
  1738 * Quotient package:
  1739 
  1740   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1741     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1742 
  1743   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1744     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1745 
  1746   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1747     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1748     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1751     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1752 
  1753 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1754 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1755 
  1756 * Quickcheck:
  1757 
  1758   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1759     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1760     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1761     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1762     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1763 
  1764     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1765     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1766     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1767 
  1768     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1769     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1770 
  1771     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1772     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1773     show genuine counterexamples.
  1774 
  1775   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1776     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1777 
  1778     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1779     constructors of that type.
  1780 
  1781   - Support for multisets.
  1782 
  1783   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1784 
  1785   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1786     conjectures in a locale context.
  1787 
  1788 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1789 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1790 
  1791 * Sledgehammer:
  1792   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1793     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1794   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1795   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1796     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1797   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1798   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1799   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1800   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1801 
  1802 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1803 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1804 
  1805 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1806 
  1807 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808 
  1809 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1810 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1811 
  1812   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1813 
  1814 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1815 a list and a nat.
  1816 
  1817 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1818 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1819 
  1820 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1821 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1822 default.
  1823 
  1824 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1825 
  1826   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1827 
  1828 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1829 
  1830 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1831 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1832 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1833 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1834 one_case.
  1835 
  1836 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1837 the result of the fact expression.
  1838 
  1839 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1840 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1841 of some relation theorems:
  1842 
  1843   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1844   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1845   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1846   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1847   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1848   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1849 
  1850 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1851 
  1852 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1853 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1854 
  1855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1856 
  1857 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1858 to match the constant's name:
  1859 
  1860   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1861   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1862   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1863   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1864   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1865   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1866   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1867   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1868   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1869   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1870   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1871   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1872   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1873   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1874   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1875   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1876   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1877   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1878   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1879   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1880   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1881   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1882   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1883   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1884 
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1888 and corresponding theorem names:
  1889 
  1890   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1891 
  1892   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1893 
  1894   - Renamed theorems:
  1895 
  1896     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1897     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1898     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1899     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1900     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1901     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1902     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1903     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1904     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1905     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1906     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1907     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1908     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1909     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1910     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1911     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1912     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1913     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1914     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1915     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1916     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1917     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1918     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1919 
  1920     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1921 
  1922     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1923 
  1924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1927 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1928 
  1929   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1930   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1931   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1932   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1933   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1934   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1935   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1936   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1937   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1938   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1939   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1940   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1941   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1942   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1943   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1944   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1945   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1946   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1947   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1948   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1949   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1950 
  1951 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1952 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1957 
  1958   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1959   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1960   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1961   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1962   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1963   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1964   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1965   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1966   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1967   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1968   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1969   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1970   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1971   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1972   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1973   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1974   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1975   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1976 
  1977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1980 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1981 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1982 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1983 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1984 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1985 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1986 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1987 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1988 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1989 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1990 
  1991 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1992 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1993 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1994 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1995 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1996 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1997 
  1998 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1999 through option types.
  2000 
  2001 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2002 relations.
  2003 
  2004 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2007 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2008 
  2009   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2010   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2011   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2012   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2013   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2014   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2015   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2016   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2017   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2018   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2019   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2020   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2021   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2022   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2023   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2024   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2025   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2026   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2027   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2028   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2029   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2030   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2031   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2032   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2033   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2034   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2035   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2036   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2037   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2038   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2039   zless_le ~> less_le
  2040   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2041   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2042   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2043 
  2044 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2045 
  2046   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2047 
  2048 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2049 
  2050 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2051 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2052 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2053 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2057 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2058 
  2059 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2060 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2061 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2062 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2063 follows:
  2064 
  2065   Operations:
  2066   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2067   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2068   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2069   del -> rbt_del
  2070   delete -> rbt_delete
  2071   ins -> rbt_ins
  2072   insert -> rbt_insert
  2073   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2074   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2075   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2076   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2077   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2078   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2079   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2080   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2081   union -> rbt_union
  2082   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2083   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2084 
  2085   Lemmas:
  2086   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2087   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2088   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2089   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2090   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2091   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2092   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2093   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2094   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2095   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2096   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2097   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2098   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2099   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2100   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2101   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2102   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2103   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2104   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2105   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2106   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2107   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2108   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2109   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2110   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2111   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2112   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2113   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2114   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2115   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2116   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2117   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2118   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2119   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2120   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2121   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2122   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2123   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2124   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2125   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2126   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2127   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2128   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2129   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2130   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2131   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2132   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2133   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2134   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2135   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2136   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2137   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2138   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2139   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2140   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2141   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2142   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2143   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2144   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2145   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2146   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2147   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2148   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2149   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2150   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2151   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2152   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2153   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2154   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2155   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2156   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2157   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2158   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2159   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2160   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2161   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2162   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2163   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2164   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2165   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2166   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2167   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2168   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2169 
  2170 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2171 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2172 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174   Changed Operations:
  2175   float_abs -> abs
  2176   float_nprt -> nprt
  2177   float_pprt -> pprt
  2178   pow2 -> use powr
  2179   round_down -> float_round_down
  2180   round_up -> float_round_up
  2181   scale -> exponent
  2182 
  2183   Removed Operations:
  2184   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2185 
  2186   Renamed Lemmas:
  2187   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2188   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2189   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2190   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2191   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2192   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2193   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2194   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2195   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2196   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2197   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2198   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2199   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2200   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2201   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2202   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2203   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2204   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2205   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2206   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2207   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2208   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2209   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2210   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2211   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2212   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2213   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2214   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2215   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2216   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2217   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2218   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2219   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2220   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2221   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2222   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2223 
  2224   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2225   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2226   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2227   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2228   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2229   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2230   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2231   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2232   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2233   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2234 
  2235 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2236 association lists with distinct keys.
  2237 
  2238 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2239 annotated commands.
  2240 
  2241 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2242 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2243 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2244 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2247 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2248 instead.
