NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Mar 23 20:12:50 2019 +0100 (2 months ago)
changeset 69960 eff4ff8ba515
parent 69926 110fff287217
child 69962 82e945d472d5
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS for proper Isabelle version;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
    44 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
    45 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    49 
    50 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    51 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    52 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    53 
    54 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    55 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    56 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    57 ongoing document processing.
    58 
    59 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    60 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    61 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    62 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    63 
    64 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    65 overview column.
    66 
    67 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    68 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    69 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    70 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    71 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    72 defaults to 0.
    73 
    74 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    75 OpenJDK 11.
    76 
    77 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    78 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    79 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    80 Isabelle component).
    81 
    82 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    83 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    84 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    85 separated from option "-s".
    86 
    87 
    88 *** Isar ***
    89 
    90 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    91 precedence over goal/proof.
    92 
    93 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    94 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    95 
    96 
    97 *** HOL ***
    98 
    99 * Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series 
   100 in session HOL-Computational_Algebra.
   101 
   102 * Exponentiation by squaring in session HOL-Library; used for computing
   103 powers in class monoid_mult and modular exponentiation in session
   104 HOL-Number_Theory.
   105 
   106 * More material on residue rings in session HOL-Number_Theory:
   107 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   108 
   109 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
   110 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
   111 as any other prefix function symbol.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
   114 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   117 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators Named_Target.theory_map[_result]
   118 to lift specifications to the global theory level.
   119 
   120 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   121 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   122 command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build -e" (with
   123 'export_files' in the session ROOT), or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via
   124 the "isabelle-export:" file-system. To get generated code dumped into
   125 output, use "file \<open>\<close>". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   128 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   131 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   132 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   133 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   134 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   135 
   136 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   137 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   141 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   144 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   145 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   146 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   147 
   148 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   149 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   150 
   151 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   152 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   153 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   154 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   155 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   158 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   159 
   160 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   161 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   162 
   163 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   164 
   165 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   166 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   170 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   171 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * Sledgehammer:
   174   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   175     been updated.
   176   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   177     less time (in most cases).
   178 
   179 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   180 
   181 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   182 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   183 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   184 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   185 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   189 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   190 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   191 
   192   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   193 
   194 
   195 *** ML ***
   196 
   197 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   198 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   199 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   200 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   203 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   204 
   205 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   206 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   207 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   208 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   209 ">" as separator. For example:
   210 
   211   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   212   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   213 
   214   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   215   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   216 
   217   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   218   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   219 
   220 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   221 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   222 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   223 observes the official standard).
   224 
   225 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   226 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   227 
   228 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   229 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   230 useful.
   231 
   232 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   233 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   234 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   235 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   236 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   237 
   238   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   239   module Isabelle.Pure where
   240     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   241     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   242     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   243     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   244   \<close>
   245 
   246 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   247 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   248 external compiler is applied.
   249 
   250 
   251 *** System ***
   252 
   253 * The command-line option "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   254 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   255 entries.
   256 
   257 * The system option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   258 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   259 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   261 
   262 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   263 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   264 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   265 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   266 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   267 dump".
   268 
   269 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   270 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   271 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   272 
   273 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   274 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   275 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   276 component).
   277 
   278 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   279 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   280 Isabelle/PIDE.
   281 
   282 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   283 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   284 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   285 
   286 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   287 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   288 is no longer required.
   289 
   290 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   291 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   292 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   293 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   294 
   295 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   296 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   297 
   298   isabelle ghc_setup
   299   isabelle ghc_stack
   300 
   301   isabelle ocaml_setup
   302   isabelle ocaml_opam
   303 
   304 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   305 (and corresponding directory contents):
   306 
   307   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   308   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   309   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   310 
   311   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   312   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   313 
   314 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   315 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   316 
   317   ISABELLE_GHC
   318 
   319   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   320 
   321 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   322 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   323 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   324 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   325 
   326 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   327 
   328 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   329 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   330 
   331 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   332 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   333 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   334 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   335 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   336 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   337 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   338 are gradually phased out.
   339 
   340 
   341 
   342 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   343 ---------------------------------
   344 
   345 *** General ***
   346 
   347 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   348 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   349 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   350 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   351 
   352 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   353 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   354 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   355 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   356 
   357 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   358 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359 
   360 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   361 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   362 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   363 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   364 avoid this.
   365 
   366 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   367 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   368 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   369 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   370 
   371 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   372 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   373 instead.
   374 
   375 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   376 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   377 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   378 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   379 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   380 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   381 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   382 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   383 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   384 syntax), use option "-m".
   385 
   386 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   390 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   391 without specific Prover IDE management.
   392 
   393 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   394 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   395 context.
   396 
   397 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   398 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   399 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   400 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   401 
   402   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   403 
   404 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   405 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   406 
   407 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   408 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   409 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   410 output.
   411 
   412 
   413 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   414 
   415 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   416 for session management:
   417 
   418   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   419     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   420 
   421   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   422     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   423 
   424   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   425     and -S
   426 
   427   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   428     theories
   429 
   430   Examples:
   431     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   432     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   433     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   434     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   435     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   436 
   437 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   438 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   439 
   440 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   441 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   442 
   443 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   444 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   445 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   446 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   447 arguments into this format.
   448 
   449 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   450 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   451 
   452 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   453 functions (e.g. State output).
   454 
   455 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   456 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   457 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   458 
   459 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   460 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   461 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   464 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   465 
   466 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   467 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   468 Isabelle".
   469 
   470 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   471 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   472 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   473 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   474 Unicode content when saving the file.
   475 
   476 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   477 
   478 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   479 
   480 
   481 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   482 
   483 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   484 Isabelle/jEdit.
   485 
   486 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   487 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   488 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   489 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   490 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   491 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 
   494 *** Document preparation ***
   495 
   496 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   497 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   498 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   499 are supported:
   500 
   501   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   502   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   503   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   504 
   505 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   506 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   507 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   508 
   509 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   510 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   511 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   512 
   513 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   514 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   515 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   516 
   517 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   518 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   519 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   520 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   521 
   522 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   523 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   524 
   525 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   526 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   527 normally need to import.
   528 
   529 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   530 session name verbatim.
   531 
   532 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   533 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   534 
   535 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   536 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   537 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   540 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   541 anymore.
   542 
   543 
   544 *** Isar ***
   545 
   546 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   547 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   548 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   549 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   550 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   551 
   552 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   553 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   554 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   555 
   556 
   557 *** Pure ***
   558 
   559 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   560 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   561 
   562 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   563 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   564 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   565 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   566 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   567 
   568 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   569 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   570 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   571 duplicate constant declarations.
   572 
   573 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   574 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   575 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   576 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   577 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   578 
   579 
   580 *** HOL ***
   581 
   582 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   583 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   584 
   585 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   586 
   587   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   588 
   589   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   590     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   591     constraints instead.
   592 
   593   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   594 
   595   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   596     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   597     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   598     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   599 
   600   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   601     standard target languages.
   602 
   603   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   604     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   605     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   606     HOL string values and vice versa.
   607 
   608   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   609     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   610 
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   614 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   615 
   616 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   617 
   618 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   619 former axioms:
   620 
   621   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   622 
   623 are replaced by:
   624 
   625   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   626 
   627 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   628 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   629 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   630 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   631 
   632 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   633 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   634 
   635 * Clarifed theorem names:
   636 
   637   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   638   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   639 
   640 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 
   642 * SMT module:
   643 
   644   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   645     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   648     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   649     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   652 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   653 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   660 
   661 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   662 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   666 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   667 Renamed:
   668 
   669   span_inc ~> span_superset
   670   span_superset ~> span_base
   671   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   672 
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   676 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   679 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   680 
   681 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   682 
   683   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   684     input syntax
   685 
   686   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   687 
   688 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   689 
   690 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   693 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   695 
   696 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   697   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   698   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   699   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   700 
   701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   704 
   705   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   706   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   707   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   708   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   709   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   710 
   711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   714 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   715 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   716 broken proofs.
   717 
   718 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   719 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   720 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   721 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   722 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   723 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   724 
   725 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   726 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   727 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   728 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   729 examples.
   730 
   731 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   732 
   733 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   734 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   737 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   738 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   742 infix/prefix notation.
   743 
   744 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   745 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   749 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   753 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   757 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   758 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   759 
   760 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   761 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   762 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   763 
   764 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   765 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   766 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   767 
   768 
   769 *** ML ***
   770 
   771 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   772 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   773 
   774 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   775 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   776 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   777 "isabelle process".
   778 
   779 
   780 *** System ***
   781 
   782 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   783 longer supported.
   784 
   785 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   786 support has been discontinued.
   787 
   788 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   789 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   790 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   793 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   794 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   795 quotes):
   796 
   797   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   798   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   799 
   800   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   801   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   802 
   803   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   804   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   805 
   806 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   807   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   808   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   809   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   810 
   811 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   812 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   813 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   814 only.
   815 
   816 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   817 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   818 up-to-date status of a session.
   819 
   820 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   821 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   822 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   823 directory.
