NEWS
author haftmann
Sat Mar 15 08:31:33 2014 +0100 (2014-03-15)
changeset 56154 f0a927235162
parent 56148 d94d6a9178b5
child 56166 9a241bc276cd
permissions -rw-r--r--
more complete set of lemmas wrt. image and composition
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    44 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    45 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    46 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    47 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    48 to the system option "completion_limit").
    49 
    50 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    51 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    52 
    53 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    54 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    55 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    56 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    57 
    58 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    59 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    60 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Pure ***
    64 
    65 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    66 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    67 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    68 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    69 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    70 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    71 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    72 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    73 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    74 
    75 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    76 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    77 instantiated theorem.
    78 
    79 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    80 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    81 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    82 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    83 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    84 
    85   attribute_setup standard =
    86     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    87 
    88 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    89 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    90 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    91 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    92 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    93 
    94 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    95 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    96 differently).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** HOL ***
   100 
   101 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   102   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   103   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   104   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   105   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   106   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   109   can now deal with conjunctions.
   110   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   111   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   112   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   113 
   114 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * HOL-Word:
   117   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   118   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   119   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   120   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   121   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   122 
   123 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   127 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   130 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   133 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   136   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   137   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   138   Theory renamings:
   139     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   140     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   141     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   142     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   143     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   144     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   145     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   146     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   147     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   148     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   149     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   150     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   151     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   152     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   153     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   154     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   155     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   156     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   157     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   158     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   159     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   160     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   161   New theories:
   162     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   163     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   164     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   165     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   166     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   167   Discontinued theories:
   168     BNF/BNF.thy
   169     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   170   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * New (co)datatype package:
   173   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   174   * Renamed commands:
   175       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   176       primrec_new ~> primrec
   177       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   178     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   179   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   180     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   181     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   183     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   184     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Old datatype package:
   187   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   188     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   189     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   191     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   192     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   195   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   196   datatype package.
   197   Renamed constants:
   198     Option.set ~> set_option
   199     Option.map ~> map_option
   200     option_rel ~> rel_option
   201     option_rec ~> case_option
   202   Renamed theorems:
   203     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   204     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   205     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   206     option.recs ~> option.case
   207     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   208     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   209     map.simps ~> list.map
   210     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   211     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   212     the.simps ~> option.sel
   213   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   216     sum_map ~> map_sum
   217     map_pair ~> map_prod
   218     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   219     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   220     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   221     set_rel ~> rel_set
   222     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   223     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   224     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   225     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   226 
   227 * New theory:
   228     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   229 
   230 * Theory reorganizations:
   231   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   232 
   233 * SMT module:
   234   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   235     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   236     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   237     elsewhere.
   238 
   239 * Sledgehammer:
   240   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   241   - New option:
   242       smt_proofs
   243   - Renamed options:
   244       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   245       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Metis:
   249   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   250     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   253 
   254 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   257 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   258 
   259 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   260 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   261 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   262 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   263 
   264 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   268 with the given constants.
   269 
   270 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   271 
   272 Fact consolidations:
   273     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   274     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   275     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   276     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   277     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   278     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   279     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   280     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   281     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   282     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   283     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   284     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   285     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   286     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   287     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   288     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   289     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   290     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   291     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   292     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   293     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   294     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   295     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   296     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   297     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   298     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   299     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   300     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   301     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   302     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   303     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   304     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   305     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   306     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   307     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   308     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   309     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   310     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   311     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   312     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   313 
   314 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   315 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   316 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   317 
   318 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   319 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   320 
   321 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   322 
   323 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   324 
   325 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   332 operations on records.
   333 
   334 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   338     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   342     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   343     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   347   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   348   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   349   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   350     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   351   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   352     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   353   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   354 INCOMPATBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   357     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   358     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   359     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   360     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * Fact name consolidation:
   364     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   365     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   366     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   367     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   368     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370 
   371 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   372 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   373 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   374 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   375 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   376 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   377 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   378 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   381 
   382 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   383 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   384 
   385 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   386 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   387 
   388 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   389 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   390 or the brute way with
   391 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   392 
   393 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   394 
   395 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   396 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   399 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   400 
   401 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   402 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   403 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   404 INCOMPATIBILITY
   405 
   406 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   407 
   408 * Nitpick:
   409   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   410     infinite values.
   411   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   412     "Rep_Integ".
   413   - Removed "std" option.
   414   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   415     "hide_types".
   416 
   417 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   418   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   419   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   420     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   421     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   422     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   423     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   424     intervals.
   425 
   426 
   427 *** Scala ***
   428 
   429 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   430 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   431 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   432 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   433 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 
   436 *** ML ***
   437 
   438 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   439 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   440 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   441 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   442 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   443 of schematic variables.
   444 
   445 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   446 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   448 formal context.
   449 
   450 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   451 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   452 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   453 actually belongs to it).
   454 
   455 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   456 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   457 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   458 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   459 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   460 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   461 
   462 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations (to
   463 make it more close to the analogous Thy_Output.antiquotation).  See
   464 ML_Context.antiquotation and structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor
   465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   468 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   469 
   470 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   471 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   472 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   473 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   474 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   475 
   476 
   477 *** System ***
   478 
   479 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   480 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   481 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   482 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   484 
   485 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   486 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   487 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   488 
   489 
   490 
   491 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   492 -------------------------------------
   493 
   494 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   495 
   496 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   497 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   498 
   499 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   500 after edits surrounding the command location.
   501 
   502 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   503 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   504 e.g. out-of-memory).
   505 
   506 
   507 *** System ***
   508 
   509 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   510 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   511 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   512 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   513 
   514 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   515 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   516 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   517 
   518 
   519 
   520 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   521 -------------------------------------
   522 
   523 *** General ***
   524 
   525 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   526 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   527 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   530 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   533 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   534 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   535 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   536 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   537 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   538 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   539 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   540 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   541 syntax.
   542 
   543 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   544 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   547 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   548 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   549 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   550 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   551 
   552 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   556 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   557 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   558 
   559 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   560 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   561 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   562 
   563 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   564 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   565 
   566 
   567 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   568 
   569 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   570 Documentation panel.
   571 
   572 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   573 documentation.
   574 
   575 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   576 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   577 
   578 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   579 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   580 normal editing and checking process.
   581 
   582 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   583 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   584 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   585 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   586 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   587 
   588 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   589 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   590 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   591 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   592 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   593 
   594 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   595 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   596 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   597 
   598 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   599 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   600 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   601 to resolve conflict.
   602 
   603 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   604 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   605 
   606 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   607 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   608 such command executions while editing.
   609 
   610 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   611 document content.
   612 
   613 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   614 toplevel theorem statements.
   615 
   616 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   617 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   618 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   619 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   620 
   621 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   622 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   623 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   624 
   625 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   626 / Global Options / Appearance".
   627 
   628 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   629 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   630 
   631 
   632 *** Pure ***
   633 
   634 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   635 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   636 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   637 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   638 details.
   639 
   640 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   641 
   642 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   643 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   644 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   645 
   646 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   648 
   649 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   650 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   651 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   652 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653 
   654 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   655 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   656 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   659 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   660 
   661 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   662 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   663 situations.
   664 
   665 
   666 *** HOL ***
   667 
   668 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   669 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   673 
   674 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   675 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   676 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   677 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   678 
   679   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   680 
   681 * Code generator:
   682   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   683     'code_instance'.
   684   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   685     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   686 
   687 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   688 examples.
   689 
   690 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   691 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   692 to distinguish both when desired.
   693 
   694 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   695 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   696 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   697 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   700 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   701 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   702 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   703 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   704 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   707 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   708 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   709 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   710 
   711 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   712 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   713 
   714 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   715 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   716 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   717 
   718 * Lifting:
   719   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   720     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   721       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   722       transfer rules
   723     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   724       correspondence relation can be generated
   725     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   726       parametricity
   727     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   728   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   729   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   730     copies
   731   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   732     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   733     anonymous context)
   734   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   735     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   736   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   737     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   738   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   739     INCOMPATIBILITY
   740 
   741 * Transfer:
   742   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   743     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   744   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   745   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   746     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   747   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   748 
   749 * Reification and reflection:
   750   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   751     "Reification".
   752   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   753   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   757   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   758     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   759     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   760   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   761     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   762   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   763     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   764     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   765     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   766     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   767     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   768     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   769     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   770   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   771     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   772   - Fact renames:
   773       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   774       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   778 
   779 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   780 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   781 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   785 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   786 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   787 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   788 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   789 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   790 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   791 lemmas.
   792 
   793 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   794 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   795 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   798 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   799 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   800 
   801 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   802 top and bottom elements.
   803 
   804 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   805 
   806 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   807 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   808 
   809  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   810    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   811    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   812 
   813  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   814    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   815    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   816 
   817    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   818    arbitrary filter.