  2249 
  2250   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2251   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2252   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2253   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2254   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2255   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2256   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2257   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2258   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2259   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2260   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2261   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2262   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2263   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2264   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2265   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2266   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2267   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2268   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2269   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2270   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2271   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2272   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2273   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2274   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2275   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2276   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2277   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2278   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2279   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2280   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2281   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2282   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2283   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2284   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2285   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2286   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2287   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2288   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2289   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2290   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2291 
  2292 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2293 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2294 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2295 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2296 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2297 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2298 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2299 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2300 
  2301 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2302 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2303 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2304 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2305 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2306 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2307 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2308 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2309 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2310 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2311 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2312 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314   Renamed constants:
  2315   measure -> emeasure
  2316   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2317   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2318   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2319   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2320 
  2321   Removed locales:
  2322   completeable_measure_space
  2323   finite_measure_space
  2324   finite_prob_space
  2325   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2326   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2327   finite_sigma_algebra
  2328   measure_space
  2329   pair_finite_prob_space
  2330   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2331   pair_finite_space
  2332   pair_sigma_algebra
  2333   product_sigma_algebra
  2334 
  2335   Removed constants:
  2336   conditional_space
  2337   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2338   image_space
  2339   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2340   pair_measure_generator
  2341   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2342   subvimage
  2343 
  2344   Replacement theorems:
  2345   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2346   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2347   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2348   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2349   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2350   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2351   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2352   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2353   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2354   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2355   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2356   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2357   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2358   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2359   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2360   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2361   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2362   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2363   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2364   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2365   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2366   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2367   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2368   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2369   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2370   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2371   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2372   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2373   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2374   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2375   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2376   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2377   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2378   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2379   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2380   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2381   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2382   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2383   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2384   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2385   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2386   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2387   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2388   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2389   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2390   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2391   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2392   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2393   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2394   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2395   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2396   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2397   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2398   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2399   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2400   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2401   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2402   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2403   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2404   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2405   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2406   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2407   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2408   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2409   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2410   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2411   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2412   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2413   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2414   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2415   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2416   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2417   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2418   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2419   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2420   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2421   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2422   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2423   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2424   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2425   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2426   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2427   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2428   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2429   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2430   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2431   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2432   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2433   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2434   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2435   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2436   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2437   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2438   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2439   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2440   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2441   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2442   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2443   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2444   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2445   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2446   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2447   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2448   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2449   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2450   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2451   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2452   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2453   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2454   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2455   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2456   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2457   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2458   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2459   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2460   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2461   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2462   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2463   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2464   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2465   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2466   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2467   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2468   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2469   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2470   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2471   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2472   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2473 
  2474 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2475 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2476 
  2477 
  2478 *** FOL ***
  2479 
  2480 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2481 
  2482 
  2483 *** ZF ***
  2484 
  2485 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2486 analysis.
  2487 
  2488 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2489 
  2490 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2491 
  2492 
  2493 *** ML ***
  2494 
  2495 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2496 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2497 
  2498 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2499 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2500 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2501 
  2502 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2503 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2504 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2505 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2506 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2507 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2508 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2509 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2510 
  2511 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2512 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2513 
  2514 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2515 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2516 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2517 
  2518 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2519 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2522 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2523 context as well.
  2524 
  2525 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2526 
  2527   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2528   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2529   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2530   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2531   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2532   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2533   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2534   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2535   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2536   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2537   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2538   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2539 
  2540 
  2541 *** System ***
  2542 
  2543 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2544 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2545 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2546 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2547 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2548 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2549 the generic user home was intended.
  2550 
  2551 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2552 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2553 
  2554 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2555 (not just JRE).
  2556 
  2557 
  2558 
  2559 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2560 ------------------------------------
  2561 
  2562 *** General ***
  2563 
  2564 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2565 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2566 
  2567   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2568     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2569     files for checking).
  2570 
  2571   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2572     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2573     positions.
  2574 
  2575   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2576     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2577     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2578 
  2579   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2580     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2581     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2582 
  2583   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2584     cores.
  2585 
  2586   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2587     versions (garbage collection).
  2588 
  2589 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2590 including some remaining limitations.
  2591 
  2592 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2593 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2594 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2595 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2596 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2600 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2601 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2602 
  2603 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2604 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2605 usedir option -Q.
  2606 
  2607 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2608 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2609 
  2610   long_names   ~> names_long
  2611   short_names  ~> names_short
  2612   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2613 
  2614 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2615 
  2616   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2617 
  2618 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2619 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2620 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2621 
  2622 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2623 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2624 
  2625 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2626   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2627   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2628   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2629     "Classical Reasoner".
  2630 
  2631 
  2632 *** HOL ***
  2633 
  2634 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2635 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2638 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2639 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2640 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2641 class complete_linorder.
  2642 
  2643 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2644 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2645 
  2646 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2647 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2648 
  2649   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2650   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2651   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2652   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2653   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2654   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2655   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2656   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2657   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2658   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2659   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2660 
  2661 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2662 
  2663   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2664   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2665   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2666   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2667   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2668   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2669   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2670   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2671   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2672   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2673   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2674   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2675   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2676   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2677   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2678   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2679 
  2680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684 
  2685 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2686 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2687 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2688 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2691 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2692 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2696 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2697 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2698 
  2699 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2700 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2701 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2704 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2705 
  2706 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2707 
  2708     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2709     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2710 
  2711 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2712 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2715 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2718 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2719 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2720 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2723   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2724   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2725   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2726   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2727   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2728   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2729 
  2730 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2731 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2732 
  2733   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2734   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2735   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2736   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2737   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2738   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2739   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2740   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2741   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2742   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2743   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2744   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2745   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2746   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2747   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2748   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2749   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2750   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2751   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2752   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2753   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2754   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2755   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2756   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2757   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2758   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2759   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2760   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2761   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2762   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2763   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2764   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2765   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2766   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2767   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2768   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2769   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2770   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2771   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2772   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2773   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2774   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2775   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2776   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2777   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2778   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2779   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2780   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2781   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2782   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2783   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2784   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2785   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2786   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2787   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2788   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2789   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2790   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2791   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2792   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2793   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2794   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2795   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2796   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2797   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2798   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2799   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2800   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2801   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2802   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2803   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2804   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2805   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2806   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2807   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2808   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2809   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2810   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2811   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2812   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2813   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2814   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2815 
  2816 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2817 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2818 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2819 
  2820 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2821 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2822 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2823 
  2824 * Code generation:
  2825 
  2826   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2827     characters in the target language.
  2828 
  2829   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2830     instead.
  2831 
  2832   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2833 
  2834   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2835     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2836 
  2837       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2838 
  2839 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2842 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2843 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2844 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2845 syntax.
