NEWS
author haftmann
Mon Oct 22 22:24:34 2012 +0200 (2012-10-22)
changeset 49972 f11f8905d9fd
parent 49968 d9e08e2555f9
child 50020 6b9611abcd4c
permissions -rw-r--r--
incorporated constant chars into instantiation proof for enum;
tuned proofs for properties on enum of chars;
swapped theory dependency of Enum.thy and String.thy
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    10 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    11 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    12 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    13 
    14 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    15 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    16 
    17 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    18 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    19 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    20 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    21 dependencies properly.
    22 
    23 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    24 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    25 
    26 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    27 in old "ref" manual.
    28 
    29 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    30 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    31 and "class ... context ...".
    32 
    33 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    34 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    35 
    36 
    37 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    38 
    39 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    40 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    41 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    42 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    43 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    44 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    45 
    46 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    47 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    48 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    49 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    50 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    51 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    52 
    53 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    54 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    55 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    56 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    57 
    58 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    59 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    60 
    61 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    62 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    63 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. tracing_limit option).
    64 This avoids swamping the front-end with potentially infinite message
    65 streams.
    66 
    67 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    68 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    69 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    70 schemes.
    71 
    72 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    73 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    74 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    75 
    76 
    77 *** Pure ***
    78 
    79 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    80 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    81 
    82 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    83 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    84 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    85 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    86 
    87 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    88 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    89 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    90 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    91 with some care where this is really required.
    92 
    93 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    94 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    95 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    96 
    97   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    98 
    99 
   100 *** HOL ***
   101 
   102 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   103 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   106 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   109 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   110 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   111 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   112 accordingly.
   113 
   114 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   115 
   116   - Renamed constants
   117       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   118 
   119   - Renamed facts
   120       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   121 
   122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   127 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   128 
   129 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   130 to lattice type classes.
   131 
   132 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   133 
   134 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   135 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   136 
   137   - Renamed constants:
   138 
   139       prefix ~> prefixeq
   140       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   141 
   142     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   145     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   146     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   147     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   150     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   151 
   152   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   153     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   154     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   155     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   158     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   159 
   160       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   161       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   162       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   163       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   164       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   165       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   166       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   167       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   168       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   169       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   170       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   171       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   172       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   173       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   174       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   175       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   176 
   177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   180 
   181 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   182 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   183 
   184 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   187 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   188 non-free datatypes.
   189 
   190 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   191 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   192 
   193 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   194 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   195 
   196 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   197 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   198 
   199 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   200 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   201 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   202 
   203 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   204 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   205 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   208 expressions.
   209 
   210 * Quickcheck:
   211 
   212   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   213     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   214     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   215 
   216 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   217 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   218 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   219 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   220 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Sledgehammer:
   223 
   224   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   225     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   226   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   227   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   228   - Renamed options:
   229       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   230       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrinkage
   231       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   232       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   233 
   234 
   235 *** Document preparation ***
   236 
   237 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   238 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   239 
   240 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   241 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   242 document/root.tex.
   243 
   244 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   245 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 
   248 *** ML ***
   249 
   250 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   251 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   252 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   253 
   254 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   255 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   256 necessarily printing visible text.
   257 
   258 
   259 *** System ***
   260 
   261 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   262 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   263 for home-made configurations.
   264 
   265 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   266 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   267 
   268 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   269 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   270 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   271 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   272 
   273 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   274 
   275 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   276 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   277 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   278 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   279 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   280 
   281 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   282 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   283 
   284   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   285 
   286 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   287 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   288 
   289 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   290 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   291 "isabelle usedir".
   292 
   293 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   294 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   295 version of Isabelle.
   296 
   297 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   298 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   299 configuration.
   300 
   301 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   302 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   303 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   304 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   305 bundled as Isabelle component.
   306 
   307 
   308 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   309 ------------------------------
   310 
   311 *** General ***
   312 
   313 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   314 
   315   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   316     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   317   - markup for bound variables
   318   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   319   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   320   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   321     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   322 
   323 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   324 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   325 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   326 
   327 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   328 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   329 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   330 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   331 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   332 
   333   context
   334     fixes x y z :: 'a
   335     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   336   begin
   337 
   338   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   339 
   340   end
   341 
   342   thm my_trans
   343 
   344 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   345 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   346 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   347 
   348 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   349 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   350 
   351 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   352 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   353 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   354 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   355 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   356 
   357 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   358 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   359 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   360 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   361 indices of schematic variables.
   362 
   363 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   364 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   365 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   366 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   367 etc. was exploited.
   368 
   369 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   370 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   371 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   372 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   373 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   374 of the material of that old tutorial.
   375 
   376 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   377 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   378 manual.
   379 
   380 
   381 *** Pure ***
   382 
   383 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   384 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   385 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   386 
   387 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   388 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   389 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   390 undocumented feature.)
   391 
   392 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   393 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   394 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   395 
   396   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   397 
   398   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   399     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   400 
   401 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   402 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   403 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   404 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   405 
   406 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   407 
   408     num ~> num_token
   409     xnum ~> xnum_token
   410     xstr ~> str_token
   411 
   412 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   413 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   414 position information via constraints).
   415 
   416 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   417 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   418 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   421 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   422 
   423 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   424 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   425 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   428 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   431 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   432 
   433   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   434 
   435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   438 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   441 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   442 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   443 
   444 
   445 *** HOL ***
   446 
   447 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   448 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   449 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   450 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   451 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   452 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   453 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   454 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   455 possible.
   456 
   457 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   458 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   459 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   460 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   461 
   462 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   463 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   466 
   467 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   468 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   469 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   470 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   471 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   472 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   473 
   474   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   475     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   476 
   477   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   478     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   479     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   480 
   481   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   482     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   483 
   484   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   485     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   486     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   487 
   488   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   489     Redefine using other integer operations.
   490 
   491 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   492 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   493 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   494 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   495 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   496 
   497   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   498     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   499     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   500     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   501     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   502 
   503     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   504     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   505 
   506   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   507     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   508     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   509     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   510     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   511     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   512     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   513     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   514 
   515   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   516     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   517     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   518     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   519 
   520   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   521     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   522     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   523     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   524 
   525   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   526     from type nat to type int.
   527 
   528 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   529 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   530 
   531   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   532     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   533     type.  Example syntax:
   534 
   535     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   536       is List.insert
   537 
   538     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   539     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   540     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   541     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   542     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   543     by the package.
   544 
   545   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   546     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   547     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   548     code generation for each constant.
   549 
   550   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   551     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   552     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   553     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   554     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   555 
   556   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   557     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   558     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   559 
   560 * Quotient package:
   561 
   562   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   563     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   564 
   565   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   566     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   567 
   568   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   569     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   570     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   571 
   572   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   573     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   576 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   577 
   578 * Quickcheck:
   579 
   580   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   581     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   582     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   583     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   584     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   585 
   586     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   587     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   588     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   589 
   590     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   591     continues searching for genuine ones.
   592 
   593     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   594     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   595     show genuine counterexamples.
   596 
   597   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   598     value generators for a given type and operations.
   599 
   600     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   601     constructors of that type.
   602 
   603   - Support for multisets.
   604 
   605   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   606 
   607   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   608     conjectures in a locale context.
   609 
   610 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   611 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   612 
   613 * Sledgehammer:
   614   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   615     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   616   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   617   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   618     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   619   - Sped up the minimizer.
   620   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   621   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   622   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   623 
   624 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   625 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   626 
   627 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   628 
   629 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   632 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   633 
   634   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   635 
   636 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   637 a list and a nat.
   638 
   639 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   640 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   641 
   642 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   643 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   644 default.
   645 
   646 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   647 
   648   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   649 
   650 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   651 
   652 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   653 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   654 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   655 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   656 one_case.
   657 
   658 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   659 the result of the fact expression.
   660 
   661 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   662 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   663 of some relation theorems:
   664 
   665   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   666   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   667   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   668   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   669   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   670   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   671 
   672 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   673 
   674 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   675 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   676 
   677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   680 to match the constant's name:
   681 
   682   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   683   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   684   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   685   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   686   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   687   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   688   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   689   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   690   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   691   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   692   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   693   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   694   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   695   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   696   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   697   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   698   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   699   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   700   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   701   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   702   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   703   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   704   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   705   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   706 
   707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   708 
   709 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   710 and corresponding theorem names:
   711 
   712   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   713 
   714   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   715 
   716   - Renamed theorems:
   717 
   718     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   719     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   720     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   721     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   722     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   723     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   724     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   725     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   726     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   727     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   728     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   729     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   730     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   731     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   732     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   733     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   734     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   735     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   736     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   737     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   738     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   739     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   740     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   741 
   742     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   743 
   744     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   745 
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   750 
   751   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   752   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   753   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   754   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   755   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   756   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   757   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   758   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   759   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   760   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   761   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   762   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   763   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   764   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   765   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   766   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   767   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   768   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   769   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   770   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   771   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   772 
   773 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   774 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   779 
   780   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   781   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   782   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   783   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   784   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   785   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   786   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   787   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   788   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   789   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   790   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   791   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   792   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   793   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   794   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   795   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   796   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   797   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   798 
   799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   802 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   803 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   804 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   805 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   806 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   807 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   809 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   810 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   811 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   812 
   813 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   814 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   815 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   816 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   817 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   818 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   819 
   820 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   821 through option types.