   819 
   820  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   821    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   822    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   823    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   824    on a compact set.
   825 
   826  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   827    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   828    linear_continuum_topology).
   829 
   830  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   831    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   832    on all sequences converging to x.
   833 
   834  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   835    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   836    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   837    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   838    left or right.
   839 
   840  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   841 
   842      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   843 
   844  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   845    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   846 
   847  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   848    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   849    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   850    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   851    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   852    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   853 
   854  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   855 
   856    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   857 
   858    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   859      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   860 
   861    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   862 
   863    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   864      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   865 
   866    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   867 
   868    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   869 
   870  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   871 
   872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Nitpick:
   875   - Added option "spy".
   876   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   877 
   878 * Sledgehammer:
   879   - Renamed option:
   880       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   882   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   883   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   884   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   885 
   886 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   887 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   888 
   889 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   890   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   891   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   892     generated code.
   893   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   894   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   895   - Fact renames:
   896     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   897     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   898     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   899 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   902 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   903 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   904 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   905 
   906 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   907 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   908 
   909 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   912 
   913     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   914     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   915 
   916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   919 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   920 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   921 
   922 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   923 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   924 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   925 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * HOL-BNF:
   928   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   929     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   930     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   931     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   932   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   933     coinduct).
   934   - Renamed keywords:
   935     data ~> datatype_new
   936     codata ~> codatatype
   937     bnf_def ~> bnf
   938   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   939     discs ~> disc
   940     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   941     map_id' ~> map_id
   942     sels ~> sel
   943     set_map' ~> set_map
   944     sets ~> set
   945 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   946 
   947 
   948 *** ML ***
   949 
   950 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   951 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   952 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   953 Examples.thy in particular.
   954 
   955 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   956 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   957 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   958 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   959 
   960 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   961 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   962 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   963 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   967 
   968     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   969     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   970 
   971 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   974 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   975 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   976 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   977 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   978 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   979 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   980 
   981 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   982 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   983 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   984 clasets separately from the context.
   985 
   986 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   987 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   988 
   989 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   990 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   991 
   992 
   993 *** System ***
   994 
   995 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   996 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   997 
   998 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   999 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1002 settings variable.
  1003 
  1004 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1005 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1006 always pdf.
  1007 
  1008 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1009 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1010 
  1011 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1012 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1013 
  1014 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1015 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1016 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1017 
  1018 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1019 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1020 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1021 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1022 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1023 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1024 
  1025 
  1026 
  1027 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1028 -----------------------------------
  1029 
  1030 *** General ***
  1031 
  1032 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1033 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1034 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1035 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1036 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1037 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1038 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1039 
  1040 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1041 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1042 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1043 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1044 
  1045 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1046 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1047 
  1048 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1049 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1050 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1051 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1052 dependencies properly.
  1053 
  1054 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1055 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1056 
  1057 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1058 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1059 
  1060 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1061 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1062 and "class ... context ...".
  1063 
  1064 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1065 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1066 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1067 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1068 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1069 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1070 
  1071 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1072 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1073 
  1074 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1075 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1076 
  1077 
  1078 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1079 
  1080 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1081 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1082 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1083 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1084 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1085 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1086 
  1087 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1088 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1089 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1090 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1091 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1092 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1093 
  1094 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1095 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1096 browser on demand.
  1097 
  1098 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1099 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1100 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1101 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1102 
  1103 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1104 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1105 
  1106 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1107 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1108 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1109 potentially infinite message streams.
  1110 
  1111 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1112 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1113 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1114 schemes.
  1115 
  1116 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1117 symbols.
  1118 
  1119 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1120 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1121 
  1122 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1123 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1124 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1125 
  1126 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1127 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1128 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1129 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1130 
  1131 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1132 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1133 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1134 
  1135 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1136 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1137 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1138 Isabelle distribution.
  1139 
  1140 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1141 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1142 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1143 
  1144 
  1145 *** Pure ***
  1146 
  1147 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1148 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1149 
  1150 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1151 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1152 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1155 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1156 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1157 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1158 with some care where this is really required.
  1159 
  1160 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1161 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1162 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1163 
  1164   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1165 
  1166 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1167 a Hasse diagram.
  1168 
  1169 
  1170 *** HOL ***
  1171 
  1172 * Sledgehammer:
  1173 
  1174   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1175     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1176   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1177   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1178   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1179   - Renamed options:
  1180       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1181       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1182       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1183       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1184 
  1185 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1186 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1187 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1188 
  1189 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Lifting:
  1193   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1194   - quot_del attribute
  1195   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1196 
  1197 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1198 expressions.
  1199 
  1200 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1201 pointfree expressions.
  1202 
  1203 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1204 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1205 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1206 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1210 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1211 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1212 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1213 accordingly.
  1214 
  1215 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1216 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1219 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1222 
  1223 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1224 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1225 
  1226 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1227 
  1228 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1229 
  1230   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1231   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1232 
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1236 
  1237   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1238   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1239 
  1240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1243 
  1244   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1245     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1246     output f x converges to G.
  1247 
  1248   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1249     infinity (at_bot).
  1250 
  1251   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1252     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1253 
  1254   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1255     at_top".
  1256 
  1257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1260 lattice type classes.
  1261 
  1262 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1263 
  1264     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1265     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1266 
  1267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1270 changes as follows.
  1271 
  1272   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1273 
  1274       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1275       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1276 
  1277   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1278     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1279     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1280     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1281 
  1282   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1283     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1284     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1285 
  1286   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1287     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1288     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1289     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1290 
  1291   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1292     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1293 
  1294       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1295       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1296       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1297       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1298       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1299       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1300       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1301       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1302       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1303       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1304       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1305       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1306       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1307       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1308       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1309       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1310 
  1311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1314 
  1315 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1316 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1317 
  1318 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1319 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1320 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1321 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1322 
  1323   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1324   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1325   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1326   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1327   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1328   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1329   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1330   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1331   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1332   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1333 
  1334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1335 
  1336 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1337 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1338 Data").
  1339 
  1340 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1341 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1342 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1343 code.
  1344 
  1345 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1346 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1347 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1351 
  1352 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1353 
  1354 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1355 
  1356   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1357   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1358 
  1359 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1360 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1361 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1362 
  1363   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1364 
  1365     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1366     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1367     cart_base i  removed
  1368     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1369 
  1370   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1371 
  1372   Renamed lemmas:
  1373 
  1374     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1375     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1376     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1377     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1378     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1379     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1380     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1381     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1382     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1383     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1384 
  1385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1386 
  1387 * HOL/Probability:
  1388 
  1389   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1390 
  1391   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1392     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1393     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1394 
  1395   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1396     projective family).
  1397 
  1398 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1399 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1400 
  1401 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1402 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1403 datatypes.
  1404 
  1405 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1406 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1407 
  1408 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1409 trees for the code generator.
  1410 
  1411 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1412 Lifting/Transfer.
  1413 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1414 
  1415 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 
  1419 *** Document preparation ***
  1420 
  1421 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1422 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1423 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1424 
  1425 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1426 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1427 
  1428 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1429 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1430 document/root.tex.
  1431 
  1432 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1433 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 
  1436 *** ML ***
  1437 
  1438 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1439 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1440 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1441 
  1442 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1443 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1444 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1445 
  1446 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1447 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1448 necessarily printing visible text.
  1449 
  1450 
  1451 *** System ***
  1452 
  1453 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1454 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1455 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1456 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1457 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1458 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1459 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1460 
  1461 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1462 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1463 
  1464   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1465 
  1466 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1467 
  1468 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1469 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1470 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1471 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1472 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1473 
  1474 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1475 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1476 
  1477 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1478 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1479 
  1480 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1482 
  1483 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1484 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1485 version of Isabelle.
  1486 
  1487 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1488 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1489 
  1490 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1491 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1492 for home-made settings.
  1493 
  1494 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1495 
  1496 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1497 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1498 configuration.
  1499 
  1500 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1501 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1502 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1503 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1504 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1505 
  1506 
  1507 
  1508 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1509 ------------------------------
  1510 
  1511 *** General ***
  1512 
  1513 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1514 
  1515   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1516     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1517   - markup for bound variables
  1518   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1519   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1520   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1521     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1522 
  1523 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1524 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1525 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1526 
  1527 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1528 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1529 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1530 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1531 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1532 
  1533   context
  1534     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1535     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1536   begin
  1537 
  1538   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1539 
  1540   end
  1541 
  1542   thm my_trans
  1543 
  1544 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1545 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1546 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1547 
  1548 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1549 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1550 
  1551 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1552 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1553 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1554 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1555 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1556 
  1557 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1558 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1559 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1560 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1561 indices of schematic variables.
  1562 
  1563 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1564 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1565 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1566 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1567 etc. was exploited.