   824 
   825 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   826 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   827 
   828 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   829 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   830 
   831 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   832 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   833 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   834 See also the "system" manual.
   835 
   836 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   837 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   838 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   839 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   840 been discontinued.
   841 
   842 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   843 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   846 repository for the generated session files.
   847 
   848 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   849 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   850 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   851 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   852 ISABELLE_HOME).
   853 
   854 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   855 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   856 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   857 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   858 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   859 
   860 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   861 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   862 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   863 
   864 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   865 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   866 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   867 32/64 bit.
   868 
   869 
   870 
   871 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   872 ----------------------------------
   873 
   874 *** General ***
   875 
   876 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   877 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   878 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   879 
   880 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   881 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   882 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   883 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   884 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   885 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   886 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   887 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   888 
   889 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   890 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   891 just the theory base name as before).
   892 
   893 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   894 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   895 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   896 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   897 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   898 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   899 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   900 
   901 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   902 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   903 leads to the follow renamings:
   904 
   905   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   906   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   907   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   908   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   909   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   910 
   911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   914 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   915 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   916 
   917 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   918 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   919 
   920 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   921 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   922 antiquotations:
   923 
   924   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   925     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   926   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   927     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   928   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   929 
   930 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   931 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   932 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   933 tutorial on code generation.
   934 
   935 
   936 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   937 
   938 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   939 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   940 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   941 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   942 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   943 
   944 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   945 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   946 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   947 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   948 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   949 effectively always enabled.
   950 
   951 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   952 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   953 buffers.
   954 
   955 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   956 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   957 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   958 represented by a different border color.
   959 
   960 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   961 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   962 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   963 
   964 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   965 document in the default web browser.
   966 
   967 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   968 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   969 used for formal checking.
   970 
   971 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   972 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   973 enabled at all times.
   974 
   975 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   976 
   977 
   978 *** Pure ***
   979 
   980 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   981 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   982 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   983 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984 
   985 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   986   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   987     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   988   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   989     malformed.
   990   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   991     malformed.
   992 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   995 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   996 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   997 
   998 
   999 *** HOL ***
  1000 
  1001 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1002 
  1003 * SMT module:
  1004   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1005     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1006     disabled by default.
  1007   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1008   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1009 
  1010 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1011 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1012 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1016 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1017 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1021 of "Complex_Main").
  1022 
  1023 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1024 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1030 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1033 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1034 
  1035 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1036 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1037 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1038 
  1039 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1040 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1041 
  1042 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1043 
  1044 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1045 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1048 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1049 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1050 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Generalized some facts:
  1053     measure_induct_rule
  1054     measure_induct
  1055     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1056     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1057     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1058     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1062 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1063 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1064 euclidean size.
  1065 
  1066 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1067   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1068   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1069     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1070     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1071   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1072     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1076 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1077 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1078 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1081   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1082   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1083 
  1084 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1085 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1088 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1089 
  1090 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1091 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1092 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1096 
  1097 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1098 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1099 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1100 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1101 
  1102 syntax (ASCII)
  1103   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1104   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1105   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1106 
  1107 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1108 multisets have been renamed:
  1109 
  1110   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1111   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1112 
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1116 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1117 
  1118 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1119 
  1120 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1121 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1122 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1123 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1124 
  1125 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1126 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1127 
  1128 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1129 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1130 
  1131 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1132 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1133 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1134 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 
  1138 *** System ***
  1139 
  1140 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1141 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1142 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1143 
  1144 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1145 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1146 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1147 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1148 
  1149 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1150 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1151 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1152 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1153 
  1154 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1155 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1156 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1157 unchanged.
  1158 
  1159 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1160 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161 
  1162 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1163 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1164 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1165 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1166 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1167 
  1168 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1169 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1170 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1171 
  1172 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1173 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1174 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1175 
  1176 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1177 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1178 
  1179   isabelle imports -I -a
  1180   isabelle imports -U -a
  1181   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1182   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1183 
  1184 
  1185 
  1186 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1187 -------------------------------------
  1188 
  1189 *** General ***
  1190 
  1191 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1192   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1195     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1196     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1197     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1198     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1199 
  1200 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1201 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1202 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1203 
  1204 bundle foo
  1205 begin
  1206   declare a [simp]
  1207   declare b [intro]
  1208 end
  1209 
  1210 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1211 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1212 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1213 
  1214 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1215 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1216 discontinued.
  1217 
  1218 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1219 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1220 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1221 
  1222 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1223 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1224 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1225 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1226 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1229 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1230 
  1231 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1232 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1233 
  1234 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1235 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1236 examples.
  1237 
  1238 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1239 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1240 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1241 
  1242 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1243 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1244 
  1245 
  1246 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1247 
  1248 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1249 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1250 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1251 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1252 
  1253 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1254 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1255 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1256 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1257 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1258 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1259 
  1260 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1261 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1262 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1263 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1264 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1265 
  1266 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1267 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1268 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1269 
  1270 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1271 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1272 
  1273 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1274 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1275 
  1276 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1277 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1278 
  1279 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1280 
  1281 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1282 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1283 systematic renaming.
  1284 
  1285 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1286 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1287 theorem statement.
  1288 
  1289 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1290 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1291 
  1292 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1293 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1294 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1295 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1296 
  1297 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1298 following independent stages:
  1299 
  1300   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1301   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1302   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1303   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1304 
  1305 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1306 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1307 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1308 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1309 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1310 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1311 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1312 
  1313 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1314 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1315 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1316 
  1317 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1318 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1319 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1320 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1321 
  1322 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1323 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1324 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1325 
  1326 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1327 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1328 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1329 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1330 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1331 old keymaps.
  1332 
  1333 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1334 and diverse:
  1335 
  1336   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1337   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1338   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1339 
  1340 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1341 have to be changed.
  1342 
  1343 
  1344 *** Document preparation ***
  1345 
  1346 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1347 
  1348 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1349 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1350 
  1351 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1352 this allows special forms of document output.
  1353 
  1354 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1355 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1356 derivatives.
  1357 
  1358 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1359 
  1360 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1361 Isabelle2015).
  1362 
  1363 
  1364 *** Isar ***
  1365 
  1366 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1367 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1368 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1369 
  1370 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1371 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1372 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1373 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1374 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1377 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1378 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1379 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1380 
  1381 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1382 context.
  1383 
  1384 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1385 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1386 
  1387 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1388 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1389 
  1390 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1391 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1392 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1393 
  1394 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1395 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1397 
  1398 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1399 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1400 definitions.
  1401 
  1402 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1403 expression, e.g.
  1404 
  1405   (use facts in simp)
  1406   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1407 
  1408 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1409 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1410 
  1411 
  1412 *** Pure ***
  1413 
  1414 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1415 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1416 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1417 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1418 
  1419 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1420 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1421 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1422 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1423 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1424 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1425 
  1426 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1427 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1428 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1429 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1430 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1431 types where this is really intended.
  1432 
  1433 
  1434 *** HOL ***
  1435 
  1436 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1437 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1438 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1439 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1440 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1441 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1442 
  1443 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1444 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1445 
  1446 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1447 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1448 
  1449 * Sledgehammer:
  1450   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1451   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1452 
  1453 * (Co)datatype package:
  1454   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1455     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1456     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1457     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1458   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1459     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1460   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1461     to the map function.
  1462   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1463   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1464        terms of map and set
  1465        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1466   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1467        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1468     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1469   - Renamed lemmas:
  1470       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1471       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1472     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1474   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1475     equivalent) form.
  1476     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1479 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1480 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1481 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1482 
  1483 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1484 
  1485   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1486   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1487 
  1488 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1489 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1490 eliminated altogether.
  1491 
  1492 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1493 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1494 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1495 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1496 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1497 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1498 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1499 
  1500 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 
  1503 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1504 
  1505     setsum ~> sum
  1506     setprod ~> prod
  1507     listsum ~> sum_list
  1508     listprod ~> prod_list
  1509 
  1510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1513     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1514     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1515     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1516     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1517     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1518     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1519     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1520     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1521     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1522     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1523     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1524     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1525     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1526     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1527     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1528     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1529     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1530     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1531     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1532     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1533     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1534     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1535     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1536     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1537     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1538     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1539     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1540     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1541     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1545 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1546 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1549 
  1550 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1551 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1552 
  1553   - Logical representation:
  1554     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1555     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1556       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1557     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1558       are non-canonical.
  1559   - Printing and parsing:
  1560     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1561       (as before).
  1562     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1563     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1564       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1565       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1566     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1567       printed as their logical representation.
  1568   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1569     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1570   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1571 
  1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1575 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1576 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1577 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1580 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1581 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1582 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1583 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1586 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1589 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1590 
  1591 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1592 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1593 interface for the generated code.
  1594 
  1595 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1596 spelt out explicitly.
  1597 
  1598 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1599 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1600 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1601 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1602 
  1603 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1604 products.