   822 
   823 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   824 relations.
   825 
   826 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   829 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   830 
   831   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   832   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   833   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   834   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   835   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   836   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   837   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   838   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   839   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   840   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   841   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   842   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   843   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   844   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   845   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   846   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   847   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   848   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   849   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   850   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   851   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   852   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   853   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   854   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   855   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   856   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   857   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   858   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   859   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   860   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   861   zless_le ~> less_le
   862   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   863   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   864   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   865 
   866 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   867 
   868   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   869 
   870 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   871 
   872 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   873 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   874 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   875 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   879 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   880 
   881 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   882 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   883 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   884 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   885 follows:
   886 
   887   Operations:
   888   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   889   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   890   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   891   del -> rbt_del
   892   delete -> rbt_delete
   893   ins -> rbt_ins
   894   insert -> rbt_insert
   895   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   896   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   897   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   898   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   899   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   900   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   901   tree_less -> rbt_less
   902   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   903   union -> rbt_union
   904   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   905   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   906 
   907   Lemmas:
   908   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   909   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   910   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   911   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   912   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   913   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   914   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   915   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   916   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   917   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   918   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   919   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   920   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   921   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   922   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   923   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   924   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   925   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   926   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   927   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   928   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   929   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   930   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   931   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   932   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   933   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   934   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   935   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   936   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   937   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   938   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   939   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   940   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   941   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   942   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   943   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   944   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   945   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   946   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   947   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   948   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   949   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   950   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   951   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   952   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   953   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   954   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   955   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   956   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   957   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   958   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   959   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   960   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   961   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   962   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   963   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   964   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   965   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   966   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   967   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   968   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   969   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   970   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   971   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   972   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   973   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   974   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   975   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   976   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   977   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   978   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   979   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   980   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   981   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   982   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   983   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   984   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   985   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   986   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   987   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   988   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   989   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   990   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   991 
   992 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   993 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   994 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996   Changed Operations:
   997   float_abs -> abs
   998   float_nprt -> nprt
   999   float_pprt -> pprt
  1000   pow2 -> use powr
  1001   round_down -> float_round_down
  1002   round_up -> float_round_up
  1003   scale -> exponent
  1004 
  1005   Removed Operations:
  1006   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1007 
  1008   Renamed Lemmas:
  1009   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1010   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1011   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1012   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1013   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1014   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1015   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1016   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1017   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1018   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1019   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1020   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1021   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1022   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1023   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1024   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1025   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1026   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1027   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1028   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1029   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1030   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1031   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1032   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1033   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1034   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1035   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1036   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1037   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1038   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1039   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1040   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1041   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1042   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1043   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1044   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1045 
  1046   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1047   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1048   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1049   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1050   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1051   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1052   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1053   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1054   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1055   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1056 
  1057 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1058 association lists with distinct keys.
  1059 
  1060 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1061 annotated commands.
  1062 
  1063 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1064 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1065 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1066 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1069 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1070 instead.
  1071 
  1072   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1073   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1074   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1075   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1076   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1077   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1078   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1079   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1080   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1081   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1082   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1083   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1084   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1085   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1086   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1087   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1088   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1089   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1090   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1091   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1092   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1093   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1094   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1095   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1096   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1097   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1098   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1099   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1100   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1101   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1102   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1103   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1104   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1105   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1106   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1107   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1108   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1109   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1110   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1111   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1112   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1113 
  1114 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1115 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1116 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1117 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1118 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1119 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1120 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1121 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1122 
  1123 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1124 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1125 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1126 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1127 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1128 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1129 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1130 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1131 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1132 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1133 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1134 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136   Renamed constants:
  1137   measure -> emeasure
  1138   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1139   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1140   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1141   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1142 
  1143   Removed locales:
  1144   completeable_measure_space
  1145   finite_measure_space
  1146   finite_prob_space
  1147   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1148   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1149   finite_sigma_algebra
  1150   measure_space
  1151   pair_finite_prob_space
  1152   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1153   pair_finite_space
  1154   pair_sigma_algebra
  1155   product_sigma_algebra
  1156 
  1157   Removed constants:
  1158   conditional_space
  1159   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1160   image_space
  1161   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1162   pair_measure_generator
  1163   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1164   subvimage
  1165 
  1166   Replacement theorems:
  1167   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1168   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1169   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1170   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1171   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1172   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1173   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1174   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1175   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1176   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1177   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1178   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1179   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1180   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1181   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1182   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1183   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1184   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1185   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1186   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1187   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1188   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1189   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1190   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1191   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1192   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1193   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1194   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1195   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1196   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1197   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1198   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1199   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1200   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1201   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1202   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1203   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1204   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1205   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1206   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1207   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1208   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1209   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1210   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1211   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1212   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1213   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1214   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1215   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1216   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1217   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1218   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1219   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1220   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1221   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1222   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1223   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1224   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1225   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1226   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1227   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1228   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1229   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1230   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1231   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1232   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1233   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1234   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1235   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1236   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1237   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1238   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1239   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1240   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1241   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1242   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1243   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1244   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1245   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1246   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1247   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1248   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1249   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1250   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1251   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1252   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1253   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1254   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1255   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1256   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1257   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1258   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1259   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1260   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1261   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1262   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1263   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1264   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1265   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1266   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1267   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1268   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1269   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1270   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1271   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1272   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1273   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1274   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1275   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1276   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1277   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1278   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1279   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1280   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1281   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1282   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1283   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1284   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1285   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1286   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1287   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1288   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1289   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1290   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1291   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1292   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1293   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1294   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1295 
  1296 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1297 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1298 
  1299 
  1300 *** FOL ***
  1301 
  1302 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1303 
  1304 
  1305 *** ZF ***
  1306 
  1307 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1308 analysis.
  1309 
  1310 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1311 
  1312 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1313 
  1314 
  1315 *** ML ***
  1316 
  1317 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1318 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1319 
  1320 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1321 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1322 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1323 
  1324 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1325 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1326 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1327 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1328 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1329 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1330 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1331 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1332 
  1333 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1334 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1335 
  1336 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1337 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1338 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1339 
  1340 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1341 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1344 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1345 context as well.
  1346 
  1347 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1348 
  1349   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1350   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1351   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1352   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1353   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1354   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1355   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1356   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1357   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1358   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1359   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1360   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1361 
  1362 
  1363 *** System ***
  1364 
  1365 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1366 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1367 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1368 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1369 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1370 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1371 the generic user home was intended.
  1372 
  1373 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1374 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1375 
  1376 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1377 (not just JRE).
  1378 
  1379 
  1380 
  1381 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1382 ------------------------------------
  1383 
  1384 *** General ***
  1385 
  1386 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1387 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1388 
  1389   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1390     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1391     files for checking).
  1392 
  1393   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1394     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1395     positions.
  1396 
  1397   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1398     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1399     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1400 
  1401   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1402     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1403     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1404 
  1405   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1406     cores.
  1407 
  1408   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1409     versions (garbage collection).
  1410 
  1411 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1412 including some remaining limitations.
  1413 
  1414 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1415 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1416 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1417 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1418 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1422 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1423 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1424 
  1425 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1426 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1427 usedir option -Q.
  1428 
  1429 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1430 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1431 
  1432   long_names   ~> names_long
  1433   short_names  ~> names_short
  1434   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1435 
  1436 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1437 
  1438   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1439 
  1440 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1441 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1442 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1443 
  1444 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1445 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1446 
  1447 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1448   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1449   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1450   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1451     "Classical Reasoner".
  1452 
  1453 
  1454 *** HOL ***
  1455 
  1456 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1457 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1460 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1461 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1462 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1463 class complete_linorder.