  1568 
  1569 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1570 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1571 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1572 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1573 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1574 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1575 
  1576 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1577 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1578 manual.
  1579 
  1580 
  1581 *** Pure ***
  1582 
  1583 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1584 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1585 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1586 
  1587 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1588 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1589 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1590 undocumented feature.)
  1591 
  1592 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1593 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1594 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1595 
  1596   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1597 
  1598   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1599     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1600 
  1601 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1602 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1603 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1604 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1605 
  1606 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1607 
  1608     num ~> num_token
  1609     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1610     xstr ~> str_token
  1611 
  1612 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1613 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1614 position information via constraints).
  1615 
  1616 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1617 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1618 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1621 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1622 
  1623 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1624 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1625 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1628 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1631 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1632 
  1633   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1634 
  1635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1638 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1641 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1642 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1643 
  1644 
  1645 *** HOL ***
  1646 
  1647 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1648 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1649 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1650 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1651 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1652 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1653 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1654 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1655 possible.
  1656 
  1657 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1658 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1659 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1660 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1661 
  1662 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1663 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664 
  1665 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1666 
  1667 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1668 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1669 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1670 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1671 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1672 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1673 
  1674   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1675     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1676 
  1677   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1678     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1679     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1680 
  1681   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1682     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1683 
  1684   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1685     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1686     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1687 
  1688   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1689     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1690 
  1691 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1692 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1693 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1694 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1695 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1696 
  1697   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1698     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1699     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1700     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1701     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1702 
  1703     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1704     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1705 
  1706   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1707     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1708     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1709     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1710     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1711     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1712     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1713     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1714 
  1715   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1716     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1717     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1718     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1719 
  1720   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1721     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1722     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1723     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1724 
  1725   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1726     from type nat to type int.
  1727 
  1728 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1729 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1730 
  1731   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1732     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1733     type.  Example syntax:
  1734 
  1735     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1736       is List.insert
  1737 
  1738     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1739     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1740     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1741     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1742     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1743     by the package.
  1744 
  1745   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1746     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1747     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1748     code generation for each constant.
  1749 
  1750   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1751     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1752     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1753     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1754     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1755 
  1756   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1757     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1758     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1759 
  1760 * Quotient package:
  1761 
  1762   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1763     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1764 
  1765   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1766     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1767 
  1768   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1769     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1770     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1771 
  1772   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1773     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1776 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1777 
  1778 * Quickcheck:
  1779 
  1780   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1781     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1782     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1783     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1784     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1785 
  1786     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1787     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1788     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1789 
  1790     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1791     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1792 
  1793     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1794     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1795     show genuine counterexamples.
  1796 
  1797   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1798     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1799 
  1800     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1801     constructors of that type.
  1802 
  1803   - Support for multisets.
  1804 
  1805   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1806 
  1807   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1808     conjectures in a locale context.
  1809 
  1810 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1811 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1812 
  1813 * Sledgehammer:
  1814   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1815     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1816   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1817   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1818     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1819   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1820   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1821   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1822   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1823 
  1824 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1825 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1826 
  1827 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1828 
  1829 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1832 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1833 
  1834   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1835 
  1836 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1837 a list and a nat.
  1838 
  1839 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1840 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1841 
  1842 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1843 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1844 default.
  1845 
  1846 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1847 
  1848   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1849 
  1850 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1851 
  1852 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1853 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1854 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1855 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1856 one_case.
  1857 
  1858 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1859 the result of the fact expression.
  1860 
  1861 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1862 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1863 of some relation theorems:
  1864 
  1865   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1866   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1867   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1868   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1869   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1870   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1871 
  1872 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1873 
  1874 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1875 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1876 
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1880 to match the constant's name:
  1881 
  1882   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1883   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1884   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1885   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1886   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1887   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1888   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1889   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1890   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1891   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1892   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1893   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1894   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1895   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1896   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1897   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1898   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1899   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1900   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1901   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1902   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1903   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1904   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1905   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1906 
  1907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1908 
  1909 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1910 and corresponding theorem names:
  1911 
  1912   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1913 
  1914   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1915 
  1916   - Renamed theorems:
  1917 
  1918     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1919     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1920     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1921     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1922     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1923     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1924     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1925     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1926     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1927     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1928     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1929     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1930     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1931     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1932     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1933     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1934     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1935     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1936     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1937     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1938     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1939     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1940     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1941 
  1942     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1943 
  1944     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1945 
  1946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1949 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1950 
  1951   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1952   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1953   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1954   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1955   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1956   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1957   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1958   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1959   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1960   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1961   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1962   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1963   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1964   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1965   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1966   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1967   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1968   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1969   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1970   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1971   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1972 
  1973 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1974 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977 
  1978 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1979 
  1980   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1981   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1982   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1983   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1984   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1985   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1986   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1987   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1988   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1989   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1990   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1991   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1992   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1993   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1994   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1995   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1996   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1997   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1998 
  1999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2002 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2003 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2004 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2005 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2006 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2007 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2008 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2009 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2010 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2011 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2012 
  2013 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2014 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2015 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2016 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2017 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2018 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2019 
  2020 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2021 through option types.
  2022 
  2023 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2024 relations.
  2025 
  2026 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2029 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2030 
  2031   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2032   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2033   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2034   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2035   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2036   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2037   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2038   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2039   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2040   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2041   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2042   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2043   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2044   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2045   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2046   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2047   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2048   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2049   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2050   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2051   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2052   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2053   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2054   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2055   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2056   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2057   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2058   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2059   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2060   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2061   zless_le ~> less_le
  2062   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2063   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2064   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2065 
  2066 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2067 
  2068   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2069 
  2070 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2071 
  2072 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2073 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2074 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2075 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2079 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2080 
  2081 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2082 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2083 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2084 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2085 follows:
  2086 
  2087   Operations:
  2088   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2089   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2090   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2091   del -> rbt_del
  2092   delete -> rbt_delete
  2093   ins -> rbt_ins
  2094   insert -> rbt_insert
  2095   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2096   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2097   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2098   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2099   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2100   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2101   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2102   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2103   union -> rbt_union
  2104   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2105   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2106 
  2107   Lemmas:
  2108   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2109   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2110   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2111   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2112   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2113   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2114   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2115   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2116   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2117   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2118   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2119   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2120   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2121   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2122   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2123   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2124   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2125   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2126   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2127   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2128   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2129   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2130   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2131   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2132   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2133   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2134   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2135   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2136   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2137   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2138   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2139   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2140   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2141   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2142   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2143   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2144   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2145   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2146   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2147   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2148   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2149   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2150   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2151   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2152   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2153   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2154   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2155   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2156   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2157   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2158   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2159   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2160   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2161   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2162   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2163   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2164   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2165   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2166   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2167   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2168   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2169   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2170   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2171   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2172   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2173   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2174   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2175   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2176   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2177   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2178   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2179   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2180   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2181   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2182   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2183   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2184   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2185   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2186   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2187   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2188   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2189   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2190   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2191 
  2192 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2193 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2194 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196   Changed Operations:
  2197   float_abs -> abs
  2198   float_nprt -> nprt
  2199   float_pprt -> pprt
  2200   pow2 -> use powr
  2201   round_down -> float_round_down
  2202   round_up -> float_round_up
  2203   scale -> exponent
  2204 
  2205   Removed Operations:
  2206   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2207 
  2208   Renamed Lemmas:
  2209   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2210   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2211   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2212   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2213   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2214   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2215   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2216   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2217   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2218   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2219   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2220   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2221   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2222   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2223   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2224   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2225   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2226   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2227   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2228   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2229   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2230   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2231   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2232   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2233   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2234   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2235   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2236   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2237   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2238   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2239   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2240   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2241   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2242   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2243   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2244   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2245 
  2246   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2247   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2248   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2249   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2250   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2251   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2252   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2253   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2254   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2255   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2256 
  2257 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2258 association lists with distinct keys.
  2259 
  2260 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2261 annotated commands.
  2262 
  2263 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2264 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2265 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2266 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2269 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2270 instead.