  1605 
  1606 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1607 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1608 
  1609 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1610 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1611 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1612 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1613 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1614 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1615 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1619 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1620 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621 
  1622 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1626   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1627   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1628 
  1629 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1630   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1631     le_add_same_cancel1
  1632     le_add_same_cancel2
  1633     less_add_same_cancel1
  1634     less_add_same_cancel2
  1635     add_le_same_cancel1
  1636     add_le_same_cancel2
  1637     add_less_same_cancel1
  1638     add_less_same_cancel2
  1639 
  1640 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1641   superseeded by a more general version:
  1642     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1643     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1644     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1645     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1646     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1647     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1648     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1649     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1653 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1656 
  1657 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1658 
  1659   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1660   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1661 
  1662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1663 
  1664 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1668 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1669 A)".
  1670 
  1671 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1674 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1675 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1676 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1679 dioid.
  1680 
  1681 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1682 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1683 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1684 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1687 of a more general type also:
  1688   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1689   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1690   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1691   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1692   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1693   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1694   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1695   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1696   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1697   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1698   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1699   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1700   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1701   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1702   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1703   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1704   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1705   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1706   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1707   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1708   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1709   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1710   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1711   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1712   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1713   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1714   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1715   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1716   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1717   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1718   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1719   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1720   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1721   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1722   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1723   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1724   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1725   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1726   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1727   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1728   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1729   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1730   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1731   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1732   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1733   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1734   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1735   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1736   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1737   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1738   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1739   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1740   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1741   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1742   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1743   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1744   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1745   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1746   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1747   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1748   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1749   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1750   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1751   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1752   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1753   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1754   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1755   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1756   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1757   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1758   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1759   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1760   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1761   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1762   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1763   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1764   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1765   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1766   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1767   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1768   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1769   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1770   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1771   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1772   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1773   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1774   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1775   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1779 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1782 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1783 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1784 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1785 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1786 
  1787 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1788 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1789 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1790 once.
  1791 
  1792 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1793 set_mset rather than count.
  1794 
  1795   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1796     by default.
  1797 
  1798   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1799     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1800 
  1801   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1802     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1803 
  1804   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1805     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1806 
  1807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808 
  1809 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1810 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1811 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1812 underscores.
  1813 
  1814 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1815 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1816 relation.
  1817 
  1818 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1819 everywhere fix bijections.
  1820 
  1821 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1822 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1823 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1824 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1825 
  1826 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1827 
  1828 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1829 
  1830 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1831 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1832 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1835 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1836 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1837 
  1838 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1839 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1840 
  1841 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1842 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1843 domain.
  1844 
  1845 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1846 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1847 
  1848   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1849   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1850 
  1851 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1852 Probability Mass Functions.
  1853 
  1854 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1855 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1856 folding over a list in random order.
  1857 
  1858 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1859 subprobability distributions.
  1860 
  1861 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1862 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1863 
  1864     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1865     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1866     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1867     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1868     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1869     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1870     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1871     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1872     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1873     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1874     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1875     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1876     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1877     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1878     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1879     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1880     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1881     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1882     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1883     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1884     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1885     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1886 
  1887 Some functions have been renamed:
  1888     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1889 
  1890 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1891     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1892     #\<subset># ~> <
  1893     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1894     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1898 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1899 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1900 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1901 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1902 
  1903 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1904 been renamed:
  1905 
  1906     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1907     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1908     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1909     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1910     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1911     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1912     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1913     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1914     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1915 
  1916     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1917     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1918     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1919     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1920     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1921     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1922     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1923     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1924     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1925     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1926     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1928 
  1929 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1933 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1934 
  1935     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1936     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1937     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1938     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1939     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1940     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1941     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1942     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1943     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1944     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1945     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1946     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1947     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1948     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1949     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1950     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1951     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1952 
  1953 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1954 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1955 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1956 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1957 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1958 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1961 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1965 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1966 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1969 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1970 removed or changed:
  1971 
  1972   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1973   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1974   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1975   union_single_eq_diff
  1976   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1977   diff_single_eq_union
  1978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1981 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1982 
  1983   mset_add
  1984   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1985   diff_single_eq_union
  1986   union_single_eq_diff
  1987   union_single_eq_member
  1988   add_eq_conv_diff
  1989   insert_noteq_member
  1990   add_eq_conv_ex
  1991   multi_member_split
  1992   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1993   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1994   mset_subset_insertD
  1995   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1996   insert_union_subset_iff
  1997   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1998   inter_add_left1
  1999   inter_add_left2
  2000   inter_add_right1
  2001   inter_add_right2
  2002   sup_union_left1
  2003   sup_union_left2
  2004   sup_union_right1
  2005   sup_union_right2
  2006   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2007   multi_nonempty_split
  2008   mset_insort
  2009   mset_update
  2010   mult1I
  2011   less_add
  2012   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2013   rel_mset_Zero
  2014   msed_map_invL
  2015   msed_map_invR
  2016   msed_rel_invL
  2017   msed_rel_invR
  2018   le_multiset_right_total
  2019   multiset_induct
  2020   multiset_induct2_size
  2021   multiset_induct2
  2022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2023 
  2024 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2025 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2026 element:
  2027 
  2028   image_mset
  2029   mset
  2030   replicate_mset
  2031   mult1
  2032   pred_mset
  2033   rel_mset'
  2034   mset_insort
  2035 
  2036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2039 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2040 
  2041   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2042   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2043   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2044   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2045   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2046   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2047   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2048   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2049   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2050   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2051   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2052   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2053   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2054   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2055   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2056   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2057   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2058   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2059   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2061 
  2062 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2063 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2064 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2066 
  2067 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2068 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2069 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2072 multisets:
  2073 
  2074   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2075   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2076 
  2077 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2078 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2079 
  2080   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2081   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2082 
  2083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2084 
  2085 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2086 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2087 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2088 
  2089 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2090 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2091 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2092 
  2093 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2094 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2095 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2096 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2097 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2098 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2101 the following renaming
  2102 
  2103   prefixeq -> prefix
  2104   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2105   suffixeq -> suffix
  2106   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2107 
  2108 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2109 
  2110 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2111 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2112 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2113 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2114 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2115 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2118 theories.
  2119 
  2120 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2121 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2122 
  2123 
  2124 *** ML ***
  2125 
  2126 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2127 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2128 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2129 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2133 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2134 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2135 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2136 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2137 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2138 superseded by General.Div.
  2139 
  2140 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2141 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2144 with approximative output quality.
  2145 
  2146 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2147 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2150 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2151 requiring separate files.
  2152 
  2153 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2154 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2155 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2156 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2157 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2158 
  2159 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2160 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2161 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2162 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2163 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2164 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2165 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2168 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2170 
  2171 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2172 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2173 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2174 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2177 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179 
  2180 *** System ***
  2181 
  2182 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2183 
  2184 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2185 much less disk space.
  2186 
  2187 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2188 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2189 particular:
  2190 
  2191   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2192     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2193   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2194   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2195 
  2196 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2197 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2198 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2201 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2202 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2203 return code 1.
  2204 
  2205 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2206 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2207 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2208 
  2209 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2210 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2211 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2212 
  2213 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2214 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2215 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2216 by default).
  2217 
  2218 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2219 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2220 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2221 resulting log files.
  2222 
  2223 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2224 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2225 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2226 implicit default via option -p.
  2227 
  2228 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2229 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2230 
  2231 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2232 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2233 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2234 
  2235 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2236 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2237 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2238 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2239 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2242 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2243 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2244 
  2245 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2246 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2247 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2248 
  2249 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2250 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2251 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2252 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2253 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2254 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2255 been discontinued.
  2256 
  2257 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2258 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2259 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2260 
  2261 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2262 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2263 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2264 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2265 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2266 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2267 
  2268 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2269 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2270 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2271 connection).
  2272 
  2273 
  2274 
  2275 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2276 -----------------------------------
  2277 
  2278 *** General ***
  2279 
  2280 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2281 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2282 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2283 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2284 examples that do require HOL.
  2285 
  2286 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2287 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2288 
  2289 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2290 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2291 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2292 has been removed (see below).
  2293 
  2294 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2295 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2296 
  2297 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2298 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2299 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2300 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2301 
  2302 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2303 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2304 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2305 meaning.
  2306 
  2307 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2308 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2309 to update old sources.
  2310 
  2311 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2312 
  2313   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2314   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2315   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2316   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2317 
  2318 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2319 accordingly.
  2320 
  2321 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2322 'theorem'.
  2323 
  2324 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2325 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2326 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2327 
  2328 
  2329 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2330 
  2331 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2332 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2333 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2334 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2335 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2336 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2337 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2338 any effect on the running ML program.
  2339 
  2340 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2341 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2342 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2343 update.
  2344 
  2345 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2346 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2347 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2348 
  2349 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2350 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2351 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2352 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2353 visibility.
  2354 
  2355 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2356 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2357 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2358 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2359 panel.
  2360 
  2361 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2362 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2363 
  2364 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2365 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2366 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2367 
  2368 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2369 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2370 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2371 
  2372 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2373 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2374 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2375 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2376 
  2377 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2378 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2379 the editor.