  2846 
  2847 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2848 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2849 
  2850 * Nitpick:
  2851   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2852   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2853   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2854     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Sledgehammer:
  2857   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2858   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2859     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2860   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2861     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2862   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2863     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2865     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2866   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2867     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * Metis:
  2870   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2871   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 * Command 'try':
  2875   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2876     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2878     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2879 
  2880 * Quickcheck:
  2881   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2882     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2883   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2884     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2885   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2886     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2887     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2888     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2889   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2890     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2891 
  2892 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2893 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2894 
  2895 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2896 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2897 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2898 
  2899 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2900 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2902 
  2903 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2904 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2907 arithmetic.
  2908 
  2909 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2910 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2911 and lattice type classes.
  2912 
  2913 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2914 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2915 
  2916 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2917 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2918 
  2919 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2920 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2921 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2922 
  2923   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2924   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2925   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2926   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2929 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2930 constants:
  2931 
  2932   type inat   ~> type enat
  2933   Fin         ~> enat
  2934   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2935   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2936   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2937 
  2938 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2939 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2942 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2943 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2944 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2945 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2946 
  2947 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2948 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2949 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2950 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2951 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2952 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2953 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2954 
  2955   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2956   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2957   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2958   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2959 
  2960 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2961 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2962 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2965   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2966   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2967   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2968   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2969   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2970   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2971   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2972   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2973   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2974   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2975   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2976   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2977   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2978   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2979   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2980   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2981   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2982   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2983   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2984   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2985   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2986   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2987   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2988   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2989   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2990   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2991   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2992   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2993   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2994   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2995   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2996   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2997   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2998   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2999   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3000   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3001   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3002   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3003   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3004   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3005   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3006   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3007   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3008   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3009   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3010   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3011   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3012   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3013   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3014   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3015 
  3016 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3017   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3018   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3019   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3020   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3021     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3026   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3027   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3028   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3029   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3030   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3031   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3032   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3033   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3034   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3035   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3036   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3037   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3038   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3039   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3040   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3041   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3042   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3043   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3044   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3045   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3046   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3047   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3048   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3049   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3050 
  3051 
  3052 *** Document preparation ***
  3053 
  3054 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3055 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3056 same.
  3057 
  3058 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3059 result.
  3060 
  3061 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3062 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3063 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3064 
  3065 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3066 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3067 
  3068 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3069 like this:
  3070 
  3071   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3072   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3073 
  3074 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3075 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3076 layouts.
  3077 
  3078 
  3079 *** ML ***
  3080 
  3081 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3082 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3083 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3084 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3085 under external program control.
  3086 
  3087 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3088 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3089 
  3090 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3091 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3092 (better known as Proof General).
  3093 
  3094 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3095 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3096 
  3097 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3098 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3099 
  3100 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3101 (including quotes etc.).
  3102 
  3103 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3104 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3105 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3106 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3107 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3108 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3109 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3110 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3111 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3112 
  3113 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3114 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3115 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3116 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3117 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3118 
  3119 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3120 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3121 
  3122 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3123 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3124 
  3125 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3126 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3127 
  3128 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3129 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3130 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3131 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3132 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3133 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3134 proper Proof.context.
  3135 
  3136 
  3137 *** System ***
  3138 
  3139 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3140 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3141 
  3142 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3143 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3144 
  3145 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3146 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3147 
  3148   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3149   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3150   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3151   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3152   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3153 
  3154 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3155 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3158 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3159 example:
  3160 
  3161   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3162 
  3163 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3164 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3165 
  3166 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3167 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3168 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3169 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3170 
  3171 
  3172 
  3173 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3174 ----------------------------------
  3175 
  3176 *** General ***
  3177 
  3178 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3179 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3180 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3181 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3182 like this:
  3183 
  3184   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3185 
  3186 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3187 
  3188 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3189 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3190 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3191 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3192 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3193 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3194 
  3195 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3196 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3197 the following package declarations:
  3198 
  3199   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3200   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3201 
  3202 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3203 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3204 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3205 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3206 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3207 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3208 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3209 
  3210 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3211 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3212 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3213 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3214 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3215 
  3216 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3217 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3218 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3219 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3220 
  3221 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3222 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3223 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3224 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3225 
  3226   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3227 
  3228   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3229   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3230   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3231   show_types                    show_types
  3232   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3233   show_consts                   show_consts
  3234   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3235 
  3236   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3237   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3238   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3239 
  3240   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3241   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3242 
  3243   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3244 
  3245   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3246   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3247   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3248   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3249   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3250 
  3251 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3252 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3253 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3254 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3255 
  3256 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3260   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3261 
  3262 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3263 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3264 float_token.
  3265 
  3266 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3267 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3271 DejaVu Sans.
  3272 
  3273 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3274 
  3275 
  3276 *** Pure ***
  3277 
  3278 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3279 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3280 time.
  3281 
  3282 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3283 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3286 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3289 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3290 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3291 command already provided this functionality.
  3292 
  3293 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3294 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3295 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3296 without interpretations.
  3297 
  3298 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3299 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3300 
  3301 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3302 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3303 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3304 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3305 
  3306 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3307 'definition' instead.
  3308 
  3309 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3310 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3311 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3312 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3313 
  3314 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3315 constructors.
  3316 
  3317 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3318 the local file system.
  3319 
  3320 
  3321 *** HOL ***
  3322 
  3323 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3324 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3325 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3326 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3327 
  3328   declare [[coercion f]]
  3329 
  3330 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3331 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3332 
  3333   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3334 
  3335 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3336 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3337 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3338 other theories like this:
  3339 
  3340   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3341 
  3342 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3343 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3344 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3345 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3346 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3347 for examples.
  3348 
  3349 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3350 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3353 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3354 
  3355 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3356 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3357 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3358 
  3359 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3360 functorial structure of types.
  3361 
  3362 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3363 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3364 
  3365 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3366 languages.
  3367 
  3368 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3369 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3373 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3376 combinators any longer.
  3377 
  3378 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3379 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3380 
  3381 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3382 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3383 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3384 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3385 
  3386   record 'a foo = ...
  3387   ...
  3388   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3389 
  3390 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3391 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3395 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3396 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3397 
  3398 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3399 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3400 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3401 
  3402 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3403 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3406 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3407 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3408 independently.
  3409 
  3410 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3411 counter example search.
  3412 
  3413 * Sledgehammer:
  3414   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3415     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3416     sledgehammer").