  2271 
  2272   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2273   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2274   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2275   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2276   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2277   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2278   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2279   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2280   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2281   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2282   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2283   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2284   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2285   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2286   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2287   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2288   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2289   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2290   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2291   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2292   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2293   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2294   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2295   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2296   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2297   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2298   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2299   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2300   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2301   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2302   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2303   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2304   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2305   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2306   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2307   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2308   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2309   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2310   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2311   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2312   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2313 
  2314 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2315 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2316 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2317 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2318 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2319 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2320 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2321 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2322 
  2323 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2324 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2325 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2326 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2327 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2328 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2329 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2330 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2331 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2332 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2333 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2334 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336   Renamed constants:
  2337   measure -> emeasure
  2338   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2339   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2340   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2341   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2342 
  2343   Removed locales:
  2344   completeable_measure_space
  2345   finite_measure_space
  2346   finite_prob_space
  2347   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2348   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2349   finite_sigma_algebra
  2350   measure_space
  2351   pair_finite_prob_space
  2352   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2353   pair_finite_space
  2354   pair_sigma_algebra
  2355   product_sigma_algebra
  2356 
  2357   Removed constants:
  2358   conditional_space
  2359   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2360   image_space
  2361   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2362   pair_measure_generator
  2363   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2364   subvimage
  2365 
  2366   Replacement theorems:
  2367   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2368   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2369   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2370   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2371   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2372   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2373   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2374   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2375   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2376   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2377   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2378   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2379   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2380   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2381   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2382   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2383   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2384   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2385   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2386   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2387   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2388   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2389   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2390   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2391   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2392   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2393   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2394   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2395   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2396   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2397   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2398   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2399   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2400   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2401   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2402   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2403   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2404   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2405   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2406   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2407   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2408   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2409   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2410   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2411   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2412   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2413   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2414   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2415   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2416   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2417   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2418   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2419   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2420   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2421   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2422   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2423   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2424   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2425   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2426   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2427   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2428   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2429   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2430   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2431   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2432   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2433   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2434   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2435   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2436   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2437   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2438   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2439   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2440   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2441   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2442   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2443   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2444   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2445   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2446   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2447   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2448   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2449   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2450   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2451   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2452   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2453   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2454   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2455   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2456   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2457   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2458   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2459   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2460   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2461   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2462   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2463   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2464   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2465   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2466   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2467   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2468   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2469   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2470   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2471   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2472   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2473   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2474   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2475   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2476   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2477   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2478   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2479   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2480   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2481   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2482   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2483   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2484   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2485   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2486   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2487   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2488   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2489   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2490   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2491   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2492   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2493   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2494   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2495 
  2496 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2497 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2498 
  2499 
  2500 *** FOL ***
  2501 
  2502 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2503 
  2504 
  2505 *** ZF ***
  2506 
  2507 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2508 analysis.
  2509 
  2510 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2511 
  2512 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 
  2515 *** ML ***
  2516 
  2517 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2518 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2519 
  2520 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2521 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2522 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2523 
  2524 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2525 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2526 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2527 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2528 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2529 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2530 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2531 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2532 
  2533 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2534 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2535 
  2536 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2537 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2538 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2539 
  2540 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2541 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542 
  2543 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2544 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2545 context as well.
  2546 
  2547 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2548 
  2549   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2550   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2551   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2552   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2553   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2554   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2555   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2556   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2557   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2558   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2559   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2560   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2561 
  2562 
  2563 *** System ***
  2564 
  2565 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2566 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2567 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2568 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2569 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2570 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2571 the generic user home was intended.
  2572 
  2573 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2574 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2575 
  2576 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2577 (not just JRE).
  2578 
  2579 
  2580 
  2581 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2582 ------------------------------------
  2583 
  2584 *** General ***
  2585 
  2586 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2587 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2588 
  2589   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2590     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2591     files for checking).
  2592 
  2593   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2594     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2595     positions.
  2596 
  2597   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2598     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2599     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2600 
  2601   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2602     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2603     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2604 
  2605   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2606     cores.
  2607 
  2608   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2609     versions (garbage collection).
  2610 
  2611 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2612 including some remaining limitations.
  2613 
  2614 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2615 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2616 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2617 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2618 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2622 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2623 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2624 
  2625 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2626 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2627 usedir option -Q.
  2628 
  2629 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2630 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2631 
  2632   long_names   ~> names_long
  2633   short_names  ~> names_short
  2634   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2635 
  2636 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2637 
  2638   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2639 
  2640 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2641 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2642 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2643 
  2644 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2645 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2646 
  2647 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2648   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2649   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2650   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2651     "Classical Reasoner".
  2652 
  2653 
  2654 *** HOL ***
  2655 
  2656 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2657 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2660 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2661 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2662 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2663 class complete_linorder.
  2664 
  2665 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2666 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2667 
  2668 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2669 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2670 
  2671   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2672   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2673   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2674   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2675   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2676   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2677   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2678   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2679   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2680   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2681   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2682 
  2683 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2684 
  2685   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2686   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2687   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2688   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2689   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2690   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2691   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2692   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2693   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2694   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2695   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2696   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2697   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2698   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2699   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2700   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2701 
  2702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2708 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2709 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2710 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2713 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2714 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2718 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2719 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2720 
  2721 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2722 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2723 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2726 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2727 
  2728 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2729 
  2730     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2731     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2732 
  2733 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2734 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2737 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2740 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2741 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2742 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2745   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2746   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2747   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2748   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2749   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2750   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2751 
  2752 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2753 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2756   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2757   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2758   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2759   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2760   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2761   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2762   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2763   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2764   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2765   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2766   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2767   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2768   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2769   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2770   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2771   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2772   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2773   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2774   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2775   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2776   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2777   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2778   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2779   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2780   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2781   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2782   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2783   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2784   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2785   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2786   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2787   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2788   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2789   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2790   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2791   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2792   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2793   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2794   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2795   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2796   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2797   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2798   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2799   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2800   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2801   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2802   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2803   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2804   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2805   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2806   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2807   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2808   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2809   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2810   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2811   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2812   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2813   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2814   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2815   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2816   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2817   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2818   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2819   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2820   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2821   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2822   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2823   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2824   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2825   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2826   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2827   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2828   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2829   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2830   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2831   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2832   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2833   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2834   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2835   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2836   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2837 
  2838 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2839 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2840 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2841 
  2842 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2843 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2844 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2845 
  2846 * Code generation:
  2847 
  2848   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2849     characters in the target language.
  2850 
  2851   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2852     instead.
  2853 
  2854   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2855 
  2856   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2857     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2858 
  2859       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2860 
  2861 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2864 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2865 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2866 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2867 syntax.
  2868 
  2869 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2870 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2871 
  2872 * Nitpick:
  2873   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2874   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2875   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Sledgehammer:
  2879   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2880   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2881     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2882   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2883     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2884   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2885     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2887     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2888   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2889     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891 * Metis:
  2892   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2894     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 * Command 'try':
  2897   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2898     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2900     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2901 
  2902 * Quickcheck:
  2903   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2904     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2905   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2906     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2907   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2908     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2909     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2910     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2911   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2912     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2913 
  2914 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2915 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2916 
  2917 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2918 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2919 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2920 
  2921 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2922 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2926 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2929 arithmetic.
  2930 
  2931 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2932 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2933 and lattice type classes.
  2934 
  2935 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2936 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2937 
  2938 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2939 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2940 
  2941 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2942 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2943 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2946   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2947   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2948   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2949 
  2950 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2951 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2952 constants:
  2953 
  2954   type inat   ~> type enat
  2955   Fin         ~> enat
  2956   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2957   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2958   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2959 
  2960 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2961 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2964 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2965 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2966 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2967 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2968 
  2969 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2970 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2971 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2972 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2973 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2974 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2975 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2976 
  2977   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2978   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2979   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2980   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2981 
  2982 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2983 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2984 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2987   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2988   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2989   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2990   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2991   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2992   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2993   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2994   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2995   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2996   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2997   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2998   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2999   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3000   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3001   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3002   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3003   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3004   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3005   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3006   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3007   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3008   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3009   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3010   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3011   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3012   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3013   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3014   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3015   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3016   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3017   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3018   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3019   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3020   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3021   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3022   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3023   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3024   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3025   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3026   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3027   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3028   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3029   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3030   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3031   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3032   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3033   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3034   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3035   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3036   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3037 
  3038 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3039   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3040   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3041   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3042   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3043     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3048   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3049   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3050   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3051   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3052   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3053   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3054   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3055   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3056   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3057   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3058   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3059   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3060   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3061   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3062   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3063   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3064   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3065   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3066   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3067   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3068   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3069   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3070   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3071   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3072 
  3073 
  3074 *** Document preparation ***
  3075 
  3076 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3077 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3078 same.
  3079 
  3080 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3081 result.
  3082 
  3083 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3084 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3085 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3086 
  3087 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3088 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3089 
  3090 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3091 like this:
  3092 
  3093   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3094   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3095 
  3096 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3097 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3098 layouts.
  3099 
  3100 
  3101 *** ML ***
  3102 
  3103 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3104 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3105 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3106 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3107 under external program control.
  3108 
  3109 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3110 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3111 
  3112 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3113 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3114 (better known as Proof General).
  3115 
  3116 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3117 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3118 
  3119 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3120 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3121 
  3122 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3123 (including quotes etc.).