  2380 
  2381 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2382 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2383 
  2384 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2385 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2386 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2387 instead.
  2388 
  2389 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2390 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2391 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2392 
  2393 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2394 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2395 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2396 
  2397 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2398 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2399 
  2400 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2401 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2402 
  2403 
  2404 *** Document preparation ***
  2405 
  2406 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2407 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2408 
  2409 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2410 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2411 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2412 
  2413 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2414 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2415 follows:
  2416 
  2417   \<^item>  itemize
  2418   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2419   \<^descr>  description
  2420 
  2421 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2422 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2423 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2424 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2425 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2426 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2427 
  2428 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2429 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2430 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2431 
  2432 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2433 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2434 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2435 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2436 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2437 
  2438 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2439 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2440 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2441 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2442 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2443 
  2444 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2445 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2446 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2447 
  2448 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2449 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2450 
  2451 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2452 
  2453 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2454 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2455 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2456 
  2457 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2458 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2459 
  2460 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2461 entities of the Isar language.
  2462 
  2463 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2464 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2465 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2466 
  2467 
  2468 *** Isar ***
  2469 
  2470 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2471 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2472 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2473 example:
  2474 
  2475   have result: "C x y"
  2476     if "A x" and "B y"
  2477     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2478     <proof>
  2479 
  2480 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2481 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2482 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2483 
  2484   {
  2485     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2486     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2487     have "C x y" <proof>
  2488   }
  2489   note result = this
  2490 
  2491 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2492 instead of 'assume' above.
  2493 
  2494 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2495 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2496 
  2497   assume result: "C x y"
  2498     if "A x" and "B y"
  2499     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2500 
  2501 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2502 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2503 
  2504 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2505 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2506 example:
  2507 
  2508   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2509 
  2510 is equivalent to:
  2511 
  2512   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2513 
  2514 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2515 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2516 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2517 follows:
  2518 
  2519   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2520 
  2521 or:
  2522 
  2523   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2524 
  2525 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2526 
  2527   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2528 
  2529 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2530 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2531 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2532 of the local context elements yet.
  2533 
  2534 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2535 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2536 
  2537   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2538   then have something
  2539   proof cases
  2540     case a
  2541     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2542   next
  2543     case b
  2544     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2545   next
  2546     case c
  2547     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2548   qed
  2549 
  2550 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2551 
  2552   case a: (c xs)
  2553   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2554 
  2555 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2556 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2557 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2558 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2559 and always put attributes in front.
  2560 
  2561 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2562 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2563 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2564 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2565 
  2566 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2567 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2568 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2569 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2570 
  2571   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2572     supply [simp] = a
  2573   proof
  2574     show A by simp
  2575   next
  2576     show A by simp
  2577   qed
  2578 
  2579 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2580 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2581 
  2582 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2583 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2584 
  2585 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2586 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2587 
  2588 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2589 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2590 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2591 manual.
  2592 
  2593 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2594 ('apply' scripts).
  2595 
  2596 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2597 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2598 example:
  2599 
  2600 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2601   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2602 proof goal_cases
  2603   case (1 x)
  2604   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2605 next
  2606   case (2 y z)
  2607   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2608 qed
  2609 
  2610 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2611   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2612 proof goal_cases
  2613   case prems: 1
  2614   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2615 next
  2616   case prems: 2
  2617   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2618 qed
  2619 
  2620 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2621 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2622 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2623 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2624 
  2625 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2626 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2627 
  2628 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2629 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2630 
  2631 
  2632 *** Pure ***
  2633 
  2634 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2635 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2636 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2638 
  2639 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2640 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2643 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2644 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2645 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2646 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2647 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2648 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2649 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2650 
  2651   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2652   begin
  2653     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2654   end
  2655 
  2656   locale morphism =
  2657     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2658     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2659   begin
  2660     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2661   end
  2662 
  2663 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2664 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2665 
  2666 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2667 'defines'.
  2668 
  2669 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2670 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2671 
  2672 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2673 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2674 
  2675 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2676 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2677 
  2678 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2679 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2680 exploited.
  2681 
  2682 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2683 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2684 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2685 
  2686 
  2687 *** HOL ***
  2688 
  2689 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2690 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2691 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2692 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2693 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2694 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2697 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2698 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2699 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2700 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2701 
  2702 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2703 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2704 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2705 simplify porting old theories:
  2706 
  2707   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2708 
  2709   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2710 
  2711   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2712   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2713 
  2714   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2715 
  2716   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2717   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2718 
  2719   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2720 
  2721   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2722     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2723 
  2724   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2725   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2726   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2727 
  2728   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2729   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2730   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2731 
  2732 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2733 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2734 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2735 
  2736 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2737 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2738 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2739 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2740 
  2741 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2742 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2743 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2744 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2747 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2748 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2749 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2752 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2753 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755 
  2756 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2757 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2758 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2759 
  2760 Consolidated facts:
  2761   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2762   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2763   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2764   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2765   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2766   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2767   split_split ~> prod.split
  2768   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2769   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2770   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2771   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2772   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2773   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2774   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2775   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2776   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2777   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2778   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2779   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2780   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2781   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2782   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2783   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2784   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2785   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2786   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2787   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2788   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2789   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2790   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2791   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2792   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2793   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2794   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2795   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2796 
  2797 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2798   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2799   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2800   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2801   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2802 
  2803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2806 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2807 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2808 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2809 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2810 
  2811 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2812   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2813   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2814   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2815   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2816   real_of_one of_int_1
  2817   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2818   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2819   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2820   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2821   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2822   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2823   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2824   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2825   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2826   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2827   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2828   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2829   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2830   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2831   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2832   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2833   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2834 
  2835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2838 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2841 
  2842 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Sledgehammer:
  2845   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2846   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2847     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2848   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2849   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2850   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2851     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2853 
  2854 * Nitpick:
  2855   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2856   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2857   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2858   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2859   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2860 
  2861 * (Co)datatype package:
  2862   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2863     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2864   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2865   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2866     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2868     being defined.
  2869   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2870 
  2871 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2872 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2873 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2874 
  2875 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2876 
  2877 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2878 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2879 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2880 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2881 
  2882 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2886 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2887 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2888 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2889 
  2890 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2891 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2892 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2893 
  2894 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2895 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2896 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2897 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2898 
  2899 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2900 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2901 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2902 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2903 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2904 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2905 during instantiation.
  2906 
  2907 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2908 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2909 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2912 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2913 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2914 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2915 
  2916   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2917   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2918 
  2919 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Library/Multiset:
  2922   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2923       < ~> <#
  2924       > ~> >#
  2925       <= ~> <=#
  2926       >= ~> >=#
  2927       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2928       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2929     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2931       \<subset>#
  2932       \<subseteq>#
  2933       \<supset>#
  2934       \<supseteq>#
  2935   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2936     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2937     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2938     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2939     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2940     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2941     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2942   - Renamed conversions:
  2943       multiset_of ~> mset
  2944       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2945       set_of ~> set_mset
  2946     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2947   - Renamed lemmas:
  2948       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2949       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2950       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2951     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2952   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2953     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2954     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2955     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2956 
  2957 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2958 
  2959 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2960 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2961 chain-complete partial orders.
  2962 
  2963 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2964 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2965 
  2966 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2967 periodic functions.
  2968 
  2969 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2970 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2971 GCD.
  2972 
  2973 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2974 
  2975 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2976 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2977 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2978 
  2979 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2980 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2981 
  2982 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2983 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2984 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2985 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2986 
  2987 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2988 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2989 
  2990 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2991 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2992 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2993 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2994 properties.
  2995 
  2996 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2997 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2998 
  2999 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3000 structures.
  3001 
  3002 
  3003 *** ML ***
  3004 
  3005 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3006 system are available:
  3007 
  3008   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3009   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3010   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3011 
  3012 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3013 
  3014 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3015 Isar proof method.
  3016 
  3017 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3018 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3019 breaks.
  3020 
  3021 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3022 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3023 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3026 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3027 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3028 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3029 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3030 
  3031 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3032 
  3033   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3034   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3035 
  3036   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3037   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3038 
  3039 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3040 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3041 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3042 
  3043 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3044 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3045 instead (with proper context).
  3046 
  3047 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3048 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3049 
  3050 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3051 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3052 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3053 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3054 the proof context discipline.
  3055 
  3056 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3057 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3058 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3059 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3060 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 
  3063 *** System ***
  3064 
  3065 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3066 
  3067 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3068 conflations:
  3069 
  3070     hence  ~>  then have
  3071     thus   ~>  then show
  3072 
  3073 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3074 maintainability of proofs.
  3075 
  3076 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3077 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3078 performance.
  3079 
  3080 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3081 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3082 
  3083     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3084 
  3085 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3086 space.
  3087 
  3088 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3089 platforms as follows.
  3090 
  3091   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3092     associated with the main app bundle
  3093 
  3094   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3095     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3096     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3097 
  3098   - isabelle build: settings
  3099     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3100 
  3101 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3102 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3103 
  3104 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3105 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3106 required after change.