  3417   - Renamed commands:
  3418     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3419     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3420     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422   - Renamed options:
  3423     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3424     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3425     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3426     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3427     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Nitpick:
  3430   - Renamed options:
  3431     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3432     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3433     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3435   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3436   - Added "whack" option.
  3437   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3438   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3439   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3440   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3441     higher cardinalities.
  3442   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3443 
  3444 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3445 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3446 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3447 
  3448     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3449 
  3450 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3451 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3452 
  3453 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3454 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3455 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3456 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3457 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3458 "smt_solver".
  3459 
  3460 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3461 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3462 
  3463 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3464 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3465 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3466 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3469   - Renamed:
  3470     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3471     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3472     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473   - Added:
  3474     smt_verbose
  3475     smt_random_seed
  3476     smt_datatypes
  3477     smt_infer_triggers
  3478     smt_monomorph_limit
  3479     cvc3_options
  3480     remote_cvc3_options
  3481     remote_z3_options
  3482     yices_options
  3483 
  3484 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3485 header.
  3486 
  3487 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3488 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3489 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3490 
  3491   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3492 
  3493 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3496 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3501 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3504 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3505 
  3506 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3507 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3510 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3511 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3519 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3522 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3523 for congruent(2)).
  3524 
  3525 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3526 
  3527   types
  3528     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3529     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3530 
  3531   constants
  3532     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3533     True ~> HOL.True
  3534     False ~> HOL.False
  3535     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3536     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3537     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3538     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3539     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3540     The ~> HOL.The
  3541     All ~> HOL.All
  3542     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3543     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3544     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3545     If ~> HOL.If
  3546     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3547     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3548     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3549     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3550     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3551     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3552     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3553     op : ~> Set.member
  3554     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3555 
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3559 
  3560     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3561     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3562     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3563     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3564     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3565     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3566     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3567     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3568 
  3569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * More stylized fact names:
  3572 
  3573   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3574   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3575   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3576   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3577 
  3578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3581 
  3582   constants
  3583     null ~> List.null
  3584 
  3585   facts
  3586     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3587     null_empty ~> null_def
  3588 
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3590 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3591 generation.
  3592 
  3593 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3594 Haskell code.
  3595 
  3596 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3597 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3598 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3601 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3604 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3605 
  3606 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3607 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3608 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3611 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3617 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3618 referred to by its qualified name.
  3619 
  3620   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3621   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3622   product ~>  Enum.product
  3623 
  3624 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3625 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3629 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3630 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3634 sort_key.
  3635 
  3636 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3640 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3641 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3642 
  3643   types
  3644     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3645               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3646               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3647         (depends on your needs)
  3648 
  3649   constants
  3650      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3651      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3652      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3653 
  3654 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3655 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3656 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3657 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3660 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3661 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3662 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3663 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3669 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3670 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3674 
  3675 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3676 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3677 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3678 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3679 compatibility.
  3680 
  3681 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3682 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3683 
  3684 
  3685 *** HOLCF ***
  3686 
  3687 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3688 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3689 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3693 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3694 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3697   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3698   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3699 
  3700 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3701 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3702 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3705 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3706 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3707 domain definition now works:
  3708 
  3709   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3710 
  3711 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3712 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3713 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3714 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3715 
  3716   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3717     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3718 
  3719   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3720 
  3721 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3722 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3723 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3726 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3729 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3730 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3731 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3732 
  3733 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3734 
  3735 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3743 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3744 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3745 
  3746 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3747 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3748 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3751 still supported as an input translation.
  3752 
  3753 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3754 
  3755   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3756   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3757   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3758   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3759   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3760   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3761   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3762 
  3763 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3764 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3767   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3768   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3769   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3770   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3771   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3772 
  3773 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3774 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3777 
  3778   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3779   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3780   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3781   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3782 
  3783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3786 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3789 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3792   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3793   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3794   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3795   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3796   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3797   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3798   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3799   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3800   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3801   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3802   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3803   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3804   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3805   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3806   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3807   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3808   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3809   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3810   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3811 
  3812 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3815   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3816   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3817   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3818   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3819   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3820   box_less             ~> box_below
  3821   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3822   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3823   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3824   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3825   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3826   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3827   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3828   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3829   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3830   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3831   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3832   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3833   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3834   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3835   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3836   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3837   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3838   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3839   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3840   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3841   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3842   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3843   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3844   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3845   up_less              ~> up_below
  3846   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3847   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3848   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3849   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3850   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3851   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3852   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3853   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3854   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3855   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3856   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3857   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3858   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3859 
  3860 
  3861 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3862 
  3863 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3864 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 
  3867 *** ML ***
  3868 
  3869 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3870 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3871 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3872 
  3873 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3874 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3875 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3876 
  3877 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3878 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3879 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3880 
  3881 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3882 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3883 
  3884 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3885 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3886 
  3887 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3888 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3889 
  3890 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3891 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3892 
  3893 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3894 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3895 almost all situations.
  3896 
  3897 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3898 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3899 Isabelle/ML.
  3900 
  3901 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3902 meaning.
  3903 
  3904 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3905 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3906 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3907 
  3908 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3909 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3910 
  3911 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3912 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3913 
  3914 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3915 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3916 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3917 
  3918 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3919 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3920 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3921 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3922 configuration options.
  3923 
  3924 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3925 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3926 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3927 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3928 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3929 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3930 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3931 
  3932 
  3933 
  3934 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3935 ---------------------------------
  3936 
  3937 *** General ***
  3938 
  3939 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3940 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3941 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3942 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3943 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3944 their full internal name.
  3945 
  3946 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3947 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3948 Some hints on upgrading:
  3949 
  3950   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3951     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3952     which are independent of this issue.
  3953 
  3954   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3955     provides the following special forms:
  3956 
  3957       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3958       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3959       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3960 
  3961     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3962     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3963     extra variables".
  3964 
  3965     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3966     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3967     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3968     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3969     "logic".
  3970 
  3971   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3972     antiquotations:
  3973 
  3974       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3975       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3976       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3977       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3978 
  3979   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3980     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3981     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3982     antiquotations.
  3983 
  3984 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3985 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3986 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3987 diagnose syntax problems.
  3988 
  3989 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3990 
  3991 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3992 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3993 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3994 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3995 
  3996 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3997 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3998 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3999 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4002 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4003 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4004 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4005 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4008 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4009 
  4010 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4011 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4012 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4013 
  4014   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4015 
  4016 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4017 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4018 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4019 
  4020 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4021 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4025 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4026 
  4027 
  4028 *** Pure ***
  4029 
  4030 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4031 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4032 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4033 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4034 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4035 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4036 inspect proof terms.