  1464 
  1465 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1466 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1467 
  1468 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1469 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1470 
  1471   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1472   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1473   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1474   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1475   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1476   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1477   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1478   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1479   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1480   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1481   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1482 
  1483 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1484 
  1485   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1486   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1487   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1488   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1489   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1490   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1491   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1492   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1493   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1494   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1495   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1496   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1497   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1498   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1499   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1500   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1501 
  1502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1508 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1509 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1510 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1513 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1514 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1518 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1519 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1520 
  1521 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1522 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1523 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1526 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1527 
  1528 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1529 
  1530     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1531     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1532 
  1533 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1534 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1537 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1540 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1541 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1542 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1545   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1546   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1547   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1548   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1549   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1550   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1551 
  1552 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1553 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1556   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1557   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1558   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1559   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1560   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1561   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1562   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1563   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1564   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1565   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1566   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1567   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1568   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1569   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1570   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1571   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1572   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1573   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1574   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1575   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1576   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1577   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1578   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1579   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1580   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1581   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1582   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1583   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1584   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1585   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1586   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1587   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1588   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1589   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1590   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1591   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1592   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1593   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1594   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1595   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1596   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1597   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1598   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1599   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1600   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1601   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1602   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1603   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1604   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1605   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1606   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1607   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1608   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1609   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1610   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1611   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1612   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1613   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1614   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1615   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1616   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1617   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1618   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1619   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1620   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1621   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1622   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1623   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1624   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1625   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1626   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1627   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1628   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1629   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1630   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1631   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1632   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1633   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1634   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1635   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1636   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1637 
  1638 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1639 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1640 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1641 
  1642 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1643 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1644 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1645 
  1646 * Code generation:
  1647 
  1648   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1649     characters in the target language.
  1650 
  1651   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1652     instead.
  1653 
  1654   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1655 
  1656   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1657     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1658 
  1659       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1660 
  1661 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1664 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1665 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1666 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1667 syntax.
  1668 
  1669 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1670 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1671 
  1672 * Nitpick:
  1673   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1674   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1675   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1676     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Sledgehammer:
  1679   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1680   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1681     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1682   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1683     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1684   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1685     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1686   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1687     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1688   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1689     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1690 
  1691 * Metis:
  1692   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1694     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Command 'try':
  1697   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1698     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1700     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1701 
  1702 * Quickcheck:
  1703   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1704     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1705   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1706     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1707   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1708     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1709     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1710     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1711   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1712     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1713 
  1714 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1715 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1716 
  1717 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1718 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1719 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1720 
  1721 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1722 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1726 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1729 arithmetic.
  1730 
  1731 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1732 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1733 and lattice type classes.
  1734 
  1735 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1736 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1737 
  1738 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1739 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1740 
  1741 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1742 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1743 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1746   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1747   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1748   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1749 
  1750 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1751 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1752 constants:
  1753 
  1754   type inat   ~> type enat
  1755   Fin         ~> enat
  1756   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1757   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1758   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1759 
  1760 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1761 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1764 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1765 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1766 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1767 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1768 
  1769 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1770 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1771 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1772 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1773 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1774 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1775 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1776 
  1777   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1778   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1779   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1780   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1781 
  1782 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1783 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1784 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1787   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1788   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1789   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1790   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1791   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1792   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1793   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1794   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1795   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1796   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1797   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1798   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1799   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1800   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1801   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1802   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1803   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1804   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1805   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1806   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1807   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1808   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1809   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1810   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1811   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1812   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1813   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1814   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1815   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1816   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1817   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1818   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1819   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1820   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1821   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1822   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1823   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1824   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1825   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1826   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1827   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1828   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1829   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1830   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1831   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1832   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1833   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1834   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1835   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1836   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1837 
  1838 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1839   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1840   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1841   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1842   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1843     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1848   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1849   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1850   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1851   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1852   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1853   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1854   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1855   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1856   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1857   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1858   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1859   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1860   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1861   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1862   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1863   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1864   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1865   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1866   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1867   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1868   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1869   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1870   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1871   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1872 
  1873 
  1874 *** Document preparation ***
  1875 
  1876 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1877 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1878 same.
  1879 
  1880 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1881 result.
  1882 
  1883 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1884 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1885 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1886 
  1887 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1888 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1889 
  1890 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1891 like this:
  1892 
  1893   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1894   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1895 
  1896 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1897 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1898 layouts.
  1899 
  1900 
  1901 *** ML ***
  1902 
  1903 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1904 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1905 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1906 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1907 under external program control.
  1908 
  1909 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1910 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1911 
  1912 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1913 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1914 (better known as Proof General).
  1915 
  1916 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1917 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1918 
  1919 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1920 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1921 
  1922 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1923 (including quotes etc.).
  1924 
  1925 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1926 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1927 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1928 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1929 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1930 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1931 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1932 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1933 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1934 
  1935 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1936 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1937 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1938 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1939 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1940 
  1941 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1942 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1943 
  1944 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1945 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1946 
  1947 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1948 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1949 
  1950 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1951 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1952 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1953 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1954 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1955 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1956 proper Proof.context.
  1957 
  1958 
  1959 *** System ***
  1960 
  1961 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1962 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1963 
  1964 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1965 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1966 
  1967 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1968 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1969 
  1970   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1971   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1972   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1973   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1974   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1975 
  1976 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1977 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1980 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1981 example:
  1982 
  1983   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1984 
  1985 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1986 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1987 
  1988 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1989 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1990 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1991 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1992 
  1993 
  1994 
  1995 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1996 ----------------------------------
  1997 
  1998 *** General ***
  1999 
  2000 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2001 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2002 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2003 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2004 like this:
  2005 
  2006   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2007 
  2008 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2009 
  2010 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2011 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2012 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2013 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2014 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2015 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2016 
  2017 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2018 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2019 the following package declarations:
  2020 
  2021   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2022   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2023 
  2024 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2025 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2026 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2027 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2028 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2029 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2030 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2031 
  2032 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2033 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2034 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2035 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2036 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2037 
  2038 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2039 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2040 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2041 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2042 
  2043 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2044 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2045 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2046 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2047 
  2048   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2049 
  2050   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2051   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2052   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2053   show_types                    show_types
  2054   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2055   show_consts                   show_consts
  2056   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2057 
  2058   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2059   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2060   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2061 
  2062   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2063   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2064 
  2065   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2066 
  2067   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2068   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2069   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2070   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2071   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2072 
  2073 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2074 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2075 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2076 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2077 
  2078 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2082   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2083 
  2084 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2085 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2086 float_token.
  2087 
  2088 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2089 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2093 DejaVu Sans.
  2094 
  2095 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2096 
  2097 
  2098 *** Pure ***
  2099 
  2100 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2101 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2102 time.
  2103 
  2104 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2105 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2106 
  2107 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2108 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2111 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2112 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2113 command already provided this functionality.
  2114 
  2115 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2116 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2117 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2118 without interpretations.
  2119 
  2120 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2121 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2122 
  2123 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2124 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2125 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2126 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2127 
  2128 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2129 'definition' instead.
  2130 
  2131 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2132 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2133 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2134 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2135 
  2136 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2137 constructors.
  2138 
  2139 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2140 the local file system.
  2141 
  2142 
  2143 *** HOL ***
  2144 
  2145 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2146 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2147 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2148 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2149 
  2150   declare [[coercion f]]
  2151 
  2152 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2153 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2154 
  2155   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2156 
  2157 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2158 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2159 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2160 other theories like this:
  2161 
  2162   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2163 
  2164 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2165 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2166 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2167 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2168 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2169 for examples.
  2170 
  2171 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2172 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2175 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2176 
  2177 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2178 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2179 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2180 
  2181 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2182 functorial structure of types.
  2183 
  2184 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2185 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2186 
  2187 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2188 languages.
  2189 
  2190 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2191 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2193 
  2194 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2195 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2198 combinators any longer.
  2199 
  2200 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2201 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2202 
  2203 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2204 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2205 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2206 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2207 
  2208   record 'a foo = ...
  2209   ...
  2210   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2211 
  2212 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2213 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2217 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2218 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2219 
  2220 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2221 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2222 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2223 
  2224 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2225 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2228 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2229 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2230 independently.
  2231 
  2232 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2233 counter example search.
  2234 
  2235 * Sledgehammer:
  2236   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2237     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2238     sledgehammer").
  2239   - Renamed commands:
  2240     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2241     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2242     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2243     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244   - Renamed options:
  2245     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2246     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2247     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2248     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 * Nitpick:
  2252   - Renamed options:
  2253     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2254     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2257   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2258   - Added "whack" option.
  2259   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2260   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2261   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2262   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2263     higher cardinalities.
  2264   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2265 
  2266 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2267 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2268 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2269 
  2270     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2271 
  2272 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2273 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2274 
  2275 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2276 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2277 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2278 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2279 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2280 "smt_solver".
  2281 
  2282 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2283 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2284 
  2285 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2286 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2287 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2288 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2291   - Renamed:
  2292     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2293     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295   - Added:
  2296     smt_verbose
  2297     smt_random_seed
  2298     smt_datatypes
  2299     smt_infer_triggers
  2300     smt_monomorph_limit
  2301     cvc3_options
  2302     remote_cvc3_options
  2303     remote_z3_options
  2304     yices_options
  2305 
  2306 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2307 header.