  3124 
  3125 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3126 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3127 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3128 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3129 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3130 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3131 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3132 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3133 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3134 
  3135 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3136 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3137 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3138 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3139 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3140 
  3141 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3142 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3143 
  3144 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3145 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3146 
  3147 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3148 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3149 
  3150 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3151 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3152 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3153 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3154 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3155 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3156 proper Proof.context.
  3157 
  3158 
  3159 *** System ***
  3160 
  3161 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3162 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3163 
  3164 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3165 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3166 
  3167 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3168 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3169 
  3170   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3171   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3172   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3173   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3174   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3175 
  3176 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3177 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3180 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3181 example:
  3182 
  3183   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3184 
  3185 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3186 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3187 
  3188 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3189 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3190 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3191 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3192 
  3193 
  3194 
  3195 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3196 ----------------------------------
  3197 
  3198 *** General ***
  3199 
  3200 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3201 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3202 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3203 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3204 like this:
  3205 
  3206   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3207 
  3208 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3209 
  3210 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3211 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3212 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3213 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3214 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3215 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3216 
  3217 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3218 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3219 the following package declarations:
  3220 
  3221   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3222   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3223 
  3224 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3225 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3226 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3227 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3228 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3229 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3230 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3231 
  3232 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3233 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3234 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3235 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3236 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3237 
  3238 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3239 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3240 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3241 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3242 
  3243 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3244 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3245 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3246 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3247 
  3248   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3249 
  3250   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3251   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3252   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3253   show_types                    show_types
  3254   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3255   show_consts                   show_consts
  3256   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3257 
  3258   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3259   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3260   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3261 
  3262   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3263   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3264 
  3265   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3266 
  3267   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3268   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3269   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3270   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3271   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3272 
  3273 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3274 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3275 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3276 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3277 
  3278 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3282   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3283 
  3284 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3285 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3286 float_token.
  3287 
  3288 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3289 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3293 DejaVu Sans.
  3294 
  3295 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3296 
  3297 
  3298 *** Pure ***
  3299 
  3300 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3301 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3302 time.
  3303 
  3304 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3305 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3308 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3311 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3312 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3313 command already provided this functionality.
  3314 
  3315 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3316 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3317 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3318 without interpretations.
  3319 
  3320 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3321 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3322 
  3323 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3324 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3325 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3326 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3327 
  3328 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3329 'definition' instead.
  3330 
  3331 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3332 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3333 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3334 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3335 
  3336 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3337 constructors.
  3338 
  3339 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3340 the local file system.
  3341 
  3342 
  3343 *** HOL ***
  3344 
  3345 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3346 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3347 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3348 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3349 
  3350   declare [[coercion f]]
  3351 
  3352 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3353 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3354 
  3355   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3356 
  3357 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3358 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3359 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3360 other theories like this:
  3361 
  3362   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3363 
  3364 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3365 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3366 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3367 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3368 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3369 for examples.
  3370 
  3371 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3372 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3375 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3376 
  3377 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3378 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3379 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3380 
  3381 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3382 functorial structure of types.
  3383 
  3384 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3385 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3386 
  3387 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3388 languages.
  3389 
  3390 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3391 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3395 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3398 combinators any longer.
  3399 
  3400 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3401 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3402 
  3403 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3404 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3405 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3406 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3407 
  3408   record 'a foo = ...
  3409   ...
  3410   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3411 
  3412 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3413 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415 
  3416 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3417 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3418 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3419 
  3420 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3421 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3422 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3423 
  3424 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3425 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3428 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3429 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3430 independently.
  3431 
  3432 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3433 counter example search.
  3434 
  3435 * Sledgehammer:
  3436   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3437     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3438     sledgehammer").
  3439   - Renamed commands:
  3440     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3441     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3442     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3443     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444   - Renamed options:
  3445     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3446     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3447     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3448     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3449     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Nitpick:
  3452   - Renamed options:
  3453     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3454     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3455     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3457   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3458   - Added "whack" option.
  3459   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3460   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3461   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3462   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3463     higher cardinalities.
  3464   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3465 
  3466 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3467 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3468 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3469 
  3470     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3471 
  3472 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3473 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3474 
  3475 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3476 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3477 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3478 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3479 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3480 "smt_solver".
  3481 
  3482 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3483 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3484 
  3485 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3486 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3487 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3488 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3491   - Renamed:
  3492     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3493     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3494     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495   - Added:
  3496     smt_verbose
  3497     smt_random_seed
  3498     smt_datatypes
  3499     smt_infer_triggers
  3500     smt_monomorph_limit
  3501     cvc3_options
  3502     remote_cvc3_options
  3503     remote_z3_options
  3504     yices_options
  3505 
  3506 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3507 header.
  3508 
  3509 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3510 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3511 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3512 
  3513   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3514 
  3515 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3518 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3523 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3526 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3527 
  3528 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3529 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3530 
  3531 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3532 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3533 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3541 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3544 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3545 for congruent(2)).
  3546 
  3547 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3548 
  3549   types
  3550     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3551     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3552 
  3553   constants
  3554     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3555     True ~> HOL.True
  3556     False ~> HOL.False
  3557     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3558     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3559     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3560     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3561     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3562     The ~> HOL.The
  3563     All ~> HOL.All
  3564     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3565     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3566     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3567     If ~> HOL.If
  3568     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3569     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3570     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3571     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3572     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3573     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3574     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3575     op : ~> Set.member
  3576     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3577 
  3578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3581 
  3582     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3583     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3584     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3585     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3586     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3587     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3588     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3589     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3590 
  3591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592 
  3593 * More stylized fact names:
  3594 
  3595   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3596   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3597   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3598   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3599 
  3600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3603 
  3604   constants
  3605     null ~> List.null
  3606 
  3607   facts
  3608     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3609     null_empty ~> null_def
  3610 
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3612 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3613 generation.
  3614 
  3615 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3616 Haskell code.
  3617 
  3618 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3619 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3620 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3623 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3626 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3627 
  3628 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3629 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3630 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3633 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3639 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3640 referred to by its qualified name.
  3641 
  3642   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3643   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3644   product ~>  Enum.product
  3645 
  3646 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3647 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3651 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3652 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3656 sort_key.
  3657 
  3658 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3662 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3663 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3664 
  3665   types
  3666     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3667               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3668               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3669         (depends on your needs)
  3670 
  3671   constants
  3672      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3673      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3674      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3675 
  3676 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3677 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3678 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3679 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3682 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3683 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3684 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3685 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3691 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3692 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3693 
  3694 
  3695 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3696 
  3697 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3698 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3699 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3700 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3701 compatibility.
  3702 
  3703 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3704 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3705 
  3706 
  3707 *** HOLCF ***
  3708 
  3709 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3710 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3711 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3713 
  3714 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3715 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3716 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3719   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3720   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3721 
  3722 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3723 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3724 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3727 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3728 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3729 domain definition now works:
  3730 
  3731   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3732 
  3733 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3734 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3735 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3736 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3737 
  3738   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3739     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3740 
  3741   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3742 
  3743 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3744 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3745 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3748 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3751 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3752 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3753 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3754 
  3755 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3756 
  3757 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3765 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3766 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3767 
  3768 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3769 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3770 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3773 still supported as an input translation.
  3774 
  3775 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3776 
  3777   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3778   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3779   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3780   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3781   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3782   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3783   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3784 
  3785 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3786 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3789   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3790   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3791   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3792   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3793   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3794 
  3795 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3796 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3799 
  3800   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3801   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3802   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3803   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3804 
  3805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3808 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3811 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3814   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3815   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3816   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3817   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3818   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3819   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3820   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3821   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3822   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3823   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3824   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3825   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3826   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3827   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3828   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3829   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3830   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3831   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3832   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3833 
  3834 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3837   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3838   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3839   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3840   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3841   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3842   box_less             ~> box_below
  3843   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3844   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3845   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3846   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3847   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3848   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3849   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3850   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3851   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3852   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3853   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3854   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3855   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3856   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3857   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3858   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3859   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3860   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3861   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3862   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3863   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3864   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3865   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3866   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3867   up_less              ~> up_below
  3868   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3869   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3870   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3871   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3872   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3873   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3874   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3875   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3876   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3877   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3878   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3879   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3880   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3881 
  3882 
  3883 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3884 
  3885 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3886 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 
  3889 *** ML ***
  3890 
  3891 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3892 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3893 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3894 
  3895 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3896 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3897 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3898 
  3899 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3900 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3901 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3902 
  3903 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3904 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3905 
  3906 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3907 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3908 
  3909 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3910 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3911 
  3912 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3913 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3914 
  3915 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3916 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3917 almost all situations.
  3918 
  3919 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3920 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3921 Isabelle/ML.
  3922 
  3923 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3924 meaning.
  3925 
  3926 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3927 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3928 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3929 
  3930 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3931 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3932 
  3933 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3934 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3935 
  3936 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3937 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3938 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3939 
  3940 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3941 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3942 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3943 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3944 configuration options.