  4037 
  4038 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4039 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4040 are added internally.  For example:
  4041 
  4042   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4043 
  4044 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4045 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4046 
  4047 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4050 'class' instead.
  4051 
  4052 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4053 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4057 invariants.
  4058 
  4059 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4060 user space functionality any longer.
  4061 
  4062 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4063 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4065 
  4066 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4067 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4068 
  4069 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4070 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4071 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4072 
  4073 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4074 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4075 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4076 
  4077 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4078 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 
  4081 *** HOL ***
  4082 
  4083 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4084 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4085 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4086 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4087 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4088 
  4089 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4090 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4091 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4092 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4093 
  4094   fun
  4095     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4096   where
  4097     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4098 
  4099   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4100     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4101 
  4102   quotient_definition
  4103     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4104 
  4105 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4106 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4107 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4108 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4109 
  4110 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4111 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4112 
  4113 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4114 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4115 
  4116 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4118 
  4119 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4120 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4121 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4122 
  4123 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4124 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4125 
  4126 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4133 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4136 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4137 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4140   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4141   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4142   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4143   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4144   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4145   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4146   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4147   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4148   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4149   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4150   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4151   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4152   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4153   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4154   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4155   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4156   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4157   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4158   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4159   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4160   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4161   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4162   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4163   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4164   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4165   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4166   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4167   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4168   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4169 
  4170 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4171 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4172 
  4173 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4174 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4175 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4176 
  4177 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4178 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4179 
  4180 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4181 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4184 
  4185 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4186 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4189 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4192 
  4193 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4194 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4195 
  4196 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4197 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4198 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4199 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4202   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4203   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4204   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4206 
  4207 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4208 lattices):
  4209 
  4210     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4211     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4212 
  4213     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4214 
  4215     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4216     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4217     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4218     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4219     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4220     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4221     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4222     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4223     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4224     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4225     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4226     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4227     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4228 
  4229     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4230     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4231     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4232     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4233     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4234     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4235     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4236     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4237     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4238     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4239     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4240     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4241     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4242     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4243     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4244     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4245     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4246     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4247 
  4248   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4249   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4250 
  4251     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4252     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4253     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4254     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4255     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4256 
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Refined field classes:
  4260   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4261     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4262     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4263   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4267   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4268   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4269   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4270     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4271   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4272     equal_neg_zero.
  4273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4276 sets to lattices:
  4277 
  4278   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4279   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4280   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4281   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4282   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4283   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4284   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4285   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4286   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4287   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4288 
  4289 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4290 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4291 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4292 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4293 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4294 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4297 multiset order:
  4298 
  4299   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4300     <= and <;
  4301   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4302     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4303     multiset_order;
  4304   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4305     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4306     generation;
  4307   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4308     if needed.
  4309 
  4310 Renamed:
  4311 
  4312   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4313   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4314   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4315 
  4316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4319 
  4320 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4321 
  4322 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4323 
  4324 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4325 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4326 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328   Constants:
  4329   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4330   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4331   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4332   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4333   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4334   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4335   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4336   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4337   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4338   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4339   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4340   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4341   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4342 
  4343   Lemmas:
  4344   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4345   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4346   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4347   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4348   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4349   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4350   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4351   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4352   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4353   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4354   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4355   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4356   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4357 
  4358 * Sledgehammer:
  4359   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4360     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4361     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4362     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4363     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4364     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4367   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4368     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4369   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4370     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4371     is still experimental.)
  4372   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4373     full-typed mode.
  4374   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4375 
  4376 * Nitpick:
  4377   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4378   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4379   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4380     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4381   - Added support for quotient types.
  4382   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4383     constructs.
  4384   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4385     "termination" proofs).
  4386   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4387   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4388   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4389   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4390     record getters.
  4391   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4392   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4393   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4394   - Added "atoms" option.
  4395   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4396     problems.
  4397   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4398     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4399     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4401     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4402   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4405   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4406   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4407   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4408   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4409   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4410   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4411   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4412   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4413   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 
  4416 *** HOLCF ***
  4417 
  4418 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4419 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4420 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4423 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4424 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4425 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4428 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4429 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4430 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4431 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4434 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4435 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4438 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4439 
  4440   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4441   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4442 
  4443 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4444 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4447   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4448   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4449   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4450   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4451 
  4452 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4453 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4456   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4457   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4458 
  4459 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4460 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4464 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4469 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4470 
  4471 
  4472 *** ML ***
  4473 
  4474 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4475 
  4476     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4477     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4478 
  4479     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4480     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4481     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4482     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4483 
  4484     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4485     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4486     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4487 
  4488 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4489 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4490 
  4491 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4492 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4493 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4494 
  4495 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4496 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4497 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4498 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4499 
  4500 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4501 the context or even global references.
  4502 
  4503 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4504 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4505 
  4506 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4507 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4508 
  4509   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4510   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4511   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4512   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4513   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4514   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4515   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4516   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4517   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4518   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4519 
  4520 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4521 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4522 
  4523 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4524 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4525 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4526 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4527 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4528 
  4529 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4530 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4531 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4532 Theory_Data version.
  4533 
  4534 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4535 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4536 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4537 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4538 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4539 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4540 explicitly in rare situations.
  4541 
  4542 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4543 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545 
  4546 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4547 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4550 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4551 quite rare).
  4552 
  4553 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4554 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4557 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4558 terms.
  4559 
  4560 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4561 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4562 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4563 
  4564 
  4565 *** System ***
  4566 
  4567 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4568 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4569 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4570 
  4571 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4572 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4573 respectively.
  4574 
  4575 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4576 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4577 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4578 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4579 
  4580   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4581 
  4582 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4583 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4584 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4585 component.
  4586 
  4587 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4588 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4589 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4590 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4591 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4592 the user for manual installation.
  4593 
  4594 
  4595 
  4596 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4597 -------------------------------------
  4598 
  4599 *** General ***
  4600 
  4601 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4602 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 *** Pure ***
  4606 
  4607 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4608 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4609 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4610 
  4611 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4612 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4613 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4614 
  4615 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4616 interpretation.