  3107 
  3108 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3109 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3110 
  3111 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3112 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3113 
  3114 
  3115 
  3116 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3117 ------------------------------
  3118 
  3119 *** General ***
  3120 
  3121 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3122 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3123 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3124 
  3125   context
  3126   begin
  3127 
  3128   private definition ...
  3129   private lemma ...
  3130 
  3131   qualified definition ...
  3132   qualified lemma ...
  3133 
  3134   lemma ...
  3135   theorem ...
  3136 
  3137   end
  3138 
  3139 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3140 naming policy.
  3141 
  3142 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3143 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3144 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3145 
  3146 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3147 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3148 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3149 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3150 
  3151 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3152 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3153 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155 
  3156 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3157 theory context.
  3158 
  3159 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3160 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3162 
  3163 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3164 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3165 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3166 sources.
  3167 
  3168 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3169 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3170 
  3171 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3172 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3173 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3174 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3175 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3176 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3177 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3178 
  3179 
  3180 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3181 
  3182 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3183 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3184 
  3185 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3186 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3187 in the buffer.
  3188 
  3189 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3190 marker, SideKick parser.
  3191 
  3192 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3193 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3194 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3195 
  3196 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3197 Options / Text Area).
  3198 
  3199 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3200 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3201 
  3202 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3203 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3204 
  3205 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3206 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3207 
  3208 
  3209 *** Document preparation ***
  3210 
  3211 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3212 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3213 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3214 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3215 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3216 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3217 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3218 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3219 
  3220 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3221 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3222 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3223 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3224 
  3225 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3226 style.
  3227 
  3228 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3229 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3230 
  3231 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3232 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3233 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3234 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3235 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3236 
  3237 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3238 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3239 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3240 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3241 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3242 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3243 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3246 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3247 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 
  3251 *** Pure ***
  3252 
  3253 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3254 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3255 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3256 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3257 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3258 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3259 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3260 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3261 
  3262 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3263 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3264 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3265 
  3266 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3267 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3269 different index.
  3270 
  3271 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3272 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3273 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3274 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3275 
  3276 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3277 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3278 token category instead.
  3279 
  3280 
  3281 *** HOL ***
  3282 
  3283 * New (co)datatype package:
  3284   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3285     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3286     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3287     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3288     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289   - Renamed theorems:
  3290       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3291       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3292       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3293       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3294       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3295       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3296       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3297       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3298       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3299       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3300       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3301       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3302       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3305     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3306     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3308     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3309     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3311     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3312     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3313     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3314     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3315     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3316     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317   - Renamed theories:
  3318       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3319       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3320       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3321       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3322       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3323       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3324     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3326     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3327     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3328     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3329     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3330     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3331     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3332     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3333     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3334   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3335     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3336     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3337     rules.
  3338 
  3339 * Old datatype package:
  3340   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3341     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3342     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3343     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3344     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345   - Renamed theorems:
  3346       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3347     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348   - Renamed theory:
  3349       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3350     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Nitpick:
  3353   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3354     operations.
  3355 
  3356 * Sledgehammer:
  3357   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3358     default.
  3359   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3360     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3361   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3362     Removed sub-command:
  3363       min
  3364   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3365     dramatically improved.
  3366   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3367 
  3368 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3369   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3370     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3371     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3372     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3373     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3374     point to it.
  3375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3379     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3380   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3381     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3382 
  3383 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3384 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3385 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3386 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3387 
  3388 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3389 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3390 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3393 
  3394 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3395 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3396 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3397 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3400 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3406 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3407 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3410 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411 
  3412 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3413 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3414 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3415 
  3416 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3417 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3418 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3419 needed.
  3420 
  3421 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3422 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3423 
  3424 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3425 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3426 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3427 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3428 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3429 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3430 
  3431 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3432 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3433 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3434 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3435 
  3436 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3437 type class hierarchy:
  3438   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3439   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3440   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3441   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3442 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3445   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3446   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3447 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3450 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3451 
  3452 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3453   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3454   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3455   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3456 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3459 and part of theory Main.
  3460   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3467 Fact rename:
  3468     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3472 
  3473 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3474 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3475 
  3476 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3477 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3478 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3479 
  3480 * Library/Multiset:
  3481   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3482   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3483     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3484   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3485       <# ~> #<#
  3486       <=# ~> #<=#
  3487       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3488       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3489     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3491       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3492       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3493     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494   - Renamed
  3495       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3496       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3497       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3498     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3500   - Added attributes:
  3501       image_mset.id [simp]
  3502       image_mset_id [simp]
  3503       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3504       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3505       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3506       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3507       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3508       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3509     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3512 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3513 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3514 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3517 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3518 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3519 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3520 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3521 examples.
  3522 
  3523 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3524   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3525   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3526   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3527     projection
  3528 
  3529 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3530 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3531 
  3532 
  3533 *** ML ***
  3534 
  3535 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3536 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3537 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3538 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3539 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3540 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3541 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3542 
  3543 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3544 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3545 
  3546 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3547 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3548 
  3549 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3553 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3554 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3555 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3557 nested.
  3558 
  3559 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3560 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3563 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3564 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3568 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3569 Thm.term_of etc.
  3570 
  3571 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3572 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3573 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3576 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3577 
  3578 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3579 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3580 
  3581 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3582 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3583 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3586 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3587 
  3588 
  3589 *** System ***
  3590 
  3591 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3592 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3593 
  3594 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3595 
  3596 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3597 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3598 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3599 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3603 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3604 
  3605 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3606 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3607 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3608 
  3609 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3610 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3611 
  3612 
  3613 
  3614 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3615 ---------------------------------
  3616 
  3617 *** General ***
  3618 
  3619 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3620 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3621 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3622 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3623 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3624 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3625 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3626 some examples.
  3627 
  3628 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3629 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3630 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3631 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3632 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3633 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3634 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3635 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3636 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3637 
  3638 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3639 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3640 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3641 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3642 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3643 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3644 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3645 proof tools.
  3646 
  3647 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3648 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3649 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3650 
  3651 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3652 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3653 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3654 
  3655 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3656 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3657 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3658 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3659 
  3660 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3661 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3662 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3666 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3667 
  3668 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3669 not check existence within the file-system.
  3670 
  3671 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3672 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3673 
  3674 
  3675 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3676 
  3677 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3678 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3679 buffer.
  3680 
  3681 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3682 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3683 
  3684 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3685 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3686 
  3687 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3688 auxiliary ML files.
  3689 
  3690 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3691 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3692 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3693 
  3694 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3695 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3696 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3697 
  3698 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3699 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3700 
  3701 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3702 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3703 caret".
  3704 
  3705 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3706 completion popup and context-menu.
  3707 
  3708 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3709 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3710 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3711 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3712 
  3713 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3714 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3715 
  3716 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3717 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3718 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3719 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3720 
  3721 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3722 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3723 
  3724 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3725 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3726 
  3727 * Improved monitor panel.
  3728 
  3729 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3730 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3731 
  3732 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3733 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3734 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3735 
  3736 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3737 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3738 within the context.
  3739 
  3740 
  3741 *** Pure ***
  3742 
  3743 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3744 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3745 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3746 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3747 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3748 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3749 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3750 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3751 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3752 
  3753 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3754 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3755 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3756 renaming needs to be applied:
  3757 
  3758   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3759   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3760   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3761   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3762   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3763 
  3764 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3765 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3766 old constants:
  3767 
  3768 setup {*
  3769   fn thy => thy
  3770     |> Sign.root_path
  3771     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3772     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3773     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3774     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3775 *}
  3776 
  3777 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3778 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3779 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3780 
  3781 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3782 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3783 instantiated theorem.
  3784 
  3785 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3786 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3787 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3788 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3789 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3790 
  3791   attribute_setup standard =
  3792     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3793 
  3794 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3795 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3796 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3797 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3798 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3799 
  3800 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3801 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3802 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3803 
  3804 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3805 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3806 
  3807 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3808 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3809 
  3810 
  3811 *** HOL ***
  3812 
  3813 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3814 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3823 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3829 with the given constants.
  3830 
  3831 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3832 operations on records.
  3833 
  3834 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3835 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3838 
  3839 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3840 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3841 
  3842 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3845 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3846 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3847 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3848 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3851 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3854   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3855   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3856   part of theory "Main".
  3857 
  3858   Theory renamings:
  3859     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3860     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3861     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3862     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3863     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3864     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3865     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3866     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3867     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3868     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3869     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3870     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3871     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3872     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3873     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3874     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3875     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3876     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3877     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3878     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3879     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3880     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3881 
  3882   New theories:
  3883     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3884     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3885     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3886     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3887     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3888 
  3889   Discontinued theories:
  3890     BNF/BNF.thy
  3891     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3892 
  3893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * New (co)datatype package:
  3896   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3897   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3898     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3899   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3900     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3901   - Renamed commands:
  3902       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3903       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3904       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3905     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3907     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3908     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3910     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3911     using "prim(co)rec".
  3912     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3914     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3915     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3917     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3918     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3919     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921 * Old datatype package:
  3922   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3923     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3924     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3926     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3927     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3930   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3931   BNF-based datatype package.