  3945 
  3946 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3947 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3948 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3949 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3950 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3951 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3952 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3953 
  3954 
  3955 
  3956 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3957 ---------------------------------
  3958 
  3959 *** General ***
  3960 
  3961 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3962 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3963 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3964 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3965 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3966 their full internal name.
  3967 
  3968 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3969 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3970 Some hints on upgrading:
  3971 
  3972   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3973     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3974     which are independent of this issue.
  3975 
  3976   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3977     provides the following special forms:
  3978 
  3979       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3980       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3981       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3982 
  3983     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3984     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3985     extra variables".
  3986 
  3987     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3988     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3989     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3990     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3991     "logic".
  3992 
  3993   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3994     antiquotations:
  3995 
  3996       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3997       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3998       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3999       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4000 
  4001   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4002     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4003     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4004     antiquotations.
  4005 
  4006 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4007 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4008 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4009 diagnose syntax problems.
  4010 
  4011 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4012 
  4013 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4014 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4015 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4016 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4017 
  4018 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4019 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4020 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4021 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4024 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4025 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4026 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4027 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4030 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4031 
  4032 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4033 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4034 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4035 
  4036   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4037 
  4038 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4039 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4040 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4041 
  4042 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4043 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4047 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4048 
  4049 
  4050 *** Pure ***
  4051 
  4052 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4053 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4054 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4055 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4056 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4057 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4058 inspect proof terms.
  4059 
  4060 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4061 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4062 are added internally.  For example:
  4063 
  4064   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4065 
  4066 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4067 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4072 'class' instead.
  4073 
  4074 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4075 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4079 invariants.
  4080 
  4081 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4082 user space functionality any longer.
  4083 
  4084 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4085 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4089 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4090 
  4091 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4092 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4093 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4094 
  4095 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4096 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4097 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4098 
  4099 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4100 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 
  4102 
  4103 *** HOL ***
  4104 
  4105 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4106 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4107 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4108 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4109 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4110 
  4111 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4112 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4113 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4114 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4115 
  4116   fun
  4117     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4118   where
  4119     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4120 
  4121   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4122     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4123 
  4124   quotient_definition
  4125     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4126 
  4127 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4128 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4129 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4130 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4131 
  4132 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4133 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4134 
  4135 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4136 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4137 
  4138 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4142 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4143 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4144 
  4145 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4146 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150 
  4151 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4155 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4158 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4159 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4162   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4163   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4164   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4165   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4166   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4167   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4168   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4169   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4170   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4171   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4172   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4173   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4174   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4175   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4176   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4177   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4178   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4179   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4180   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4181   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4182   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4183   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4184   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4185   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4186   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4187   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4188   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4189   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4190   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4191 
  4192 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4193 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4194 
  4195 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4196 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4197 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4198 
  4199 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4200 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4201 
  4202 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4203 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4206 
  4207 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4208 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4211 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4216 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4217 
  4218 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4219 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4220 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4221 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4222 
  4223 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4224   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4225   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4226   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4230 lattices):
  4231 
  4232     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4233     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4234 
  4235     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4236 
  4237     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4238     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4239     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4240     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4241     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4242     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4243     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4244     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4245     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4246     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4247     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4248     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4249     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4250 
  4251     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4252     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4253     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4254     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4255     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4256     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4257     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4258     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4259     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4260     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4261     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4262     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4263     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4264     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4265     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4266     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4267     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4268     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4269 
  4270   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4271   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4272 
  4273     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4274     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4275     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4276     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4277     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4278 
  4279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * Refined field classes:
  4282   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4283     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4284     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4285   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4289   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4290   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4291   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4292     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4293   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4294     equal_neg_zero.
  4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4296 
  4297 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4298 sets to lattices:
  4299 
  4300   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4301   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4302   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4303   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4304   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4305   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4306   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4307   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4308   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4309   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4310 
  4311 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4312 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4313 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4314 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4315 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4316 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4319 multiset order:
  4320 
  4321   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4322     <= and <;
  4323   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4324     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4325     multiset_order;
  4326   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4327     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4328     generation;
  4329   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4330     if needed.
  4331 
  4332 Renamed:
  4333 
  4334   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4335   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4336   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4337 
  4338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4339 
  4340 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4341 
  4342 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4343 
  4344 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4345 
  4346 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4347 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4348 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4349 
  4350   Constants:
  4351   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4352   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4353   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4354   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4355   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4356   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4357   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4358   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4359   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4360   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4361   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4362   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4363   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4364 
  4365   Lemmas:
  4366   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4367   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4368   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4369   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4370   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4371   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4372   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4373   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4374   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4375   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4376   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4377   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4378   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4379 
  4380 * Sledgehammer:
  4381   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4382     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4383     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4384     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4385     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4386     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4387     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4388   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4389   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4390     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4391   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4392     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4393     is still experimental.)
  4394   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4395     full-typed mode.
  4396   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4397 
  4398 * Nitpick:
  4399   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4400   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4401   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4402     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4403   - Added support for quotient types.
  4404   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4405     constructs.
  4406   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4407     "termination" proofs).
  4408   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4409   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4410   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4411   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4412     record getters.
  4413   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4414   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4415   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4416   - Added "atoms" option.
  4417   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4418     problems.
  4419   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4420     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4421     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4422   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4423     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4427   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4428   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4429   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4430   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4431   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4432   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4433   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4434   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4435   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 
  4438 *** HOLCF ***
  4439 
  4440 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4441 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4442 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4445 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4446 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4447 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4448 
  4449 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4450 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4451 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4452 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4453 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4456 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4457 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4458 
  4459 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4460 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4463   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4464 
  4465 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4466 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4469   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4470   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4471   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4472   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4473 
  4474 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4475 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4478   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4479   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4480 
  4481 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4482 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4486 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4487 
  4488 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4491 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 
  4494 *** ML ***
  4495 
  4496 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4497 
  4498     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4499     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4500 
  4501     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4502     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4503     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4504     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4505 
  4506     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4507     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4508     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4509 
  4510 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4511 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4512 
  4513 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4514 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4515 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4516 
  4517 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4518 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4519 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4520 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4521 
  4522 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4523 the context or even global references.
  4524 
  4525 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4526 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4527 
  4528 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4529 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4530 
  4531   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4532   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4533   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4534   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4535   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4536   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4537   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4538   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4539   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4540   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4541 
  4542 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4543 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4544 
  4545 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4546 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4547 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4548 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4549 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4550 
  4551 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4552 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4553 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4554 Theory_Data version.
  4555 
  4556 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4557 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4558 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4559 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4560 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4561 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4562 explicitly in rare situations.
  4563 
  4564 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4565 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4567 
  4568 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4569 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4572 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4573 quite rare).
  4574 
  4575 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4576 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4579 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4580 terms.
  4581 
  4582 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4583 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4584 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4585 
  4586 
  4587 *** System ***
  4588 
  4589 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4590 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4591 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4592 
  4593 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4594 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4595 respectively.
  4596 
  4597 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4598 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4599 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4600 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4601 
  4602   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4603 
  4604 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4605 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4606 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4607 component.
  4608 
  4609 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4610 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4611 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4612 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4613 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4614 the user for manual installation.
  4615 
  4616 
  4617 
  4618 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4619 -------------------------------------
  4620 
  4621 *** General ***
  4622 
  4623 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4624 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4625 
  4626 
  4627 *** Pure ***
  4628 
  4629 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4630 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4631 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4632 
  4633 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4634 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4635 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4636 
  4637 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4638 interpretation.
  4639 
  4640 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4641 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 
  4644 *** Document preparation ***
  4645 
  4646 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4647 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4648 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4649 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4650 
  4651 
  4652 *** HOL ***
  4653 
  4654 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4655 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4656 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4657 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4658 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4659 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4660 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4661 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4662 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4663 
  4664 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4665 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4666 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4667 
  4668 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4669 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4670 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4671 
  4672 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4673 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4674 
  4675 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4676 
  4677 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4678 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4679 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4680 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4681 
  4682 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4683 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4684 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4685 "mirabelle" utility.
  4686 
  4687 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4688 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4689 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4690 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4691 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4692 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4693 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4694 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4695 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4696 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4697 
  4698 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4699 procedure only.
  4700 
  4701 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4702 
  4703 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4704 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4705 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4706 that fail later.
  4707 
  4708 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4709 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4710 
  4711 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4712 the same method as the approximation method.
  4713 
  4714 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4715 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4716 series expansion.
  4717 
  4718 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4719 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4720 
  4721 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4722 reals.
  4723 
  4724 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4725 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4726 
  4727 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4728 fixpoint theorem.
  4729 
  4730 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4731   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4732     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4733   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4734     accordingly
  4735   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4736     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4737   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4738     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4739 
  4740 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4741 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4742 lattice.