  4617 
  4618 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4619 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 
  4622 *** Document preparation ***
  4623 
  4624 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4625 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4626 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4627 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4628 
  4629 
  4630 *** HOL ***
  4631 
  4632 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4633 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4634 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4635 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4636 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4637 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4638 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4639 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4640 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4641 
  4642 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4643 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4644 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4645 
  4646 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4647 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4648 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4649 
  4650 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4651 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4652 
  4653 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4654 
  4655 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4656 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4657 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4658 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4659 
  4660 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4661 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4662 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4663 "mirabelle" utility.
  4664 
  4665 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4666 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4667 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4668 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4669 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4670 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4671 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4672 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4673 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4674 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4675 
  4676 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4677 procedure only.
  4678 
  4679 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4680 
  4681 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4682 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4683 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4684 that fail later.
  4685 
  4686 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4687 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4688 
  4689 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4690 the same method as the approximation method.
  4691 
  4692 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4693 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4694 series expansion.
  4695 
  4696 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4697 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4698 
  4699 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4700 reals.
  4701 
  4702 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4703 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4704 
  4705 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4706 fixpoint theorem.
  4707 
  4708 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4709   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4710     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4711   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4712     accordingly
  4713   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4714     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4715   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4716     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4717 
  4718 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4719 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4720 lattice.
  4721 
  4722 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4723 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4724 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4725 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4726 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4727 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4731   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4732     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4733   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4734     le_inf_iff
  4735   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4736     sup_aci)
  4737   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4738   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4739   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4740     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4741     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4742     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4743     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4744     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4745     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4746     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4747     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4748     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4749     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4750   - authentic syntax for
  4751     Set.Pow
  4752     Set.image
  4753   - mere abbreviations:
  4754     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4755     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4756     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4757     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4758     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4759     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4760     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4761     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4762   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4763 
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4765 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4766 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4767 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4768 
  4769 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4770 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4771 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4774 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4777 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4778 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4779 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4782 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4783 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4784 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4785 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4786 
  4787 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4788 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4792 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4795 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4796 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4797 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4798 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4799 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4800 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4804     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4805     code_post       replaces    code post
  4806     etc.
  4807   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Renamed methods:
  4810     sizechange -> size_change
  4811     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4812   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4815 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4816 
  4817 * Renamed theorems:
  4818     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4819     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4820     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4821     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4822     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4823   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4824 
  4825 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 
  4832 *** HOLCF ***
  4833 
  4834 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4835 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4836 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4837 
  4838 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4839 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4840 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4841 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4842 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4843 
  4844 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4845 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4846 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4847 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4848 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4849 
  4850 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4851 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4852 constructor are pre-configured.
  4853 
  4854 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4855 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4856 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4857 
  4858 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4859 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4860 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4861 as well.)
  4862 
  4863 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4864 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4865 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4866 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4867 examples.
  4868 
  4869 
  4870 *** ML ***
  4871 
  4872 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4873 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4874 
  4875 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4876 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4877 position, logical grouping etc.
  4878 
  4879 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4880 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4881 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4882 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4883 
  4884 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4885 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4886 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4887 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4888 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4889 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4890 
  4891 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4892 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4893 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4894 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4895 experiments with references.
  4896 
  4897 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4898 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4899 
  4900 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4901 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4902 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4903 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4904 
  4905 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4906 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4907 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4908 
  4909 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4910 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4911 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4914 
  4915 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4917 
  4918 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4919 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4920 
  4921 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4922 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4923 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4924 
  4925 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4926 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4927 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4928 
  4929 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4930 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4931 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4935 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4936 instead of global theory.
  4937 
  4938 
  4939 *** System ***
  4940 
  4941 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4942 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4943 usedir option -q.
  4944 
  4945 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4946 also the system manual.
  4947 
  4948 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4949 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4950 
  4951 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4952 this is always enabled.
  4953 
  4954 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4955 
  4956 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4957 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4958 currently supported on Linux only.
  4959 
  4960 
  4961 
  4962 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4963 --------------------------------
  4964 
  4965 *** General ***
  4966 
  4967 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4968 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4969 
  4970   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4971     "isatool."
  4972 
  4973   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4974     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4975 
  4976   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4977     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4978 
  4979 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4980 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4981 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4982 
  4983 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4984 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4985 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4986 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4987 via "isabelle emacs".
  4988 
  4989 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4990 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4991 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4992 
  4993 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4994 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4995 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4996 
  4997 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4998 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4999 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5000 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5001 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5002 
  5003 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5004 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5005 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5006 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5007 
  5008 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5009 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5010 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5011 
  5012 
  5013 *** Pure ***
  5014 
  5015 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5016 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5017 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5018 
  5019 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5020 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5021 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5022 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5023 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5024 
  5025 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5026 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5027 useful in locale declarations.
  5028 
  5029 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5030 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5031 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5032 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5033 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5034 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5035 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5036 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5037 no longer generated.
  5038 
  5039 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5040 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5041 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5042 
  5043 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5044 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5045 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5046 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5047 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5048 
  5049 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5051 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5052 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5053 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5054 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5055 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5056 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5057 
  5058 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5059 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5060 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5061 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5062 
  5063 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5066 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5067 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5068 
  5069 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5070 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5071 
  5072 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5073 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5074 in HOL, write
  5075 
  5076     class foo = ...
  5077 
  5078 instead of
  5079 
  5080     class foo = type + ...
  5081 
  5082 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5083 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5084 
  5085 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5086 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5087 
  5088 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5089 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5090 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5091 
  5092 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5093 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5094 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5095 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5096 directly in regular applications.
  5097 
  5098 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5099 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5100 
  5101 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5102 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5103 
  5104 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5105 theory context.
  5106 
  5107 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5108 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5109 
  5110 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5111 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5112 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5113 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5114 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5115 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5116 
  5117   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5118 
  5119 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5120 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5121 normalization.
  5122 
  5123 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5124 addressing etc.
  5125 
  5126 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5127 
  5128   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5129   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5130 
  5131 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5132 
  5133   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5134      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5135      parts of the code generator framework).
  5136 
  5137   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5138      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5139      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5140 
  5141 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5144 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5145 
  5146 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5147 patterns, e.g.
  5148 
  5149     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5150 
  5151 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5152 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5153 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5154 hyphen:
  5155 
  5156     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5157 
  5158 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5159 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5160 
  5161 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5162 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5163 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5164 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5165 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5166 higher-order unification.