  2308 
  2309 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2310 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2311 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2312 
  2313   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2314 
  2315 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2318 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319 
  2320 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2323 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324 
  2325 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2326 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2327 
  2328 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2329 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2332 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2333 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2341 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2344 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2345 for congruent(2)).
  2346 
  2347 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2348 
  2349   types
  2350     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2351     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2352 
  2353   constants
  2354     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2355     True ~> HOL.True
  2356     False ~> HOL.False
  2357     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2358     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2359     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2360     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2361     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2362     The ~> HOL.The
  2363     All ~> HOL.All
  2364     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2365     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2366     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2367     If ~> HOL.If
  2368     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2369     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2370     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2371     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2372     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2373     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2374     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2375     op : ~> Set.member
  2376     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2377 
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2381 
  2382     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2383     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2384     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2385     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2386     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2387     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2388     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2389     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2390 
  2391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * More stylized fact names:
  2394 
  2395   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2396   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2397   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2398   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2399 
  2400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2403 
  2404   constants
  2405     null ~> List.null
  2406 
  2407   facts
  2408     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2409     null_empty ~> null_def
  2410 
  2411 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2412 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2413 generation.
  2414 
  2415 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2416 Haskell code.
  2417 
  2418 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2419 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2420 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2423 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2426 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2427 
  2428 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2429 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2430 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431 
  2432 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2433 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2439 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2440 referred to by its qualified name.
  2441 
  2442   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2443   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2444   product ~>  Enum.product
  2445 
  2446 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2447 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2449 
  2450 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2451 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2452 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2456 sort_key.
  2457 
  2458 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2462 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2463 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2464 
  2465   types
  2466     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2467               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2468               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2469         (depends on your needs)
  2470 
  2471   constants
  2472      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2473      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2474      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2475 
  2476 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2477 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2478 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2479 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2482 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2483 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2484 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2485 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2489 
  2490 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2491 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2492 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2493 
  2494 
  2495 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2496 
  2497 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2498 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2499 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2500 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2501 compatibility.
  2502 
  2503 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2504 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2505 
  2506 
  2507 *** HOLCF ***
  2508 
  2509 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2510 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2511 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2515 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2516 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2519   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2520   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2521 
  2522 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2523 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2524 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525 
  2526 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2527 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2528 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2529 domain definition now works:
  2530 
  2531   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2532 
  2533 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2534 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2535 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2536 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2537 
  2538   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2539     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2540 
  2541   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2542 
  2543 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2544 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2545 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546 
  2547 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2548 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2551 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2552 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2553 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2554 
  2555 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2556 
  2557 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2565 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2566 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2567 
  2568 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2569 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2570 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2573 still supported as an input translation.
  2574 
  2575 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2576 
  2577   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2578   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2579   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2580   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2581   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2582   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2583   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2584 
  2585 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2586 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2589   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2590   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2591   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2592   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2593   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2594 
  2595 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2596 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2599 
  2600   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2601   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2602   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2603   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2604 
  2605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2608 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2611 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2614   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2615   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2616   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2617   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2618   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2619   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2620   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2621   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2622   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2623   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2624   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2625   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2626   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2627   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2628   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2629   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2630   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2631   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2632   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2633 
  2634 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2637   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2638   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2639   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2640   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2641   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2642   box_less             ~> box_below
  2643   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2644   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2645   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2646   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2647   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2648   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2649   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2650   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2651   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2652   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2653   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2654   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2655   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2656   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2657   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2658   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2659   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2660   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2661   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2662   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2663   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2664   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2665   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2666   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2667   up_less              ~> up_below
  2668   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2669   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2670   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2671   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2672   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2673   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2674   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2675   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2676   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2677   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2678   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2679   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2680   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2681 
  2682 
  2683 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2684 
  2685 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2686 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688 
  2689 *** ML ***
  2690 
  2691 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2692 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2693 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2694 
  2695 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2696 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2697 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2698 
  2699 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2700 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2701 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2702 
  2703 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2704 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2705 
  2706 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2707 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2708 
  2709 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2710 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2711 
  2712 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2713 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2714 
  2715 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2716 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2717 almost all situations.
  2718 
  2719 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2720 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2721 Isabelle/ML.
  2722 
  2723 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2724 meaning.
  2725 
  2726 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2727 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2728 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2729 
  2730 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2731 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2732 
  2733 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2734 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2735 
  2736 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2737 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2738 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2739 
  2740 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2741 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2742 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2743 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2744 configuration options.
  2745 
  2746 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2747 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2748 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2749 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2750 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2751 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2752 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2753 
  2754 
  2755 
  2756 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2757 ---------------------------------
  2758 
  2759 *** General ***
  2760 
  2761 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2762 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2763 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2764 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2765 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2766 their full internal name.
  2767 
  2768 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2769 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2770 Some hints on upgrading:
  2771 
  2772   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2773     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2774     which are independent of this issue.
  2775 
  2776   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2777     provides the following special forms:
  2778 
  2779       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2780       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2781       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2782 
  2783     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2784     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2785     extra variables".
  2786 
  2787     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2788     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2789     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2790     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2791     "logic".
  2792 
  2793   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2794     antiquotations:
  2795 
  2796       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2797       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2798       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2799       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2800 
  2801   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2802     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2803     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2804     antiquotations.
  2805 
  2806 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2807 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2808 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2809 diagnose syntax problems.
  2810 
  2811 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2812 
  2813 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2814 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2815 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2816 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2817 
  2818 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2819 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2820 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2821 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2822 
  2823 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2824 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2825 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2826 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2827 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2830 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2831 
  2832 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2833 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2834 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2835 
  2836   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2837 
  2838 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2839 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2840 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2841 
  2842 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2843 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2847 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2848 
  2849 
  2850 *** Pure ***
  2851 
  2852 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2853 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2854 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2855 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2856 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2857 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2858 inspect proof terms.
  2859 
  2860 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2861 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2862 are added internally.  For example:
  2863 
  2864   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2865 
  2866 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2867 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2872 'class' instead.
  2873 
  2874 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2875 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2879 invariants.
  2880 
  2881 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2882 user space functionality any longer.
  2883 
  2884 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2885 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2887 
  2888 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2889 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2890 
  2891 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2892 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2893 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2894 
  2895 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2896 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2897 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2898 
  2899 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2900 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 
  2903 *** HOL ***
  2904 
  2905 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2906 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2907 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2908 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2909 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2910 
  2911 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2912 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2913 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2914 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2915 
  2916   fun
  2917     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2918   where
  2919     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2920 
  2921   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2922     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2923 
  2924   quotient_definition
  2925     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2926 
  2927 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2928 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2929 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2930 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2931 
  2932 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2933 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2934 
  2935 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2936 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2937 
  2938 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2942 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2943 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2944 
  2945 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2946 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2955 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2958 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2959 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2962   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2963   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2964   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2965   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2966   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2967   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2968   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2969   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2970   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2971   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2972   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2973   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2974   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2975   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2976   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2977   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2978   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2979   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2980   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2981   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2982   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2983   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2984   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2985   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2986   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2987   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2988   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2989   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2990   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2991 
  2992 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2993 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2994 
  2995 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2996 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2997 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2998 
  2999 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3000 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3001 
  3002 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3003 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3006 
  3007 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3008 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3011 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3016 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3017 
  3018 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3019 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3020 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3021 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3024   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3025   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3026   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3030 lattices):
  3031 
  3032     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3033     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3034 
  3035     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3036 
  3037     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3038     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3039     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3040     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3041     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3042     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3043     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3044     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3045     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3046     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3047     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3048     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3049     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3050 
  3051     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3052     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3053     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3054     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3055     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3056     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3057     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3058     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3059     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3060     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3061     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3062     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3063     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3064     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3065     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3066     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3067     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3068     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3069 
  3070   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3071   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3072 
  3073     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3074     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3075     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3076     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3077     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3078 
  3079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 * Refined field classes:
  3082   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3083     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3084     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3085   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3089   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3090   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3091   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3092     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3093   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3094     equal_neg_zero.
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3098 sets to lattices:
  3099 
  3100   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3101   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3102   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3103   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3104   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3105   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3106   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3107   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3108   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3109   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3110 
  3111 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3112 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3113 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3114 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3115 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3116 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3119 multiset order:
  3120 
  3121   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3122     <= and <;
  3123   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3124     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3125     multiset_order;
  3126   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3127     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3128     generation;
  3129   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3130     if needed.
  3131 
  3132 Renamed:
  3133 
  3134   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3135   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3136   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3137 
  3138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3141 
  3142 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3143 
  3144 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3145 
  3146 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3147 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3148 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150   Constants:
  3151   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3152   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3153   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3154   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3155   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3156   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3157   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3158   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3159   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3160   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3161   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3162   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3163   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3164 
  3165   Lemmas:
  3166   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3167   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3168   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3169   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3170   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3171   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3172   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3173   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3174   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3175   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3176   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3177   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3178   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3179 
  3180 * Sledgehammer:
  3181   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3182     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3183     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3184     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3185     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3186     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3187     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3189   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3190     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3191   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3192     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3193     is still experimental.)