  4743 
  4744 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4745 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4746 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4747 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4748 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4749 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4753   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4754     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4755   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4756     le_inf_iff
  4757   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4758     sup_aci)
  4759   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4760   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4761   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4762     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4763     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4764     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4765     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4766     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4767     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4768     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4769     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4770     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4771     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4772   - authentic syntax for
  4773     Set.Pow
  4774     Set.image
  4775   - mere abbreviations:
  4776     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4777     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4778     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4779     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4780     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4781     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4782     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4783     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4784   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4785 
  4786 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4787 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4788 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4789 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4790 
  4791 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4792 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4793 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4796 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797 
  4798 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4799 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4800 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4801 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4804 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4805 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4806 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4807 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4808 
  4809 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4810 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4812 
  4813 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4814 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4815 
  4816 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4817 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4818 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4819 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4820 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4821 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4822 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4824 
  4825 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4826     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4827     code_post       replaces    code post
  4828     etc.
  4829   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Renamed methods:
  4832     sizechange -> size_change
  4833     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4834   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4837 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4838 
  4839 * Renamed theorems:
  4840     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4841     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4842     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4843     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4844     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4845   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 
  4854 *** HOLCF ***
  4855 
  4856 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4857 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4858 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4859 
  4860 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4861 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4862 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4863 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4864 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4865 
  4866 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4867 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4868 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4869 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4870 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4871 
  4872 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4873 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4874 constructor are pre-configured.
  4875 
  4876 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4877 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4878 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4879 
  4880 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4881 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4882 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4883 as well.)
  4884 
  4885 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4886 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4887 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4888 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4889 examples.
  4890 
  4891 
  4892 *** ML ***
  4893 
  4894 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4895 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4896 
  4897 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4898 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4899 position, logical grouping etc.
  4900 
  4901 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4902 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4903 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4904 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4905 
  4906 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4907 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4908 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4909 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4910 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4911 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4912 
  4913 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4914 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4915 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4916 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4917 experiments with references.
  4918 
  4919 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4920 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4921 
  4922 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4923 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4924 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4925 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4926 
  4927 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4928 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4929 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4930 
  4931 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4932 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4933 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4934 
  4935 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4941 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4942 
  4943 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4944 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4945 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4946 
  4947 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4948 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4949 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4952 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4953 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4955 
  4956 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4957 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4958 instead of global theory.
  4959 
  4960 
  4961 *** System ***
  4962 
  4963 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4964 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4965 usedir option -q.
  4966 
  4967 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4968 also the system manual.
  4969 
  4970 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4971 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4972 
  4973 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4974 this is always enabled.
  4975 
  4976 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4977 
  4978 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4979 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4980 currently supported on Linux only.
  4981 
  4982 
  4983 
  4984 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4985 --------------------------------
  4986 
  4987 *** General ***
  4988 
  4989 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4990 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4991 
  4992   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4993     "isatool."
  4994 
  4995   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4996     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4997 
  4998   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4999     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5000 
  5001 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5002 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5003 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5004 
  5005 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5006 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5007 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5008 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5009 via "isabelle emacs".
  5010 
  5011 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5012 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5013 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5014 
  5015 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5016 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5017 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5018 
  5019 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5020 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5021 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5022 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5023 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5024 
  5025 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5026 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5027 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5028 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5029 
  5030 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5031 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5032 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5033 
  5034 
  5035 *** Pure ***
  5036 
  5037 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5038 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5039 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5040 
  5041 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5042 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5043 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5044 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5045 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5046 
  5047 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5048 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5049 useful in locale declarations.
  5050 
  5051 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5052 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5053 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5054 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5055 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5056 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5057 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5058 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5059 no longer generated.
  5060 
  5061 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5062 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5063 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5064 
  5065 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5066 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5067 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5068 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5069 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5070 
  5071 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5073 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5074 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5075 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5076 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5077 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5078 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5079 
  5080 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5081 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5082 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5083 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5084 
  5085 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5086 
  5087 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5088 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5089 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5090 
  5091 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5092 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5093 
  5094 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5095 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5096 in HOL, write
  5097 
  5098     class foo = ...
  5099 
  5100 instead of
  5101 
  5102     class foo = type + ...
  5103 
  5104 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5105 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5106 
  5107 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5108 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5109 
  5110 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5111 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5112 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5113 
  5114 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5115 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5116 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5117 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5118 directly in regular applications.
  5119 
  5120 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5121 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5122 
  5123 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5124 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5125 
  5126 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5127 theory context.
  5128 
  5129 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5130 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5133 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5134 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5135 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5136 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5137 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5138 
  5139   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5140 
  5141 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5142 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5143 normalization.
  5144 
  5145 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5146 addressing etc.
  5147 
  5148 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5149 
  5150   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5151   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5152 
  5153 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5154 
  5155   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5156      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5157      parts of the code generator framework).
  5158 
  5159   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5160      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5161      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5162 
  5163 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5166 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5169 patterns, e.g.
  5170 
  5171     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5172 
  5173 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5174 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5175 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5176 hyphen:
  5177 
  5178     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5179 
  5180 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5181 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5182 
  5183 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5184 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5185 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5186 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5187 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5188 higher-order unification.
  5189 
  5190 
  5191 *** Document preparation ***
  5192 
  5193 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5194 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5195 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5196 
  5197 
  5198 *** HOL ***
  5199 
  5200 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5201 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5202 
  5203 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5204 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5205 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5206 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5207 Main, as before.
  5208 
  5209 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5210 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5211 
  5212 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5213 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5214 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5215 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5216 
  5217 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5218 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5219 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5220 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5221 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5222 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5223 
  5224 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5225 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5226 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5227 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5228 
  5229 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5230 menu.
  5231 
  5232 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5233 (contains the empty clause).
  5234 
  5235 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5236 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5237 
  5238 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5239 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5240 
  5241 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5242 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5243 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5244 
  5245 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5246 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5247 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5248 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5249 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5250 
  5251 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5252 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5253 
  5254 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5255 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5256 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5257 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5258 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5259 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5260 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5261 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5262 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5263 
  5264 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5265 
  5266 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5267 
  5268 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5269 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5270 
  5271 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5272 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5273 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5274 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5275 
  5276 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5277 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5278 
  5279     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5280     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5281     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5282     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5283     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5284     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5285     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5286     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5287 
  5288 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5289 theory Set.
  5290 
  5291 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5292 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5293 
  5294 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5295 
  5296 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5297 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5298 
  5299 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5300 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5301 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5302 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5303 allowed. For examples see
  5304 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5305 
  5306 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5307 
  5308 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5312 structure:
  5313 
  5314     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5315     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5316     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5317     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5318     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5319     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5320     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5321     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5322     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5323     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5324     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5325     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5326     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5327     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5328     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5329     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5330     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5331     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5332     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5333     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5334     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5335     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5336     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5337     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5338     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5339     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5340     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5341     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5342     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5343     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5344     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5345     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5346     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5347 
  5348     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5349     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5350     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5351     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5352     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5353     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5354     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5355     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5356     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5357     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5358 
  5359     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5360     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5361     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5362     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5363     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5364     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5365 
  5366 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5367 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5368 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5369 
  5370 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5371 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5372 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5373 
  5374 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5375 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5378 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5379 
  5380 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5381 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5382 proofs, e.g.
  5383 
  5384   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5385 
  5386 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5387 
  5388 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5389 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5390 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5391 
  5392 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5393 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5395 
  5396 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5397 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5398 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5400 
  5401 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5402 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5403 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5404 preorder_class.*.
  5405 
  5406 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5407 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5408 
  5409 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5410 
  5411   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5412 
  5413 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5414 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5415 fold_image.
  5416 
  5417 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5418 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5419 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5420 the former will disappear at some point.
  5421 
  5422 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5423 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5424 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5425 
  5426 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5427 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5428 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5429 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5430 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5431 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5432 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5433 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5434 
  5435 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5436 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5437 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5438 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5439 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5440 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5441 
  5442     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5443     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5444     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5445     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5446     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5447     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5448     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5449 
  5450 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5451 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5452 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5453 
  5454 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5455 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5456 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5457 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5458 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5459 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5460 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5461 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5462 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5463 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5464 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5465 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5466 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5467 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5468 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5469 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5470 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5471 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5472 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5473 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5474 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5475 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5476 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5477 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5478 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5479 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5480 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5481 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5482 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5483 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5484 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5485 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5486 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5487 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5488 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5489 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5490 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5491 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5492 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5493 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5494 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5495 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5496 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5497 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5498 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5499 
  5500 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5501 
  5502 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5503 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5504 
  5505 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5506 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5507 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5508 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5509 
  5510 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5511 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5512 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5513 theory RealVector.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5516 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5517 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5518 and inner products are included.