  3932 
  3933   Renamed constants:
  3934     Option.set ~> set_option
  3935     Option.map ~> map_option
  3936     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3937 
  3938   Renamed theorems:
  3939     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3940     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3941     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3942     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3943     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3944     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3945     map.simps ~> list.map
  3946     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3947     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3948     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3949 
  3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3953     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3954     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3955     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3956     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3957     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3958     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3959     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3960     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3961     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3962     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3963 
  3964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3967   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3968   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3969   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3970   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3971     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3972     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3973       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3974       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3975       automatically
  3976     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3977     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3978       automatically for datatypes
  3979   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3980     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3981       more
  3982       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3984       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3985       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3987       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3988       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3990     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3992     form
  3993     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3995     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3997     Code_Numeral.natural
  3998     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4000     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4003 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4004 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4005 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4006 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4007 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4008 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4011 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4012 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4013 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4014 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4015 
  4016 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4017 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4018 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4019 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4020 
  4021 * Sledgehammer:
  4022   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4023   - MaSh overhaul:
  4024     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4025       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4026     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4027       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4028       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4029       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4030   - New option:
  4031       smt_proofs
  4032   - Renamed options:
  4033       isar_compress ~> compress
  4034       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4035 
  4036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4037 
  4038 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4039 
  4040 * Nitpick:
  4041   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4042     take infinite values.
  4043   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4044     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4045   - Removed "std" option.
  4046   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4047     "hide_types".
  4048 
  4049 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4050 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4053 
  4054 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4055   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4056   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4057     SUP instead uniformly.
  4058   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4059     or SUP and Sup.
  4060   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4061   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4062   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4063     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4064     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4065 
  4066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4067 
  4068 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4069 
  4070 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4071 
  4072   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4073   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4074   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4075   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4076 
  4077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078 
  4079 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4080 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4081 
  4082 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4083 
  4084     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4085     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4086     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4087     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4088     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4089     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4090     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4091     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4092     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4093     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4094     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4095     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4096     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4097     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4098     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4099     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4100     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4101     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4102     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4103     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4104     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4105     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4106     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4107     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4108     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4109     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4110     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4111     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4112     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4113     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4114     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4115     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4116     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4117     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4118     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4119     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4120     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4121     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4122     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4123     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4124     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4125     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4126     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4127     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4128     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4129     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4130     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4131     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4132     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4133     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4134     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4135     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4136     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4137     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4138     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4139     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4140     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4141     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4142     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4143 
  4144   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4145   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4146   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4147     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4148 
  4149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4152 
  4153   Fact consolidations:
  4154     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4155     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4156     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4157     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4158     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4159     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4160     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4161     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4162     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4163     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4164     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4165     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4166     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4167     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4168     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4169     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4170     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4171     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4172     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4173     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4174     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4175     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4176     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4177     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4178     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4179     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4180     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4181     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4182     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4183     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4184     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4185     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4186     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4187     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4188     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4189     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4190     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4191     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4192     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4193     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4194 
  4195 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4196 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4197 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4198 
  4199 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4200 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4201 
  4202 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4203 
  4204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4207 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4211 
  4212 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4213     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4214 
  4215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4218   consolidation:
  4219     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4220     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4221 
  4222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4225   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4226   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4227   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4228     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4229   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4230     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4231   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4232 
  4233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4236 
  4237     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4238     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4239     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4240     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4241     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4242     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4243     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4244     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4245     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4246     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4247     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4248     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4249     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4250 
  4251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4254 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4255 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4256 
  4257 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4258     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4259     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4260     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4261     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4262 
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Fact name consolidation:
  4266     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4267     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4268     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4269     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4270     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4271 
  4272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4275 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4276 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4277 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4278 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4279 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4280 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4284 
  4285 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4286 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4287 
  4288 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4289 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4290 
  4291 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4292 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4293 or the brute way with
  4294 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4295 
  4296 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4297 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4298 stating boundedness of sets.
  4299 
  4300 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4301 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4302 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4305   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4306   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4307   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4308   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4309   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4310   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4311   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4312   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4313   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4314   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4315   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4316 
  4317   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4318 
  4319   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4320 
  4321     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4322     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4323     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4324     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4325     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4326 
  4327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4330   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4331 
  4332   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4333 
  4334   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4335 
  4336   - removed constant isDiff
  4337 
  4338   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4339     input syntax.
  4340 
  4341   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4342 
  4343   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4344 
  4345   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4346 
  4347   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4348 
  4349   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4350     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4351     has_vector_derivative.
  4352 
  4353   - Other renamings:
  4354     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4355     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4356     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4357     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4358     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4359     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4360     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4361 
  4362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4363 
  4364 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4365 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4366 in continuous_intros.
  4367 
  4368 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4369 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4370 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4371 
  4372 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4373 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4374 especially removes
  4375 
  4376     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4377 
  4378 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4379     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4380 
  4381 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4382 
  4383   Renamings:
  4384     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4385     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4386     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4387     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4388     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4389     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4390     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4391     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4392     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4393     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4394     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4395     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4396 
  4397     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4398     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4399     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4400 
  4401   Removed theorems:
  4402     complex_zero_def
  4403     complex_add_def
  4404     complex_minus_def
  4405     complex_diff_def
  4406     complex_one_def
  4407     complex_mult_def
  4408     complex_inverse_def
  4409     complex_scaleR_def
  4410 
  4411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4414 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4417 
  4418 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4419 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4420 
  4421 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4422 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4425 
  4426 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428 
  4429 * HOL-Word:
  4430   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4431     of "word_arith_wis".
  4432   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4433     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4434     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4435 
  4436 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4437   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4438   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4439   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4440     (except the AFP)
  4441 
  4442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4445   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4446   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4447     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4448   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4449     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4450     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4451     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4452     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4453     intervals.
  4454   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4455     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4456     - renamed theorems:
  4457         interval ~> box
  4458         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4459         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4460         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4461         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4462         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4463         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4464         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4465         open_interval ~> open_box
  4466         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4467         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4468         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4469         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4470         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4471         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4472         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4473         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4474         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4475         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4476         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4477         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4478         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4479         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4480         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4481         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4482         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4483         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4484         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4485         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4486         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4487         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4488         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4489         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4490 
  4491     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4492         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4493         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4494         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4495         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4496         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4497         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4498         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4499         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4500         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4501         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4502         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4503         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4504         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4505         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4506         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4507         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4508         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4509 
  4510   - renamed theorems:
  4511     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4512     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4513     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4514 
  4515 * HOL-Probability:
  4516   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4517 
  4518     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4519       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4520 
  4521     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4522 
  4523   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4524     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4525 
  4526     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4527     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4528     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4529     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4530     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4531     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4532     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4533     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4534     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4535     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4536     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4537     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4538     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4539     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4540     integral_indicator          ~>
  4541          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4542     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4543     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4544     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4545 
  4546     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4547          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4548 
  4549     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4550          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4551 
  4552     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4553          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4554 
  4555     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4556          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4557          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4558 
  4559     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4560          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4561 
  4562     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4563          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4564 
  4565     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4566          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4567          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4568 
  4569     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4570          nn_integral_real_affine
  4571 
  4572     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4573          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4574 
  4575     The following theorems where removed:
  4576 
  4577     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4578     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4579     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4580     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4581     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4582     integral_cmul_indicator
  4583     integral_real
  4584 
  4585   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4586     distributed random variables.
  4587 
  4588 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4589 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 
  4593 *** Scala ***
  4594 
  4595 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4596 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4597 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4598 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4599 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4602 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 *** ML ***
  4606 
  4607 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4608 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4609 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4610 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4611 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4612 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4613 
  4614 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4615 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4616 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4617 actually belongs to it).
  4618 
  4619 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4620 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4621 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4622 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4623 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4624 of schematic variables.
  4625 
  4626 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4627 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4630 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4631 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4637 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4638 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4642 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4644 formal context.
  4645 
  4646 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4647 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4650 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4651 
  4652 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4653 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4654 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4655 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4656 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4657 
  4658 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4659 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4660 purposes.
  4661 
  4662 
  4663 *** System ***
  4664 
  4665 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4666 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4667 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4668 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4669 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4670 
  4671 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4672 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4673 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4674 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4675 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4676 settings variable.
  4677 
  4678 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4679 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4680 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4681 
  4682 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4683 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4684 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4685 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4686 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4687 
  4688 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4689 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4690 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4691 
  4692 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4693 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4694 
  4695 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4696 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4697 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4698 
  4699 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4700 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4701 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4702 processing is started.
  4703 
  4704 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4705 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4706 
  4707 
  4708 
  4709 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4710 -------------------------------------
  4711 
  4712 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4713 
  4714 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4715 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4716 
  4717 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4718 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4719 
  4720 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4721 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4722 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4723 
  4724 
  4725 *** System ***
  4726 
  4727 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4728 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4729 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4730 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4731 
  4732 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4733 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4734 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4735 
  4736 
  4737 
  4738 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4739 -------------------------------------
  4740 
  4741 *** General ***
  4742 
  4743 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4744 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4745 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4748 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4749 
  4750 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4751 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4752 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4753 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4754 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4755 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4756 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4757 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4758 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4759 syntax.