  3194   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3195     full-typed mode.
  3196   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3197 
  3198 * Nitpick:
  3199   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3200   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3201   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3202     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3203   - Added support for quotient types.
  3204   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3205     constructs.
  3206   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3207     "termination" proofs).
  3208   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3209   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3210   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3211   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3212     record getters.
  3213   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3214   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3215   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3216   - Added "atoms" option.
  3217   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3218     problems.
  3219   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3220     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3221     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3223     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3227   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3228   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3229   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3230   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3231   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3232   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3233   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3234   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 
  3238 *** HOLCF ***
  3239 
  3240 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3241 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3242 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3245 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3246 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3247 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3250 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3251 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3252 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3253 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3256 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3257 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3260 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3263   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3264 
  3265 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3266 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3269   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3270   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3271   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3272   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3273 
  3274 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3275 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3278   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3279   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3280 
  3281 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3282 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3286 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3291 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 
  3294 *** ML ***
  3295 
  3296 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3297 
  3298     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3299     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3300 
  3301     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3302     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3303     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3304     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3305 
  3306     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3307     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3308     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3309 
  3310 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3311 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3312 
  3313 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3314 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3315 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3316 
  3317 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3318 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3319 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3320 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3321 
  3322 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3323 the context or even global references.
  3324 
  3325 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3326 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3327 
  3328 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3329 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3330 
  3331   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3332   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3333   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3334   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3335   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3336   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3337   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3338   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3339   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3340   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3341 
  3342 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3343 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3344 
  3345 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3346 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3347 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3348 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3349 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3350 
  3351 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3352 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3353 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3354 Theory_Data version.
  3355 
  3356 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3357 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3358 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3359 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3360 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3361 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3362 explicitly in rare situations.
  3363 
  3364 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3365 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3369 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3372 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3373 quite rare).
  3374 
  3375 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3376 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3379 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3380 terms.
  3381 
  3382 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3383 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3384 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3385 
  3386 
  3387 *** System ***
  3388 
  3389 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3390 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3391 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3392 
  3393 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3394 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3395 respectively.
  3396 
  3397 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3398 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3399 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3400 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3401 
  3402   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3403 
  3404 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3405 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3406 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3407 component.
  3408 
  3409 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3410 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3411 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3412 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3413 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3414 the user for manual installation.
  3415 
  3416 
  3417 
  3418 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3419 -------------------------------------
  3420 
  3421 *** General ***
  3422 
  3423 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3424 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3425 
  3426 
  3427 *** Pure ***
  3428 
  3429 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3430 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3431 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3432 
  3433 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3434 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3435 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3436 
  3437 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3438 interpretation.
  3439 
  3440 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3441 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 
  3444 *** Document preparation ***
  3445 
  3446 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3447 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3448 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3449 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3450 
  3451 
  3452 *** HOL ***
  3453 
  3454 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3455 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3456 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3457 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3458 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3459 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3460 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3461 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3462 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3463 
  3464 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3465 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3466 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3467 
  3468 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3469 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3470 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3471 
  3472 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3473 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3474 
  3475 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3476 
  3477 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3478 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3479 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3480 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3481 
  3482 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3483 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3484 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3485 "mirabelle" utility.
  3486 
  3487 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3488 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3489 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3490 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3491 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3492 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3493 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3494 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3495 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3496 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3497 
  3498 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3499 procedure only.
  3500 
  3501 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3502 
  3503 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3504 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3505 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3506 that fail later.
  3507 
  3508 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3509 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3510 
  3511 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3512 the same method as the approximation method.
  3513 
  3514 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3515 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3516 series expansion.
  3517 
  3518 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3519 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3520 
  3521 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3522 reals.
  3523 
  3524 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3525 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3526 
  3527 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3528 fixpoint theorem.
  3529 
  3530 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3531   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3532     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3533   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3534     accordingly
  3535   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3536     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3537   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3538     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3539 
  3540 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3541 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3542 lattice.
  3543 
  3544 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3545 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3546 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3547 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3548 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3549 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3553   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3554     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3555   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3556     le_inf_iff
  3557   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3558     sup_aci)
  3559   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3560   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3561   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3562     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3563     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3564     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3565     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3566     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3567     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3568     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3569     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3570     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3571     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3572   - authentic syntax for
  3573     Set.Pow
  3574     Set.image
  3575   - mere abbreviations:
  3576     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3577     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3578     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3579     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3580     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3581     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3582     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3583     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3584   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3585 
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3587 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3588 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3589 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3590 
  3591 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3592 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3593 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3596 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3599 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3600 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3601 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3604 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3605 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3606 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3607 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3608 
  3609 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3610 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3614 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3617 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3618 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3619 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3620 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3621 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3622 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3626     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3627     code_post       replaces    code post
  3628     etc.
  3629   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Renamed methods:
  3632     sizechange -> size_change
  3633     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3634   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3637 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3638 
  3639 * Renamed theorems:
  3640     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3641     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3642     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3643     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3644     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3645   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653 
  3654 *** HOLCF ***
  3655 
  3656 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3657 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3658 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3659 
  3660 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3661 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3662 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3663 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3664 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3665 
  3666 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3667 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3668 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3669 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3670 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3671 
  3672 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3673 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3674 constructor are pre-configured.
  3675 
  3676 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3677 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3678 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3679 
  3680 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3681 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3682 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3683 as well.)
  3684 
  3685 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3686 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3687 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3688 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3689 examples.
  3690 
  3691 
  3692 *** ML ***
  3693 
  3694 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3695 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3696 
  3697 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3698 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3699 position, logical grouping etc.
  3700 
  3701 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3702 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3703 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3704 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3705 
  3706 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3707 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3708 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3709 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3710 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3711 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3712 
  3713 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3714 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3715 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3716 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3717 experiments with references.
  3718 
  3719 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3720 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3721 
  3722 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3723 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3724 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3725 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3726 
  3727 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3728 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3729 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3730 
  3731 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3732 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3733 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3734 
  3735 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3741 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3742 
  3743 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3744 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3745 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3746 
  3747 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3748 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3749 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3752 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3753 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3757 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3758 instead of global theory.
  3759 
  3760 
  3761 *** System ***
  3762 
  3763 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3764 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3765 usedir option -q.
  3766 
  3767 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3768 also the system manual.
  3769 
  3770 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3771 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3772 
  3773 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3774 this is always enabled.
  3775 
  3776 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3777 
  3778 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3779 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3780 currently supported on Linux only.
  3781 
  3782 
  3783 
  3784 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3785 --------------------------------
  3786 
  3787 *** General ***
  3788 
  3789 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3790 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3791 
  3792   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3793     "isatool."
  3794 
  3795   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3796     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3797 
  3798   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3799     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3800 
  3801 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3802 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3803 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3804 
  3805 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3806 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3807 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3808 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3809 via "isabelle emacs".
  3810 
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3812 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3813 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3814 
  3815 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3816 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3817 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3818 
  3819 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3820 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3821 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3822 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3823 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3824 
  3825 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3826 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3827 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3828 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3829 
  3830 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3831 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3832 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3833 
  3834 
  3835 *** Pure ***
  3836 
  3837 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3838 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3839 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3840 
  3841 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3842 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3843 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3844 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3845 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3846 
  3847 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3848 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3849 useful in locale declarations.
  3850 
  3851 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3852 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3853 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3854 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3855 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3856 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3857 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3858 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3859 no longer generated.
  3860 
  3861 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3862 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3863 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3864 
  3865 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3866 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3867 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3868 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3869 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3870 
  3871 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3873 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3874 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3875 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3876 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3877 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3878 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3879 
  3880 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3881 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3882 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3883 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3884 
  3885 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3889 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3890 
  3891 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3892 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3895 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3896 in HOL, write
  3897 
  3898     class foo = ...
  3899 
  3900 instead of
  3901 
  3902     class foo = type + ...
  3903 
  3904 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3905 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3908 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3909 
  3910 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3911 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3912 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3913 
  3914 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3915 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3916 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3918 directly in regular applications.
  3919 
  3920 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3921 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3922 
  3923 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3924 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3925 
  3926 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3927 theory context.
  3928 
  3929 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3930 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3933 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3934 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3935 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3936 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3937 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3938 
  3939   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3940 
  3941 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3942 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3943 normalization.
  3944 
  3945 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3946 addressing etc.
  3947 
  3948 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3949 
  3950   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3951   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3952 
  3953 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3954 
  3955   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3956      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3957      parts of the code generator framework).
  3958 
  3959   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3960      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3961      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3962 
  3963 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3966 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3969 patterns, e.g.