  5519 
  5520 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5521 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5522 supported.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5525 first diagonalization argument.
  5526 
  5527 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5528 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5529 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5530 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5531 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5532 
  5533     hide (open) const gcd
  5534     abbreviation gcd where
  5535       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5536     notation (output)
  5537       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5538 
  5539 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5540 
  5541 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5542 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5543 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5546 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5547 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5548 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5549 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5550 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5551 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5552 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5553 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5554 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5555 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5556 cases.
  5557 
  5558 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5559 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5560 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5561 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5562 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5563 
  5564     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5565     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5566     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5567     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5568     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5569 
  5570 
  5571 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5572 
  5573 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5574 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5575 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5576 
  5577 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5578 
  5579 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5580 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5581 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5582 
  5583 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5584 
  5585 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5586 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5587 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5588 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5589 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5590 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5591 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5592 
  5593 
  5594 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5595 
  5596 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5597 
  5598 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5599 theory targets.
  5600 
  5601 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5602 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5603 'inductive' etc.
  5604 
  5605 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5606 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5607 
  5608 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5609 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5610 
  5611 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5612 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5613 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5614 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5615 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5616 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5617 the algorithm W:
  5618 
  5619  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5620  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5621          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5622 
  5623 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5624 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5625 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5626 
  5627 
  5628 *** HOLCF ***
  5629 
  5630 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5631 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5632 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5633 
  5634 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5635 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5636 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5637 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5638 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5641 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5642 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 
  5645 *** ZF ***
  5646 
  5647 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5648 
  5649 
  5650 *** ML ***
  5651 
  5652 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5653 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5654 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5655 5.2.1!
  5656 
  5657 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5658 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5659 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5660 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5661 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5662 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5663 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5664 
  5665 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5666 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5667 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5668 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5670 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5671 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5672 
  5673 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5674 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5675 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5676 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5677 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5678 
  5679 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5680 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5681 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5682 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5683 Method.add_method.
  5684 
  5685 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5686 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5687 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5688 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5689 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5690 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5691 
  5692 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5693 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5694 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5695 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5696 examples.
  5697 
  5698 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5699 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5700 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5701 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5702 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5703 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5704 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5705 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5706 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5707 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5708 
  5709 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5710 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5711 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5712 
  5713 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5714 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5715 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5716 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5717 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5718 resort for legacy applications.
  5719 
  5720 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5721 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5722 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5723 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5724 explicit runtime argument.
  5725 
  5726 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5727 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5728 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5729 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5730 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5731 
  5732 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5733 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5734 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5735 theory state.
  5736 
  5737 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5738 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5739 
  5740   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5741   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5742   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5743   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5744   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5745   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5746   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5747   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5748   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5749   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5750 
  5751 
  5752 *** System ***
  5753 
  5754 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5755 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5756 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5757 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5758 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5759 
  5760 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5761 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5762 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5763 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5764 
  5765 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5766 
  5767 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5768 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5769 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5770 prover operations.
  5771 
  5772 
  5773 
  5774 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5775 -------------------------------
  5776 
  5777 *** General ***
  5778 
  5779 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5780 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5781 
  5782 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5783 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5784 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5785 provides a proper context already.
  5786 
  5787 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5788 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5789 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5790 
  5791 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5792 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5793 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5794 swap theory imports.
  5795 
  5796 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5797 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5798 
  5799 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5800 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5801 white space without escapes.
  5802 
  5803 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5804 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5805 "foo_bar".
  5806 
  5807 
  5808 *** Pure ***
  5809 
  5810 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5811 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5812 
  5813 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5814 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5815 
  5816 (1) unused_thms
  5817      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5818 
  5819 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5820      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5821      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5822 
  5823 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5824      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5825      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5826      their ancestors.
  5827 
  5828 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5829 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5830 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5831 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5832 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5833 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5834 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5835 
  5836 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5837 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5838 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5839 
  5840 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5841 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5842 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5843 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5844 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5845 
  5846 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5847 
  5848 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5849 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5850 update of theories within ML code.
  5851 
  5852 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5854 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5855 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5856 
  5857 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5858 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5859 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5861 
  5862 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5863 
  5864 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5865 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5866 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5867 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5868 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5869 
  5870 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5871 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5872 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5873 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5874 situations.
  5875 
  5876 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5877 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5878 proof text.
  5879 
  5880 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5881 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5882 
  5883 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5884 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5885 predicates.
  5886 
  5887 
  5888 *** Document preparation ***
  5889 
  5890 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5891 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5892 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5893 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5894 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5895 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5896 
  5897 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5898 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5899 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5900 
  5901 
  5902 *** HOL ***
  5903 
  5904 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5905 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5906 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5907 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5908 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5909 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5910 
  5911 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5912 with multithreading.
  5913 
  5914 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5915 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5916 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5917 
  5918 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5919 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5920 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5921 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5924 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5925 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5926 and makes them available separately.  See
  5927 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5928 
  5929 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5930 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5931 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5932 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5933 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5934 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5935 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5936 the declared rules.
  5937 
  5938 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5939 
  5940   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5941 
  5942 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5943 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5944 
  5945 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5946 
  5947   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5948 
  5949   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5950     definitions on => and bool.
  5951 
  5952   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5953     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5954     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5955 
  5956       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5957       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5958       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5959       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5960       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5961       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5962       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5963       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5964 
  5965   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5966     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5967     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5968 
  5969   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5970     The proof pattern
  5971 
  5972       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5973       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5974 
  5975     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5976     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5977 
  5978       have "EX S. P S"
  5979       proof
  5980         show "P S" <...>
  5981       qed
  5982 
  5983   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5984     The proof pattern
  5985 
  5986       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5987       also have "S = T" <...>
  5988       finally have "P T" .
  5989 
  5990     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5991     must be replaced by something like
  5992 
  5993       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5994       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5995       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5996 
  5997   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5998     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5999 
  6000       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6001 
  6002     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6003     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6004     type of the form
  6005 
  6006       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6007 
  6008     rather than
  6009 
  6010       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6011 
  6012 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6013 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6014 
  6015 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6018 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6022 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6025 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6028 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6029 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6032 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6033 
  6034   less_trans
  6035   less_linear
  6036   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6037   le_less_trans
  6038   less_le_trans
  6039   less_not_sym
  6040   less_asym
  6041 
  6042 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6043 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6044 and different variable names.
  6045 
  6046 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6047 
  6048 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6049 finite maps.
  6050 
  6051 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6052 
  6053 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6054 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6055 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6056 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6057 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6058 accordingly.
  6059 
  6060 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6061 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6062 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6063 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6064 
  6065 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6066 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6067 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6068 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6069 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6071 
  6072 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6073 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6076 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6077 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6078 
  6079 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6083 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6084 
  6085 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6086 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6087 
  6088 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6089 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6092 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6094 
  6095 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6096 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 
  6098 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6099 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6100 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6101 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6102 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6103 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6104 
  6105 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6106 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6107 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6108 
  6109 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6110 
  6111 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6112 
  6113 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6114 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6115 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6116 
  6117 
  6118 *** ZF ***
  6119 
  6120 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6121 same session:
  6122 
  6123   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6124   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6125   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6126   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6127   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6128   List      -> List_ZF
  6129   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6130 
  6131 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6132 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6133 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6134 
  6135 
  6136 *** ML ***
  6137 
  6138 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6139 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6140 
  6141 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6142 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6143 
  6144 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6145 
  6146 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6147 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6148 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6149 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6150 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6151 
  6152 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6153 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6154 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6155 
  6156 
  6157 *** System ***
  6158 
  6159 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6160 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6161 
  6162 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6163 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6164 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6165 
  6166 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6167 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6168 
  6169 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6170 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6171 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6172 
  6173 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6174 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6175 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6176 
  6177 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6178 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6179 
  6180 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6181 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6182 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6183 script.
  6184 
  6185 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6186 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6187 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6188 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6189 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6190 
  6191 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6192 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6193 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6194 
  6195 
  6196 
  6197 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6198 -----------------------------------
  6199 
  6200 *** General ***
  6201 
  6202 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6203 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6204 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6205 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6206 
  6207 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6208 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6209 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6210 
  6211 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6212 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6213 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6214 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6215 
  6216 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6217 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6218 quotes.
  6219 
  6220 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6221 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6222 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6223 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6224 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6225 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6226 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6227 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6228 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6229 
  6230 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6231 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6232 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6233 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6234 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6235 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6236 
  6237 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6238 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6239 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6240 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6241 
  6242 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6243 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6244 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6245 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6246 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6247 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6248 
  6249 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6250 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6251 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6252 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6253 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6254 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6255 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6256 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6257 
  6258 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6259 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6260 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6261 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6262 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6263 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6264 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6265 
  6266 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6267 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might