  5167 
  5168 
  5169 *** Document preparation ***
  5170 
  5171 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5172 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5173 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5174 
  5175 
  5176 *** HOL ***
  5177 
  5178 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5179 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5180 
  5181 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5182 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5183 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5184 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5185 Main, as before.
  5186 
  5187 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5188 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5189 
  5190 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5191 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5192 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5193 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5194 
  5195 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5196 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5197 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5198 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5199 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5200 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5201 
  5202 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5203 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5204 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5205 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5206 
  5207 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5208 menu.
  5209 
  5210 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5211 (contains the empty clause).
  5212 
  5213 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5214 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5215 
  5216 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5217 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5218 
  5219 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5220 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5221 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5222 
  5223 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5224 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5225 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5226 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5227 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5228 
  5229 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5230 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5231 
  5232 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5233 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5234 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5235 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5236 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5237 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5238 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5239 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5240 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5241 
  5242 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5243 
  5244 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5245 
  5246 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5247 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5248 
  5249 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5250 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5251 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5252 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5253 
  5254 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5255 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5256 
  5257     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5258     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5259     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5260     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5261     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5262     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5263     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5264     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5265 
  5266 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5267 theory Set.
  5268 
  5269 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5270 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5271 
  5272 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5273 
  5274 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5275 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5276 
  5277 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5278 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5279 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5280 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5281 allowed. For examples see
  5282 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5283 
  5284 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5285 
  5286 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5288 
  5289 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5290 structure:
  5291 
  5292     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5293     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5294     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5295     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5296     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5297     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5298     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5299     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5300     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5301     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5302     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5303     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5304     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5305     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5306     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5307     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5308     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5309     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5310     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5311     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5312     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5313     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5314     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5315     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5316     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5317     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5318     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5319     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5320     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5321     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5322     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5323     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5324     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5325 
  5326     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5327     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5328     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5329     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5330     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5331     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5332     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5333     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5334     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5335     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5336 
  5337     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5338     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5339     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5340     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5341     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5342     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5343 
  5344 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5345 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5346 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5347 
  5348 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5349 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5350 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5351 
  5352 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5353 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5356 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5357 
  5358 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5359 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5360 proofs, e.g.
  5361 
  5362   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5363 
  5364 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5365 
  5366 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5367 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5368 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5371 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5373 
  5374 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5375 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5376 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5380 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5381 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5382 preorder_class.*.
  5383 
  5384 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5385 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5386 
  5387 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5388 
  5389   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5390 
  5391 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5392 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5393 fold_image.
  5394 
  5395 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5396 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5397 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5398 the former will disappear at some point.
  5399 
  5400 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5401 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5402 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5403 
  5404 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5405 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5406 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5407 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5408 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5409 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5410 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5411 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5412 
  5413 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5414 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5415 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5416 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5417 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5418 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5419 
  5420     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5421     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5422     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5423     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5424     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5425     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5426     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5427 
  5428 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5429 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5430 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5431 
  5432 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5433 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5434 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5435 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5436 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5437 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5438 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5439 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5440 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5441 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5442 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5443 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5444 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5445 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5446 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5447 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5448 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5449 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5450 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5451 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5452 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5453 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5454 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5455 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5456 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5457 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5458 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5459 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5460 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5461 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5462 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5463 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5464 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5465 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5466 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5467 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5468 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5469 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5470 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5471 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5472 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5473 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5474 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5475 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5476 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5477 
  5478 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5481 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5482 
  5483 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5484 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5485 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5486 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5487 
  5488 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5489 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5490 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5491 theory RealVector.
  5492 
  5493 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5494 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5495 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5496 and inner products are included.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5499 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5500 supported.
  5501 
  5502 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5503 first diagonalization argument.
  5504 
  5505 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5506 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5507 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5508 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5509 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5510 
  5511     hide (open) const gcd
  5512     abbreviation gcd where
  5513       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5514     notation (output)
  5515       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5516 
  5517 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5518 
  5519 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5520 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5521 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5522 
  5523 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5524 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5525 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5526 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5527 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5528 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5529 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5530 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5531 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5532 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5533 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5534 cases.
  5535 
  5536 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5537 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5538 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5539 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5540 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5541 
  5542     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5543     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5544     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5545     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5546     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5547 
  5548 
  5549 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5550 
  5551 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5552 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5553 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5554 
  5555 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5556 
  5557 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5558 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5559 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5560 
  5561 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5562 
  5563 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5564 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5565 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5566 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5567 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5568 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5569 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5570 
  5571 
  5572 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5573 
  5574 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5575 
  5576 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5577 theory targets.
  5578 
  5579 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5580 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5581 'inductive' etc.
  5582 
  5583 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5584 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5585 
  5586 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5587 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5588 
  5589 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5590 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5591 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5592 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5593 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5594 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5595 the algorithm W:
  5596 
  5597  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5598  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5599          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5600 
  5601 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5602 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5603 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5604 
  5605 
  5606 *** HOLCF ***
  5607 
  5608 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5609 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5610 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5611 
  5612 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5613 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5614 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5615 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5616 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5617 
  5618 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5619 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5620 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5621 
  5622 
  5623 *** ZF ***
  5624 
  5625 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5626 
  5627 
  5628 *** ML ***
  5629 
  5630 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5631 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5632 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5633 5.2.1!
  5634 
  5635 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5636 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5637 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5638 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5639 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5640 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5641 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5642 
  5643 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5644 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5645 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5646 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5647 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5648 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5649 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5650 
  5651 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5652 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5653 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5654 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5655 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5656 
  5657 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5658 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5659 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5660 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5661 Method.add_method.
  5662 
  5663 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5664 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5665 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5666 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5667 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5668 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5669 
  5670 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5671 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5672 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5673 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5674 examples.
  5675 
  5676 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5677 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5678 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5679 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5680 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5681 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5682 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5683 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5684 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5685 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5686 
  5687 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5688 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5689 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5690 
  5691 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5692 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5693 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5694 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5695 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5696 resort for legacy applications.
  5697 
  5698 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5699 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5700 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5701 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5702 explicit runtime argument.
  5703 
  5704 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5705 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5706 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5707 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5708 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5711 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5712 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5713 theory state.
  5714 
  5715 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5716 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5717 
  5718   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5719   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5720   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5721   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5722   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5723   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5724   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5725   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5726   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5727   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5728 
  5729 
  5730 *** System ***
  5731 
  5732 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5733 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5734 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5735 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5736 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5737 
  5738 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5739 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5740 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5741 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5742 
  5743 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5744 
  5745 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5746 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5747 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5748 prover operations.