  3970 
  3971     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3972 
  3973 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3974 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3975 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3976 hyphen:
  3977 
  3978     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3979 
  3980 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3981 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3982 
  3983 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3984 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3985 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3986 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3987 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3988 higher-order unification.
  3989 
  3990 
  3991 *** Document preparation ***
  3992 
  3993 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3994 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3995 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3996 
  3997 
  3998 *** HOL ***
  3999 
  4000 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4001 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4002 
  4003 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4004 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4005 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4006 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4007 Main, as before.
  4008 
  4009 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4010 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4011 
  4012 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4013 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4014 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4015 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4016 
  4017 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4018 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4019 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4020 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4021 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4022 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4023 
  4024 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4025 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4026 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4027 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4028 
  4029 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4030 menu.
  4031 
  4032 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4033 (contains the empty clause).
  4034 
  4035 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4036 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4037 
  4038 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4039 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4040 
  4041 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4042 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4043 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4046 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4047 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4048 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4049 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4050 
  4051 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4052 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4053 
  4054 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4055 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4056 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4057 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4058 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4059 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4060 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4061 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4062 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4063 
  4064 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4065 
  4066 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4067 
  4068 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4069 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4072 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4073 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4074 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4075 
  4076 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4077 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4078 
  4079     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4080     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4081     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4082     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4083     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4084     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4085     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4086     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4087 
  4088 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4089 theory Set.
  4090 
  4091 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4092 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4093 
  4094 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4095 
  4096 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4097 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4098 
  4099 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4100 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4101 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4102 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4103 allowed. For examples see
  4104 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4105 
  4106 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4107 
  4108 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4112 structure:
  4113 
  4114     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4115     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4116     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4117     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4118     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4119     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4120     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4121     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4122     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4123     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4124     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4125     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4126     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4127     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4128     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4129     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4130     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4131     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4132     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4133     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4134     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4135     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4136     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4137     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4138     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4139     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4140     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4141     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4142     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4143     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4144     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4145     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4146     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4147 
  4148     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4149     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4150     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4151     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4152     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4153     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4154     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4155     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4156     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4157     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4158 
  4159     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4160     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4161     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4162     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4163     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4164     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4165 
  4166 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4167 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4168 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4169 
  4170 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4171 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4172 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4173 
  4174 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4175 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4178 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4179 
  4180 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4181 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4182 proofs, e.g.
  4183 
  4184   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4185 
  4186 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4187 
  4188 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4189 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4190 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191 
  4192 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4193 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4197 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4198 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4202 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4203 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4204 preorder_class.*.
  4205 
  4206 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4207 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4208 
  4209 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4210 
  4211   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4212 
  4213 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4214 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4215 fold_image.
  4216 
  4217 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4218 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4219 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4220 the former will disappear at some point.
  4221 
  4222 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4223 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4224 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4225 
  4226 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4227 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4228 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4229 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4230 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4231 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4232 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4233 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4234 
  4235 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4236 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4237 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4238 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4239 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4240 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4241 
  4242     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4243     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4244     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4245     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4246     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4247     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4248     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4249 
  4250 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4251 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4252 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4253 
  4254 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4255 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4256 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4257 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4258 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4259 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4260 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4261 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4262 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4263 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4264 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4265 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4266 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4267 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4268 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4269 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4270 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4271 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4272 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4273 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4274 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4275 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4276 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4277 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4278 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4279 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4280 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4281 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4282 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4283 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4284 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4285 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4286 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4287 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4288 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4289 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4290 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4291 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4292 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4293 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4294 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4295 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4296 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4297 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4298 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4299 
  4300 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4303 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4304 
  4305 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4306 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4307 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4308 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4309 
  4310 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4311 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4312 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4313 theory RealVector.
  4314 
  4315 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4316 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4317 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4318 and inner products are included.
  4319 
  4320 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4321 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4322 supported.
  4323 
  4324 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4325 first diagonalization argument.
  4326 
  4327 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4328 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4329 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4330 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4331 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4332 
  4333     hide (open) const gcd
  4334     abbreviation gcd where
  4335       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4336     notation (output)
  4337       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4338 
  4339 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4340 
  4341 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4342 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4343 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4346 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4347 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4348 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4349 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4350 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4351 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4352 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4353 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4354 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4355 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4356 cases.
  4357 
  4358 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4359 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4360 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4361 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4362 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4363 
  4364     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4365     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4366     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4367     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4368     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4369 
  4370 
  4371 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4372 
  4373 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4374 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4375 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4376 
  4377 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4378 
  4379 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4380 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4381 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4382 
  4383 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4384 
  4385 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4386 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4387 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4388 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4389 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4390 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4391 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4392 
  4393 
  4394 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4395 
  4396 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4397 
  4398 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4399 theory targets.
  4400 
  4401 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4402 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4403 'inductive' etc.
  4404 
  4405 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4406 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4407 
  4408 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4409 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4410 
  4411 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4412 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4413 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4414 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4415 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4416 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4417 the algorithm W:
  4418 
  4419  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4420  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4421          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4422 
  4423 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4424 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4425 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4426 
  4427 
  4428 *** HOLCF ***
  4429 
  4430 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4431 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4432 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4433 
  4434 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4435 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4436 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4437 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4438 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4439 
  4440 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4441 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4442 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 
  4445 *** ZF ***
  4446 
  4447 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4448 
  4449 
  4450 *** ML ***
  4451 
  4452 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4453 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4454 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4455 5.2.1!
  4456 
  4457 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4458 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4459 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4460 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4461 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4462 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4463 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4464 
  4465 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4466 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4467 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4468 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4469 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4470 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4471 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4472 
  4473 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4474 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4475 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4476 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4477 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4478 
  4479 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4480 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4481 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4482 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4483 Method.add_method.
  4484 
  4485 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4486 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4487 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4488 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4489 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4490 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4491 
  4492 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4493 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4494 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4495 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4496 examples.
  4497 
  4498 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4499 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4500 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4501 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4502 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4503 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4504 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4505 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4506 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4507 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4508 
  4509 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4510 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4511 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4512 
  4513 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4514 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4515 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4516 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4517 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4518 resort for legacy applications.
  4519 
  4520 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4521 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4522 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4523 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4524 explicit runtime argument.
  4525 
  4526 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4527 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4528 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4529 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4530 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 
  4532 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4533 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4534 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4535 theory state.
  4536 
  4537 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4538 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4539 
  4540   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4541   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4542   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4543   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4544   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4545   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4546   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4547   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4548   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4549   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4550 
  4551 
  4552 *** System ***
  4553 
  4554 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4555 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4556 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4557 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4558 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4559 
  4560 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4561 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4562 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4563 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4564 
  4565 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4566 
  4567 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4568 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4569 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4570 prover operations.
  4571 
  4572 
  4573 
  4574 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4575 -------------------------------
  4576 
  4577 *** General ***
  4578 
  4579 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4580 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4581 
  4582 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4583 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4584 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4585 provides a proper context already.
  4586 
  4587 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4588 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4589 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4590 
  4591 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4592 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4593 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4594 swap theory imports.
  4595 
  4596 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4597 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4598 
  4599 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4600 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4601 white space without escapes.
  4602 
  4603 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4604 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4605 "foo_bar".
  4606 
  4607 
  4608 *** Pure ***
  4609 
  4610 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4611 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4612 
  4613 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4614 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4615 
  4616 (1) unused_thms
  4617      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4618 
  4619 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4620      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4621      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4622 
  4623 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4624      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4625      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4626      their ancestors.
  4627 
  4628 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4629 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4630 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4631 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4632 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4633 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4634 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4635 
  4636 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4637 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4638 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4639 
  4640 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4641 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4642 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4643 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4644 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4645 
  4646 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4647 
  4648 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4649 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4650 update of theories within ML code.
  4651 
  4652 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4653 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4654 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4655 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4656 
  4657 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4658 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4659 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4663 
  4664 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4665 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4666 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4667 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4668 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4669 
  4670 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4671 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4672 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4673 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4674 situations.
  4675 
  4676 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4677 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4678 proof text.
  4679 
  4680 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4681 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4682 
  4683 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4684 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4685 predicates.
  4686 
  4687 
  4688 *** Document preparation ***
  4689 
  4690 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4691 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4692 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4693 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4694 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4695 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4696 
  4697 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4698 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4699 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4700 
  4701 
  4702 *** HOL ***
  4703 
  4704 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4705 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4706 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4707 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4708 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4709 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4710 
  4711 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4712 with multithreading.
  4713 
  4714 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4715 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4716 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4717 
  4718 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4719 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4720 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4721 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4724 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4725 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4726 and makes them available separately.  See
  4727 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4728 
  4729 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4730 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4731 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4732 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4733 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4734 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4735 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4736 the declared rules.