  4760 
  4761 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4762 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4765 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4766 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4767 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4768 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4769 
  4770 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4774 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4775 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4776 
  4777 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4778 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4779 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4780 
  4781 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4782 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4783 
  4784 
  4785 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4786 
  4787 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4788 Documentation panel.
  4789 
  4790 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4791 documentation.
  4792 
  4793 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4794 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4795 
  4796 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4797 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4798 normal editing and checking process.
  4799 
  4800 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4801 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4802 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4803 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4804 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4805 
  4806 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4807 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4808 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4809 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4810 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4811 
  4812 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4813 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4814 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4815 
  4816 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4817 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4818 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4819 to resolve conflict.
  4820 
  4821 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4822 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4823 
  4824 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4825 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4826 such command executions while editing.
  4827 
  4828 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4829 document content.
  4830 
  4831 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4832 toplevel theorem statements.
  4833 
  4834 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4835 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4836 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4837 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4838 
  4839 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4840 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4841 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4842 
  4843 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4844 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4845 
  4846 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4847 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4848 
  4849 
  4850 *** Pure ***
  4851 
  4852 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4853 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4854 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4855 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4856 details.
  4857 
  4858 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4859 
  4860 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4861 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4862 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4863 
  4864 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4868 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4869 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4870 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4873 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4874 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 
  4876 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4877 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4878 
  4879 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4880 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4881 situations.
  4882 
  4883 
  4884 *** HOL ***
  4885 
  4886 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4887 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4891 
  4892 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4893 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4894 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4895 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4896 
  4897   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4898 
  4899 * Code generator:
  4900   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4901     'code_instance'.
  4902   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4903     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4904 
  4905 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4906 examples.
  4907 
  4908 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4909 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4910 to distinguish both when desired.
  4911 
  4912 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4913 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4914 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4915 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4916 
  4917 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4918 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4919 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4920 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4921 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4922 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4925 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4926 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4927 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4928 
  4929 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4930 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4931 
  4932 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4933 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4934 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4935 
  4936 * Lifting:
  4937   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4938     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4939       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4940       transfer rules
  4941     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4942       correspondence relation can be generated
  4943     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4944       parametricity
  4945     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4946   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4947   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4948     copies
  4949   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4950     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4951     anonymous context)
  4952   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4953     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4954   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4955     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4956   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4957     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4958 
  4959 * Transfer:
  4960   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4961     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4962   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4963   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4964     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4965   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4966 
  4967 * Reification and reflection:
  4968   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4969     "Reification".
  4970   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4971   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4975   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4976     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4977     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4978   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4979     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4980   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4981     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4982     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4983     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4984     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4985     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4986     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4987     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4988   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4989     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4990   - Fact renames:
  4991       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4992       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4994 
  4995 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4996 
  4997 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4998 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4999 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5001 
  5002 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5003 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5004 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5005 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5006 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5007 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5008 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5009 lemmas.
  5010 
  5011 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5012 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5013 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5016 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5017 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5018 
  5019 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5020 top and bottom elements.
  5021 
  5022 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5023 
  5024 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5025 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5026 
  5027  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5028    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5029    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5030 
  5031  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5032    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5033    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5034 
  5035    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5036    arbitrary filter.
  5037 
  5038  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5039    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5040    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5041    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5042    on a compact set.
  5043 
  5044  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5045    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5046    linear_continuum_topology).
  5047 
  5048  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5049    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5050    on all sequences converging to x.
  5051 
  5052  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5053    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5054    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5055    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5056    left or right.
  5057 
  5058  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5059 
  5060      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5061 
  5062  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5063    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5064 
  5065  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5066    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5067    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5068    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5069    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5070    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5071 
  5072  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5073 
  5074    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5075 
  5076    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5077      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5078 
  5079    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5080 
  5081    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5082      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5083 
  5084    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5085 
  5086    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5087 
  5088  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5089 
  5090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091 
  5092 * Nitpick:
  5093   - Added option "spy".
  5094   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5095 
  5096 * Sledgehammer:
  5097   - Renamed option:
  5098       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5099     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5101   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5102   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5103 
  5104 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5105 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5106 
  5107 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5108   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5109   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5110     generated code.
  5111   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5112   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5113   - Fact renames:
  5114     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5115     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5116     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5117 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5118 
  5119 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5120 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5121 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5122 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5123 
  5124 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5125 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5126 
  5127 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5130 
  5131     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5132     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5133 
  5134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5135 
  5136 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5137 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5138 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5139 
  5140 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5141 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5142 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5143 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * HOL-BNF:
  5146   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5147     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5148     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5149     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5150   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5151     coinduct).
  5152   - Renamed keywords:
  5153     data ~> datatype_new
  5154     codata ~> codatatype
  5155     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5156   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5157     discs ~> disc
  5158     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5159     map_id' ~> map_id
  5160     sels ~> sel
  5161     set_map' ~> set_map
  5162     sets ~> set
  5163 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 
  5166 *** ML ***
  5167 
  5168 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5169 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5170 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5171 Examples.thy in particular.
  5172 
  5173 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5174 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5175 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5176 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5177 
  5178 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5179 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5180 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5181 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5183 
  5184 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5185 
  5186     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5187     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5188 
  5189 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5190 
  5191 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5192 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5193 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5194 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5195 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5196 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5197 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5198 
  5199 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5200 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5201 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5202 clasets separately from the context.
  5203 
  5204 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5205 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5206 
  5207 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5208 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5209 
  5210 
  5211 *** System ***
  5212 
  5213 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5214 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5217 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5218 
  5219 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5220 settings variable.
  5221 
  5222 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5223 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5224 always pdf.
  5225 
  5226 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5227 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5228 
  5229 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5230 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5231 
  5232 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5233 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5234 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5235 
  5236 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5237 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5238 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5239 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5240 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5241 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5242 
  5243 
  5244 
  5245 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5246 -----------------------------------
  5247 
  5248 *** General ***
  5249 
  5250 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5251 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5252 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5253 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5254 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5255 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5256 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5257 
  5258 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5259 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5260 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5261 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5262 
  5263 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5264 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5265 
  5266 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5267 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5268 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5269 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5270 dependencies properly.
  5271 
  5272 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5273 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5274 
  5275 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5276 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5277 
  5278 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5279 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5280 and "class ... context ...".
  5281 
  5282 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5283 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5284 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5285 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5286 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5287 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5288 
  5289 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5290 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5291 
  5292 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5293 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5294 
  5295 
  5296 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5297 
  5298 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5299 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5300 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5301 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5302 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5303 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5304 
  5305 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5306 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5307 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5308 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5309 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5310 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5311 
  5312 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5313 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5314 browser on demand.
  5315 
  5316 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5317 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5318 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5319 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5320 
  5321 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5322 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5323 
  5324 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5325 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5326 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5327 potentially infinite message streams.
  5328 
  5329 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5330 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5331 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5332 schemes.
  5333 
  5334 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5335 symbols.
  5336 
  5337 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5338 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5339 
  5340 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5341 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5342 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5343 
  5344 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5345 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5346 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5347 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5348 
  5349 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5350 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5351 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5352 
  5353 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5354 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5355 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5356 Isabelle distribution.
  5357 
  5358 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5359 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5360 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5361 
  5362 
  5363 *** Pure ***
  5364 
  5365 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5366 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5367 
  5368 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5369 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5370 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5371 
  5372 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5373 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5374 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5375 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5376 with some care where this is really required.
  5377 
  5378 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5379 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5380 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5381 
  5382   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5383 
  5384 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5385 a Hasse diagram.
  5386 
  5387 
  5388 *** HOL ***
  5389 
  5390 * Sledgehammer:
  5391 
  5392   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5393     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5394   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5395   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5396   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5397   - Renamed options:
  5398       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5399       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5400       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5401       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5402 
  5403 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5404 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5405 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5406 
  5407 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5409 
  5410 * Lifting:
  5411   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5412   - quot_del attribute
  5413   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5414 
  5415 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5416 expressions.
  5417 
  5418 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5419 pointfree expressions.
  5420 
  5421 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5422 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5423 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5424 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5426 
  5427 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5428 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5429 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5430 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5431 accordingly.
  5432 
  5433 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5434 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5435 
  5436 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5437 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 
  5439 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5440 
  5441 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5442 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5443 
  5444 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5445 
  5446 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5447 
  5448   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5449   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5450 
  5451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5454 
  5455   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5456   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5457 
  5458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5461 
  5462   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5463     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5464     output f x converges to G.
  5465 
  5466   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5467     infinity (at_bot).
  5468 
  5469   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5470     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5471 
  5472   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5473     at_top".
  5474 
  5475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5478 lattice type classes.
  5479 
  5480 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5481 
  5482     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5483     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5484 
  5485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5486 
  5487 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5488 changes as follows.