  5749 
  5750 
  5751 
  5752 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5753 -------------------------------
  5754 
  5755 *** General ***
  5756 
  5757 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5758 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5759 
  5760 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5761 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5762 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5763 provides a proper context already.
  5764 
  5765 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5766 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5767 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5768 
  5769 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5770 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5771 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5772 swap theory imports.
  5773 
  5774 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5775 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5776 
  5777 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5778 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5779 white space without escapes.
  5780 
  5781 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5782 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5783 "foo_bar".
  5784 
  5785 
  5786 *** Pure ***
  5787 
  5788 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5789 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5790 
  5791 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5792 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5793 
  5794 (1) unused_thms
  5795      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5796 
  5797 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5798      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5799      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5800 
  5801 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5802      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5803      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5804      their ancestors.
  5805 
  5806 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5807 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5808 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5809 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5810 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5811 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5812 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5813 
  5814 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5815 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5816 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5817 
  5818 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5819 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5820 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5821 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5822 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5823 
  5824 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5825 
  5826 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5827 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5828 update of theories within ML code.
  5829 
  5830 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5831 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5832 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5833 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5834 
  5835 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5836 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5837 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5839 
  5840 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5841 
  5842 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5843 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5844 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5845 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5846 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5847 
  5848 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5849 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5850 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5851 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5852 situations.
  5853 
  5854 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5855 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5856 proof text.
  5857 
  5858 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5859 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5860 
  5861 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5862 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5863 predicates.
  5864 
  5865 
  5866 *** Document preparation ***
  5867 
  5868 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5869 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5870 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5871 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5872 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5873 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5874 
  5875 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5876 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5877 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5878 
  5879 
  5880 *** HOL ***
  5881 
  5882 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5883 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5884 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5885 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5886 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5887 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5888 
  5889 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5890 with multithreading.
  5891 
  5892 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5893 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5894 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5895 
  5896 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5897 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5898 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5899 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5902 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5903 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5904 and makes them available separately.  See
  5905 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5906 
  5907 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5908 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5909 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5910 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5911 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5912 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5913 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5914 the declared rules.
  5915 
  5916 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5917 
  5918   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5919 
  5920 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5921 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5922 
  5923 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5924 
  5925   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5926 
  5927   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5928     definitions on => and bool.
  5929 
  5930   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5931     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5932     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5933 
  5934       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5935       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5936       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5937       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5938       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5939       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5940       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5941       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5942 
  5943   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5944     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5945     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5946 
  5947   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5948     The proof pattern
  5949 
  5950       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5951       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5952 
  5953     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5954     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5955 
  5956       have "EX S. P S"
  5957       proof
  5958         show "P S" <...>
  5959       qed
  5960 
  5961   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5962     The proof pattern
  5963 
  5964       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5965       also have "S = T" <...>
  5966       finally have "P T" .
  5967 
  5968     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5969     must be replaced by something like
  5970 
  5971       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5972       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5973       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5974 
  5975   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5976     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5977 
  5978       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5979 
  5980     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5981     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5982     type of the form
  5983 
  5984       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5985 
  5986     rather than
  5987 
  5988       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5989 
  5990 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5991 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5992 
  5993 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5994 
  5995 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5996 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5998 
  5999 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6000 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6003 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6004 
  6005 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6006 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6007 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6008 
  6009 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6010 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6011 
  6012   less_trans
  6013   less_linear
  6014   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6015   le_less_trans
  6016   less_le_trans
  6017   less_not_sym
  6018   less_asym
  6019 
  6020 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6021 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6022 and different variable names.
  6023 
  6024 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6025 
  6026 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6027 finite maps.
  6028 
  6029 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6030 
  6031 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6032 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6033 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6034 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6035 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6036 accordingly.
  6037 
  6038 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6039 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6040 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6041 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6042 
  6043 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6044 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6045 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6046 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6047 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6049 
  6050 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6051 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6052 
  6053 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6054 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6055 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6056 
  6057 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6059 
  6060 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6061 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6062 
  6063 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6064 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6065 
  6066 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6067 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6068 
  6069 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6070 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6072 
  6073 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6074 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6075 
  6076 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6077 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6078 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6079 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6080 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6081 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6084 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6085 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6086 
  6087 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6088 
  6089 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6090 
  6091 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6092 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6093 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6094 
  6095 
  6096 *** ZF ***
  6097 
  6098 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6099 same session:
  6100 
  6101   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6102   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6103   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6104   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6105   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6106   List      -> List_ZF
  6107   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6108 
  6109 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6110 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6111 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6112 
  6113 
  6114 *** ML ***
  6115 
  6116 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6117 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6118 
  6119 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6120 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6121 
  6122 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6123 
  6124 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6125 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6126 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6127 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6128 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6129 
  6130 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6131 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6132 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6133 
  6134 
  6135 *** System ***
  6136 
  6137 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6138 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6139 
  6140 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6141 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6142 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6143 
  6144 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6145 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6146 
  6147 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6148 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6149 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6150 
  6151 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6152 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6153 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6154 
  6155 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6156 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6157 
  6158 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6159 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6160 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6161 script.
  6162 
  6163 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6164 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6165 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6166 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6167 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6168 
  6169 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6170 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6171 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6172 
  6173 
  6174 
  6175 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6176 -----------------------------------
  6177 
  6178 *** General ***
  6179 
  6180 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6181 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6182 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6183 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6184 
  6185 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6186 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6187 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6188 
  6189 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6190 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6191 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6192 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6193 
  6194 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6195 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6196 quotes.
  6197 
  6198 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6199 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6200 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6201 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6202 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6203 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6204 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6205 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6206 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6207 
  6208 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6209 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6210 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6211 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6212 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6213 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6214 
  6215 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6216 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6217 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6218 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6219 
  6220 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6221 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6222 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6223 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6224 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6225 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6226 
  6227 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6228 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6229 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6230 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6231 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6232 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6233 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6234 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6235 
  6236 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6237 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6238 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6239 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6240 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6241 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6242 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6243 
  6244 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6245 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6246 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6247 
  6248 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6249 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6250 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6251 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6252 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6253 limit is imposed.
  6254 
  6255 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6256 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6257 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6258 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6259 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6260 and scalability.
  6261 
  6262 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6263 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6264 
  6265 
  6266 *** Document preparation ***
  6267