  4737 
  4738 This setup also deals with rules like
  4739 
  4740   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4741 
  4742 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4743 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4744 
  4745 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4746 
  4747   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4748 
  4749   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4750     definitions on => and bool.
  4751 
  4752   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4753     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4754     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4755 
  4756       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4757       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4758       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4759       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4760       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4761       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4762       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4763       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4764 
  4765   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4766     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4767     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4768 
  4769   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4770     The proof pattern
  4771 
  4772       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4773       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4774 
  4775     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4776     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4777 
  4778       have "EX S. P S"
  4779       proof
  4780         show "P S" <...>
  4781       qed
  4782 
  4783   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4784     The proof pattern
  4785 
  4786       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4787       also have "S = T" <...>
  4788       finally have "P T" .
  4789 
  4790     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4791     must be replaced by something like
  4792 
  4793       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4794       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4795       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4796 
  4797   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4798     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4799 
  4800       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4801 
  4802     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4803     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4804     type of the form
  4805 
  4806       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4807 
  4808     rather than
  4809 
  4810       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4811 
  4812 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4813 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4814 
  4815 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4818 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4820 
  4821 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4822 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4825 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4828 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4829 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4832 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4833 
  4834   less_trans
  4835   less_linear
  4836   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4837   le_less_trans
  4838   less_le_trans
  4839   less_not_sym
  4840   less_asym
  4841 
  4842 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4843 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4844 and different variable names.
  4845 
  4846 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4847 
  4848 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4849 finite maps.
  4850 
  4851 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4852 
  4853 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4854 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4855 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4856 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4857 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4858 accordingly.
  4859 
  4860 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4861 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4862 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4863 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4864 
  4865 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4866 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4867 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4868 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4869 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4873 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4876 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4877 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4878 
  4879 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4881 
  4882 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4883 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4884 
  4885 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4886 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4887 
  4888 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4889 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4892 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4894 
  4895 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4896 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4897 
  4898 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4899 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4900 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4901 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4902 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4903 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4906 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4907 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4908 
  4909 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4910 
  4911 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4912 
  4913 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4914 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4915 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4916 
  4917 
  4918 *** ZF ***
  4919 
  4920 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4921 same session:
  4922 
  4923   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4924   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4925   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4926   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4927   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4928   List      -> List_ZF
  4929   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4930 
  4931 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4932 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4933 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4934 
  4935 
  4936 *** ML ***
  4937 
  4938 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4939 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4940 
  4941 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4942 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4943 
  4944 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4945 
  4946 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4947 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4948 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4949 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4950 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4951 
  4952 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4953 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4954 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4955 
  4956 
  4957 *** System ***
  4958 
  4959 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4960 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4961 
  4962 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4963 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4964 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4965 
  4966 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4967 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4968 
  4969 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4970 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4971 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4972 
  4973 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4974 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4975 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4976 
  4977 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4978 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4979 
  4980 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4981 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4982 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4983 script.
  4984 
  4985 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4986 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4987 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4988 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4989 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4990 
  4991 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4992 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4993 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4994 
  4995 
  4996 
  4997 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4998 -----------------------------------
  4999 
  5000 *** General ***
  5001 
  5002 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5003 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5004 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5005 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5006 
  5007 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5008 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5009 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5010 
  5011 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5012 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5013 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5014 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5017 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5018 quotes.
  5019 
  5020 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5021 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5022 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5023 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5024 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5025 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5026 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5027 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5028 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5029 
  5030 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5031 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5032 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5033 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5034 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5035 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5036 
  5037 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5038 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5039 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5040 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5041 
  5042 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5043 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5044 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5045 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5046 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5047 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5048 
  5049 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5050 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5051 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5052 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5053 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5054 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5055 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5056 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5057 
  5058 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5059 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5060 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5061 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5062 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5063 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5064 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5065 
  5066 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5067 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5068 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5069 
  5070 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5071 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5072 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5073 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5074 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5075 limit is imposed.
  5076 
  5077 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5078 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5079 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5080 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5081 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5082 and scalability.
  5083 
  5084 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5085 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5086 
  5087 
  5088 *** Document preparation ***
  5089 
  5090 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5091 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5092 current context.
  5093 
  5094 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5095 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5096 
  5097 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5098 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5099 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5100 
  5101 
  5102 *** Pure ***
  5103 
  5104 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5105 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5106 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5107 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5108 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5109 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5110 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5111 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5112 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5113 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5114 
  5115 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5116 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5117 sketch:
  5118 
  5119     internal compilation:
  5120         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5121     writing SML code to a file:
  5122         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5123     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5124         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5125     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5126         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5127 
  5128     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5129         method ``eval''
  5130 
  5131 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5132 
  5133 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5134 
  5135     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5136     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5137     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5138     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5139 
  5140 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5141 
  5142     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5143       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5144 
  5145     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5146       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5147 
  5148     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5149       {(target)}+
  5150         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5151 
  5152     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5153       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5154         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5155 
  5156 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5157 
  5158 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5159 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5160 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5161 codegen".
  5162 
  5163 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5164 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5165 annotations).
  5166 
  5167 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5168 syntax.
  5169 
  5170 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5171 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5172 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5173 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5174 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5175 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5176 
  5177 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5178 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5179 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5180 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5181 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5182 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5183 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5184 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5185 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5186 equations, see section "definitions".
  5187 
  5188 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5189 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5190 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5191 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5192 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5193 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5194 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5195 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5196 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5197 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5198 
  5199 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5200 configuration options:
  5201 
  5202   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5203   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5204   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5205   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5206   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5207   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5208   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5209   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5210   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5211 
  5212 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5213 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5214 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5215 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5216 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5217 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5218 order.
  5219 
  5220 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5221 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5222 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5223 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5224 context encountered later on.
  5225 
  5226 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5227 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5228 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5229 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5230 
  5231 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5232 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5233 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5234 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5235 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5236 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5237 
  5238 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5239 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5240 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5241 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5242 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5243 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5244 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5245 more permissive.
  5246 
  5247 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5248 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5249 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5250 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5251 maintainability of proof texts.
  5252 
  5253 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5254 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5255 
  5256   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5257   then guess x and y by clarify
  5258 
  5259 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5260 proof tools being involved here.
  5261 
  5262 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5263 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5264 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5265 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5266 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5267 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5268 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5269 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5270 
  5271 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5272 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5273 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5274 
  5275   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5276   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5277   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5278   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5279 
  5280 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5281 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5282 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5283 
  5284 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5285 both named and unnamed ones.
  5286 
  5287 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5288 
  5289   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5290 
  5291 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5292 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5293 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5294 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5295 
  5296 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5297 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5298 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5299 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5300 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5301 
  5302 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5303 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5304 
  5305 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5306 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5307 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5308 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5309 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5310 originally first one.
  5311 
  5312 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5313 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5314 expected.
  5315 
  5316 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5317 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5318 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5319 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5320 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5321 
  5322   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5323     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5324     obtains x where "P x"
  5325 
  5326   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5327     assumes "A & B"
  5328     obtains A and B
  5329 
  5330   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5331     assumes "A | B"
  5332     obtains
  5333       A
  5334     | B
  5335 
  5336 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5337 explicitly:
  5338 
  5339   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5340     obtains "~ thesis"
  5341 
  5342   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5343     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5344 
  5345 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5346 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5347 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5348 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5349 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5350 case_names).
  5351 
  5352 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5353 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5354 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5355 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5356 
  5357 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5358 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5359 top-level lemma.
  5360 
  5361 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5362 introduction rule (default "that").
  5363 
  5364 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5365 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5366 to occur.
  5367 
  5368 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5369 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5370 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5371 representations independently of name spaces.
  5372 
  5373 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5374 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5375 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5378 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5379 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5380 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5381 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5382 current context.
  5383 
  5384 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5385 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5386 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5387 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5388 
  5389   axiomatization
  5390     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5391     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5392 
  5393   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5394   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5395 
  5396   abbreviation
  5397     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5398     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5399 
  5400 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5401 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5402 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5403 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5404 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5405 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5406 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5407 
  5408 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5409 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5410 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5411 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5412 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5413 
  5414 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5415 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5416 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5417 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5418 
  5419 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5420 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5421 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5422 
  5423   definition "K x _ = x"
  5424 
  5425   inductive conj for A B
  5426   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5427 
  5428 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5429 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5430 abbreviations on output.
  5431 
  5432 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5433 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5434 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5435 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5436 
  5437 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5438 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5439 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5440 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5441 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5442 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5443 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5444 
  5445 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5446 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5447 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5448 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5449 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5450 
  5451 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5452 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5453 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5454 
  5455 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5456 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5457 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5458 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5459 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5460 
  5461   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5462     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5463 
  5464 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5465 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5466 partial_order.