  5489 
  5490   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5491 
  5492       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5493       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5494 
  5495   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5496     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5497     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5498     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5499 
  5500   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5501     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5502     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5503 
  5504   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5505     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5506     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5507     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5508 
  5509   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5510     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5511 
  5512       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5513       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5514       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5515       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5516       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5517       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5518       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5519       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5520       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5521       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5522       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5523       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5524       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5525       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5526       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5527       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5528 
  5529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5532 
  5533 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5534 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5535 
  5536 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5537 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5538 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5539 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5540 
  5541   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5542   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5543   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5544   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5545   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5546   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5547   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5548   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5549   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5550   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5551 
  5552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5553 
  5554 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5555 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5556 Data").
  5557 
  5558 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5559 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5560 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5561 code.
  5562 
  5563 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5564 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5565 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5569 
  5570 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5571 
  5572 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5573 
  5574   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5575   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5576 
  5577 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5578 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5579 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5580 
  5581   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5582 
  5583     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5584     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5585     cart_base i  removed
  5586     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5587 
  5588   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5589 
  5590   Renamed lemmas:
  5591 
  5592     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5593     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5594     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5595     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5596     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5597     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5598     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5599     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5600     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5601     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5602 
  5603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5604 
  5605 * HOL/Probability:
  5606 
  5607   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5608 
  5609   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5610     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5611     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5612 
  5613   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5614     projective family).
  5615 
  5616 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5617 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5618 
  5619 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5620 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5621 datatypes.
  5622 
  5623 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5624 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5625 
  5626 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5627 trees for the code generator.
  5628 
  5629 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5630 Lifting/Transfer.
  5631 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5635 
  5636 
  5637 *** Document preparation ***
  5638 
  5639 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5640 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5641 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5642 
  5643 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5644 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5645 
  5646 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5647 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5648 document/root.tex.
  5649 
  5650 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5651 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 
  5654 *** ML ***
  5655 
  5656 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5657 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5658 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5659 
  5660 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5661 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5662 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5663 
  5664 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5665 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5666 necessarily printing visible text.
  5667 
  5668 
  5669 *** System ***
  5670 
  5671 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5672 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5673 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5674 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5675 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5676 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5677 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5678 
  5679 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5680 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5681 
  5682   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5683 
  5684 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5685 
  5686 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5687 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5688 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5689 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5690 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5691 
  5692 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5693 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5694 
  5695 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5696 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5697 
  5698 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5700 
  5701 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5702 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5703 version of Isabelle.
  5704 
  5705 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5706 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5707 
  5708 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5709 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5710 for home-made settings.
  5711 
  5712 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5713 
  5714 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5715 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5716 configuration.
  5717 
  5718 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5719 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5720 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5721 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5722 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5723 
  5724 
  5725 
  5726 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5727 ------------------------------
  5728 
  5729 *** General ***
  5730 
  5731 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5732 
  5733   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5734     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5735   - markup for bound variables
  5736   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5737   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5738   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5739     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5740 
  5741 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5742 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5743 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5744 
  5745 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5746 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5747 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5748 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5749 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5750 
  5751   context
  5752     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5753     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5754   begin
  5755 
  5756   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5757 
  5758   end
  5759 
  5760   thm my_trans
  5761 
  5762 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5763 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5764 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5765 
  5766 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5767 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5768 
  5769 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5770 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5771 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5772 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5773 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5774 
  5775 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5776 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5777 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5778 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5779 indices of schematic variables.
  5780 
  5781 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5782 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5783 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5784 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5785 etc. was exploited.
  5786 
  5787 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5788 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5789 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5790 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5791 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5792 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5793 
  5794 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5795 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5796 manual.
  5797 
  5798 
  5799 *** Pure ***
  5800 
  5801 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5802 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5803 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5804 
  5805 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5806 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5807 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5808 undocumented feature.)
  5809 
  5810 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5811 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5812 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5813 
  5814   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5815 
  5816   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5817     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5818 
  5819 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5820 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5821 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5822 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5823 
  5824 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5825 
  5826     num ~> num_token
  5827     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5828     xstr ~> str_token
  5829 
  5830 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5831 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5832 position information via constraints).
  5833 
  5834 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5835 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5836 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5837 
  5838 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5839 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5840 
  5841 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5842 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5843 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5844 
  5845 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5846 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5847 
  5848 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5849 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5850 
  5851   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5852 
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5854 
  5855 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5856 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5857 
  5858 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5859 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5860 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5861 
  5862 
  5863 *** HOL ***
  5864 
  5865 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5866 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5867 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5868 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5869 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5870 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5871 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5872 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5873 possible.
  5874 
  5875 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5876 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5877 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5878 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5879 
  5880 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5881 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5884 
  5885 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5886 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5887 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5888 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5889 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5890 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5891 
  5892   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5893     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5894 
  5895   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5896     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5897     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5898 
  5899   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5900     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5901 
  5902   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5903     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5904     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5905 
  5906   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5907     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5908 
  5909 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5910 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5911 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5912 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5913 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5914 
  5915   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5916     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5917     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5918     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5919     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5920 
  5921     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5922     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5923 
  5924   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5925     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5926     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5927     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5928     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5929     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5930     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5931     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5932 
  5933   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5934     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5935     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5936     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5937 
  5938   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5939     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5940     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5941     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5942 
  5943   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5944     from type nat to type int.
  5945 
  5946 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5947 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5948 
  5949   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5950     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5951     type.  Example syntax:
  5952 
  5953     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5954       is List.insert
  5955 
  5956     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5957     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5958     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5959     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5960     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5961     by the package.
  5962 
  5963   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5964     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5965     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5966     code generation for each constant.
  5967 
  5968   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5969     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5970     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5971     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5972     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5973 
  5974   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5975     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5976     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5977 
  5978 * Quotient package:
  5979 
  5980   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5981     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5982 
  5983   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5984     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5985 
  5986   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5987     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5988     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5989 
  5990   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5991     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5994 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5995 
  5996 * Quickcheck:
  5997 
  5998   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5999     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6000     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6001     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6002     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6003 
  6004     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6005     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6006     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6007 
  6008     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6009     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6010 
  6011     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6012     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6013     show genuine counterexamples.
  6014 
  6015   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6016     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6017 
  6018     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6019     constructors of that type.
  6020 
  6021   - Support for multisets.
  6022 
  6023   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6024 
  6025   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6026     conjectures in a locale context.
  6027 
  6028 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6029 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6030 
  6031 * Sledgehammer:
  6032   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6033     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6034   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6035   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6036     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6037   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6038   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6039   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6040   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6041 
  6042 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6043 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6044 
  6045 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6046 
  6047 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6048 
  6049 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6050 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6051 
  6052   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6053 
  6054 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6055 a list and a nat.
  6056 
  6057 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6058 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6059 
  6060 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6061 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6062 default.
  6063 
  6064 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6065 
  6066   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6067 
  6068 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6069 
  6070 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6071 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6072 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6073 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6074 one_case.
  6075 
  6076 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6077 the result of the fact expression.
  6078 
  6079 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6080 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6081 of some relation theorems:
  6082 
  6083   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6084   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6085   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6086   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6087   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6088   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6089 
  6090 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6091 
  6092 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6093 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6094 
  6095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6098 to match the constant's name:
  6099 
  6100   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6101   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6102   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6103   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6104   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6105   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6106   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6107   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6108   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6109   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6110   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6111   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6112   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6113   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6114   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6115   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6116   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6117   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6118   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6119   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6120   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6121   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6122   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6123   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6124 
  6125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6126 
  6127 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6128 and corresponding theorem names:
  6129 
  6130   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6131 
  6132   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6133 
  6134   - Renamed theorems:
  6135 
  6136     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6137     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6138     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6139     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6140     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6141     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6142     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6143     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6144     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6145     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6146     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6147     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6148     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6149     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6150     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6151     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6152     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6153     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6154     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6155     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6156     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6157     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6158     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6159 
  6160     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6161 
  6162     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6163 
  6164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6165 
  6166 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6167 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6168 
  6169   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6170   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6171   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6172   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6173   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6174   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6175   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6176   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6177   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6178   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6179   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6180   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6181   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6182   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6183   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6184   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6185   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6186   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6187   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6188   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6189   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6190 
  6191 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6192 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6193 
  6194 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6195 
  6196 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6197 
  6198   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6199   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6200   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6201   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6202   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6203   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6204   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6205   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6206   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6207   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6208   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6209   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6210   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6211   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6212   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6213   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6214   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6215   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6216 
  6217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6218 
  6219 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6220 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6221 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6222 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6223 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6224 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6225 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6226 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6227 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6228 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6229 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6230 
  6231 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6232 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6233 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6234 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6235 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6236 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6237 
  6238 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6239 through option types.
  6240 
  6241 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6242 relations.
  6243 
  6244 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6245 
  6246 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6247 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6248 
  6249   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6250   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6251   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6252   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6253   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6254   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6255   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6256   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6257   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6258   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6259   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6260   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6261   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6262   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6263   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6264   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6265   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6266   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6267