  5467 
  5468 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5469 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5470 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5471 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5472 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5473 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5474 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5475 examples.
  5476 
  5477 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5478 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5479 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5480 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5481 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5482 
  5483 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5484 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5485 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5486 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5487 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5488 
  5489   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5490   (induct set: foo bar)
  5491   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5492   (induct type: foo bar)
  5493 
  5494 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5495 new format.
  5496 
  5497 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5498 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5499 
  5500 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5501 considered a legacy feature.
  5502 
  5503 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5504 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5507 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5508 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5509 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5510 
  5511 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5512 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5513 manipulating the claset.
  5514 
  5515 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5516 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5517 least one premise.
  5518 
  5519 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5520 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5521 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5522 rule steps.
  5523 
  5524 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5525 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5526 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5527 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5528 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5529 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5530 
  5531 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5532 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5533 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5534 
  5535 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5536 the graph browser tool.
  5537 
  5538 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5539 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5540 
  5541 
  5542 *** HOL ***
  5543 
  5544 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5545 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5546 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5547 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5548 multi-threading.
  5549 
  5550 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5551 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5552 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5553 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5554 work with multi-threading.
  5555 
  5556 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5557 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5558 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5559 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5560 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5561 
  5562 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5563 
  5564 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5565 equality.
  5566 
  5567 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5568 the new 'class' package:
  5569 
  5570     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5571     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5572     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5573     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5574     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5575     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5576     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5577     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5578     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5579     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5580     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5581     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5582     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5583     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5584     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5585     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5586     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5587     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5588     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5589     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5590 
  5591 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5592 
  5593 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5594 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5595 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5596 names.
  5597 
  5598 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5599 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5600 
  5601 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5602 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5603 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5604 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5605 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5606 
  5607 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5608 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5609 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5610 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5611 
  5612 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5613 
  5614 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5615 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5616 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5617 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5621 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5622 
  5623 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5624 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5625 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5628 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5629 
  5630 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5631 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5632 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5633 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5634 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5635 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5636 in the current context.
  5637 
  5638 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5639 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5641 
  5642 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5643 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5644 
  5645 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5646 
  5647     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5648     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5649 
  5650     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5651       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5652     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5653     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5654 
  5655     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5656     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5657 
  5658   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5659 
  5660     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5661     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5662     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5663     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5664     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5665     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5666     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5667     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5668     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5669     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5670     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5671     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5672     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5673     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5674     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5675     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5676     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5677     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5678     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5679     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5680     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5681     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5682     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5683     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5684     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5685     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5686     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5687     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5688     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5689     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5690     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5691     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5692     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5693     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5694     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5695 
  5696     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5697     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5698     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5699     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5700     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5701     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5702     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5703     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5704     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5705     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5706     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5707     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5708     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5709     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5710     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5711     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5712     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5713 
  5714     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5715     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5716     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5717     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5718     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5719     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5720     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5721     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5722     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5723     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5724     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5725     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5726     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5727     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5728     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5729     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5730     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5731     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5732     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5733     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5734     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5735     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5736     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5737     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5738     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5739     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5740     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5741     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5742 
  5743     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5744     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5745     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5746     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5747     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5748     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5749 
  5750     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5751     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5752     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5753     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5754 
  5755     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5756     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5757 
  5758     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5759     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5760 
  5761 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5762 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5763 
  5764 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5765 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5766 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5767 "*.size".
  5768 
  5769 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5773 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5774 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5779 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5780 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5781 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5782 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5783 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5784 numerals on all operations.
  5785 
  5786 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5787 
  5788 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5789 
  5790 * Code generator library theories:
  5791   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5792     languages.
  5793   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5794     languages.
  5795   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5796     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5797   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5798   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5799     denominator).
  5800   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5801     representable by rational numbers.
  5802   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5803     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5804     includes Code_Integer.
  5805   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5806     target-language built-in integers.
  5807   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5808     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5809 
  5810 * New package for inductive predicates
  5811 
  5812   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5813 
  5814     inductive
  5815       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5816       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5817     where
  5818       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5819     | ...
  5820 
  5821   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5822 
  5823     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5824 
  5825     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5826     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5827 
  5828     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5829     intros
  5830       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5831       ...
  5832 
  5833   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5834   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5835 
  5836     inductive_set
  5837       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5838       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5839     where
  5840       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5841     | ...
  5842 
  5843   or
  5844 
  5845     inductive_set
  5846       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5847       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5848       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5849     where
  5850       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5851     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5852     | ...
  5853 
  5854   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5855 
  5856   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5857   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5858 
  5859   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5860 
  5861   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5862     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5863     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5864     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5865     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5866 
  5867   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5868     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5869     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5870     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5871     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5872     statements of the form
  5873 
  5874       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5875 
  5876     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5877     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5878 
  5879       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5880 
  5881   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5882 
  5883       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5884         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5885         ==> ... ==> P
  5886 
  5887     for predicates and
  5888 
  5889       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5890         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5891         ==> ... ==> P
  5892 
  5893     for sets rather than
  5894 
  5895       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5896         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5897         ==> ... ==> P
  5898 
  5899     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5900     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5901     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5902 
  5903   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5904     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5905     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5906 
  5907 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5908 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5909 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5910 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5911 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5912 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5913 
  5914 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5915 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5916 
  5917 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5918 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5919 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5920 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5921 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5922 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5923 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5924 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5925 variable.
  5926 
  5927 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5928 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5929 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5930 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5931   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5932   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5933 
  5934 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5935 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5936 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5937 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5938 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5939 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5940 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5941 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5942 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5943 
  5944 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5945 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5946 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5947 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5948 rat, etc.
  5949 
  5950 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5951 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5952 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5953 
  5954 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5955 
  5956 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5957 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5958 
  5959 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5960 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5961 
  5962 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5963 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5964 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5965 
  5966 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5967 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5969 
  5970 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5971 
  5972 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5973 
  5974 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5975 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5976 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5977 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5978 
  5979 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5980 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5981 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5982 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5983 
  5984 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5985 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5986 algebraic operations.
  5987 
  5988 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5990 
  5991 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5995 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5996 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5997 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5998 adapted.
  5999 
  6000 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6001 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6002 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6003 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6004 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6005 
  6006 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6007 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6008 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6009 
  6010 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6011 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6012 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6013 
  6014 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6015 
  6016 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6017 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6018 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6019   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6020       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6021   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6022   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6023   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6024 
  6025 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6026 
  6027 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6028 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6029 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6030 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6031 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6032 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6033 
  6034 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6035 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6036 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6037 
  6038 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6039 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6040 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6042 
  6043 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6044 
  6045 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6046 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6047 
  6048 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6049 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6050 
  6051 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6052 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6053 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6054 
  6055 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6056 True/False.
  6057 
  6058 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6059 
  6060 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6061 
  6062 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6063 ``rule'' method.
  6064 
  6065 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6066 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6067 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6068 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6069 
  6070 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6071 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6072 
  6073 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6074 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6075 
  6076 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6077 Library.
  6078 
  6079 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6080 
  6081 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6082 as greatest fixed-point.
  6083 
  6084 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6085 association lists.
  6086 
  6087 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6088 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6089 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6090 
  6091 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6092 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6093 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6094 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6095 behavior.
  6096 
  6097 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6098 
  6099 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6100 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6101 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6102 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6103 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6104 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6105 
  6106 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6107 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6108 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6109 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6110 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6111 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6112 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6113 
  6114 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6115 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6116 
  6117 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6118 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6119 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6120 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6121 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6122 
  6123 
  6124 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6125 
  6126 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6127 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6128 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6129 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6133 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6134 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6135 
  6136 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6137 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6138 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6139 
  6140 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6141 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6142 
  6143 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6144 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6145 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6149   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6150   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6151   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6152   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6153   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6154   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6155   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6156   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6157   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6158   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6159   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6160   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6161   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6162   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6163 
  6164 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6165 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6166 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6167 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6168 
  6169   approx        <-- capprox
  6170   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6171   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6172   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6173   monad         <-- cmonad
  6174   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6175   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6176   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6177   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6178 
  6179 
  6180 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6181 
  6182 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6183 
  6184 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6186 
  6187 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6188 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6191 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6192 of algebraic structures.
  6193 
  6194 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6195 
  6196 
  6197 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6198 
  6199 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6200 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6201 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6202 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6203 
  6204 
  6205 *** ML ***
  6206 
  6207 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6208 (even on SML/NJ).
  6209 
  6210 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6211 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6212 compile-time.  For example:
  6213 
  6214 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6215 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6216 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6217 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6218 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6219 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6220 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6221 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6222 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6223 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6224 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6225 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6226 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6227 ML {* @{context} *}
  6228 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6229 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6230 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6231 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6232 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6233 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6234 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6235 
  6236 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6237 
  6238 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6239 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6240 
  6241 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6242 DUP/SA